Experimental and Numerical Investigations

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Experimental and Numerical Investigations

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Beam-Column Joints

Bing Li1; Cao Thanh Ngoc Tran2; and Tso-Chien Pan3

Abstract: The experimental and analytical investigations carried out on lightly reinforced concrete beam-column joints subjected to

seismic loading are presented in this paper. Five 3/4-scale reinforced concrete beam-column joints were tested to investigate the seismic

behavior of the joints. The variables in the tested specimens include column orientations and the presence of slabs on the top of beams.

The specimens were subjected to quasi-static load reversals to simulate earthquake loadings. Experimental results obtained include joint

shear stresses, joint shear strains, observed cracking and initial stiffness. The test results provided some information about the seismic

behavior of the specimens. However, due to the unique nature of the specimens, several key parameters could not be varied. Therefore,

to elucidate further information, a numerical study consisting of three-dimensional nonlinear finite-element FE models was carried out.

The FE models were then validated with the experimental results. This was followed by parametric studies, carried out to understand the

effects of several critical factors, including column axial load, ratio of column depth to beam reinforcement bar diameter, and effective

slab width, on the complex behavior of the joints.

DOI: 10.1061/ASCEST.1943-541X.0000040

CE Database subject headings: Reinforced concrete; Beam columns; Drift; Finite element method; Bonding; Axial loads; Joints;

Seismic effects.

forcement details of beam-column joints found in the Central and

A large number of existing multistorey reinforced concrete RC Eastern United States. They include lightly confined lap splices in

framed structures in zones of low seismicity has not been de- columns, discontinuous beam reinforcement in the beam-column

signed following the requirements of modern seismic design joints, and joints with little or no transverse reinforcement. It was

codes. Vital deficiencies in such structures include the typical observed that the mode of failure in these joints was pull out of

reinforcement details such as 1 little or no transverse reinforce- the discontinuous beam reinforcement. The maximum horizontal

ment within the beam-column joint regions; 2 low longitudinal forces of the specimens with discontinuous beam reinforcement

reinforcement ratios for columns; and 3 large spacing between were approximately 20% smaller than the ones with continuous

the column transverse reinforcement. These are generally termed beam reinforcement.

as lightly RC LRC structures. Despite the lack of proper seismic Hakuto et al. 1995 reported the test results of five interior

provisions in their design, these structures may be still capable of beam-column joints with substandard reinforcing details, which

resisting some minor to moderate levels of earthquakes. There- were typical of buildings constructed before the 1970s. The test

fore, a thorough evaluation of these structures is needed to under- results indicated that the seismic performance of interior beam-

stand the behavior of LRC structures when subjected to seismic column joints without transverse reinforcement in the joint core

loads. would be poor if joint shear stress exceeds 0.17f c . The effect of

The earliest experimental investigations in United States on bond conditions on the seismic performance of the joints was also

the seismic behavior of LRC beam-column joints were conducted investigated.

at Cornell University by Pessiki et al. 1990 and Beres et al. Li et al. 2002 carried out experiments involving two full-

1991. Pessiki et al. 1990 and Beres et al. 1991 tested a total scale nonseismically detailed interior beam-wide column joints to

investigate the seismic behavior of the joints. The two variables in

1

Associate Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, the test specimens were the amount of transverse reinforcement

Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore 639798, Singapore correspond- provided within the joint and the lap splicing details of the col-

ing author. E-mail: cbli@ntu.edu.sg umn and beam reinforcement. The maximum nominal horizontal

2

Ph.D. Candidate, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, shear stress in the joint core was determined to be 0.15f c based on

Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore 639798, Singapore. the experimental results. The joint without horizontal transverse

3

Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang reinforcement failed at a displacement ductility factor of 2, which

Technological Univ., Singapore 639798, Singapore.

correlates well with the model proposed by Hakuto et al. 2000.

Note. This manuscript was submitted on January 7, 2008; approved

on March 9, 2009; published online on August 14, 2009. Discussion

This suggests that joint shear failure occurs around a displace-

period open until February 1, 2010; separate discussions must be submit- ment ductility factor of 2, where the joint shear stress would lie

ted for individual papers. This paper is part of the Journal of Structural between 0.11f c and 0.17f c . It must be noted that the modified

Engineering, Vol. 135, No. 9, September 1, 2009. ASCE, ISSN 0733- joint achieved a limited ductility factor of 3 due to the presence of

9445/2009/9-10071018/$25.00. transverse reinforcement within the joint.

Recently, a series of tests on interior beam-column joints with-

Column bars

out transverse reinforcement in the joint core was conducted by Specimen

SpecimenAL1

AL1 Column bars

lapped above Specimen

Specimen AS1AS1

R10@200

R10@200

Walker 2001 and Alire 2002 at University of Washington. lapped above

floor level

floor level

Walker 2001 used a rich array of displacement histories, includ- Slab

100

Slab

300 100

A

A

ing some with highly asymmetric patterns and others with many

2460

2460

400

cycles of constant amplitude displacement, in addition to the

300

more common symmetric, increasing-amplitude cycles. Alire A

A

BB BB

R10@200

2002 studied a wide range of joint shear stress demands. It was

R10@200

Transverse

Transverse beam

beam

concluded from the test results that the level of joint shear stress

and displacement history had the largest influence on the joint

behavior. Of several alternative displacement histories that were R10@150 200 R10@150

examined, the most severe strength degradation was observed in R10@150 R10@150

4500

4500

specimens subjected to three symmetric cycles at each drift level.

Although existing literature on LRC beam-column joints pro-

vides some experimental investigations, the effects of several (a) Specimens AL1 and AS1

critical factors, such as typical seismic detailing, slab width, col-

umn orientation, column axial load, etc., are not clearly under-

Column bars

stood. The present investigation was planned to carry out Specimen AL2 Column

lapped bars

above Specimen AS2

R10@200

experimental and finite-element FE studies with the aim to pro- lapped above

R10@200

Specimen AL2 floor level Specimen AS2

floor level

vide further contribution to this field of research. The first part Slab

100

100

contains the test results of five 3/4-scale specimens, which were AA

2460

2460

400

300

300

loadings. The second part of the study includes the comparison of

C

C C

C A

A

the experimental results with FE models and a critical parametric

R10@200

R10@200

Transverse beam

Transverse beam

study conducted to elucidate further information.

R10@150 R10@150

Test Program 4500

4500

Figs. 1 and 2 show the details of the five 3/4-scale LRC test

specimens. They are labeled as AL1, AL2, AS1, AS2, and MAS1.

