Anda di halaman 1dari 7

2012 IEEE 7th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference - ECCE Asia

June 2-5, 2012, Harbin, China

Multi Modular Converters with Automatic


Interleaving for Synchronous Generator
Based Wind Energy System
Bo Yuwen
Maira Zulqarnain, David Xu Goldwind Inc.
Electrical and Computer Engineering Beijing, China
Ryerson University
Toronto, Canada

Abstract Growing trend of multi mega watt turbine decouples grid frequency from stator frequency and helps in
installations is one of the reason behind the increasing popularity optimizing system performance [3]. One of converter topology
of modular converter technology. This paper focuses on direct commonly used in Synchronous Generator (SG) based variable
driven synchronous generator (SG) based variable speed wind speed wind turbines (VSWT) comprises of a generator side
turbine (VSWT) that are connected to power grid via modular pulse width modulated (PWM) rectifier, a DC-link and grid
converter units . Compared to medium voltage, full rating power side PWM inverter.
converter, multi modular design exhibit better harmonic
performance and is also superior in terms of both system Use of full-size power converters in direct driven SG based
reliability and efficiency. Research previously conducted on WECS is common however there are some major drawbacks
modular converters focused on controller design that either had a associated with them. Firstly, full size power converter has
centralized structure or had master slave configuration [1]. reduced efficiency at low power levels and injects harmonics to
Designing autonomous/ distributed controllers for modular the grid. Other reason that makes choice of full size power
converter system is objective of this research. Besides equal converter less favorable is the issue of system reliability, as
power sharing among operational units, the other main challenge entire WECS goes out of service when there is either an
in design of distributed controller was to ensure, under all equipment failure or maintenance shutdown. The second option
conditions, an interleaved operation of the parallel modules. In for connecting direct driven WECS to the grid is through a set
interleaving, parallel power stages share same switching of parallel connected power converters of smaller ratings.
frequency but have carrier phases displaced uniformly
Compared to full size converter counterpart, the modular
throughout the switching period. With interleaving, ripple in the
output current is significantly reduced which enables use of
converter system offers higher system reliability, efficiency
smaller sized filter components [2]. An autonomous controller and harmonic reduction [3].
will greatly improve systems reliability and redundancy. In A modular converter system connected to a six phase
order to test the designed controller, simulation of a 4MW, direct synchronous machine is shown in Fig. 1. The use of SG with
driven synchronous generator (SG) based variable speed wind electrically and magnetically independent three phase winding
energy conversion system (WECS) was carried out in Simulink. sets, helps in addressing problem of circulating currents which
The system is connected to grid via two parallel operating
would exists if modular converter structure was connected to a
converter (rectifier/inverter) units and was examined under
SG with single set of three phase winding. The two converter
various test conditions. Simulation results show good
performance of the designed controller.
modules have independent machine and grid side control units
and are also equipped with individual sub-controller for switch
Keywords- multi-phase synchronous generator; modular interleaving.
converters; autonomous controller; automatic interleaving;
synchronous generator based WECS

I. INTRODUCTION
Wind, a clean and vastly available renewable energy
source, stands as the most promising alternative to
conventional schemes of electric power generation. Focus of
this research is on direct driven permanent magnet synchronous
generator (PMSG) based variable speed wind energy
conversion system (WECS). Low speed operation of PMSG,
made possible through multi pole design, successfully
eliminates need of a gear box which helps in bringing down
maintenance cost of the system. Power converters in WECS Figure 1. Multiphase PMSG connected to the grid using modular converters.

