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Chapter 6
Reproduction in Humans
B. Sc. Microbiology (USM) |
Definition of Growth
An irreversible and permanent increase in quan3ta3ve parameters
that can be measured such as:
Dry mass
Cytoplasmic mass
Number of cells
If quan3ta3ve parameters are ploCed against 3me, a growth curve is
Age 10-19 (including teenagers)
Undergo physical and emo3onal changes due to ac3on of hormones.
Can bring up issues of independence and self-iden3ty.
Many adolescents and their peers face tough choices regarding
schoolwork, sexuality, drugs, alcohol, and social life.
Peer groups, roman3c interests, and appearance tend to naturally
increase in importance for some 3me during a teen's journey toward
Introduction to Hormone
Chemical messenger that are secreted directly
into the blood, which carries them to organs and
3ssues of the body to exert their func3ons.
Used to communicate between organs and
3ssues to physiological regula3on and
behavioural ac3vi3es, such as diges3on,
respira3on, metabolism, reproduc3on, excre3on
Can be categorized into two main types:
Pep3de hormone
Steroid hormone (sex hormone)
Characteristics of Hormone
Secreted by endocrine system at non-
uniform rate.
Exert their eects in biocataly3c
Takes 3me to show eects but the
eects are generally long las3ng.
Can exert mul3ple ac3ons.
Exhibit high degree of specicity.
Dierent 3ssue may respond
dierently to a given hormone.
Action of Hormone in Adolescent
During adolescent stage, (10 to 13 in girls and 12 to 14 in boys),
pituitary gland will begin to secrete growth hormone (GH) and
hypothalamus will begin to produce gonadotropin-releasing
hormone (GnRH).
GH travels around the body and s8mulates the growth all cells in the
body. GH also s8mulates the bone to increase in length.
GnRH moves through the bloodstream to the pituitary gland. It
s3mulates the pituitary gland to produce two other hormones:
luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-s8mula8ng hormone (FSH).
Effects of LH and FSH on Male
LH and FSH will exert dierent eects
based on gender.
In male puberty, LH will s3mulate the
testes to produce testosterone.
Testosterone will lead to the
development of male reproduc8ve
organ and male secondary sexual
FSH and testosterone will also work
together to s8mulate testes to produce
sperm cells.
Effects of LH and FSH on Female
In female puberty, FSH will s3mulate the development of follicle cells which
surrounded the egg cell to provide nourishment for the developing egg cell.
The developed follicle will release oestrogen into the bloodstream.
Func3ons of oestrogen:
promote the development of female reproduc3ve organ and secondary sexual
ini3ate the thickening of the uterine wall to prepare for implanta3on process.
s3mulate more LH to be released into the bloodstream.
High level of LH will s3mulate ovula8on, the release of mature ovum from
The remaining follicle called corpus luteum will begin to produce progesterone.
Progesterone will maintain the thickening of the uterine wall and ini3ate
vasculariza3on to occur.
Secondary Sexual Characteristics
Changes in Adolescence
Undergo both physical and emo3onal changes
In term of physical changes, girl will have to learn to cope with periods and boys
may have wet dream in which they release semen when they are asleep.
In term of emo3onal, adolescents will be rebellious and wanted to be more
independent and gain control over their life.
Some adolescent try to be too independent too quick and this may lead to
arguments with parents and other adults.
Family members would make adjustments to give the adolescent more freedom.
School also provides wide range of sports, clubs and ac3vi3es to allow adolescent
to experience through wider range of social skills that allow them to live
Some adolescents will also be deceived by their friend.
Sex hormones will inuent the adolescent to be interested with opposite sex.
Human Reproductive System
The major func3on of the reproduc3ve system is to ensure survival of the
An individual may live a long, healthy, and happy life without producing
ospring, but if the species is to con3nue, at least some individuals must
produce ospring.
