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Abstract:
Growing trend of multi mega watt turbine installations is one of the reason behind the increasing popularity of modular converter technology. This paper focuses on direct driven synchronous generator (SG) based variable speed wind turbine (VSWT) that are connected to power grid via modular converter units. Compared to medium voltage, full rating power converter, multi modular design exhibit better harmonic performance and is also superior in terms of both system reliability and efficiency. Research previously conducted on modular converters focused on controller design that either had a centralized structure or had master slave configuration [1]. Designing autonomous/ distributed controllers for modular converter system is objective of this research. Besides equal power sharing among operational units, the other main challenge in design of distributed controller was to ensure, under all conditions, an interleaved operation of the parallel modules. In interleaving, parallel power stages share same switching frequency but have carrier phases displaced uniformly throughout the switching period. With interleaving, ripple in the output current is significantly reduced which enables use of smaller sized filter components [2]. An autonomous controller will greatly improve system's reliability and redundancy. In order to test the designed controller, simulation of a 4MW, direct driven synchronous generator (SG) based variable speed wind energy conversion system (WECS) was carried out in Simulink®. The system is connected to grid via two parallel operating converter (rectifier/inverter) units and was examined under various test conditions. Simulation results show good performance of the designed controller.

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Interleaving for Synchronous Generator

Based Wind Energy System

Bo Yuwen

Maira Zulqarnain, David Xu Goldwind Inc.

Electrical and Computer Engineering Beijing, China

Ryerson University

Toronto, Canada

Abstract Growing trend of multi mega watt turbine decouples grid frequency from stator frequency and helps in

installations is one of the reason behind the increasing popularity optimizing system performance [3]. One of converter topology

of modular converter technology. This paper focuses on direct commonly used in Synchronous Generator (SG) based variable

driven synchronous generator (SG) based variable speed wind speed wind turbines (VSWT) comprises of a generator side

turbine (VSWT) that are connected to power grid via modular pulse width modulated (PWM) rectifier, a DC-link and grid

converter units . Compared to medium voltage, full rating power side PWM inverter.

converter, multi modular design exhibit better harmonic

performance and is also superior in terms of both system Use of full-size power converters in direct driven SG based

reliability and efficiency. Research previously conducted on WECS is common however there are some major drawbacks

modular converters focused on controller design that either had a associated with them. Firstly, full size power converter has

centralized structure or had master slave configuration [1]. reduced efficiency at low power levels and injects harmonics to

Designing autonomous/ distributed controllers for modular the grid. Other reason that makes choice of full size power

converter system is objective of this research. Besides equal converter less favorable is the issue of system reliability, as

power sharing among operational units, the other main challenge entire WECS goes out of service when there is either an

in design of distributed controller was to ensure, under all equipment failure or maintenance shutdown. The second option

conditions, an interleaved operation of the parallel modules. In for connecting direct driven WECS to the grid is through a set

interleaving, parallel power stages share same switching of parallel connected power converters of smaller ratings.

frequency but have carrier phases displaced uniformly

Compared to full size converter counterpart, the modular

throughout the switching period. With interleaving, ripple in the

output current is significantly reduced which enables use of

converter system offers higher system reliability, efficiency

smaller sized filter components [2]. An autonomous controller and harmonic reduction [3].

will greatly improve systems reliability and redundancy. In A modular converter system connected to a six phase

order to test the designed controller, simulation of a 4MW, direct synchronous machine is shown in Fig. 1. The use of SG with

driven synchronous generator (SG) based variable speed wind electrically and magnetically independent three phase winding

energy conversion system (WECS) was carried out in Simulink. sets, helps in addressing problem of circulating currents which

The system is connected to grid via two parallel operating

would exists if modular converter structure was connected to a

converter (rectifier/inverter) units and was examined under

SG with single set of three phase winding. The two converter

various test conditions. Simulation results show good

performance of the designed controller.

modules have independent machine and grid side control units

and are also equipped with individual sub-controller for switch

Keywords- multi-phase synchronous generator; modular interleaving.

converters; autonomous controller; automatic interleaving;

synchronous generator based WECS

I. INTRODUCTION

Wind, a clean and vastly available renewable energy

source, stands as the most promising alternative to

conventional schemes of electric power generation. Focus of

this research is on direct driven permanent magnet synchronous

generator (PMSG) based variable speed wind energy

conversion system (WECS). Low speed operation of PMSG,

made possible through multi pole design, successfully

eliminates need of a gear box which helps in bringing down

maintenance cost of the system. Power converters in WECS Figure 1. Multiphase PMSG connected to the grid using modular converters.