2255

978-1-4577-2088-8/11/$26.00 2012 IEEE


Switch interleaving using either distributed or centralized
control approach has been extensively studied with reference to
DC-DC multi-modular converters and has proven its
effectiveness in increasing the output ripple frequency for a
given switching frequency [2]. Accomplishing the task of
evenly distributing switch turn on times throughout switching
period is more challenging in case of distributed control
approach. Various distributed interleaving techniques have
been suggested with reference to DC-DC multi-modular
converter system [4],[5],[6]. Varying nature of signal in case of
DC/AC or AC/DC converters makes direct application of these
techniques difficult and hence the sub-controller for
interleaving of rectifier/inverter units was designed using a
different approach.
In this research, models were developed for multi phase
PMSG, grid and machine side controller with automatic Figure 2. Block diagram of controller for machine side converter.
interleaving algorithm using Simulink. Testing of the control
scheme implemented in rotor reference frame. By setting
strategy under various scenarios showed that the parallel
reference for direct axis current component of stator current as
modules shared power equally and even in case of channel
zero [9], enables electromagnetic torque (Te) to be controlled
failure the developed interleaving control algorithm continued
solely through quadrature component of stator current.
to perform well without disruption.
Measured quantities include rotor position (determined by
using an encoder mounted on the rotor) and stator currents. The
II. MODEL DEVELOPMENT optimal Torque reference is determined through the MPPT
controller which in turn decides the set point for quadrature
A. Model of multi phase PMSG component of stator current. Independent control of d and q
Dynamic model of a PMSG is greatly simplified when rotor axis currents is made possible by inclusion of compensation
reference frame is chosen for its implementation [7]. In case of terms at outputs of the PI current regulators. Carrier phase
permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG), the shifted (CPS) PWM scheme is used for creating gating signals
permanent magnets can be modeled as fixed magnitude field for the power converter.
current source If. Equation (1) and (2) represent direct (d) and
quadrature (q) voltage equations relevant to each of the three C. Controller for grid side converter
phase winding set of the machine (for n number of three phase Grid side controller is designed using synchronous
winding sets, x= 1, 2..n). Magnetizing inductance and PMSGs reference frame and is responsible for regulating flow of active
rotor flux are represented by Lm and rf respectively and and reactive power to the grid. As seen in Fig. 3, the grid side
variables Lsdx and Lsqx are stator d and q axis self inductances. controller also has nested loop structure with inner loop
v sdx = R s i sdx + w e L sqx i sqx L sdx Si sdx (1) controlling current flowing towards the grid and the outer loop
is responsible for regulating DC-link voltage and reactive
v sqx = R s i sqx w e L sdx i sdx + w e rf L sqx Si sqx (2) power flow [8],[11]. Grid management service decides
reference for reactive power denoted by Qgridref in Fig. 3. In case
rf = L m I f (3) no reactive power compensation is required then Qgridref is set
equal to zero, making possible flow of maximum active power
Electromagnetic torque (Te) and rotor mechanical speed
(wm) of a six phase PMSG are given by (4) and (5). Parameter
Tm, J , F and Np stand for mechanical input torque , moment of
inertia, friction factor and number of pole pairs respectively.
(( ) ( )
Te= 1.5 N p L sq1 L sd1 i sq1i sd1 + L sq2 L sd2 i sq2 i sd2 + rf (i sq1 + i sq2 ) ) (4)

11
w m= (Te Tm w m F) (5)
Js

The five equations listed above are used in developing


model of a six phase PMSG in Simulink.

B. Controller for machine side converter


Synchronous machine is controlled by generator side
converter and has a nested-loop structure. One of the popular
control strategy conventionally used for PMSG is maximum
torque control [9], [10]. Presented in Fig. 2 is structure of this Figure 3. Block diagram of controller for grid side converter.