Within the context of producing ospring, the reproduc3ve system has
four func3ons:
To produce egg and sperm cells
To transport and sustain these cells
To nurture the developing ospring
To produce hormones
Necessities of Sexual Reproduction
For con8nua8on of the species. Unique property of a par3cular
organism is transferred from one genera3on to the next genera3on
through genes.
To create varia8ons in species. As no two individuals are same, so
gene3c characters from both parents will help make a slightly
dierent copy of themselves. These small varia3ons accumulate over
hundreds of years resul3ng in forma3on of new species.
New species facilitate evolu8on of organisms. Evolu3on is necessary
for survival as environmental condi3ons keep on changing from 3me
to 3me.
Male Reproductive System
The male reproduc3ve system includes
the scrotum, testes, sperma3c ducts,
sex glands, and penis.
These organs work together to
produce sperm, the male gamete, and
the other components of semen.
These organs also work together to
deliver semen out of the body and into
the vagina where it can fer3lize egg
cells to produce ospring.
Anatomy of Male Reproductive System
Sperms are produced in the seminiferous tubule of the testes.
The testes are held in scortum. They are posi3oned outside of the
body because of the cooler condi3on. This condi3on is more
favourable for sperm produc3on.
There are long coiled tube on top of the testes. This structure is
known as epididymis which helps to collect and store sperms.
The sperms will travel to outside of the body through sperma8c ducts
(vas deferens and ejaculatory duct) and urethra.
The sex glands (seminal vesicles, prostate glands and cowpers
glands) produce uids to nourish the sperm cells. The mixture of
these uids and sperm cells are known as seminal uid or semen.
Urethra runs through
the middle of the penis.
It is also connected to
the urinary bladder and
is the tube through
which urine ows.
Semen and urine cannot
ow through the
urethra at the same
Penis contains the
spongy 3ssue along its
length that can ll with
blood to make it hard,
s3 and erect.
Also known as tes3cles.
Responsible for the produc3on of sperm and
Each tes3s is found inside scrotum and is
connected to the abdomen by a sperma8c
ducts and cremaster muscle.
The cremaster muscles contract and relax along
with the scrotum to regulate the temperature
of the testes.
The inside of the testes is divided into sec3ons
of seminiferous tubule that contain many stem
cells that will divide and form sperm cells.
The scrotum is a
sac-like organ made
of skin and muscles
that houses the
The cremaster muscles that make up the scrotum allow it to regulate
the distance between the testes and the rest of the body.
When the testes become too warm to support sperm produc3on, the
scrotum relaxes to move the testes away from the bodys heat.
Conversely, the scrotum contracts to move the testes closer to the
bodys core heat when temperatures drop below the ideal range for
sperm produc3on.
Sperm storage and mature area.
Made up of several thin tubules that are
3ghtly coiled into a small mass.
Sperm produced in the testes moves
into the epididymis to mature before
being passed on through the male
reproduc3ve organs.
The length of the epididymis delays the
release of the sperm and allows them
3me to mature.
Spermatic Ducts
Made up of three components:
Vas deferens
Connects the testes to the
abdominal cavity.
Ejaculatory duct
passes through the
prostate and joins with the
passes from the ejaculatory
duct to the exterior of the
The Sex Glands
Used to nourish the sperm cells.
Made up of three components:
Seminal vesicles
Prostate glands
Cowpers glands (bulbourethral
Seminal Vesicles
Store and produce some of the liquid por3on
of semen.
The liquid contains proteins and mucus and
has an alkaline pH to help sperm survive in
the acidic environment of the vagina.
The liquid also contains fructose to feed
sperm cells (to provide energy) so that they
survive long enough to fer3lize the ovum.
Contains prostagladins that will be delivered
to female uterine wall and trigger the
contrac3on of uterine wall to move the
sperms upwards to Fallopian tube for
Prostate Glands
Produces a large por3on of the uid that
makes up semen.
The uid is milky white in color and
contains enzymes, proteins, and other
chemicals to nourish and protect the
sperm during ejacula3on.