2255

Switch interleaving using either distributed or centralized

control approach has been extensively studied with reference to

DC-DC multi-modular converters and has proven its

effectiveness in increasing the output ripple frequency for a

given switching frequency [2]. Accomplishing the task of

evenly distributing switch turn on times throughout switching

period is more challenging in case of distributed control

approach. Various distributed interleaving techniques have

been suggested with reference to DC-DC multi-modular

converter system [4],[5],[6]. Varying nature of signal in case of

DC/AC or AC/DC converters makes direct application of these

techniques difficult and hence the sub-controller for

interleaving of rectifier/inverter units was designed using a

different approach.

In this research, models were developed for multi phase

PMSG, grid and machine side controller with automatic Figure 2. Block diagram of controller for machine side converter.

interleaving algorithm using Simulink. Testing of the control

scheme implemented in rotor reference frame. By setting

strategy under various scenarios showed that the parallel

reference for direct axis current component of stator current as

modules shared power equally and even in case of channel

zero [9], enables electromagnetic torque (Te) to be controlled

failure the developed interleaving control algorithm continued

solely through quadrature component of stator current.

to perform well without disruption.

Measured quantities include rotor position (determined by

using an encoder mounted on the rotor) and stator currents. The

II. MODEL DEVELOPMENT optimal Torque reference is determined through the MPPT

controller which in turn decides the set point for quadrature

A. Model of multi phase PMSG component of stator current. Independent control of d and q

Dynamic model of a PMSG is greatly simplified when rotor axis currents is made possible by inclusion of compensation

reference frame is chosen for its implementation [7]. In case of terms at outputs of the PI current regulators. Carrier phase

permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG), the shifted (CPS) PWM scheme is used for creating gating signals

permanent magnets can be modeled as fixed magnitude field for the power converter.

current source If. Equation (1) and (2) represent direct (d) and

quadrature (q) voltage equations relevant to each of the three C. Controller for grid side converter

phase winding set of the machine (for n number of three phase Grid side controller is designed using synchronous

winding sets, x= 1, 2..n). Magnetizing inductance and PMSGs reference frame and is responsible for regulating flow of active

rotor flux are represented by Lm and rf respectively and and reactive power to the grid. As seen in Fig. 3, the grid side

variables Lsdx and Lsqx are stator d and q axis self inductances. controller also has nested loop structure with inner loop

v sdx = R s i sdx + w e L sqx i sqx L sdx Si sdx (1) controlling current flowing towards the grid and the outer loop

is responsible for regulating DC-link voltage and reactive

v sqx = R s i sqx w e L sdx i sdx + w e rf L sqx Si sqx (2) power flow [8],[11]. Grid management service decides

reference for reactive power denoted by Qgridref in Fig. 3. In case

rf = L m I f (3) no reactive power compensation is required then Qgridref is set

equal to zero, making possible flow of maximum active power

Electromagnetic torque (Te) and rotor mechanical speed

(wm) of a six phase PMSG are given by (4) and (5). Parameter

Tm, J , F and Np stand for mechanical input torque , moment of

inertia, friction factor and number of pole pairs respectively.

(( ) ( )

Te= 1.5 N p L sq1 L sd1 i sq1i sd1 + L sq2 L sd2 i sq2 i sd2 + rf (i sq1 + i sq2 ) ) (4)

11

w m= (Te Tm w m F) (5)

Js

model of a six phase PMSG in Simulink.

Synchronous machine is controlled by generator side

converter and has a nested-loop structure. One of the popular

control strategy conventionally used for PMSG is maximum

torque control [9], [10]. Presented in Fig. 2 is structure of this Figure 3. Block diagram of controller for grid side converter.

2256

to the grid. Transformation angle (g) is detected using Phase are denoted by symbols Emf and E2mf respectively. For sake of

Locked Loop (PLL) [3] and is used in conversion of three comparison sum of Emf and E2mf is expressed as ratio of energy

phase electrical quantities into their equivalent direct and of fundamental harmonic component of grid side phase current

quadrature terms. (E1) and this ratio is represented by variable EH.