R10@150 8T20

AL, AS, and MAS stand for as-built lightly RC beam-column 1T16

2T20 R10@200

joints, as-built lightly RC beam-column joints with a slab and 8T20

100

tively. The joints in Specimen AL1 and Specimen AL2 consisted

400

R10@150

300

200

of a plane beam-column connection, while Specimen AS1 and

Specimen AS2 had an additional slab cast along the top of beams 2T20

200 200 400

and the transverse beams that extended from the connection re- 1000

gion. The columns of Specimens AL1, AS1, and MAS1 were Section A-A Section B-B Section C-C

oriented in the direction of their weak bending axes, whereas the

columns of Specimen AS2 and Specimen AL2 were aligned about Specimens Specimens Specimens

their strong bending axes. The overall dimensions and the longi- AS1, and AS2 AL1 and AS1 AL2 and AS2

tudinal reinforcement of Specimen MAS1 were similar to those of

Specimen AS1 except that the spacing of transverse reinforce- Fig. 1. Dimensions and details of Specimens AL1, AS1, AL2, and

ment within Specimen MAS1 at the beams and columns near the AS2 in mm

joint region was reduced and only limited transverse reinforce-

ments were provided within its joint core see Figs. 1 and 2.

Reinforcement Details

Material Proprieties The specimens were designed according to the provisions of Brit-

ish Standards 8110 1997. Beams were reinforced using 2T20

Longitudinal reinforcement for the beams, columns, and trans- 20-mm diameter bars at the bottom and a combination of 2T20

verse beams consisted of deformed bars, designated using letter T and 1T16 16-mm diameter bars at the top. As / Ag and As / Ag

and were characterized by a yield strength f y of 473 MPa. The ratios of the beams were 1.13 and 0.86%, respectively. Beam bars

transverse reinforcement of all specimens comprised of mild steel were made continuous through the entire span. A total of 8T20

bars, denoted by R and was characterized by a yield strength f y of longitudinal bars, lapped above the floor level, were used in col-

252 MPa. The average compressive strength of concrete, f c , ob- umns. This resulted in the ratio of column steel area to the gross

tained from the concrete cylinder samples, was found to be 30.3, area of column to be 3.14%. Transverse reinforcement of the

31.4, 31.2, 32.1, and 31.9 MPa for Specimens AL1, AS1, MAS1, beams and columns, required for resisting shear, confining the

AL2, and AS2, respectively. concrete, and preventing premature buckling of the longitudinal

dance with the recommendation provided by ACI-ASCE Com-

R10@200

R10@100 R10@200

mittee 352 1991. The column to beam flexural strength ratio of

430

430

Column

bars lapped the specimens M r which were loaded about their strong or weak

3R10 R10@100 above floor

axis of columns were 1.66 and 0.89, respectively. When the slab

600

600

level

100

Slab

D

300 100

D bars were considered fully effective in resisting the negative

2460

bending moments, these ratios about the strong and weak loading

2460

R10@100 3R10

400

400

300

1T16

1T16 axes of the columns were reduced to approximately 1.09 and

R10@200R10@100

2T20

2T20 EE DD

EE 0.58, respectively.

600

600

300 100

100

8T20

8T20

400

400

Transverse R10@100

R10@150

R10@150 beam R10@100

300

2T20

2T20

R10@200

D-D

D-D 200

200

430

430

200

200

1000

1000 E-E

E-E Test Setup

1550

1550 600 200

600 600

600 1550

1550 Fig. 3 shows the test setup. The test specimens were subjected to

R10@150

R10@150 R10@100

R10@100 R10@100

R10@100 R10@150

R10@150

4500 quasi-static load reversals that simulated earthquake loading. The

4500 bottom of the column was pinned to the strong floor of the labo-

ratory and the ends of the beams were connected to this strong

Fig. 2. Dimensions and reinforcing details of Specimen MAS 1 in floor by steel links which permitted rotations and free horizontal

mm translations of the beams, and thus provided the vertical reactions

to the beams. A reversible horizontal load was applied to the

column using a double acting 300 kN 67.4 kip hydraulic jack.

bars, was detailed according to the provisions of BS8110. No

The cyclic loading history showing applied cycles versus the sto-

transverse reinforcement was provided within the joint core of all

rey drift ratio DR is shown in Fig. 4.

specimens with the only exception being MAS1. In this specimen,

the ends of the hoops were bent at an angle of 135 in contrast to

90 bent used in other specimens. Potential hinge regions, located

at 1.5 times the depth of beam or column, were provided with a Experimental Results and Observations

reduced spacing of 150 to 100 mm between transverse reinforce-

ment. The joint core was confined by using three sets of column Specimen AL1

hoops see Fig. 2.

The storey shear force versus horizontal displacement relationship

of Specimen AL1 is shown in Fig. 5a. The specimen did not

Nominal Capacities

reach its theoretical capacity till the end of the test. In both the

Table 1 summarizes the design parameters of the specimens. They loading directions, the maximum capacity attained was approxi-

were estimated using the tested material properties and in accor- mately 53 kN, which was 87% of its theoretical capacity, corre-

Py / Pys Ki-exp Ki-FEMA 356 Ki-modified Ki-exp / Ki-exp /

Specimen kN Mr kN/mm kN/mm kN/mm Ki-FEMA 356 Ki-modified

AL1 60.6 0.89 2.1 3.0 2.4 0.70 0.88

AS1 63.1/97.3 0.89/0.58 3.1 3.4 2.7 0.91 1.15

MAS1 63.1/97.3 0.89/0.58 3.4 3.4 2.7 1.00 1.26

AL2 63.9 1.66 3.0 5.9 4.7 0.51 0.64

AS2 66.7/102.7 1.66/1.08 3.9 6.4 5.1 0.61 0.76

5.0%

5.0%

4.0%

4.0% 4.0%

4.0%

3.0%

3.0%

3.0%

3.0%

2.0%

2.0%

2.0%

2.0%

ratio.

1.0%

1.0%

ratio

1.0%

1.0%

Drift

0.0%

0.0%

Drift

0 55 10

10 15

15 20

20 25

25 30

30

-1.0%

-1.0%

-2.0%

-2.0%

-3.0%

-3.0%

-4.0%

-4.0%

-5.0%

-5.0%

Fig. 6. Observed cracking of Specimen AL1 and Specimen AS1 at

the end of the test: a Specimen AL1; b Specimen AS1

Fig. 4. Cyclic horizontal loading history

joint core due to the opening of diagonal tension cracks and at the

column compression zone due to crushing was observed as illus-

sponding to a DR of 1.4%. When the specimen was loaded to a

trated in Fig. 6a.