Helps to enhance the mo8lity of sperms
The prostate also contains smooth
muscle 3ssue that can constrict to
prevent the ow of urine or semen.

Cowpers Glands
Also known as the bulbourethral
Secrete a thin alkaline uid into
the urethra that lubricates the
urethra and neutralizes acid from
urine remaining in the urethra
ader urina3on.
This uid enters the urethra during
sexual arousal prior to ejacula3on
to prepare the urethra for the ow
of semen.
Fluid that contains sperm and a number of chemicals suspended in a
liquid medium.
The chemical composi3on of semen:
thick and s8cky consistency
helping sperm to remain within the vagina ader intercourse
has slightly alkaline pH
to neutralize the acidic environment of the vagina.
In healthy adult males, semen contains around 100 million sperm
cells per milliliter.
These sperm cells fer3lize ovum inside the female Fallopian tubes
Male reproduc3ve cell.
Used to fer3lize ovum to produce zygote.
Has acrosome, which contains enzymes that are used to penetrate
through the ovum.
The head region is compacted with gene3c materials that will be
inherited to the ospring.
The middle piece contains huge amount of mitochondria to
generate vast amount of energy to allow the sperms to move.
The tail region confer mo3lity to the sperms.
Male external sexual organ
Roughly cylindrical in shape and contains
the urethra and the external opening.
Large pockets of erec3le 3ssue in the penis
allow it to ll with blood and become erect.
Head of penis, called the glans penis has a
large number of receptors and is very sensi3ve.
The glans is covered with foreskin.
The func3ons of the penis:
to deliver semen into the vagina during sexual intercourse.
excre3on of urine through the urethra.
Female Reproductive System
The female reproduc3ve system includes
the ovaries, Fallopian tubes, uterus,
vagina, breast and mammary glands.
These organs are involved in the
produc3on and transporta3on of
gametes and the produc3on of sex
The female reproduc3ve system also
facilitates the fer3liza3on of ova by
sperm and supports the development of
ospring during pregnancy and infancy.
Anatomy of Female Reproductive System
Egg cells development occurs at ovary.
Ovary is situated inside the body because
the produc3on of egg cells can happen at
body temperature.
Egg cells are released as part of menstrual
When egg cells are released from ovary, it
passes to the oviduct (specically the
Fallopian tube).
Oviduct connects the ovary to the uterus.
If an egg is fer3lized, it
develops into a foetus in the
The uterus is connected to
the vagina by the cervix.
The vagina opens to the
outside (vulva) next to the
opening of the urethra.
Both openings are protected
by folds of skin called labia.
These folds also protect the
clitoris, the region by which
has a large number of
receptors that confer
Pair of small glands, located on the led and
right sides of the pelvic body cavity.
Produce oestrogen and progesterone as well as ova.
Ova are produced from egg cells that slowly develop
throughout a womans early life and reach maturity ader puberty.
Each month during ovula8on, a mature ovum is released.
The ovum travels from the ovary to the Fallopian tube, where it may be
fer3lized before reaching the uterus.
Fallopian Tubes
Also known as oviduct.
Pair of muscular tubes that extend from
the led and right side of the ovaries.
End in a funnel-shaped structure called the
infundibulum, which is covered with small nger-like projec3ons called
The mbriae pick up released ova and carry them into the infundibulum to
transport the ova to the uterus.
Each Fallopian tube is covered in cilia that work with the smooth muscle
of the tube to carry the ovum to the uterus.
Connected to the two Fallopian tubes
and to the vagina (via the cervix).
Also known as womb, as it surrounds
and supports the developing fetus
during pregnancy.
The uterine lining allows implanta8on
of blastocyst and gives support to the
embryo during early development.
The muscles of the uterus contract
during childbirth to push the fetus
through the birth canal.
Situated at the lower end of the uterus.
It allows blood from a menstrual
period and a baby (fetus) to pass from
the womb into the vagina.
It also allows sperm to pass from the
vagina into the uterus.