E mf + E 2mf

D. Controller for automatic interleaving of grid and machine EH = (6)

E1

side converter modules

By carrying out simulation for a 4MW, WECS shown in

Interleaving of switching signals has several advantages for Fig. 1 values of energy ratio (EH) are found by setting different

multi modular converter system and this technique has carrier phase angles for the converters in operation. With

extensively being used in DC-DC converters. By spreading rectifier and inverter in both of the channels in on state

switch turn-on times evenly throughout the switching period, throughout simulation time frame, values of recorded EH are

ripple in current can be reduced considerably and this allows listed in Table. 1. By comparing the values of column 1 of this

use of smaller output filter components. Though interleaving table, it is evident that EH is minimum for the case when the

has been implemented in DC-DC converters using both phase displacement between carriers of 1st and 2nd channel

centralized and distributed control structure, however later of converter units is 180 degree. This observation is important, as

the two methods has proven to be far more challenging than the it leads us to the conclusion that by monitoring energy ratio EH

other [2]. of grid side phase current, information about total number of

Focusing on distributed interleaving techniques in DC-DC modules can be deduced as this ratio is minimum when

modular converter system, it was found that there were several interleaving angle is equal to 360/n ( n= number of modules in

different approaches used for its implementation. Separate operation).

control bus is used for interleaving of switching signals in [4]. When designing two parallel converter system having n-1

Every distributed converter modules is connected to this bus redundancy, we either have the condition when system has

and has its base clock driven 180 out of phase with respect to both units in running condition or when converter in only one

systems aggregate clock [2], [4]. Filtered collective output of of the channel is operating. Therefore for such a system, the

the parallel modules is used for detecting switching instances in choice for interleaving angle is either 0 or 180. Energy ratio

[6]. Third technique is applicable on equal load sharing EH is recorded for each of the two options and the angle for

modules. It makes use of a bus that sets a voltage signal Vmod which measured EH is found to be the lowest is selected and

[2] that in turn sets phase delay equal to 360/n (n=number of maintained, unless there is change in on/off status of any one of

modules) between the operating units [2], [5]. the parallel operating modules.

Varying nature of the AC signal makes it difficult to apply It is important to note that EH is not constant but alters due

methods for distributed interleaving of DC-DC converters onto to the varying nature of the grid current. Hence a gap of at least

multi modular AC/DC or DC/AC converters. A different T1sec (T1=1/f1, where f1 is frequency of stiff grid) is required

approach is therefore required in order to achieve task of active between the time when interleaving angle is varied and the

interleaving of rectifier or inverter modules. instant when its effect on ratio EH is recorded. This time gap is

In active distributed control scheme for interleaving, each important as it allows harmonic analysis to be conducted only

module can acquire information about total number of units in once the system has been stabilized.

operation, without a centralized communication system. Based Algorithm for determining interleaving angle for a system

on the information about total number of operational units, with maximum number of parallel connected converter

each converter module decides the value of desired interleaving modules equal to two, is shown in Fig. 4. This algorithm can be

angle and subsequently displaces its carrier phase relative to extended to any number of parallel operating units. The only

other working modules. A change in the on-off status of any of difference will be in the choice of relevant interleaving angles

the parallel connected module should automatically trigger the for which ratio EH will be recorded. For instance, in case of a

interleaving control system so as to readjust switch turn-on system with maximum capacity for five parallel connected

times accordingly. modules, the options available for interleaving angle will be

Enabling each module to gain information about total

number of operational units is possible if harmonic analysis is TABLE.1 ENERGY RATIO FOR VARIOUS INTERLEAVING ANGLES

made for total grid side phase current. Using Fast Fourier

Transform, information about magnitude and phase of different

Carrier phase (Degrees)

harmonic components, is acquired for the signal of interest.

Using magnitude of a frequency component, its energy level Energy ratio ( EH )

(per unit) For converter #1 For converter #2

can be estimated, as energy content of a harmonic is

proportional to the square of its magnitude. 0.00551 0 0

Frequency modulation index (mf), that is the ratio of 0.00383 0 60

converters switching frequency (fs) and frequency of stiff grid 0.00241 0 90

(f1), is selected to be an odd integer. Energy contents of

harmonic components of grid side phase current that are of 0.00136 0 120

interest, lie in the band of frequencies around mf and 2mf and 0.00068 0 180

2257

a system with maximum capacity of five parallel connected

modules, the options for interleaving angle are limited to 180,

120, 90, 72 and 0. Hence whenever the controller is

triggered the energy ratio will be computed by setting each of

the possible interleaving angles for a time period equal to

0.0167 sec (i.e 1/ f1 sec). Information of token number for the

converters is utilized for setting appropriate carrier phase for

each of the operational units.

