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Abstract:
Considering the magnetic nonlinear characteristic of iron core and its structural complexity, the calculation model of Multi-phase Synchronous Generator is established with nonlinear FEM. Then the method and analysis steps of no-load characteristics analysis and rated field current calculation are given in detail. On the basis of electromagnetic field calculation of the twelve-phase synchronous generator, the harmonic analysis of air-gap magnetic field is presented, as well as its no load characteristics. The calculated results of fundamental component are close to the measurement values, and it indicates that this method can be used in the calculation of electromagnetic field of the generator. Also, it gives the theoretical basis for the generator design. The rated field current is calculated based on iterative method, and the results of field current are consistent with the rated condition. This method has high practical usability, which may provide the reference for the calculation of rated field current of the common synchronous generator.

Abstract:
Considering the magnetic nonlinear characteristic of iron core and its structural complexity, the calculation model of Multi-phase Synchronous Generator is established with nonlinear FEM. Then the method and analysis steps of no-load characteristics analysis and rated field current calculation are given in detail. On the basis of electromagnetic field calculation of the twelve-phase synchronous generator, the harmonic analysis of air-gap magnetic field is presented, as well as its no load characteristics. The calculated results of fundamental component are close to the measurement values, and it indicates that this method can be used in the calculation of electromagnetic field of the generator. Also, it gives the theoretical basis for the generator design. The rated field current is calculated based on iterative method, and the results of field current are consistent with the rated condition. This method has high practical usability, which may provide the reference for the calculation of rated field current of the common synchronous generator.

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Generator Based on Nonlinear with FEM

Yujiao Zhang Mengyun Sun Pilong Guo

College of Electric and New Energy College of Electric and New Energy College of Electric and New Energy

Three Gorges University Three Gorges University Three Gorges University

Yi Chang, China Yi Chang, China Yi Chang, China

AbstractConsidering the magnetic nonlinear characteristic of In this paper, the FEM is applied to determine from 2-D

iron core and its structural complexity, the calculation model of magnetic field solutions the characteristics of the generator for

Multi-phase Synchronous Generator is established with the aim to improve accuracy, together with considering the

nonlinear FEM. Then the method and analysis steps of no-load impact of saturation and structural complexity. Experimental

characteristics analysis and rated field current calculation are work has been carried out on an actual synchronous machine to

given in detail. On the basis of electromagnetic field calculation verify the accuracy of these calculated results.

of the twelve-phase synchronous generator, the harmonic

analysis of air-gap magnetic field is presented, as well as its no- II. PRINCIPLE AND CALCULATION METHOD

load characteristics. The calculated results of fundamental

component are close to the measurement values, and it indicates A. Calculation model

that this method can be used in the calculation of electromagnetic

field of the generator. Also, it gives the theoretical basis for the In this paper a twelve-phase synchronous generator is tested

generator design. The rated field current is calculated based on as an example, whose basic parameters are in the following

iterative method, and the results of field current are consistent table.

with the rated condition. This method has high practical TABLE BASIC PARAMETERS OF THE TWELVE-PHASE SYNCHRONOUS

usability, which may provide the reference for the calculation of GENERATOR

rated field current of the common synchronous generator. Parameters Value

Rated current 224A

KeywordsNonlinear; Finite element method; Multi-phase Rated voltage 210.7V

synchronous generator; No-load characteristics; Field current Power factor 0.9217

Number of pole 8

Number of phase 12

I. INTRODUCTION Stator inner radius 0.675m

In the design of synchronous generator, magnetic circuit Stator outer radius 0.830m

Number of stator windings 96

design is a critical part which largely determines the

performance and quality of generator and is dependent on the According to symmetry of structure and magnetic field, we

calculation of electromagnetic field [1]-[2]. Based on the can establish a one-quarter cross-sectional area of this

calculation of the electromagnetic field, features on the generator which is shown in figure 2(a). End effect in this

generator no-load calculation can help us determine the model is ignored. The stator is in the form of four three-phase

reasonableness of magnetic circuit design of the generator. windings that is embedded in 96 slots. The rotor is fitted with a

Field current of generator is another main operation parameter. field winding and damper windings. For the finite element

Accurate calculation of rated field current also contributes to calculations, the lines ab and cd and the arcs bc and da shown

the field winding design. in figure 1(a) are used as the four exterior boundaries.