An elas3c, muscular tube that connects
the cervix of the uterus to the exterior
of the body.
as the receptacle for the penis during sexual
intercourse and carries sperm to the uterus and
Fallopian tubes.
serves as the birth canal by stretching to allow delivery
of the fetus during childbirth.
also allow menstrual ow to exit the body during
Breast and Mammary Glands
The breasts are specialized organs of the
female body that contain mammary glands,
milk ducts, and adipose 3ssue.
Located at the thoracic region of the body.
The mammary glands are a special type of
sweat glands that have been modied to
produce milk to feed infants.
The milk passes through milk ducts on its
way to the nipple, where it exits the body.
Menstrual Cycle
The process of producing an
ovum and readying the
uterus to receive a fer3lized
ovum to begin pregnancy.
If an ovum is produced but
not fer3lized and implanted
in the uterine wall, the
reproduc8ve cycle resets
itself through menstrua3on.
The en3re reproduc3ve cycle
takes about 28 days on
average, but may be as short
as 24 days or as long as 36
days for some women.
Ovulation and Preparation for Implantation
The female menstrual cycle is under the inuence of FSH and LH.
FSH causes the follicle to develop
LH causes the release of mature ovum from follicle through ovula3on.
By about the 14th day, an egg reaches maturity and is released as an
Although the ovary develop many egg cells each month, usually only one
ovum is released per cycle.
While the ovum matures and travels through the Fallopian tube, the
endometrium grows and develops in prepara3on for the embryo
ini3ated by oestrogen and the thickness is maintained by progesterone.
Development of the Uterine Wall
Once the mature ovum is released from
the ovary, the mbriae catch the egg
and direct it down the fallopian tube to
the uterus.
It takes about a week for the ovum to
travel to the uterus.
During this period, if sperm are able to reach and penetrate the ovum, the
ovum becomes a fer3lized zygote.
Ader 5 days of rapid cell division, the zygote forms blastocyst.
The blastocyst will then implant itself into the uterine wall and develop
there during pregnancy.
If the ovum is not fer3lized in 3me or if it
fails to implant into the endometrium,
the corpus luteum will degenerate and
the level of of progesterone will drop.
The arteries of the uterus constrict to
cut o blood ow to the endometrium.
The lack of blood ow causes cell death
in the endometrium and the eventual
shedding of 3ssue.
In a normal menstrual cycle, this
shedding begins around day 28 and
con3nues into the rst few days of the
new menstrual cycle.
Female Reproductive
Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)
A condi3on that aects a womans emo3ons, physical
health, and behavior during menstrual cycle or generally just
before her menstrua3on.
Aects up to 85 percent of menstrua3ng women.
PMS symptoms start 5 to 11 days before menstrua3on and
typically go away once menstrua3on begins.
The cause of PMS is related to a change in both sex
hormone and serotonin levels at the beginning of the
menstrual cycle.
An increase in oestrogen and progesterone can cause mood
swings, anxiety, depression, acne, fa8gue and headache.
Serotonin level aects the moods, emo8ons and thoughts.
Dened as the absence of menstrual
periods for 12 months.
The menstrua3on may become irregular
and eventually stop.
It is the 3me in a woman's life when the
func3on of the ovaries ceases.
The average age of menopause is 51
years old, but menopause may occur as
early as the 30s or as late as the 60s.
Sexual Intercourse
Happens when penis become erect due to sexual arousal.
The penis will erect when the blood is collected in the spongy 3ssue.
This will make the penis expand and become hard.
Prior to intercourse, the vagina will also widen and secrete uid that
acts as lubricant to ease the passage of penis into it.
When the penis is inside the vagina, both male and female may make
thrus8ng movements to s3mulate the sensa3on of glans penis and
This process will confer both partner a feeling of pleasure called
When the male has orgasms, it is accompanied
by the contrac3on of the muscles in the
epididymis and sperm ducts, which propels the
semen through the penis into the vagina.
Sperms obtain energy to move from fructose
secreted by the seminal vesicles. With energy,
sperm can lash its tail like a whip and this
movement drives the sperm forwards.