In the start when all converters are working the token

number assigned to them are 0,1,2,3 and 4 respectively. As

explained earlier that token numbers allotted to converters need

an update whenever there is change in operational status of any

of the channel modules. Algorithm for token update dictates

that difference between token number of one operational unit

relative to next converter will be one only if this next converter

is in on-state.

For understanding the token update process consider case

of the carrier phases for converters in channel 2 (shown in Fig.

8) and channel 4 (shown in Fig. 10). For the time interval

Figure 4. Algorithm for determining interleaving angle.

extending from start up to 0.12 sec when all converters are

operational, the difference between token number of channel 2

180, 120, 90, 72 and 0 only, depending on number of units

and channel 4 converter units is two. But for time period

in operation at a time.

between 0.12 sec and 0.34 sec when converter in channel 3 is

Knowledge of optimal interleaving angle, depending on the off, this difference between token numbers of channel 2 and

number of operational units, is not enough to complete the task channel 4 converter modules is reduced down to one. The

of automatic interleaving. The last step in the process requires original difference of two units between token numbers of

each converter to adjust its exact phase displacement relevant channel two and channel 4 converter modules is regained as

to other units. Like in case of five parallel connected soon as converter in channel 3 is turned back on again at 0.34

converters, if all five units are operational then optimal sec.

interleaving angle is 360/5 ( i.e 72 ). The carrier phase of the

Every time the interleaving controller is triggered the time

five converters should be evenly spread over the entire

it takes in determining optimum interleaving angle is

switching period with carrier phase offset for converter number

approximately 0.084 sec (i.e 5/f1 sec) for a five channel

1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 set equal to 0, 72, 144, 216 and 288

modular converter system. To determine accuracy of results

respectively.

generated by the designed controller consider the carrier phase

The simplest solution of this problem would be allocation for all the five parallel operating units at time 0.085 sec, the

of a token number to each of the connected module. Carrier carrier phase for the converter in channel 1,2,3,4 and 5 is found

phase for every unit is decided based on the product of its to be 0 radians, 1.2566 radians, 2.513 radians, 3.769 radians

token number with optimal interleaving angle. In order to avoid and 5.026 radians. Hence the interleaving angle is accurately

erroneous results it is important to update these token numbers determined and is 1.2566 radians i.e 72 as converters in all the

whenever there is a change in on/off status of any of the five channels are in on state at that time. The same results are

parallel operating units. obtained after 0.424 sec which is 0.084 sec after all the five

converters get back in operational state at 0.34 sec.

Simulation results for a modular converter system with five

channels operating in parallel are shown in Fig.5 up to Fig. 12. Consider the part of simulation that extends from 0.12 sec

Fig. 5, shows number of converters operational during entire up to 0.23 sec when converter is channel 3 is the only converter

course of simulation. The converters in channel 1, 2 and 4 stay which has been turned off. Decision about optimum

on throughout the simulation period however; converters in interleaving angle for the remaining converter modules is made

channel 3 and 5 are initially on but are turned off at 0.12 sec 0.084 sec past the time slot of 0.12 sec. Looking at Fig. 7 down

and 0.23 sec respectively. Both converter 3 and 5 get back in to Fig. 11 the carrier phase shift between each converter which

operational condition at 0.34 sec. is in on state is 1.57 radians i.e 90 and is the desired

interleaving angle for a system that has four operational

As discussed earlier, decision about the optimum converters. Similarly when the converter in channel 5 is turned

interleaving angle for the converters in operation is made on off at 0.23 sec the controller successfully determines the

the basis of energy ratio EH found as a result of harmonic interleaving angle as 2.094 radians i.e 120 at time equal to

analysis of grid side phase current and is shown in Fig. 6. 0.314 sec as now two out of the five converters are in off state.

During entire simulation period, controller for determination of

suitable interleaving angle is activated four times in all. The In Fig. 12 is shown Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) for

system is triggered once at the start of simulation and later on, total grid side phase current and comparing it with plots shown

whenever a change was experienced in the on-off status of any in Fig. 7 up to Fig. 11 it is observed that THD is minimum

of the modules in the parallel connected converter system. For whenever the carrier phase shift is 360/n (n=number of

2258

modules in on-state). Plot for energy ratio EH ( i.e Fig. 6 ) bears

a close resemblance to plot for THD ( i.e Fig. 12 ) as both these

quantities attain lowest possible value when carrier phase shift

between the operating units is set equal to its optimum value.

III. RESULTS

Using Simulink , a 4MW, six phase, PMSG based WECS

with two converter modules operating in parallel was designed.