DR of 0.5%, the beams and columns experienced the initiation

of flexural and shear cracks almost simultaneously. In the subse-

quent loading run corresponding to DRs of 1.0 and 2.0%, the Specimen AS1

specimen developed some diagonal tension cracks that appeared

Fig. 5b shows the storey shear force versus the horizontal dis-

in the joint core as well as bond splitting cracks along the column

placement hysteresis loops of Specimen AS1. The dotted and

bars. At a DR of 3.7%, the specimen experienced a substantial

solid lines represent the theoretical capacities, which were esti-

loss of more than 20% of its load-carrying capacity, which led to

mated by accounting for and neglecting slab effects on the speci-

the test being stopped. At this stage, spalling of concrete at the

men, respectively. The specimen first attained its theoretical

capacity in the positive loading direction at a DR of 0.8%, while

in the negative direction it reached its theoretical capacity at a DR

Storydrift

Storey drift ratio

ratio of 1.0%. In the subsequent loading cycles, the specimen reached

-4%

-4% -3%

-3% -2%

-2% -1%

-1% 0%0% 1%

1% 2%

2% 3%

3% 4%

4%

its maximum capacities of approximately 80 kN, in the positive

80

80

Experimental

Experimental

P yP=60.6

y=60.6kNkN loading direction and 70 kN, in the negative loading direction

Analytical

Analytical 60

60

corresponding to DRs of 2.0 and 1.5%, respectively. The speci-

(kN )

force(kN)

40

40 men indicated over-strengths of 27% in the positive and 11% in

Initial stiffness

Initial stiffness the negative loading directions as compared to its theoretical ca-

force

20

20

pacity estimated by neglecting slab effects, respectively. These

shear

shear

0

-109 -82 -55 82 109

capacities were higher by 51 and 32% in comparison to those

-109 -82 -55 -27 0 27

27 55

55 82 109

Storey

Story

-40

-40

Although participation of the slab enhanced the moment resisting

capacity of the specimen, due to inadequate connection between

-60

-60

the slab bars and the beams, the developed moment strength did

Pyy=-60.6

=-60.6 kN

kN

-80

-80 not reach the theoretical capacity estimated by accounting for the

Horizontaldisplacement

Horizontal displacement (mm)

(mm) slab. The specimen showed a significant pinching behavior

throughout the test.

a) Specimen AL1

Fine flexural cracks were initiated and spread along the beams

Storydrift

Storey drift ratio

ratio and columns during the elastic loading cycles up till a DR of

-4%

-4% -3%

-3% -2%

-2% -1%

-1% 0%

0% 1%

1% 2%

2% 3%

3% 4%

4%

0.75%. The flexural crack development along the top chord of the

100

100

Experimental

Experimental beams was restricted at this stage. This could be attributed to the

Analytical 80

80

Analytical

PPys = 97.3kN PPyy=63.1

=63.1 kN

kN presence of the slab. In the subsequent inelastic cycles, flexural

=97.3

ys kN 60

60

cracks spread along the spans of the beams and propagated to-

Storey shear force (kN)

Story shear force (kN)

Initial

Initialstiffness

stiffness 40

40

ward its compression zone. The specimen began to develop

20

20

cracks along the top chord of the beams as the loading run

0 reached a DR of 1.0%. Subsequently, the bottom column, nearer

-109

-109 -82

-82 -55

-55 -27 0 27

27 55

55 82

82 109

109

-20 to the joint core, developed diagonal cracks at a DR of 2.0%. This

-40

-40 was followed by the concrete in the compression zone of the

-60

-60 column getting crushed at a DR of 3.6%. This caused the concrete

PPys=-97.3 kN

= -97.3kN

PPyy=-63.1

=-63.1kN

kN -80

-80 to spall, resulting in the specimen losing its load-carrying capac-

-100

-100 ity, as illustrated in Fig. 6b.

Horizontal

Horizontal displacement (mm)

displacement (mm)

Fig. 7 illustrates the hysteresis loops of the storey shear force

Fig. 5. Comparison of hysteretic behavior between the experimental versus the horizontal displacement for Specimen MAS1, which

and the FE numerical test results: a Specimen AL1; b Specimen was quite analogous to Specimen AS1. The specimen reached its

AS1 theoretical capacity at a DR of 0.8%. In the negative loading

Storydrift

Storey drift ratio

ratio Story

Storeydrift ratio

drift ratio

--4%

4% -3%

-3% -2%

-2% -1%

-1% 0%

0% 1%

1% 2%

2% 3%

3% 4%

4% --4%

4% -3%

-3% -2%

-2% -1%

-1% 0%

0% 1%

1% 2%

2% 3%

3% 4%

4%

100

100 100

100

Experimental

Experimental Experimental

Experimantal

Analytical

Analytical

80

P ys =97.3 kN80 PPy=63.1

y =63.1kN

kN Analytical

Analytical 80

80 P

Pyy=63.9

=63.9 kN

Pys=97.3 kN60

60 60

60

(kN)

(kN)

Initial

Initialstiffness

force(kN)

stiffness

(kN)

Initial stiffness 40

40 40

40

Initial stiffness

force

20 20

20

force

20

force

shearshear

shear

0 0

shear

-109

-109 -82

-82 -55

-55 -27 0 27

27 55

55 82

82 109

109 -109

-109 -82

-82 -55

-55 -27

-27 0 27

27 55

55 82

82 109

109

Storey

-20 -20

Storey

-40

Story

Story

-40

-40 -40

-60

-60 -60

-60

P y =-63.1 kN PPys

ys=-97.3 kN

=-97.3 kN

Py=-63.1 kN -80

-80 PPyy=-63.9

=-63.9kN

kN -80

-80

-100

-100 -100

-100

Horizontal

Horizontal displacement (mm)

displacement (mm) Horizontaldisplacement

Horizontal displacment (mm)

(mm)

a) Specimen AL2

Fig. 7. Comparison of hysteretic behavior between the experimental

Story drift

Storey driftratio

ratio

and the FE numerical test results for Specimen MAS1

-4%

-4% -3%

-3% -2%

-2% -1%

-1% 0%

0% 1%

1% 2%

2% 3%

3% 4%

4%

120

120

Experimental

Experimental

Analytical

Analytical 90

90

P ysP=102.7 kNkN PPyy=66.7 kN

=66.7 kN

=102.7

ys

60

60

force (kN)