2256
to the grid. Transformation angle (g) is detected using Phase are denoted by symbols Emf and E2mf respectively. For sake of
Locked Loop (PLL) [3] and is used in conversion of three comparison sum of Emf and E2mf is expressed as ratio of energy
phase electrical quantities into their equivalent direct and of fundamental harmonic component of grid side phase current
quadrature terms. (E1) and this ratio is represented by variable EH.
E mf + E 2mf
D. Controller for automatic interleaving of grid and machine EH = (6)
E1
side converter modules
By carrying out simulation for a 4MW, WECS shown in
Interleaving of switching signals has several advantages for Fig. 1 values of energy ratio (EH) are found by setting different
multi modular converter system and this technique has carrier phase angles for the converters in operation. With
extensively being used in DC-DC converters. By spreading rectifier and inverter in both of the channels in on state
switch turn-on times evenly throughout the switching period, throughout simulation time frame, values of recorded EH are
ripple in current can be reduced considerably and this allows listed in Table. 1. By comparing the values of column 1 of this
use of smaller output filter components. Though interleaving table, it is evident that EH is minimum for the case when the
has been implemented in DC-DC converters using both phase displacement between carriers of 1st and 2nd channel
centralized and distributed control structure, however later of converter units is 180 degree. This observation is important, as
the two methods has proven to be far more challenging than the it leads us to the conclusion that by monitoring energy ratio EH
other [2]. of grid side phase current, information about total number of
Focusing on distributed interleaving techniques in DC-DC modules can be deduced as this ratio is minimum when
modular converter system, it was found that there were several interleaving angle is equal to 360/n ( n= number of modules in
different approaches used for its implementation. Separate operation).
control bus is used for interleaving of switching signals in [4]. When designing two parallel converter system having n-1
Every distributed converter modules is connected to this bus redundancy, we either have the condition when system has
and has its base clock driven 180 out of phase with respect to both units in running condition or when converter in only one
systems aggregate clock [2], [4]. Filtered collective output of of the channel is operating. Therefore for such a system, the
the parallel modules is used for detecting switching instances in choice for interleaving angle is either 0 or 180. Energy ratio
[6]. Third technique is applicable on equal load sharing EH is recorded for each of the two options and the angle for
modules. It makes use of a bus that sets a voltage signal Vmod which measured EH is found to be the lowest is selected and
[2] that in turn sets phase delay equal to 360/n (n=number of maintained, unless there is change in on/off status of any one of
modules) between the operating units [2], [5]. the parallel operating modules.
Varying nature of the AC signal makes it difficult to apply It is important to note that EH is not constant but alters due
methods for distributed interleaving of DC-DC converters onto to the varying nature of the grid current. Hence a gap of at least
multi modular AC/DC or DC/AC converters. A different T1sec (T1=1/f1, where f1 is frequency of stiff grid) is required
approach is therefore required in order to achieve task of active between the time when interleaving angle is varied and the
interleaving of rectifier or inverter modules. instant when its effect on ratio EH is recorded. This time gap is
In active distributed control scheme for interleaving, each important as it allows harmonic analysis to be conducted only
module can acquire information about total number of units in once the system has been stabilized.
operation, without a centralized communication system. Based Algorithm for determining interleaving angle for a system
on the information about total number of operational units, with maximum number of parallel connected converter
each converter module decides the value of desired interleaving modules equal to two, is shown in Fig. 4. This algorithm can be
angle and subsequently displaces its carrier phase relative to extended to any number of parallel operating units. The only
other working modules. A change in the on-off status of any of difference will be in the choice of relevant interleaving angles
the parallel connected module should automatically trigger the for which ratio EH will be recorded. For instance, in case of a
interleaving control system so as to readjust switch turn-on system with maximum capacity for five parallel connected
times accordingly. modules, the options available for interleaving angle will be
Enabling each module to gain information about total
number of operational units is possible if harmonic analysis is TABLE.1 ENERGY RATIO FOR VARIOUS INTERLEAVING ANGLES
made for total grid side phase current. Using Fast Fourier
Transform, information about magnitude and phase of different
Carrier phase (Degrees)
harmonic components, is acquired for the signal of interest.
Using magnitude of a frequency component, its energy level Energy ratio ( EH )
(per unit) For converter #1 For converter #2
can be estimated, as energy content of a harmonic is
proportional to the square of its magnitude. 0.00551 0 0
Frequency modulation index (mf), that is the ratio of 0.00383 0 60
converters switching frequency (fs) and frequency of stiff grid 0.00241 0 90
(f1), is selected to be an odd integer. Energy contents of
harmonic components of grid side phase current that are of 0.00136 0 120
interest, lie in the band of frequencies around mf and 2mf and 0.00068 0 180