The sperm is also properly nourished with
essen3al nutrients and chemicals supplied by
the prostate gland.
Pathway of Sperms
The sperm travel through cervix and up the the mucus lining of the
uterus wall into the Fallopian tube.
It takes about 4 to 6 hours for the sperm to reach the Fallopian tube.
Millions of sperms die on the way leaving only a few thousands to
enter the Fallopian tube.
As the sperm swim along the Fallopian tube, more sperms will die so
only a few hundreds of sperms will reach their des3na3on.
The sperm may survive for two to three days in the female
reproduc3ve organ.
If the sperm encounter the ovum during ovula3on, fer3liza3on will
Pathway of Ovum
Ovum is much more larger
than sperm because it stores
its own food.
The stored food helps to
provide energy and
nourishments for the very
early development of embryo
if the ovum is fer3lized.
The egg is not mo3le and it is
moved by the ac3on of cilia in
the wall of Fallopian tube.
Happens when the sperm encountered the
ovum in Fallopian tube.
Acrosome in sperm will digest the
membrane of ovum and the sperms head
will penetrate and breaks o from the tail.
The sperms head moves through the ovums
cytoplasm and reaches the nucleus to fuse
with it.
This process is called fer3liza3on and it
forms zygote.
The zygotes cell membrane will change to
prevent more sperms from entering.
Development of Zygote
The nuclei of sperm and ovum contain instruc3ons for the development of baby.
The fer3lized zygote will divide to form two cells, four, then eight and so on.
The cell does not increase in size, so cells become smaller at each division.
By the third day, morula will be produced and soon the blastocyst.
The blastocyst will implant itself into the endometrium in the uterus and begin to
form an embryo with amnio8c cavity, umbilical cord, and placenta.
For the rst 8 weeks, the embryo will develop almost all of the 3ssues and organs
present in the adult .
In fetal stage (during weeks 9 through 38), the fetus grows larger and more
complex un3l it is ready to be born.
The period of 3me from fer3liza3on to the birth of the baby is born is known as
Development of Zygote

Zygote Morula Blastocyst Embryo Foetus

Implantation and Formation of Placenta
Implanta3on refer to the process by
which the blastocyst sinks into the thick
lining of uterine wall.
The uterine wall has a huge amount of
blood vessels by which the cells on the
surface of the blastocyst will aCach with
them to form the placenta.
During pregnancy, the placenta grows
into a disc with villi that penetrate into
the uterine wall and make a very large
surface area for exchange of materials
between the mother and baby.
Functions of Placenta
Allows the baby to aJach to the uterine wall
Secretes progesterone and oestrogen to take over the role of corpus
luteum to maintain the thickness of uterine wall and to stop the
menstrual cycle (to stop the ovula3on).
Takes in food and oxygen from the mothers blood
Remove waste products such as carbon dioxide and urea through
mothers lungs or kidneys.
Transport an3bodies from the mother to confer the baby natural
passive immunity against disease.
Umbilical Cord
Placenta aCached to the developing baby by the umbilical cord.
Umbilical arteries and umbilical veins run through this cord between the
placenta and the babys 3ssues.
Umbilical arteries carry deoxygenated blood from the baby to the
placenta and umbilical veins carry oxygenated blood from the placenta to
the baby.
The babys blood and the mother bloods come into close contact but they
always remain separate to prevent
The higher pressure in mothers blood that would damage the baby.
The mixing of two kinds of blood which may be incompa8ble and could
lead to agglu3na3on that would block the blood vessels.
Harmful pathogens from entering the baby.
Chorion and Amnion
Placenta has two membrane, chorion and amnion.
Chorion has chorionic villi that grow into surrounding 3ssue and form the
foetal side of the placenta whereas the uterine lining forms the maternal
side of the placenta.
Amnion develops as a membrane around the foetus.
The amnion encloses a watery uid called amnio8c uid that helps to:
Protects the foetus by absorbing shock and cushioning it from
physical damage.