(kN)

direction, the specimen attained the theoretical capacity at a DR Initial

Initialstiffness

stiffness

30

30

shearforce

of 1.0%. Maximum capacities of 73.8 kN in the positive and 69.6

kN in the negative loading directions were reached at DRs of 1.5 0

Storeyshear

-109

-109 -82

-82 -55

-55 -27

-27 0 27

27 55

55 82

82 109

109

and 2.0%, respectively. The maximum capacity of Specimen -30

MAS1 in the positive direction was 92% of the maximum capac-

Story -60

-60

ity of Specimen AS1. This indicates that the modification on the P

Pysys=-102.7

=-102.7 kN

kN

reinforcing details in Specimen MAS1 did not contribute signifi- PPyy=-66.7

=-66.7kN

kN -90

-90

-120

experienced stiffness degradation and a significant pinching be- Horizontaldisplacement

Horizontal Displacement (mm)

(mm)

havior after the second loading cycle. The specimen reached its

maximum load-carrying capacity of 52 kN at a DR of 3.8%. The b) Specimen AS2

progressive damage and cracking patterns exhibited by Specimen

MAS1 were quite analogous to Specimen AS1. Fig. 8. Comparison of hysteretic behavior between the experimental

and the FE numerical test results

Specimen AL2

Specimen AS2

The storey shear force versus horizontal displacement relationship

of Specimen AL2 is presented in Fig. 8a. At a DR of 0.8%, the Fig. 8b presents hysteresis loops of the storey shear force versus

specimen reached its theoretical capacity of 63.9 kN in both of the horizontal displacement relationship of Specimen AS2. At a

the loading directions. In the subsequent loading cycles, the speci- DR of around 0.65%, the specimen reached its theoretical capac-

men reached its maximum capacities of 82 kN in the positive and ity of approximately 66.7 kN in both the loading directions. At a

75 kN in the negative loading directions at a DR of 1.5%. This DR of 2.0%, the specimen reached its maximum capacities of 98

indicates that the specimen attained an overstrength of 28% in its kN in the positive and 83 kN in the negative loading directions,

positive and 17% in its negative loading cycles. The specimen indicating an overstrength of 47 and 24%, respectively. These

experienced a significant pinching effect in the hysteresis loops capacities were higher by 19 and 11% in comparison to those

that began to show at a DR of 1.5%. At a DR of 3.7%, the attained by Specimen AL2 in the respective loading directions.

specimen lost 20% of its lateral load-carrying capacity, indicating The specimen experienced a limited pinching behavior in the hys-

its failure.

The cracks that were formed on Specimen AL2 observed at the

end of the test are shown in Fig. 9a. The specimen developed

flexural cracks in the beams at a DR of 0.5%. This was followed

by the formation of very fine cracks within the joint core region.

In the subsequent cycles of up to a DR of 0.75%, the flexural

cracks began to spread along the beam span on both the top and

bottom chords and propagated vertically. As a result, full depth

cracks were also developed. Flexural and shear cracks also

formed on the columns at the regions close to the joint. At a DR

of 2.0%, there was an intensive formation of diagonal tension

cracks within the joint core. Some of these cracks eventually con-

verted into full-length corner-to-corner diagonal cracks. The con-

crete in the compression zone of the beam was crushed and began Fig. 9. Observed cracking of Specimen AL2 and Specimen AS2 at

to spall at a DR of 3.7%. the end of the test: a Specimen AL1; b Specimen AS1

Table 2. Joint Shear Strains and Stresses Obtained from the Experimental and the Numerical Results

Joint shear stress experimental Joint shear stress numerical FEMA-273/356

f c f c f c f c f c

Specimen MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa d experimental d FEMA-273/356

AL1 7.52 0.25 1.29 7.87 0.26 1.30 0.83 0.013 0.005

AS1 8.5 0.27 1.51 7.93 0.25 1.22 1.00 0.012 0.005

MAS1 8.0 0.25 1.42 8.06 0.26 1.25 1.66 0.005

AL2 6.26 0.2 1.06 5.1 0.16 0.87 0.83 0.005

AS2 6.34 0.2 1.06 4.92 0.16 0.82 1.00 0.005

teresis loops that began from a DR of 1.5%. After a DR of 2.0%, Therefore, only the joint shear strain at the end of peak strength d

it exhibited progressive loss in its load-carrying capacity coupled was obtained from the test. The experimental joint shear strains

with a significant pinching effect in its hysteresis loops. At a DR were achieved by using diagonally placed transducers in the joint

of 4.0%, the specimen lost 20% of its load-carrying capacity. core. Due to the presence of the transverse beams at the joint

Fig. 9b illustrates the formation of cracks on Specimen AS2 core, the joint shear strains of Specimens AS1, MAS1, and AS2

at the end of test. At a DR of 0.5%, the specimen developed could not be experimentally evaluated. The experimental joint

flexural cracks that were mostly concentrated along the bottom shear strains of Specimen AL1 and Specimen AL2 at a DR of

chords of the beam. There were only limited shear cracks at the 3.0% were 0.013 and 0.012. The test results of Specimen AL1 and

top chord of the beams below the bottom face of the slab at a DR Specimen AL2 showed that FEMA 273 1997 and FEMA 356

of 0.75%. At a DR of 0.5%, a few flexural cracks formed at the 2000 guidelines provided a conservative assessment of joint

lower column and when the DR reached 1.0%, these cracks shear strains at the end of peak strength.

propagated through the full depth of the column. However, the

cracks at the upper part of the column did not develop until the

Initial Stiffness

test ran beyond the elastic loading cycles, which corresponded to

DRs of greater than 1.0%. In the following loading cycles, the The experimental initial stiffness of all test specimens was esti-

diagonal cracks in the joint core region propagated extensively mated using the secant of the horizontal shear force versus the

and therefore, it can be expected that the diagonal concrete com- horizontal displacement relationship passing through the point at

pression strut failure might have dominated the failure mecha- which 75% of the theoretical strength was obtained. The initial

nism of the joint. stiffness obtained from the test was then compared with FEMA

273 1997 and FEMA 356 2000 as shown in Table 1. Accord-

ing to FEMA 273 1997 and FEMA 356 2000, the initial stiff-

Discussion of Experimental Results ness is defined considering flexural and shear deformations of

beams and columns. Joint deformations were ignored in FEMA

273 1997 and FEMA 356 2000 guidelines. The flexural rigid-

Comparison with Seismic Assessment Models

ity is defined as 0.5EcIg for RC members without axial loading,

The joint shear strength of all specimens was compared with and shear stiffness for rectangular cross sections is defined as

FEMA 273 1997 and FEMA 356 2000 as shown in Table 2. 0.4EcAg as suggested by FEMA 273 1997 and FEMA 356