Calculation of electromagnetic field in the past is built According to the arrangement way of stator windings, the

mostly based on the analysis method. It can meet the project phase angle between generator direct-axis which supposes for

accuracy requirements for a small motor with not high forward and phase U which corresponds with four star-

saturation level. But it is not suitable when the generator has connected windings is shown in figure 1(b).

obvious core saturation and complex boundary shape and

magnetic structure [1]-[3]. Thus, if the analysis method is

applied, calculation of no-load characteristics and rated field

current will lead to significant error. In the last decades, the

finite element method (FEM) which can overcome these

problems has been successfully applied in the analysis of the

electromagnetic field inside the machine and to determine its

main parameters [4]. The FEM [5][7] is now accepted as one of

the most powerful tools for calculating the electromagnetic

fields in complicated structures like those of synchronous (a) (b)

machines. Fig.1. (a) Calculation model. (b) Relationship between each phase.

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B. 2-D nonlinear constant magnetic field III. APPLICATION OF THE FEM

The template is used to format your paper and style the text.

All margins, column widths, line spaces, and text fonts are A. No-load Characteristics Analysis

prescribed; please do not alter them. You may note Given the different field current If, then we can get the

peculiarities. For example, the head margin in this template corresponding no-load potential, thus can obtain the no-load

measures proportionately more than is customary. This characteristic curve E0=f(If).

measurement and others are deliberate, using specifications The process can be given as follows.

that anticipate your paper as one part of the entire proceedings, a) The field current Ifn is exerted on the rotor after the

and not as an independent document. Please do not revise any calculation model established;

of the current designations. b) The magnetic flux density distributions in the region of

Since the magnetic fields are produced by stable potential, the calculations can be obtained from Az, which is found

the analysis of the magnetic fields could be carried out as through solving (1).

constant electromagnetic field problems. For a 2-D constant c) From the radial air-gap magnetic flux density

electromagnetic field analysis, the problem represented by distributions Br, the fundamental component amplitude B1 of

Poissons equation can be expressed as follows [8]: the magnetic flux density could be determined by applying

Fourier analysis using equations (4) and (5).

Az Az

v + v = J z (1)

n =1

Where Az is the axial component of the magnetic vector

B1 = a1 + b1 cos(t ) = Bm cos(t ) (5)

2 2

potential A with Ax and Ay components equal to zero (in this

case, the magnetic flux density has only two components Bx Where a1 and b1 are fundamental sine and cosine Fourier

and By ), Jz is the axial current density assumed to be uniform coefficients. And = tg 1 a1 .

within the conductors, and v is the reluctivity of the medium. b1

Taking into account magnetic saturation and nonlinearity of d) The maximum value of magnetic flux fundamental

iron materials, and =(H), v=1/(H), B=H, the magnetic component between a pole pitch could then be calculated using

flux density B is a variable. The magnetic curve of iron core the equation (6).

materials is shown in figure 2. 2

0 = leff Bm sin( x)dx = Bm leff (6)

0

Where leff is the effective length of rotor and is the pole

pitch.

e) If the magnetic flux density along with the air-gap

circumference is close to sinusoidal spatial distribution, the

stator three-phase RMS EMF fundamental potential can be

expressed as:

1 (7)

E0 = 0 = 4.44 f1k N 1 N 0

2

The voltage waveform sine distortion factor is a quite

important parameter in the no-load characteristics analysis.

Fig.2. Magnetization curve of iron core.

C. Boundary conditions E

n=2

2

mn

model are determined by the characteristics of the magnetic Em1

field and magnetic flux distribution. In this model, a half- Where Emn is the amplitude of each harmonic.

period magnetic field is chosen as the calculation region. Because of E0 0, Ff If . Therefore, the no-load

Boundary lines, ab and cd , must apply half-period magnetic characteristic has reflected the magnetization curve in fact.

field boundary conditions. The magnetic flux is in parallel to

B. Rated Field Current Calculation

the two boundary lines, bc and da . The boundary conditions

in this case can be expressed by Since the rated condition of generator is usually given in

advance, that is U=UN, I=IN, cos=cosN. Therefore stator

Abc = Ada = 0 (2)

current is known. But the field current and power factor angle

Aab = Acd (3) should be calculated. Generally, we assume a set of values

In the finite element model, quadratic triangular finite beforehand and then gradually adjust field current and power

elements are used for discretizing the magnetic field in the factor angle according to the calculation of the stator voltage

region of the calculations. In these calculations, 9236 nodes and power factor until the results meet the rated conditions. For

and 9221 finite elements are used. this reason the voltage and power factor angle are iterated in

the computational process [9]. The relationship between each

phase in the rated conditions of synchronous generator is

shown in figure 3.

1629

The first several steps of this process are basically the same 5(a) show the corresponding 2-D magnetic flux density

with no-load characteristics analysis. But we should give the distribution.

initial angle between direct-axis and stator current and

calculate the current which should be applied on stator

windings before solving (1).