Allows the foetus to oat freely so that the growing limbs have space
to develop and are not pressed against the wall of uterus where the
growth maybe restricted.
Embryo and Foetus
While some of the cells inside the blastocyst make placenta, most of the cell form the
End of the rst two weeks
development of the embryo is a at disc of 3ssue
By 4th week
developed a simple body shape with stumps where the limbs will grow and heart
has started to beat.
By 8th week
all of the organ systems have formed and the embryo is called a foetus. The foetus
con3nues to increase in size and the organ system become more fully developed.
By 14th week
the sex of the foetus can be reveal by an ultrasound scan.
By 16th week
the foetus makes movement that the mother can feel. The foetus at this 3me is
only about 10 cm long.
By 20th week
the foetus is 12.5 cm long and its leg are growing quickly.
By 28th week
the foetus turns upside down with its head towards the cervix. The alveoli in its
lungs begin to grow at this stage and con3nue to grow ader the birth. Before birth,
the lungs contain a uid and they do not expand un3l just ader the baby is born.
By 38th week
the foetus is about 50 cm long and has a mass of about 3 kg. The baby is now
ready to be born.
The length of the 3me between fer3liza3on and birth is called the gesta8on period.
Timeline of Embryonic
Formation of Twins
About one in a hundred pregnancies produces
The twins can be iden8cal or non-iden3cal
Iden3cal twins arises from the same
fer8lized egg.
At the rst cell division of zygote, the two cells move apart and each develops
into an embryo.
Fraternal twins arises from two eggs which were released into the Fallopian
tube at the same 3me.
Each egg is fer8lized by a dierent sperm.
Iden3cal twins shared the same gene8c material but the fraternal twins have
dierent gene8c material.
Giving Birth
Three stages:
First stage: cervical dila3on. It
consists of early labour, ac3ve
labour, and the transi3onal
Second stage: fetal expulsion.
Third stage: delivery of
First Stage: Cervical Dilation
The muscles in the uterus wall begin to contract.
The 3me between each contrac3on may be up to 30 minutes at rst.
During 12 to 14 hours of this rst stage, the 3me between
contrac3ons shorten to 2 to 3 minutes.
The contrac3on cause the amnion to break and the uid to pass out
from the vagina.
At the end of rst stage, cervix has widened so that the head of the
foetus can start to pass down.
Second Stage: Fetal Expulsion
Mother contracts her abodominal muscles with the contrac8ons of
the uterus to push the foetus down the birth canal.
This stage may only last a few minutes and is completed when the
baby has been born and the umbilical cord has been cut and
clamped to prevent further blood loss.
If there are twins, the contrac3ons stop for about 10 minutes ader
the rst baby born and then start again.
Only a few contrac3ons may be needed for the second baby to be

Third Stage: Delivery of Placenta
Lasts for about 20 minutes.
Placenta detach from the wall
of uterus and passes down the
When it has led the mother, the
placenta is called aWerbirth.
The produc3on and release of milk to feed an infant.
Milks contains all the nutrients the baby needs and also an3bodies to protect
the baby from diseases.
Begins prior to birth and under the control of the hormones:
Produce milk in response to the suckling of an infant on the nipple, so
milk is produced as long as ac3ve breasjeeding occurs.
Release milk in response to infant suckling. So that milk is only
released when an infant is ac3vely feeding.
As soon as an infant is weaned, prolac3n and milk produc3on end soon ader.
Early Life of Baby
End of umbilical cord aCached to the baby withers away and falls o, leaving the
Baby con8nues to grow rapidly and the organ systems become more coordinated.
At the rst month, the baby can hold its head up for a few seconds.
In the following months, the baby can lid its head more steadily, kick and push itself
up on its hand. It will listen and look for the sources of sounds by moving its eyes
and turning its head and respond by making cooing and gurgling sounds of its own.
By the 6th month, the babys rst set of teeth start to push through its gums. The
babys diet is gradually changed to solid foods. When this happened, usually before
12 months, the baby is said to be weaned.