Parameters for the system are given in appendix section. In

order to test the developed control strategy, the system was

Figure 8. Interleaving angle for converter module of channel-2.

simulated for various test conditions. The results included here

pertains to one of the test case in which, converters (both

rectifier and inverter module) of channel 1 are always on.

As seen in Fig. 13, the converter in channel 2 is turned off (at

time t=0.5 sec) and back on again (at time t=0.65 sec).

Electromagnetic Torque reference given to each machine side

controller is shown in Fig. 14 and is followed closely by

channel 1, as seen in Fig. 15. Measured electromagnetic torque

for channel 2 is shown in Fig. 16 and it follows the given

torque reference except for a time gap of 0.15 sec when

channel 2 is shutdown.

Figure 9. Interleaving angle for converter module of channel-3.

Figure 10. Interleaving angle for converter module of channel-4.

Figure 6. Energy ratio for a five channel modular converter system.

channel modular converter system.

Figure 7. Interleaving angle for converter module of channel-1.

2259

Stator side current for channel 1 and 2 is shown is Fig. 17 about total number of units in operation. Based on this

and Fig. 18 respectively. As seen, the frequency of the stator information each converter module decides the value of desired

side current is approximately 11.3 Hz which is in accordance interleaving angle and subsequently displaces its carrier phase

with the system parameters listed in appendix section. relative to other modules.

The adjustment of interleaving angle for channel 2 The interleaving control system is triggered once in the

converter during entire course of simulation, is shown in Fig. start and later on, whenever a change in on/off status of any of

19. Interleaving angle for converter 1 stays zero throughout and

is not shown here. Looking at Fig. 19, it is noticed that

interleaving control circuitry is triggered once at beginning of

the simulation and later whenever a change occurred in

operational status of channel 2 converter modules.

Based on the lowest energy ratio, optimal interleaving

angle is selected. As seen in Fig. 19, the time frame in which

both converters are operating, interleaving angle selected by

the control algorithm is pi radians for channel 2 converter.

Time gap between 0.5 sec up to 0.65 sec when only converters

(rectifier/inverters) of channel 1 are operational, the carrier

phase for these converters is maintained as 0 radians. Figure 14. Reference Electromagnetic torque for each channel.

1 and 2 respectively. Reference DC-link voltage for both

channels as given in appendix is set at 1220 V. As seen in Fig.

20, DC-link voltage remains stable during entire course of

simulation for the first channel. For the second channel, DC-

link voltage shoots up momentarily at 0.5 sec. But soon after, it

gradually starts falling down in order to return to its reference

level. When modules in channel 2 are turned back on again,

DC-link voltage for this channel is quickly restored back to its

reference value of 1220 V.

IV. CONCLUSION

Although the concept of using single full size power Figure 15. Measured Electromagnetic torque for channel 1.

converter in drive systems is a common practice, but with the

growing trend of multi-MW-turbine installations, the idea of

modular converter units is gaining popularity. This paper

explores control strategy for autonomous operation of

controllers for modular converter system. Main challenge for

this research work was mainly to satisfy criterion of equal load

sharing and to achieve active interleaving of parallel connected

converter modules, without using a centralized control

structure.

Algorithm developed is for interleaving of AC/DC or

DC/AC converters and it uses harmonic analysis of grid side

phase current. This enables each module to acquire knowledge

Figure 16. Measured Electromagnetic torque for channel 2.

Figure 17. Stator phase current for channel 1.

2260

the parallel connected modules takes place. This helps in re- APPENDIX

adjustment of switch turn on times based on the new

interleaving angle. The algorithm has distributed control TABLE.II PARAMETERS OF MULTI-PHASE , SALIENT POLE PMSG

structure and in absence of a central communication system, BASED WECS

the controllers for each converter unit are capable of adjusting

the optimal interleaving angle. Simulations results for a WECS Rated Shaft power 4 MW

with two parallel converter modules show satisfactory Rated phase voltage 398.37 V (rms)

performance of the designed control strategy.

Rated Stator current 3346.9 A

Rated stator frequency 11.29 Hz

Stator Resistance (Rs) 7.3m

a

d-axis Syn. Inductance (Lsdx) 0.3 mH

a

q-axis Syn. Inductance (Lsqx) 0.5 mH

DC link voltage 1220 V

Line side Filter inductance 0.126 mH

Figure 18. Stator phase current for channel 2. a. Value holds for each of the two sets of three phase winding, hence x can be 1 or 2.

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