For Specimen AL1 and Specimen AL2 without transverse beams 2000 guidelines. As shown in Table 1, the initial stiffness pre-

and volumetric ratio of horizontal confinement reinforcement in dicted by using FEMA 273 1997 and FEMA 356 2000 guide-

the joint, of less than 0.003, FEMA 273 1997 and FEMA 356 lines, Ki-FEMA 356 was higher than the experimental initial stiffness

2000 guidelines suggest a value of 0.83 MPa 10 psi. The for all specimens, Ki-exp. The higher initial stiffness predicted

Specimen AS1 and Specimen AS2 with transverse beams and a from FEMA 273 1997 and FEMA 356 2000 guidelines could

value of less than 0.003, a joint shear strength of 1.00 MPa 12 be attributed to the assumption of constant flexural rigidity for

psi was recommended by the FEMA 273 1997 and FEMA 356 beams and columns and the joint deformations which were ig-

2000 guidelines. Specimen MAL1 with transverse beams and a nored in calculating the initial stiffness. To improve the accuracy

value of larger than 0.003, a value of 1.66 MPa 20 psi is in prediction of the initial stiffness, the flexural rigidity of beams

suggested by the FEMA 273 1997 and FEMA 356 2000 guide- and columns as suggested by Paulay and Priestley 1992 was

lines. The test results showed that FEMA 273 1997 and FEMA used. According to Paulay and Priestley 1992, the flexural rigid-

356 2000 guidelines provided a conservative prediction of the

joint shear strength of Specimens AL1, AL2, AS1, and AS2.

The model for use in the assessment of existing joints should

reflect the dependence of strength on deformation and represent a

trend of strength degradation with the increase in imposed drift.

FEMA 273 1997 and FEMA 356 2000 guidelines suggested

one such model as shown in Fig. 10 for both conforming and

nonconforming joints i.e., joints having old-type reinforcement

details. In this model, d, e, and c are the joint shear strains at the

end of peak strength, at the collapse level and the residual

strength level, taken as 0.005, 0.02, and 0.2 respectively for non-

conforming joints. In this experimental program, the test was

stopped at the 20% drop point of the maximum shear strength. Fig. 10. FEMA 273/356 modeling parameters

Stress

Failure point in compression

Stress

fc

f ds

Start of

inelastic

behavior

Es

Unload or reload

response (elastic) Strain

Strain

f ds

Stress

ft Failure point

max

Tension softening

Bond stress

f

ucr Strain

Unload or reload s1 s2 s3 Slip, s

response (elastic)

(b) Concrete in tension (d) Bond-slip law by CEB-FIP Code 1990

Fig. 11. Material modeling: a concrete in compression response; b concrete in tension; c steel reinforcement; and d bond-slip law by

CEB-FIP Code 1990

ity of RC members is dependent on the longitudinal reinforce- tiated perpendicular to the major principal stress if its value ex-

ment and axial load ratios. The shear deformation of the joint core ceeds the concrete tensile strength, independent of the value

was assumed to be 20% of the total displacement, as has been assumed by the other principal stresses. The orientation of the

found previously by Cheung et al. 1993. As shown in Table 1, crack is then stored and the material response perpendicular to the

better results were obtained by using the above described method crack is determined by a stress-strain relationship for the cracked

than the guidelines provided by FEMA 273 1997 and FEMA material volume. Additional cracks may appear at the same loca-

356 2000. tion, but they are assumed to form at an orientation greater than

15 to the existing cracks. If the angle is less than that, the sec-

ondary cracks are assumed not to have been generated even when

Finite-Element Analysis the tensile stress has reached its fracture envelope Hajime and

Kohichi 1991.

General The fracture energy GF and the tensile strength f t of the con-

crete were used to calculate the value of ultimate crack opening

The following sections present a nonlinear FE numerical investi- wu. The fracture energy GF of the concrete was calculated using a

gation carried out on LRC beam-column joints to further enhance three-point bending test based upon the recommendations of

the understanding of its complex behavior. In this study, the RILEM 50-FMC Committee 1985. A bilinear tension stress-

specimens were modeled using a three-dimensional 3D model- strain curve was used as shown in Fig. 11b in which cr u was

ing technique. 3D modeling helps in accurately defining the ge- taken as 0.001 to simulate the softening effect of the concrete in

ometry of joints and positioning of the rebars that lie within the tension after cracking. The value was based on the assumption

specimen. It also provides accurately the complex nature of that the strain softening after failure reduces the stress linearly to

stresses at various key sections such as around the columns, in- zero at a total strain of about 10 times the strain at failure of

side the joint and on top of wide beams. However, the computa- concrete in tension, which is typically 0.0001. Tensile strength of

tional efforts required for 3D modeling are higher than those concrete f t used in the analysis was determined from the compres-

required for the two-dimensional modeling. sive strength f c in accordance to CEB-FIP model code 1990

1993

Material Modeling

f t = 0.30f c2/3 MPa 1

Modeling of Concrete The response of the concrete in compression was taken into ac-

The analysis uses a constant stress cutoff criterion for concrete count by an elastic-plastic model. The elastic state of stress was

cracking. According to this model, a crack is assumed to be ini- limited by a Drucker-Prager yield surface. Isotropic hardening

with an associated flow rule was used after yielding of the surface

had occurred. The DIANA software evaluates the yield surface

using the current state of stress, the angle of internal friction ,

and the cohesion c. As per the recommendations of the DIANA

software manual, the angle of internal friction in concrete can be

approximated to be 30. The cohesion used in the analysis is

given by formula as follows:

1 sin

c = f cuniaxial

p

2

2 cos

where f cuniaxial

p

is the hardening or softening parameter as a

function of the plastic strain in the direction of the uniaxial com-

pression stress. Standard uniaxial tests on concrete cylinders were

used to define the stress-strain relations up to the peak stress.

CEB-FIP model code 1990 1993 recommendations can be used

to evaluate the postpeak behavior of the concrete using cylinder

compression strength tests. A Poissons ratio of 0.15 was used in

the analysis.

Fig. 12. Three-dimensional finite-element discretization of the speci-

When the cracked concrete is unloaded in tension, the secant

mens: a Model AL1; b Model AL2; c Model AS1; and d Model

modulus is used to evaluate the stiffness, based on the fact that

AS2

the strain across the crack is linearly reduced to zero as the stress

approaches zero. The unloading or reloading response of the post-

peak behavior, which is linearly elastic, is shown in Fig. 11b.

