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Abstract:
Among various options available for wind energy conversion systems, this paper focuses on direct driven Synchronous Generator (SG) based variable speed wind turbine (VSWT). Generally SG is connected to the power grid via full-size power converters. But with the growing trend of multi mega watt turbine installation, the idea of modular- converter units is gaining popularity. Multi-module topology has proven its supremacy in terms of reliability, efficiency and harmonic reduction over its medium voltage full rating converter counterpart. Research conducted earlier on modular converter system either had a centralized control structure or was in master/slave configuration. This paper explores the option of autonomous controller for modular converter system. One of the main challenges faced in design of autonomous controller is to ensure equal power sharing among the operating units without employing any communication between them. Also in order to enhance system harmonic performance, control structure should enable interleaving of operational units under all conditions. Such an autonomous controller will greatly improve system reliability/redundancy. To test the developed autonomous controller, simulation is carried out using MATLAB.

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Multi-modular Converters with Autonomous Controllers

Electrical and Computer Engineering Electrical and Computer Engineering Goldwind Inc.

Ryerson University Ryerson University Beijing, China

Toronto, Canada Toronto, Canada

Abstract Among various options available for wind energy maintenance purpose, the full size converter goes out of service.

conversion systems, this paper focuses on direct driven Another reason that makes the choice of single full-size

Synchronous Generator (SG) based variable speed wind turbine converter less favorable is its reduced efficiency at lower power

(VSWT). Generally SG is connected to the power grid via full-size levels and harmonics injected by it to the grid. Hence to improve

power converters. But with the growing trend of multi mega watt

turbine installation, the idea of modular- converter units is gaining

system reliability, efficiency, and harmonic reduction, multi-

popularity. Multi-module topology has proven its supremacy in modular converter design offers a promising solution [2].

terms of reliability, efficiency and harmonic reduction over its

medium voltage full rating converter counterpart. Research In modular converter system, a single full size converter is

conducted earlier on modular converter system either had a replaced by a number of parallel connected power converters of

centralized control structure or was in master/slave configuration. smaller ratings. The use of a PMSG that has multiple three phase

This paper explores the option of autonomous controller for winding sets, that are both electrically and magnetically

modular converter system. One of the main challenges faced in independent, helps in resolving issue of circulating currents

design of autonomous controller is to ensure equal power sharing which would exists if multi-modular converter structure was

among the operating units without employing any communication

between them. Also in order to enhance system harmonic

connected to a PMSG with single set of three phase winding.

performance, control structure should enable interleaving of

operational units under all conditions. Such an autonomous Shown in Fig.1 is a multi-modular converter system which is

controller will greatly improve system reliability/redundancy. To connected to a SG with multiple three phase winding sets. Each

test the developed autonomous controller, simulation is carried out converter unit has a controller operating independently of the

using MATLAB. others. Effectiveness of proposed control scheme is verified

through simulation using MATLAB.

Index Terms Multi-modular converters, Autonomous

controller, Synchronous generator based WECS, Direct driven SG II. DEVELOPMENT OF SYSTEM MODEL

based VSWT, Multi-phase synchronous generator. Autonomous operation dictates that each of the parallel

connected converter modules will have an independent

I. INTRODUCTION controller. Each converter has controller constituting of a

Depletion of fossil fuel and adverse effects of their usage on machine-side and line-side control unit. In this section, model

environment is what mainly triggered the interest in renewable for a multi-phase (six phase) SG is developed.

energy resources. Being a clean and vastly available energy

source, wind stands as the most promising alternative to

conventional schemes for electricity generation. Various options

are available for wind energy conversion however this work

focuses mainly on the direct driven permanent magnet

synchronous machines (PMSG) based variable speed wind

energy conversion system (WECS). Power electronic interface

in WECS effectively decouples the grid frequency from the

stator frequency, reduces mechanical stress and hence optimizes

systems performance [2]. Low speed operation of PMSG results

in multi-pole generator design. The low rotational speed of a

multi-pole PMSG also successfully eliminates the requirement

of a gear box.