2257
a system with maximum capacity of five parallel connected
modules, the options for interleaving angle are limited to 180,
120, 90, 72 and 0. Hence whenever the controller is
triggered the energy ratio will be computed by setting each of
the possible interleaving angles for a time period equal to
0.0167 sec (i.e 1/ f1 sec). Information of token number for the
converters is utilized for setting appropriate carrier phase for
each of the operational units.
In the start when all converters are working the token
number assigned to them are 0,1,2,3 and 4 respectively. As
explained earlier that token numbers allotted to converters need
an update whenever there is change in operational status of any
of the channel modules. Algorithm for token update dictates
that difference between token number of one operational unit
relative to next converter will be one only if this next converter
is in on-state.
For understanding the token update process consider case
of the carrier phases for converters in channel 2 (shown in Fig.
8) and channel 4 (shown in Fig. 10). For the time interval
Figure 4. Algorithm for determining interleaving angle.
extending from start up to 0.12 sec when all converters are
operational, the difference between token number of channel 2
180, 120, 90, 72 and 0 only, depending on number of units
and channel 4 converter units is two. But for time period
in operation at a time.
between 0.12 sec and 0.34 sec when converter in channel 3 is
Knowledge of optimal interleaving angle, depending on the off, this difference between token numbers of channel 2 and
number of operational units, is not enough to complete the task channel 4 converter modules is reduced down to one. The
of automatic interleaving. The last step in the process requires original difference of two units between token numbers of
each converter to adjust its exact phase displacement relevant channel two and channel 4 converter modules is regained as
to other units. Like in case of five parallel connected soon as converter in channel 3 is turned back on again at 0.34
converters, if all five units are operational then optimal sec.
interleaving angle is 360/5 ( i.e 72 ). The carrier phase of the
Every time the interleaving controller is triggered the time
five converters should be evenly spread over the entire
it takes in determining optimum interleaving angle is
switching period with carrier phase offset for converter number
approximately 0.084 sec (i.e 5/f1 sec) for a five channel
1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 set equal to 0, 72, 144, 216 and 288
modular converter system. To determine accuracy of results
respectively.
generated by the designed controller consider the carrier phase
The simplest solution of this problem would be allocation for all the five parallel operating units at time 0.085 sec, the
of a token number to each of the connected module. Carrier carrier phase for the converter in channel 1,2,3,4 and 5 is found
phase for every unit is decided based on the product of its to be 0 radians, 1.2566 radians, 2.513 radians, 3.769 radians
token number with optimal interleaving angle. In order to avoid and 5.026 radians. Hence the interleaving angle is accurately
erroneous results it is important to update these token numbers determined and is 1.2566 radians i.e 72 as converters in all the
whenever there is a change in on/off status of any of the five channels are in on state at that time. The same results are
parallel operating units. obtained after 0.424 sec which is 0.084 sec after all the five
converters get back in operational state at 0.34 sec.
Simulation results for a modular converter system with five
channels operating in parallel are shown in Fig.5 up to Fig. 12. Consider the part of simulation that extends from 0.12 sec
Fig. 5, shows number of converters operational during entire up to 0.23 sec when converter is channel 3 is the only converter
course of simulation. The converters in channel 1, 2 and 4 stay which has been turned off. Decision about optimum
on throughout the simulation period however; converters in interleaving angle for the remaining converter modules is made
channel 3 and 5 are initially on but are turned off at 0.12 sec 0.084 sec past the time slot of 0.12 sec. Looking at Fig. 7 down
and 0.23 sec respectively. Both converter 3 and 5 get back in to Fig. 11 the carrier phase shift between each converter which
operational condition at 0.34 sec. is in on state is 1.57 radians i.e 90 and is the desired
interleaving angle for a system that has four operational
As discussed earlier, decision about the optimum converters. Similarly when the converter in channel 5 is turned
interleaving angle for the converters in operation is made on off at 0.23 sec the controller successfully determines the
the basis of energy ratio EH found as a result of harmonic interleaving angle as 2.094 radians i.e 120 at time equal to
analysis of grid side phase current and is shown in Fig. 6. 0.314 sec as now two out of the five converters are in off state.
During entire simulation period, controller for determination of
suitable interleaving angle is activated four times in all. The In Fig. 12 is shown Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) for
system is triggered once at the start of simulation and later on, total grid side phase current and comparing it with plots shown
whenever a change was experienced in the on-off status of any in Fig. 7 up to Fig. 11 it is observed that THD is minimum
of the modules in the parallel connected converter system. For whenever the carrier phase shift is 360/n (n=number of

2258
modules in on-state). Plot for energy ratio EH ( i.e Fig. 6 ) bears
a close resemblance to plot for THD ( i.e Fig. 12 ) as both these
quantities attain lowest possible value when carrier phase shift
between the operating units is set equal to its optimum value.

