Anda di halaman 1dari 6

Home|About|TableofContents|AdvancedSearch|Copyright|Feedback|Privacy

Youarehere: Chapter:2Generalphysics
Section:2.6Electricityandmagnetism
SubSection:2.6.6Magneticpropertiesofmaterials

PreviousSubsection NextSection

UnlessotherwisestatedthispagecontainsVersion1.0content(Readmoreaboutversions

2.6.6Magneticpropertiesofmaterials

ManymagneticpropertiesofmaterialsareexpressedintermsofthemagneticfieldstrengthH,magneticfluxdensityBandthemagneticpolarizationJ.TheSIunits
ofHandBare,respectively,amperepermetre(Am1)andtesla(T).

TherelationbetweenthequantitiesexpressedinSIunitsis:

B= 0H+J

in which 0 is 4 107 H m1, the magnetic constant (permeability of free space). The absolute permeability, ( = B/H) and the volume susceptibility
(=J/ 0H),arethusrelatedbytheequation:

= 0(1+)

Themasssusceptibilityisequalto/,whereisthedensity.Therelativepermeability r =/ 0isthepermeabilityofthematerialrelativetothatofavacuum
andisthevaluegiveninthetables.

In ferromagnetic materials as H is increased steadily from zero the permeability changes and is at first relatively small, its value being defined as the initial
permeability, then reaches a maximum value, and finally decreases towards 0 as the polarization tends towards a limiting value (B 0H). The flux density
remainingwhenHisreducedtozeroistheremanentfluxdensityandthenegativeHneededtoreduceBtozeroisthecoerciveforce.Theremanentfluxdensity
andcoerciveforceforacyclewhichproceedstosaturationarecalledtheremanence,Br ,andthecoercivity,HcB.Inanopenmagneticcircuitthevariationof
HisusuallymeasuredandthecoercivityisthendenotedbyHcJ.

Whenaferromagneticmaterialistakenthroughacycleofmagnetizationthereisalossofenergyasheatduetothecombinedeffectsofhysteresis,inducededdy
currentsanddomainwallmotion.Thehysteresislossperunitvolume,Qh= HdB,hasbeenshownempiricallytovaryasB1.6max over a limited range of peak
fluxdensityofuptoabout1Tforhighsaturationmaterials,and0.5Tforlowsaturationmaterials.Thisrelationship,knownastheSteinmetzlaw,isnevertheless
onlyapproximate.Someindicationofthesecondloss,namelytheeddycurrentpowerloss,maybecalculatedfromstandardformulaeoncecertainrelevantphysical
parameters are known. In their present forms, however, these formulae are only approximate. The total power losses that will be dissipated in laminar material
when an alternating flux is developed in it has a direct bearing on the efficiency that can be realized in equipment such as transformers and electric motors and
shouldthereforebeknownaccurately.AccordinglythepowerlossesofrepresentativeformsoftypicalmaterialsaremeasuredandsomeofthesearegiveninTable
(3)intermsofpowerlossperunitmass.

Manymagneticpropertiesofferromagnetic materials depend greatly on previous history, state of strain, temperature, size, perfection and orientation of crystals,
andtheeffectofsmalltracesofimpuritymaybeenormous.

Whenheated,ferromagneticmaterialsbecomeparamagneticatatemperatureknownasthe(ferromagnetic)Curiepoint.

Ferrimagneticmaterials(ferrites)havealloftheabovecharacteristicsofferromagneticmaterials.However,duetotheirhighresistivity,soft(lowcoercivity)ferrites
arewidelyusedinhighfrequencyapplications,inwhichcasethefollowingparametersarealsoofinterest:

(a) Powerlossdensitythisisanothernameforspecifictotalpowerloss,butforferritematerialsthelossisusuallyexpressedperunitvolume.

(b) Lossfactortheperformanceofferritesatlowfieldstrengthsisoftenindicatedbytheexpressiontanwhereisthelossangle,i.e.thephaseanglebetween
BandH.However,informationregardingpowerlossesisusuallygivenintheformoflossfactorsnormalizedtounitpermeability,,sincethisfacilitatesthe
calculationoflosscoefficientsofgappedferritecores.Hencethelossfactoris:

tan
tanh tane tanr
= + +

wheretanh,taneandtanr arethelossanglesforthehysteresis,eddycurrentandresiduallossesrespectively,allofwhicharepresenttoagreateror
lesserextentandcombinetogivethetotalloss,tan.