For the post peak behavior of concrete in compression, when

concrete is unloaded/reloaded, the response is evaluated using the Geometry Modeling

initial elastic stiffness Fig. 11a.

The DIANA software was used for the FE analysis. 20-node 3D

quadratic solid elements were used for the concrete, while the

Modeling of Reinforcement embedded reinforcing bars were modeled using truss elements.

The von Mises yield criterion with isotropic strain hardening and The FE discretization of the specimens is presented in Fig. 12.

an associated flow rule were used to describe the constitutive

behavior of the reinforcement. The bars were modeled with the Verification of Finite-Element Analysis Results

DIANA options of separate truss elements. Fig. 11c defines the

stress-strain relationship for the reinforcing steel, which was mod- Figs. 5, 7, and 8 present the comparison of hysteretic behavior

eled with an elastoplastic curve. During the test, bond deteriora- obtained through the FE numerical predictions and the experi-

tion along the beam longitudinal bars and column main bars, mental investigations. There was a good agreement between the

particularly within the joint region, was found and necessary slip- analytical and the experimental results. The FE numerical models

page of the steel bars was expected to occur. Bond-slip models attained the maximum capacities at a DR of approximately 1.5%

with the DIANA options were accounted for the reinforcement and moderate strength and stiffness degradations were followed

and surrounding concrete. thereafter. All the numerical models exhibited a significant pinch-

ing in the loops which was quite similar to those observed during

Bond-Slip Law the experiments.

As shown by Fig. 5a, comparison of hysteresis loops of be-

The bond law used in the analysis is based on CEB-FIP model tween the analytical and the experimental loops of Specimen AL1

code 1990 1993, as shown by Fig. 11d. Equations of bond showed that the load-carrying capacities of the predicted results

stress for different parts of the curve are described below were slightly higher at early stages. At a DR of 1.5%, the FE

analysis results of Specimen AL1 exceeded the theoretical capac-

s ity and gained its maximum capacity of 65 kN, which was of 22%

= max for 0 s s1 3 higher than the measured value in the positive loading direction.

s1

The experimental results of Specimen AL2 showed a higher load-

carrying capacity as compared with the predicted results as shown

= max for s1 s s2 4 in Fig. 8. The maximum capacity of Specimen AL2 obtained by

the FE analysis, corresponding to a DR of 0.5%, was 90% in both

loading directions. In Specimen MAS1, the load-carrying capaci-

s s1

= max max f for s2 s s3 5 ties obtained from FE results were higher compared to the experi-

s3 s2 mental observations as shown in Fig. 7. The maximum capacity

attained by FE predictions were 11 and 5% greater than the ex-

perimental results in the positive and negative loading directions,

= f for s3 s 6

respectively. Comparison between the FE numerical and the ex-

The bond law model parameters depend on the properties of the perimental results of Specimen AL2 and Specimen AS2 showed a

bar surface, and can be referred from the CEB-FIP model code very good agreement besides exhibiting a significant pinching in

1990 1993. hysteresis loops. From the aforementioned discussions of the FE

models, it is clear that these models are acceptable, despite some Story drift ratio

-3.7% -1.9% 0.0% 1.9% 3.7%

minor variations, and therefore, they can be used to predict the 80

joint behavior by varying critical parameters.

60

40

Parametric Studies

20

After verification of the FE models against the experimental re- 0 N/f'cAg= 0

sults, this section presents a parametric investigation to elucidate -20 N/f'cAg= 0.1

more information about the complex behavior of the LRC beam- N/f'cAg= 0.2

-40

column joints. The structural response of the joints was studied by N/f'cAg= 0.35

-60 N/f'cAg= 0.4

varying some key parameters such as column axial loading, col-

umn depth to beam bar diameter ratio, and effective slab width. -80

-100 -50 0 50 100

Horizontal displacement (mm)

Effect of Column Axial Load

(a) Specimen AL1

The investigations into the effect of column axial load on the

performance of beam-column joints began in the late 1980s Story drift ratio

Paulay et al. 1978; Paulay and Park 1984 and thereafter, this -3.7% -1.9% 0.0% 1.9% 3.7%

area has attained enormous interest with extensive research stud-

60

ies. However, the column axial load level at which the joint shear

strength and bond condition significantly influence the joint be- 40

havior is highly complex NZS3101 Concrete Structures Standard 20

1998. Paulay 1989 pointed out that column axial force was

beneficial to the joint shear resistance. A larger portion of the 0 N/f'cAg= 0

bond forces from the beam bars could be assumed to be trans- N/f'cAg= 0.1

-20

ferred to the diagonal strut because the neutral axis depth in the N/f'cAg= 0.2

-40 N/f'cAg= 0.25

column increased with axial compression, thus increasing the

N/f'cAg= 0.4

contribution of the concrete to joint shear resistance. This point of -60

view is accepted by NZS3101 Concrete Structures Standard

1998, in which the concrete shear strength is considered to in- -100 -50 0 50 100

crease with the column axial loading. However, Kurose et al. Horizontal displacement (mm)

1988 pointed out from the experimental results that the level of

axial force did not seem to influence joint shear strength. In the (b) Specimen AL2

study conducted by Pessiki et al. 1990, two nonductile interior

beam-column joints with different axial loading levels were Fig. 13. Influence of column axial load predicted by FE analysis for

tested. However the test results could not be used to evaluate the Specimen All: a Specimen AL1; b Specimen AL2

influence of axial loading because both of the specimens failed

due to the pull-out of the embedded beam bottom bars instead of

joint shear failure. Recently a number of researchers have noticed 0.35f c Ag, with an increase in axial load by 8% and 9%, respec-

that the effect of axial loads may vary at different axial loading tively. However, further enhancement of axial loads led to the

levels or at different joint shear levels. Fu et al. 2000 pointed out reduction in storey shears and a degradation of stiffness. The

by testing ten interior beam-column joints that if the shear was aforementioned discussion clearly indicated that when the axial

high, the increase in axial loads was unfavorable, whereas if the load level was approximately 0.25f c Ag, the LRC strong beam-

shear was small, the increase in axial loading was favorable. In weak column joints Specimen AL1 and Specimen AS1 experi-

the study of Lin 2000, it was found that axial compression in enced an optimum enhancement in the storey shears of around

excess of N / f c Ag 0.3 became detrimental to the joints. 7%. In contrast, the specimens with weak beam-strong column

In this present study, the influence of column axial load on the connections Specimen AL2 and Specimen AS2 exhibited an op-

seismic behavior of the LRC beam-column joints was investi- timum increase in storey shears of approximately 9% correspond-

gated using the FE analysis. The same loading histories as those ing to an axial load level of 0.35f c Ag.