III. RESULTS
Using Simulink , a 4MW, six phase, PMSG based WECS
with two converter modules operating in parallel was designed.
Parameters for the system are given in appendix section. In
order to test the developed control strategy, the system was
Figure 8. Interleaving angle for converter module of channel-2.
simulated for various test conditions. The results included here
pertains to one of the test case in which, converters (both
rectifier and inverter module) of channel 1 are always on.
As seen in Fig. 13, the converter in channel 2 is turned off (at
time t=0.5 sec) and back on again (at time t=0.65 sec).
Electromagnetic Torque reference given to each machine side
controller is shown in Fig. 14 and is followed closely by
channel 1, as seen in Fig. 15. Measured electromagnetic torque
for channel 2 is shown in Fig. 16 and it follows the given
torque reference except for a time gap of 0.15 sec when
channel 2 is shutdown.
Figure 9. Interleaving angle for converter module of channel-3.

Figure 5. Number of converters in operation.


Figure 10. Interleaving angle for converter module of channel-4.

Figure 11. Interleaving angle for converter module of channel-5.


Figure 6. Energy ratio for a five channel modular converter system.

Figure 12. Percentage Total Harmonic distortion (THD) for five


channel modular converter system.
Figure 7. Interleaving angle for converter module of channel-1.

2259
Stator side current for channel 1 and 2 is shown is Fig. 17 about total number of units in operation. Based on this
and Fig. 18 respectively. As seen, the frequency of the stator information each converter module decides the value of desired
side current is approximately 11.3 Hz which is in accordance interleaving angle and subsequently displaces its carrier phase
with the system parameters listed in appendix section. relative to other modules.
The adjustment of interleaving angle for channel 2 The interleaving control system is triggered once in the
converter during entire course of simulation, is shown in Fig. start and later on, whenever a change in on/off status of any of
19. Interleaving angle for converter 1 stays zero throughout and
is not shown here. Looking at Fig. 19, it is noticed that
interleaving control circuitry is triggered once at beginning of
the simulation and later whenever a change occurred in
operational status of channel 2 converter modules.
Based on the lowest energy ratio, optimal interleaving
angle is selected. As seen in Fig. 19, the time frame in which
both converters are operating, interleaving angle selected by
the control algorithm is pi radians for channel 2 converter.
Time gap between 0.5 sec up to 0.65 sec when only converters
(rectifier/inverters) of channel 1 are operational, the carrier
phase for these converters is maintained as 0 radians. Figure 14. Reference Electromagnetic torque for each channel.

In Fig. 20 and Fig 21, DC-link voltage is shown for channel


1 and 2 respectively. Reference DC-link voltage for both
channels as given in appendix is set at 1220 V. As seen in Fig.
20, DC-link voltage remains stable during entire course of
simulation for the first channel. For the second channel, DC-
link voltage shoots up momentarily at 0.5 sec. But soon after, it
gradually starts falling down in order to return to its reference
level. When modules in channel 2 are turned back on again,
DC-link voltage for this channel is quickly restored back to its
reference value of 1220 V.

IV. CONCLUSION
Although the concept of using single full size power Figure 15. Measured Electromagnetic torque for channel 1.
converter in drive systems is a common practice, but with the
growing trend of multi-MW-turbine installations, the idea of
modular converter units is gaining popularity. This paper
explores control strategy for autonomous operation of
controllers for modular converter system. Main challenge for
this research work was mainly to satisfy criterion of equal load
sharing and to achieve active interleaving of parallel connected
converter modules, without using a centralized control
structure.
Algorithm developed is for interleaving of AC/DC or
DC/AC converters and it uses harmonic analysis of grid side
phase current. This enables each module to acquire knowledge
Figure 16. Measured Electromagnetic torque for channel 2.