All the parts of the body con3nue to grow but at about 4 years of age, the head has
reached almost its full size.
The sex organ do not develop fully un3l puberty.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)
The diseases that spread through sexual intercourse.
Can be categorized based on the types of microorganisms that cause the
diseases, namely
Bacterial diseases
Viral diseases
Acquired immunodeciency Syndrome (AIDS)
Genital warts
Herpes simplex
Hepa33s B
Parasi8c disease
Caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum
The signs and symptoms of syphilis vary depending in which of the four
stages it presents (primary, secondary, latent, and ter3ary).

The primary stage classically presents with a
single chancre (a rm, painless, non-itchy skin
ulcera3on) but there may be mul3ple sores.
In secondary syphilis a diuse rash occurs,
which frequently involves the palms of the
hands and soles of the feet. There may also be
sores in the mouth or vagina.
In latent syphilis, which can last for years,
there are few or no symptoms.
In ter8ary syphilis there are gummas (sod
non-cancerous growths), neurological, or heart
Caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
It tends to infect warm, moist areas of the body, including urethra,
eyes, throat, vagina, anus, female reproduc3ve tract (the fallopian
tubes, cervix, and uterus).
Many people have no symptoms.
Untreated infec3on with gonorrhea in women may lead pelvic
inammatory disease (PID) and can cause severe and chronic pain and
damage the female reproduc3ve organs.
Untreated infec3on in men may also develop a painful abscess in the
interior of the penis and can lead to reduced fer8lity or sterility.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
Caused by the bacterium Chlamydia
Common STD that can infect both men
and women.
It can cause serious, permanent damage
to a womans reproduc3ve system
aect her fer3lity.
Can also cause a poten3ally fatal
ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy that
occurs outside the womb).
Symptoms of Chlamydia
As many as 1 in 4 men with chlamydia
have no symptoms.
In men, chlamydia may produce
symptoms similar to gonorrhea.

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
Caused by human immunodeciency virus (HIV).
Following ini3al infec3on, a person may not no3ce any
symptoms or may experience a brief period of inuenza-
like illness.
Typically, this is followed by a prolonged period with no
As the infec3on progresses, it interferes more with the
immune system, increasing the risk of common infec3ons
like tuberculosis, opportunis8c infec8ons, and tumors that
rarely aect people who have working immune systems.
These late symptoms of infec3on are referred to as
acquired immunodeciency syndrome (AIDS).
Genital Warts
Sod growths that appear on the
genitals due to human papillomavirus
(HPV) infec3on.
These skin growths can cause pain,
discomfort, and itching.
They are especially dangerous for
women because some types of HPV
can also cause cancer of the cervix
and vulva.
More than 190 types of HPV, mainly
HPV-16 and HPV-18 can lead to
cervical cancer in women.
Herpes Simplex
Caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV).
Two types:
HSV-1 (oral herpes) involves the face or mouth.
It may result in small blisters in groups or may just cause a sore
HSV-2 (genital herpes) involves the sexual organs.
May have minimal symptoms or form blisters that break open
and result in small ulcers.
These typically heal over two to four weeks.
Tingling or shoo3ng pains may occur before the blisters appear.
Hepatitis B
Caused by the hepa88s B virus (HBV) that
aects the liver.
It can cause both acute and chronic
In acute form, many people have no
symptoms during the ini3al infec3on.
Some develop a rapid onset of sickness
with vomi8ng, yellowish skin, 8redness,
dark urine and abdominal pain.
Most of those with chronic disease have
no symptoms, however, cirrhosis and liver
cancer may eventually develop.
Caused by protozoan parasite called
Trichomonas vaginalis.
Common and curable STDs.
More common in women than in men.
vaginal discharge an unpleasant smell.
vaginal spokng or bleeding.
genital burning or itching.
genital redness or swelling.
frequent urge to urinate.
pain during urina3on or sexual intercourse