used in the experimental tests of the specimens were applied, and

the corresponding storey shears versus horizontal displacements

under different axial loading levels were plotted. Due to the limi- Influence of Column Depth to Beam Bar Diameter

tation in space, only the plots of Specimen AL1 and Specimen Ratio

AL2 are presented see Fig. 13. The column applied axial load The column depth to beam bar diameter ratio has a significant

varied from zero to 0.4f c Ag. As observed by Fig. 13a, the storey effect on the performance of joints. In specimens with strong

shears of Specimen AL1 increased by around 2 and 6%, as the beam-weak column connection, the column depth to beam bar

axial load was enhanced to 0.1f c Ag and 0.25f c Ag, respectively. diameter ratio did not satisfy the design limits suggested by ACI

However, any increase in the axial load further reduced the storey Committee 318 2005. As a result, tensile strains were found in

shears. An analogous trend was observed in Specimen AS1, either the joint core or the compression zone of the beam, and

whose storey shears experienced an increase by around 3 and 8% yield penetration in the joint core could not be prevented. To

for the axial load levels of 0.1f c Ag and 0.25f c Ag, respectively. study the effect of column depth to beam bar diameter ratio, the

Specimen AL2 and Specimen AS2 showed similar optimal en- bar diameters of the specimens were varied and FE analyses was

hancements corresponding to a column axial load level of performed. Comparison of strains in the beam longitudinal bars of

2.5E-3

2.5E-3

0.75%

0.75%

mostly attributed from the weak column-strong beam configura-

Column width

Column width 1.0%

1.0% tion, where the deformation demand on the beam elements was

y 2.0%

2.0%

2.0E-3

2.0E-3 3.0%

3.0%

substantially limited and the presence of slabs significantly en-

hanced the stiffness of the beam. Furthermore, due to the loss of

1.5E-3

1.5E-3

the torsional moment carrying capacity in the lightly reinforced

Strain

Strain

Beamtop

Beam top bar

bar bars could not be adequately developed and transferred to the

1.0E-3

1.0E-3

core of the joint. In contrast, Specimen AS2 exhibited a different

Slab strain distribution Fig. 15. The slab bars within a distance of

5.0E-4

5.0E-4 Slab bar

bar

approximately 200 mm on either side of the beam faces yielded at

a DR of 1.0%. This was around 0.75 times the effective width of

0.0E-0

0.0E+0 the slab, which was taken as Bb + 2Db. The reason for this is due

-500 -400

-500 -400 -300

-300 -200

-200 -100

-100 00 100

100 200

200 300

300 400

400 500

500 to the deformation demand on the beam elements, which was

Distance

Distance from

from thethecenter

centerof

of the

the column

column(mm)

(mm) moderately high, inducing a high level of tensile stresses on the

bars within the slab.

Fig. 14. FE predicted strain profiles in the beam top bars and slab Current codes and recommendations provide guidelines for the

bars of Specimen AS1 effective width of a slab to be considered as flexural bars for the

beam subjected to lateral loadings. According to ACI Committee

318 2005, the effective slab width in tension is computed as the

beam width plus 16 times slab thickness. Pantazopoulou 1990

Specimen AL1 and Specimen AL2 showed that increasing the suggested that the effective slab width to be equal to beam width

column depth to beam bar diameter ratio bc / db also improved plus 3 times beam depth. The effective width of slab obtained

the strain distributions in the beam bars. The top bars of the from this study was approximately 0.42 and 0.54 times the effec-

beams of Specimen AS2 in the compression zone were found to tive width of slab suggested by ACI Committee 318 2005 and

maintain the tensile strains during a majority of the loading Pantazopoulou and Moehle 1990, respectively.

cycles, despite the fact that the bc / db ratio was less than 20, which

did not satisfy ACI Committee 318 2005 requirements for the

slippage prevention of bars. The reason for this may be the pres- Conclusions

ence of the slab that must have provided adequate lateral confine-

ment to the bars within the beams. The seismic performance of the lightly reinforced beam-column

joints was evaluated through the experimental and analytical ap-

proaches. Based on these investigations, the conclusions summa-

Influence of Effective Slab Width

rized are as follows:

The strain distribution in the main bars of LRC specimens with 1. Performance of the test specimens was found to be satisfac-

slabs was thoroughly evaluated to investigate the participation of tory in terms of strength and stiffness up to a DR of 2.0%,

slab in effectively resisting seismic forces. Figs. 14 and 15 present beyond which a significant degradation in the strength and

the strain profile plots of bars within slabs through FE numerical stiffness generally occurred. Among the five specimens, the

predictions for Specimen AS1 and Specimen AS2, respectively. performance of Specimen AL1 was very poor. This was

As shown by Fig. 14, the yield strain in the beam bars of Speci- mainly due to the insufficient amount of joint transverse re-

men AS1 was attained at a DR of approximately 2.0%. However, inforcement and inadequate anchorage of the beam longitu-

until the final stage of analysis, the magnitude of strains in the dinal bars within the joint core.

slab bars was relatively lower than its yield value. This could be 2. Experimental and finite-element investigations showed that

in Specimens AL1, AS1, and MAS1 i.e., specimens with

strong beam-weak column, the maximum nominal joint

shear stress values exceeded the limit of 0.25f c MPa as

suggested by NZS3101 Concrete Structures Standard 1998

5.0E-3

5.0E-3

0.75%

0.75% and therefore, a joint failure mechanism could be expected in

4.5E-3

4.5E-3 1.0%

1.0% these specimens. After diagonal tension cracking, tensile

Column width

Column width 2.0%

2.0%

4.0E-3

4.0E-3 3.0%

3.0% strains prevailed in the beam and column bars in the joint

3.5E-3

3.5E-3 core region resulting in a significant joint expansion. There-

3.0E-3

3.0E-3 fore, it was important to provide shear reinforcement within

the joint to resist shear forces.

Strain

Strain

2.5E-3

2.5E-3

Beam

Beamtop

topbar

bar 3. In Specimen MAS1, the provided transverse reinforcement

2.0E-3

2.0E-3 y

in the joint core and the reduced spacing of the transverse

1.5E-3

1.5E-3 Slab bar

Slab bar reinforcement within the potential hinge regions did not im-

1.0E-3

1.0E-3

prove its overall performance. The measured strains in the

5.0E-4

5.0E-4 joint hoops were very low and therefore, the joint shear re-

0.0E-0

0.0E+0 sistance mechanism was mainly attributed to the diagonal

-500

-500 -400 -300

-400 -300 -200

-200 -100

-100 00 100

100 200

200 300300 400

400 500

500

concrete compression strut mechanism. The joint transverse

Distancefrom

Distance fromthe

the center

center of

ofthe

thecolumn

column(mm)

(mm) reinforcement did not help in enhancing the truss mechanism

due to the worsening bond condition within the joint.