Figure13. On/off status of converter in channel 2.


Figure 17. Stator phase current for channel 1.

2260
the parallel connected modules takes place. This helps in re- APPENDIX
adjustment of switch turn on times based on the new
interleaving angle. The algorithm has distributed control TABLE.II PARAMETERS OF MULTI-PHASE , SALIENT POLE PMSG
structure and in absence of a central communication system, BASED WECS
the controllers for each converter unit are capable of adjusting
the optimal interleaving angle. Simulations results for a WECS Rated Shaft power 4 MW
with two parallel converter modules show satisfactory Rated phase voltage 398.37 V (rms)
performance of the designed control strategy.
Rated Stator current 3346.9 A

Rated Torque (Te) 1.69 M N.m


Rated stator frequency 11.29 Hz

Rated rotor flux linkage (rf) 6.76 Wb (peak)


Stator Resistance (Rs) 7.3m
a
d-axis Syn. Inductance (Lsdx) 0.3 mH
a
q-axis Syn. Inductance (Lsqx) 0.5 mH
DC link voltage 1220 V

Number of pole pairs (Np) 30


Line side Filter inductance 0.126 mH
Figure 18. Stator phase current for channel 2. a. Value holds for each of the two sets of three phase winding, hence x can be 1 or 2.

REFERENCES
[1] M. Zulqarnain, D. Xu, B. Yuwen, "Synchronous generator based wind
energy conversion system (WECS) using multi-modular converters with
autonomous controllers," Electric Machines & Drives Conference,
2011, IEEE International , vol., no., pp.819-824, 15-18 May 2011.
[2] P. Shenoy, " Local control of multiple module converters with ratings
based load sharing . MS thesis. University of Illinois at Urbana
Champaign, Illinois, 2010.
[3] S. M. Muyeen, J. Tamura, T. Murata, Stability Augmentation of
Grid-connected Wind Farm, Springer-Verlag, London, 2009.
[4] D. J. Perreault, J. G. Kassakian, "Distributed interleaving of paralleled
power converters," Circuits and Systems I: Fundamental Theory and
Figure 19. Interleaving angle for converter modules in channel 2.
Applications, IEEE Transactions on, vol.44, no.8, pp.728-734, Aug.
1997.
[5] X. Zhang, Z. Huang, "A novel distributed interleaving scheme to
achieve scalable phase design for microprocessor power management,"
in Proc. IEEE Power Electron. Spec. Conf., June 2006, pp. 1-7.
[6] L. Feng, Q. Wenlong, "Implementation of an automatic interleaving
approach for parallel DC/DC converter without interleaving bus,"
Electrical Machines and Systems, 2003. ICEMS 2003. Sixth
International Conference on , vol.1, no., pp. 368- 371 vol.1, 9-11 Nov.
2003.
[7] B.Wu, ELE806 Lab work and Lecture notes on Wind Generators and
Modeling , Winter 2010.
Figure 20. Measured DC-link voltage for channel 1. [8] D. Mehrzad, J. Luque, M. C. Cuenca, Vector Control of PMSG for grid
connected wind turbine applications. MS thesis. Aalborg University,
Aalborg, 2009.
[9] S. Li, T. A. Haskew and L. Xu, Conventional and novel control designs
for direct driven PMSG wind turbines, Electric Power Systems
Research 80 (March (3)) (2010), pp. 328338.
[10] G. Michalke, A.D. Hansen, T. Hartkopf, Control strategy of a variable
speed wind turbine with multipole permanent magnet synchronous
generator, , in: 2007European Wind Energy Conference and
Exhibition, Milan (IT), 710 May, 2007.
[11] K. Huang, S. Huang, F. She, B. Luo, L. Cai, "A control strategy for
direct-drive permanent-magnet wind-power Systems, ICEMS 2008.
Figure 21. Measured DC-link voltage for channel 2.
International Conference on , vol., no., pp.2283-2288, 17-20 Oct.2008.

2261