(c) IEChysteresiscoefficientBinconsideringrecommendationsforstandardformsoflossexpression,theInternationalElectrotechnicalCommissionagreed
followingrelationshipforthehysteresiscoefficient,B,

tanh
B=
Bmax

(d) Temperaturefactorthepermeabilityofamagneticmaterialmaychangeforavarietyofreasons,themostobviousbeingthechangeoftemperature.Overa
limitedtemperaturerangetherelationshipbetweenthereversiblechangeinmagneticpermeability,,andthecorrespondingchangeintemperature,
givenbythetemperaturecoefficient,TC:


TC=

Aswiththelossfactor,itisusualtonormalizethevaluestounitpermeabilitywhichgivesthelossfactor:


lossfactor=
2
(e) Disaccommodation factorthe permeability of a magnetic material can also change with time after magnetization. This phenomenon is often called
disaccommodation.Ifthepermeabilities 1and 2correspondtotimest1andt2thenthedisaccommodationisgivenby:

1 2
100%
1

Aswiththelossandtemperaturefactors,thedisaccommodationfactorisnormalizedtounitpermeabilityandisgivenby:

1 2
disaccommodationfactor= 100%.
12

Apartfromchangesintheirmagneticpermeability,somematerialshaveotherresponsestochangesinmagneticfieldstrength.Allconductingmaterialsexhibitthe
Halleffect,ofwhichtherearetwoforms.InthetransverseHalleffectavoltageisdevelopedinadirectionatrightanglestoacurrentpassingthroughthematerial
whenamagneticfieldisappliedinamutuallyperpendiculardirection.TherelationshipbetweenthecurrentflowingthroughthematerialIx,theoutputvoltage,
thethicknessofthematerial,tz,andtheappliedmagneticfieldstrength,Hz,isgivenby:

Vy=(KHIx 0Hz)/tz

whereKHisthetransverseHallcoefficientofthematerial.IthasbeenfoundthatsomesemiconductingmaterialshavesufficientlyhighHallcoefficientstoproduce
convenient,smallsizeandlowcostmagneticsensors.IndiumarsenidehavingaHallcoefficientof0.75Vm/TAisawidelyusedmaterial.

Thesameconditionsthatproducethetransverse Hall effect also give rise to a voltage in the direction of the currentandthisissometimescalledthelongitudinal
Halleffectbutmoreusuallymagnetoresistance.Untilrecentlyonlysmallchangesinresistancehavebeenobserved(upto2%forthewidelyusedNi80Fe20material
at room temperature) but the socalled giant magnetoresistance (GMR) has been observed in multilayers of Fe/Cr (50% change in resistance) and Co/Cu (120
changeinresistance).However,strongmagneticfieldstrengths(800kA/m)andatemperatureof4.2KarerequiredtoobserveGMRinamultilayer.Inallcases
themagnetoresistanceofamaterialisacomplexfunctionoftheappliedmagneticfieldstrength,temperature,materialtypeandthickness.

Sincethepropertiesmayvaryconsiderably from specimen to specimen due to chemical composition and state of heat treatment, the values given are only to be
regardedastypicalofthematerialsmentioned.Arangeofvaluesisindicatedbyadash.

Symbolsusedintables:

B=magneticfluxdensity
Br =remanence
H=magneticfieldstrength
HcB=inductioncoerciveforce,coercivity
HcJ=magnetizationcoerviceforce,coercivity
J=magneticpolarization
Js =(B 0H)s =saturationpolarization
Qh=hysteresislossperunitvolumepercycle
r =relativemagneticpermeability
i=initialrelativemagneticpermeability

(1)Magneticsusceptibilitiesofparamagneticanddiamagneticmaterials

Valuesaremasssusceptibilityperkilogram,,at20C.

108 108 108



Commonelements
Hydrogen..... 2.49 Aluminium..... +0.82 Germanium..... 0.15
Oxygen....... +133.6 Copper..... 0.107 Silicon....... 0.16
Helium...... 0.59 Silver...... 0.25 Arsenic...... 0.39
Neon....... 0.41 Gold...... 0.19 Indium....... 0.14
Argon....... 0.60 Platinum...... +1.22 Antimony...... 1.09
Krypton..... 0.41 Mercury...... 0.21 Tellurium...... 0.39
Xenon...... 0.40 Bismuth...... 1.70 Gallium....... 0.30
Nitrogen..... 0.54 Sulphur...... 0.62 Phosphorus..... 1.13
Sodium..... +0.75 Lead....... 0.15
Potassium..... +0.65 Uranium...... +2.19

Commoncompounds Commonmaterials
H2O...... 0.90 NiSO47H2O... +20.1 Araldite...... 0.63
NO...... +59.3 NiSO4K2SO47H2O +13.9 P.V.C...... 0.75
CO2...... 0.59 CuSO45H2O... +7.7 Perspex...... 0.5
NH3...... 1.38 MnSO44H2O... +81.2 Polyethylene... +0.2
HCl...... 0.75 FeSO4(NH4)2..
H2SO4..... 0.50 SO46H2O... +40.6
NaCl...... 0.64
NiCl2......
(anhydrous).. +78.5
(insolution).. +43.0

Notes:
(1)ToobtainvaluesinCGSunitspergramme,theSIvaluesgivenshouldbemultipliedby103 /4.
(2)Foramorecompletelistofelements,seeL.F.Bates,ModernMagnetism(CUP).