Fig. 15. FE predicted strain profiles in the beam top bars and slab 4. Finite-element analyses results clearly indicated the influence

bars of Specimen AS2 of axial load on the horizontal load-carrying capacities of the

specimens. At an axial load level of approximately 0.25f c Ag, ACI manual of concrete practice, ACI 352R91, Farmington Hills,

the strong beam-weak column joints Specimen AL1 and Mich.

Specimen AS1 experienced an optimum enhancement in the ACI Committee 318. 2005. Building code requirements for structural

storey shears by approximately 7%. In contrast, specimens concrete ACI 31805 and commentary. ACI 318R05, Farmington

Hills, Mich.

with weak beam-strong column connections Specimen AL2

Alire, D. A. 2002. Seismic evaluation of existing unconfined rein-

and Specimen AS2 exhibited an optimum increase in storey forced concrete beam-column joints. MS thesis. Dept. of Civil and

shear of approximately 9% when the axial load level was Environmental Engineering, Univ. of Washington, Wash., 291.

0.35f c Ag. A further increase in axial load, however, adversely Beres, A., Pessiki, S. P., White, R. N., and Gergely, P. 1991. Behavior

affected the joint performance with a substantial reduction in of existing reinforced concrete frames designed primarily for gravity

the storey shears and stiffness. loads. Proc. International Meeting on Earthquake Protection of

5. Increasing the column depth to beam bar diameter ratio im- Buildings, Section B, Anocona, Italy.

proved the strain distributions of the bars within the beams British Standards 8110. 1997. Structural use of concrete BS 8110. Part

when the strains in the longitudinal bars within the beams of 1: Code of practice for design and construction. U.K.

Specimen AL1 and Specimen AL2 were compared. How- CEB-FIP Model Code 1990. 1993. Design code, Thomas Telford, Lau-

ever, in Specimen AS2, despite the ratio bc / db being less sanne, Switzerland.

than the ACI Committee 318 2005 code specification of 20, Cheung, P. C., Paulay, T., and Park, R. 1993. Behavior of beam-

the beam top bars in the compression zone were found to column joints in seismically-loaded RC frames. Struct. Eng., 718,

maintain the tensile strains for a majority of the loading 129137.

DIANA users manualVersion 7. 2000. Finite-element analysis users

cycles, which may be attributed to the presence of the slab.

manualNonlinear analysis. TNO Building and Construction Re-

6. Finite-element numerical investigations clearly indicated the

search. Delft, The Netherlands.

influence of slab participation in strong column-weak beam

FEMA 273. 1997. NEHRP guidelines for the seismic rehabilitation of

joint Specimen AS2. In contrast, the effect of slabs on the

buildings, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Wash.

behavior of Specimen AS1 and Specimen MAS1 was mar- FEMA 356. 2000. Prestandard and commentary for the seismic reha-

ginal. At a DR of approximately 1.0%, the specimen exhib- bilitation of buildings, Federal Emergency Management Agency,

ited tensile stresses in the slab bars that were significantly Wash.

above the yield values at around 200 mm distance from the Fu, J., Chen, T., Wang, Z., and Bai, S. 2000. Effect of axial load ratio

beam faces, that is, 0.75 times the effective slab width. on seismic behavior of interior beam-column joints. Proc., 12th

WCEE Conference, Paper No. 2707.

Hajime, O., and Kohichi, M. 1991. Nonlinear analysis and constitutive

Acknowledgments models of reinforced concrete, Gihodo, Tokyo.

Hakuto, S., Park, R., and Tanaka, H. 1995. Retrofitting of reinforced

The financial assistance provided by the Protective Technology concrete moment resisting frames. Research Rep. No. 95-4, Dept. of

Research Centre in the School of Civil and Structural Engineering Civil Engineering, Univ. of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand,

at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore is gratefully ac- 390.

knowledged. Hakuto, S., Park, R., and Tanaka, H. 2000. Seismic load test on interior

and exterior beam-column joints with substandard reinforcing de-

tails. ACI Struct. J., 971, 1124.

Notations Kurose, Y., Guimaraes, G. N., Liu, Z., Kreger, M. E., and Jirsa, J. O.

1988. Study of reinforced concrete beam-column joints under

The following symbols are used in this paper: uniaxial and biaxial loading. PMFSEL Rep. No. 882, Dept. of Civil

Engineering, Univ. of Texas, Austin, Tex.

A area of a truss element; Li, B., Wu, Y. N., and Pan, T.-C. 2002. Seismic behavior of nonseis-

Ag gross area of section; mically detailed interior beam-wide column jointsPart I: Experi-

As area of bars in tension; mental results and observed behavior. ACI Struct. J., 996, 791

As area of bars in compression; 802.

bb beam width; Lin, C. M. 2000. Seismic behavior and design of reinforced concrete

bc column width; interior beam-column joints. Research Rep. No. 2000-1, Dept. of

Db depth of beam; Civil Engineering, Univ. of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand,

db diameter of bar; 471.

f c concrete compressive strength; NZS3101 Concrete Structures Standard. 1998. Part-1The design of

f y yielding strength of main bars; concrete structures standards, Standard Association of New Zealand,

New Zealand.

Ig moment of inertia based on the uncracked gross

Pantazopoulou, S. J., and Moehle, J. P. 1990. Identification of the

concrete area;

effect of slabs on flexural behavior of beams. J. Eng. Mech., 1161,

Ki initial stiffness; 91106.

N column axial load; Paulay, T. 1989. Equilibrium criteria for reinforced concrete beam-

Py theoretical lateral load; column joints. ACI Struct. J., 866, 635643.

s bond-slip; Paulay, T., and Park, R. 1984. Joints in reinforced concrete frames

bond stress; and designed for earthquake resistance. Research Rep. No. 84-9, Dept. of

max maximum bond stress. Civil Eng., Univ. Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Paulay, T., Park, R., and Priestley, M. J. N. 1978. Reinforced concrete

beam-column joints under seismic actions. J. ACI, Proc., 7511,

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Paulay, T., and Priestley, M. J. N. 1992. Seismic design of reinforced

ACI-ASCE Committee 352. 1991. Recommendations for design of concrete masonry buildings, Wiley, N.Y.

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