Fig.1.MultiphasePMSGmachineconnectedtothegridusingmultimodular

converters.

In general PMSG based WECS are connected to the power

grid via full-size power converter. One of converter topologies

used in PMSG based VSWT comprises of generator side PWM

rectifier, DC-link, and grid side PWM inverter. Reliability of the

system is jeopardized when due to equipment fault or for

Fig. 2. Dynamic Model of PMSG in rotor reference frame (i) d- axis mode (ii)

q-axis model.

machine whereas our system configuration requires model of a

multi-phase PMSG. It is possible to simplify dynamic model for

a PMSG if it is implemented using rotor reference frame [3].

Dynamic model of three phase PMSG in rotor frame of

reference is shown in Fig.2 (i) and Fig. 2(ii). Like the case of

three phase PMSG, the dynamic model of a multi-phase machine

is developed making use of three sets of equations namely

voltage equations, flux linkage equations and motion equations

[3].

Fig. 3. Model of six -phase PMSG.

vsd 2 Rsisd 2 wesq 2 ssd 2 (3)

v sd1 R s i sd1 we L sq i sq1 Ld si sd1 (10)

vsq 2 Rsisq 2 wesd 2 ssq 2 (4)

vsq1 Rsisq1 we Lsd isd1 werf Lsq sisq1 (11)

sd1 L d i sd1 rf (5)

v sd 2 R s i sd 2 we L sq i sq 2 Ld si sd 2 (12)

sq1 L q i sq1 (6)

vsq 2 Rsisq 2 we Lsd isd 2 werf Lsq sisq 2 (13)

sd 2 Ld isd 2 rf (7)

Rotor mechanical speed (wm) and electromagnetic torque

(Te) of multiphase PMSG are given by (14) and (15) where

sq 2 Lq i sq 2 (8) parameters Tm, J, F and Np stand for mechanical input torque,

moment of inertia, friction factor and number of pole pairs

Equations (1), (2), (5) and (6) are voltage and flux linkage respectively.

equations corresponding to 1st set of three phase windings and

(3), (4), (7) and (8) correspond to the 2nd set of three phase 1 1

wm Te Tm wm F (14)

winding. For a PMSG the field winding is replaced by J s

permanent magnets which can be visualized as a fixed

magnitude field current source (If).

Te

3

2

N p L sq L sd i sq i sd rf i sq (15)

rf Lm I f (9)

Substitution of equation for rotor flux and d and q axis flux Based on these equations, model of six phase PMSG is

linkages into voltage equations results in the following four developed in MATLAB and is shown in Fig.3.

equations.

820

Fig. 4. Reference frame of permanent magnet synchronous generator

A. Machine side Controller: Fig. 5. Block diagram of sub-controller for machine-side converter.

Beside wind regime, the amount of energy extracted from a zero [6]. Without direct axis current component, the

wind turbine, also depends on the control strategy used. The electromagnetic torque (Te) is given by (17) and it is the

synchronous machine is controlled by the generator side maximum possible torque provided by generator.

converter and its controller has a nested-loop structure. The

outer slower loop is responsible for torque control of the PMSG

and the fast inner loop controls stator d- or q-axis currents. Te

3

2

N p rf isq (17)

constant stator voltage control, 2) unity power factor control and Structure of a conventional maximum torque control strategy

3) maximum torque control [6],[7]. By controlling the stator implemented in rotor reference frame is presented in Fig. 5.

voltage in the constant stator voltage control scheme, the risk of Measured quantities include rotor position (determined by using

over voltage and converter saturation at high speeds is an encoder mounted on the rotor) and stator currents. The

eliminated. The main drawback of using constant stator voltage optimal power reference is determined through the MPPT

control is that it requires a higher power rating converter, which controller, which sets the q-component reference of the stator

is due to the reactive power demand of generator [6]. current. The d-component reference of the stator current is set to

zero.