4(a) 4(b)

Fig.4. The field current is 0.78A. (a) Magnetic flux density distribution. (b) The

fundamental wave and the 5th harmonic of air-gap flux.

calculated based on EMF when stator resistance is ignored. The

formula is given by the following equation:

U = E e1 jIx

e (9)

Angle relationship on the reference of figure 1 can be given

as follows:

= + (10) 5(a) 5(b)

Fig.5. The field current is 40A. (a) Magnetic flux density distribution. (b) The

Ix e sin fundamental wave and the 5th harmonic of air-gap flux.

= tg 1 (11)

Ee1 Ix e cos Fig.4 and Fig.5 show when the field current is 0.78A, the

From figure 1, the power factor angle is expressed as: maximum magnetic flux density in the calculation area is 0.1T

and the amplitude of fundamental component of the air-gap

= 90 ( + + ) (12) flux is 0.032Wb. And at this time, the iron core does not reach

Consequently the effective value of stator induced voltage saturation. However, when the field current is 40A, the

can be obtained in the following form. maximum magnetic flux density in the calculation area is

2.38T and the amplitude of fundamental component of the air-

U = Ee12 + (Ix e )2 2Ee1(Ix e )cos (13) gap flux is 1.125Wb. The iron core presents the quite serious

If calculated power factor and stator induced voltage are saturation.

satisfied with iterative conditions which are expressed by the

TABLE THE HARMONIC OF AIR-GAP FLUX UNDER DIFFERENT FIELD

equation (14) and (15), the field current exerted is the rated CURRENT

value actually. Field current is 0.78A Field current is 40A

U UN Number of Amplitude of Number of Amplitude of

(0.1 ~ 0.2)% (14) harmonic harmonic harmonic harmonic

UN

5 0.003016 5 0.1317

cos cos N 7 0.002587 7 0.1014

(0.1 ~ 0.5)% (15) 23 0.002207 23 0.07800

cos N 25 0.001713 25 0.07434

10 0.001374 19 0.04657

47 0.001270 49 0.03965

IV. CALCULATION RESULTS 49 0.001195 35 0.03843

35 0.000684 27 0.01340

A. results of no-load characteristics 27 0.000441 43 0.005777

The flux in the air-gap at no-load is of fundamental 43 0.000143 31 0.005574

importance for the machine design, modeling and operation, Under this condition, the harmonic of air-gap flux density is

because it determines the induced voltage, the power and much more serious compared to unsaturated from table . In

torque capability [1] [10]. The radial fundamental and harmonic this way, a careful choice of the harmonic content in the air-

components of the air-gap flux at no-load is shown in fig.4(b), gap flux is very important for the performance optimization of

5(b) and Table through Fourier decomposition. Fig.4(a) and the machine.

1630

TABLE THE CALCULATION RESULTS OF NO-LOAD CHARACTERISTICS

Calculation result of Sinusoidal distortion of Amplitude of air-gap flux

Field current If (A) Measurement values (V)

fundamental component (V) voltage waveform (%) fundamental wave Bm (T)

0.780000 11.326939 11.431535 17.816265 0.032117

1.548000 22.660183 23.094011 17.818969 0.064252

2.356000 34.785028 35.564777 17.822971 0.098632

3.150000 46.777707 48.093277 17.825859 0.132636

4.010000 59.792408 62.065154 17.826856 0.169539

4.655000 69.560483 72.746134 17.827143 0.197236

5.410000 81.005426 84.119934 17.827261 0.229688

6.325000 94.883414 98.322751 17.827281 0.269038

7.000000 105.126207 108.541851 17.827241 0.298082

7.680000 115.445666 120.550736 17.827180 0.327342

8.760000 131.828538 136.947484 17.827075 0.373795

9.450000 142.291424 147.455259 17.826961 0.403462

10.270000 154.712886 160.561110 17.826924 0.438683

11.040000 166.367523 171.934910 17.826916 0.471729

12.310000 185.550463 191.795759 17.827033 0.526122

12.860000 193.841015 200.109603 17.827245 0.549629

13.710000 206.623595 212.464899 17.827925 0.585874

14.490000 218.306698 224.473785 17.829212 0.619001

16.000000 240.664152 17.835967 0.682394

18.000000 269.084571 17.880746 0.762979

21.000000 306.004179 18.127551 0.867664

25.000000 340.524656 18.660283 0.965545

30.000000 366.815556 19.178953 1.040092

36.000000 385.126290 19.660082 1.092011

43.000000 401.114803 19.974594 1.137346

51.000000 415.644559 19.977967 1.178545

From the results in table , the no-load characteristic curve and the definition of boundary conditions are line with the

E0=f(If) could be acquired. With the comparison between actual generator and indicates the method so far presented

calculated fundamental component of induced voltage and produces results with good accuracy and can be applied for the

measured values, the error is less than 6%. The difference design.

between the calculated results and the measured values is B. results of rated field current

within an acceptable range. The fundamental component of air-

gap flux density increases gradually along with the field current Fig.7 shows that the stator windings are exerted on four-

raising. Simultaneously the iron core also achieves saturated group symmetrical three-phase current and the rotor is exerted

progressively. on filed current.