Contrary to the stator voltage control, in unity power factor

control, the direct and quadrature components of the stator In order to maintain a constant switching frequency within

current are controlled so as to compensate stators reactive the converter, both direct and quadrature axis currents are

power. Main benefit of this scheme is unity power factor controlled indirectly through a current regulated voltage-source

operation of generator however the lack of direct control over PWM rectifier [6]. By comparing the d and q-axis current

stator voltage may cause stator voltage to surpass its rated value reference signals with the measured generator stator d- and q-

in case of an over speed [6]. axis currents, the voltage reference signals for the converter are

obtained. Carrier phase shifted (CPS) PWM scheme is used for

In Fig. 4 stator current and magnet flux space vector of creating gating signals for the power converter.

permanent magnet generator in d-q reference frame are shown

[4]. The stator current space vector is denoted by (is) and the B. Grid side controller:

permanent magnet flux (rf) is aligned with the d-axis. In (16)

the stator current vector is expressed in terms of d and q-axis Various control strategies have been developed for control of

components. the grid side converter. These strategies can be can be classified

i s iq id (16) on the basis of the reference frame used for their implementation

[5]. This paper designed grid side controller using synchronous

In the maximum torque control, the stator current is reference frame. The three-phase electrical quantities are

controlled such that the direct axis current component is set to transformed into d-q quantities using reference

821

P 1.5v gd i gd (22)

Q 1.5v gd i gq (23)

shown in Fig. 6. As seen the controller contains cascaded loops

using PI regulators. Resultant of the current controllers output,

voltage feed-forward and cross coupling terms generates voltage

reference signal for the PWM generator. Similar to rectifier

controller, Carrier based PWM scheme is used for generation of

gating signals for inverter unit.

In order to test the control strategy, a WECS connected to stiff

grid through a six phase PMSG and two converter modules

operating in parallel is implemented in MATLAB. Parameters of

the test system are listed in Table.1 in appendix section. The

simulation results obtained are given in Fig. 7 up to Fig. 14.

voltage vector and the transformation angle (g) is detected by

using Phase Locked Loop (PLL) [2].

power to the grid. The control strategy has nested loop structure

with inner loop controlling current flowing towards the grid and

the outer loop is responsible for regulating DC-link voltage and

reactive power flow [5],[11]. To enable successful power

transfer from turbine to grid it is important to have a very stable

DC link voltage. Closed loop control of the DC bus generates

reference for active power whereas grid management service

decides the reference for the reactive power. When no reactive Fig. 7: Total active power reference

power compensation is required then grid operator sets Qref as

zero, enabling maximum active power transfer to the grid.

and Lg respectively and inverter d and q axis voltages are vid and

viq then grid d and q axis voltage components vgd and vgq are

represented by (18) and (19) as under [1]:-

v gq viq w g L g i gd R g i gq L g si gq (18)

v gd v id w g L g i gq R g i gd L g si gd (19)

rotating synchronously with grid voltage, the dq- components of

vg are given by (20) and (21).

v gq 0 (20) Fig. 8: Active power delivered through each channel towards the grid

v gd vg (21)

It is possible to express active and reactive power in terms of

grid voltage and currents. From (22) and (23) it is evident that

active and reactive power can be controlled by controlling direct

and quadrature components of grid current [1].

822

Fig. 9: Reactive power delivered through each Channel to the grid under

unity power factor (UPF) operation Fig. 13: Total electromagnetic torque (Te) reference.

Fig. 10: Current flowing towards each converter module from PMSG

operation where Qref is set as zero VAR by grid management

services. As verified in Fig. 9 the reactive power delivered to

gird is as per its reference value. DC-link voltage is

maintained through grid side controller and its reference was

set to 975 V for both converter units as shown in Fig.11. The

measured DC link voltage stayed close to the reference value

as seen in Fig.12.

Fig. 11: DC link voltage reference for each channel Both converter units have carrier phases shifted by

180. The active power reference signal for each converter

module is determined through MPPT and is shown in Fig .7.

Both converter modules followed the active power reference

signal closely, as seen in Fig. 8. Current flowing in each of

the parallel module from PMSG is plotted in Fig. 10.