Fig.7. Stator current and field current distribution.

Fig.6 illustrates that the calculated results of fundamental

component of EMF are close to the measurement values. The When the stator windings are exerted on rated current, if

calculated curve shows a nice agreement with the measured stator voltage is satisfied with the condition of formula (14),

one. The no-load curve basically reflects the characteristic of the same with power factor and formula (15), the field current

magnetic saturation of the core. Therefore, it proves that the and power factor which have been exerted in advance will meet

computational model, mesh generation, the load of motivate the rated condition. Thus the calculation comes to the end.

1631

V. CALCULATION

The methods of no-load characteristics analysis and rated

field current calculation based on nonlinear with FEM are

elaborated theoretically and systematically. And the magnetic

nonlinear of iron core and structural complexity are considered.

The calculation model is matched with the actual generator.

This paper has completed the no-load characteristics analysis.

With the comparison between calculated results and measured

values, the error is less than 6%. It proves that this method can

be applied to electromagnetic field analysis and calculation,

8(a) 8(b) also can provide theoretical basis for the design of generator.

Fig.8. The stator windings are exerted on rated current. If =0. =46.65. (a) Furthermore, other properties can be analyzed based on no-

Distribution of magnetic flux lines. (b) The fundamental wave and the load characteristics analysis. In this rationale, the rated field

harmonic of air-gap flux.

current is calculated using iterative method. The result of field

current is consistent with the rated condition. The method of

this paper has high practical usability, which may be promoted

to the calculation of rated field current of the common

synchronous generator.

REFERENCES

[1] Longnian Li, Baoling Wang, Nvhuang Zhou, Machine Design, Tsinghua

university press, 1992 (In Chinese)

[2] E. S. Hamdi, Design of small electrical machines, John Wiley & Sons,

1998.

9(a) 9(b) [3] Yunqiu Tang, Electromagnetic field within the machine, science press,

Fig.9. The stator windings current is zero. If=24.06A. =46.65. (a) 1998. (In Chinese)

Distribution of magnetic flux lines. (b) The fundamental wave and the [4] N. A. Demerdash, F. A. Fouad, T. W. Nehl, Determination of winding

harmonic of air-gap flux. inductances in ferrite type permanent magnet machinery by finite

elements, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. Mag18, Nr. 6, pp.

1052-1054, 1982.

[5] P. P. Silvester and M. V. K. Chari, Finite element solution of saturable

magnetic field problems, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., Vol. PAS-89,

No. 7, pp. 16421651, Sep. 1970.

[6] K. H. Huebner, E. A. Thornton, T. G. Byrom, The Finite Element

Method for Engineers, 3rd ed. New York: Wiley, 1995.

[7] J. Jin, The Finite Element Method in Electromagnetics. New York:

Wiley, 1993.

[8] Xiaodong Liang, Ahmed M. El-Serafi, Sherif O. Faried, Application of

the finite-element method for the determination of the parameters

representing the cross-magnetizing in saturated synchronous machines

10(a) 10(b)

IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 70-79,

Fig.10. The stator windings are exerted on rated current. If =24.06A.

March 2010.

=46.65. (a) Distribution of magnetic flux lines. (b) The fundamental wave

and the harmonic of air-gap flux. [9] Xiaofang Liu, Jinping Kang, Yingli Luo, Hongyu Wang. A new

method of calculating turbine generator load field current under iron

From fig.8 to fig.10, the fundamental components of air- saturation and magnetic field distortion, Electric machines and control,

gap flux are 0.52Wb, 0.96Wb, 0.6Wb. Different field currents Vol. 14, No. 8, pp. 8-12, August 2010. (In Chinese)

will incentive producing different distributions of magnetic [10] L. A. Pereira, V. M. Canalli, Five-phase permanent magnet

synchronous machine operating as generator design, parameter

flux lines. When stator and rotor are both exerted on current, determination by FEM and performance, IEEE Industry Applications

the magnetic flux would cause a distortion in the air-gap. Society Annual Meeting, Vol. 1-4, pp. 398-405, 2002.

Finally, we can get the rated operating parameters after

iterative calculation. They are as follows.

TABLE CALCULATION PARAMETERS OF RATED CONDITION

Parameters Value

Stator current I=224A

Stator voltage U=212.23V

Power factor cos=0.9214

Rated field current If=24.06A

Angle between stator current and d-axis =46.650

are consistent with the actual rated condition.

1632

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