Electromagnetic torque of the PMSG is controlled through q-

axis component of stator current. Total electromagnetic

torque reference is shown in Fig.13. The electromagnetic

torque developed by PMSG is plotted under Fig. 14, value of

it is found to be 1.69 M N.m which corresponds accurately to

the total reference power of 4MW when wm is 2.365 rad/sec.

Fig. 12: Measured DC link voltage for each channel

823

V. CONCLUSIONS [4] M.O. Mora . Sensorless vector control of PMSG for wind turbine

applications, MS thesis. Aalborg university, Aalborg, 2009.

Power electronic interface in WECS offers clear advantage [5] D. Mehrzad et. al. Vector Control of PMSG for grid-connected wind

over fixed Speed Wind Turbines (FSWT) as possibility of turbine applications. MS thesis. Aalborg university, Aalborg,2009.

variable speed operation is accompanied by improved power [6] S. Li, T.A. Haskew and Ling Xu, Conventional and novel control designs

for direct driven PMSG wind turbines, Electric Power Systems Research

production and reduction in mechanical / structural load. 80 (March (3)) (2010), pp. 328338.

Although the concept of using single full size power converter in [7] G. Michalke, A.D. Hansen, T. Hartkopf, Control strategy of a variable

drive systems is common practice; but with the growing trend of speed wind turbine with multipole permanent magnet synchronous

Multi-MW-turbine installation, the idea of modular- converter generator, , in: 2007European Wind Energy Conference and

Exhibition, Milan (IT), 710 May, 2007.

units is gaining popularity. [8] N. Mohan, Advanced Electric DrivesAnalysis, Modeling and Control

Using Simulink, Minnesota Power Electronics Research & Education,

This paper explores control strategy for autonomous MN, 2001, ISBN 0-9715292-0-5.

operation of controllers working in conjunction with modular [9] Xunwei Yu; Zhenhua Jiang; Yu Zhang; , "Control of Parallel Inverter-

Interfaced Distributed Energy Resources," Energy 2030 Conference,

converter system. Main challenges faced in designing such 2008. ENERGY 2008. IEEE , vol., no., pp.1-8, 17-18 Nov. 2008

independent controllers is to ensure that without any means of [10] Blaabjerg, F.; Teodorescu, R.; Liserre, M.; Timbus, A.V.; , "Overview of

communication, the parallel connected modules continue to Control and Grid Synchronization for Distributed Power Generation

share power equally even in case of a channel failure or system Systems," Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on , vol.53, no.5,

pp.1398-1409, Oct. 2006

unbalance. [11] Keyuan Huang; Shoudao Huang; Feng She; Baimin Luo; Luoqiang Cai;

"A control strategy for direct-drive permanent-magnet wind-power

The control structure enables interleaving of operational generator using back-to-back PWM converter," Electrical Machines and

units under all conditions so as to enhance system harmonic Systems, 2008. ICEMS 2008. International Conference on , vol., no.,

pp.2283-2288, 17-20 Oct. 2008

performance. Such an autonomous controller will improve

system redundancy and will help in acquiring benefit of

reliability from modular converter system. Control strategy

devised was simulated for the base case using MATLAB and

revealed proper functioning of the parallel converter modules.

APPENDIX

TABLE I. Parameters of multi-phase, salient pole PMSG based WECS

Rated Shaft power 4 MW

REFERENCES

[1] Chinchilla, M.; Arnaltes, S.; Burgos, J.C.; , "Control of permanent-magnet

generators applied to variable-speed wind-energy systems connected to the

grid," Energy Conversion, IEEE Transactions on , vol.21, no.1, pp. 130-

135, March

[2] S.M.Muyeen,Junji Tamura,Toshiaki Murata, Stability Augmentation of

Grid-connected Wind Farm, Springer-Verlag,London,Oct 2008.

[3] B.Wu, ELE806 Lab work and Lecture notes on Wind Generators and

Modeling , Winter 2010.

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