(2)Feeblymagneticsteelsandcastirons

Material Approx.% Condition r


composition forH=5kA/m* m
(Balanceiron)

Aluminiumsiliconbronze seeBS2872 ascast 1.001
CA12 andBS2874
Aluminiumnickelbronze seeISO428 ascast 1.21.4
CA3
HightensilebrassCZ114 seeBS2872,BS2874 ascast 1.05
orHT1 andISO426
Austeniticstainlesssteels
AISItype:
301 Ni7.8,Cr17.6 Austenized 1.003 0.68
19.5%coldreduction 1.15
55%coldreduction 14.8
302 Ni9.0,Cr18.4 Austenized 1.003 0.70
20%coldreduction 1.008
44%coldreduction 1.050
68%coldreduction 1.59
304 Ni10.7,Cr19.0 Austenized 1.004 0.72
13.8%coldreduction 1.005
32%coldreduction 1.04
65%coldreduction 1.55
305 Ni11.7,Cr17.9 Austenized 1.003
18.5%coldreduction 1.004
52.5%coldreduction 1.05
310 Ni20.7,Cr24.3 Austenized 1.002 0.94
64.2%coldreduction 1.002
316 Ni13.4,Cr17.5 Austenized 1.003 0.74
81%coldreduction 1.007
321 Ni10.3,Cr18.3,Ti0.68 Austenized 1.003 0.72
16.5%coldreduction 1.018
41.5%coldreduction 1.40
347 Ni10.7,Cr18.4,Co0.95 Austenized 1.004 0.73
13.5%coldreduction 1.007
40%coldreduction 1.06
60%coldreduction 1.25

*Ingeneral,therelativemagneticpermeabilitydecreasesathighervaluesofmagneticfieldstrength.
LowpermeabilityreferencematerialsavailablefromNationalPhysicalLaboratory,Teddington,Middlesex,TW110LW,UK.
C.B.PostandW.S.Eberley,Stabilityofausteniteinstainlesssteels,Trans.Am.Soc.Metals,1947,39,p.868.

(3)Soft(lowcoercivity)materials

Material B/Tfor Relative Js HcB Br Curie Resistivity Specifictotal Specific


(approx.%composition,balanceiron) permeability r point lossfor apparentpower
H/(Am1)= T Am1 T 108m
C J=1.5T, forJ=1.5T,
Initial Maximum f= f=
1000 5000 i r 50Hz 50Hz
1000 1000 W/kg VA/kg

Ferromagneticelements
Iron,highpurity(single
crystalsinpreferreddirection).. 2.01 2.01 1500 2.16 12 770 10
Armcoiron........... 1.55 1.72 0.25 7 2.16 80 1.3 770 11
Castiron(annealed)....... 0.60 0.86 1.70 400
Swedishiron(annealed)..... 1.52 1.72 2.16 70 770
Nickel.............. 0.45 0.55 0.615 400 358 9
Cobalt.............. 0.21 0.70 1.76 950 1115 9

Steels(solid)
Carbonsteel(annealed)1%C... 0.75 1.54 2.00 600
Constructionalsteels:
0.3%C,1%Ni 1.32 1.68 2.10 250
0.4%C,3%Ni,1.5%Cr.... 0.75 1.67 2.05 500
Mildsteel,0.1%C....... 1.46 1.74 2.15 150 10

Steels(sheet)
Grainorientedsiliconsteelswith
preferredmagneticpropertiesin
directionofrollingoftheparentstrip
(d.c.magnetization):
UnisilH,10327P5,(27MOH)2.9%Si 1.93 2.00 93 2.00 6 745 45 1.00(J=1.7T) 1.38(J=1.7T)
Unisil,08927N5,(27M4) 1.86 1.96 75 2.00 7 745 48 0.84 1.16
09730N5,(30M5) 3.1%Si 1.86 1.96 59 2.00 7 745 48 0.89 1.32
11135N5,(35M6) 1.84 1.94 58 2.00 7 745 48 1.00 1.39
Nonorientedsiliconsteels:
SURA30035A5,(CK37)2.9%Si 1.46 1.65 8 2.00 40 745 48 2.95 28
40050A5,(CK40)2.4%Si 1.48 1.69 7 2.03 40 748 44 3.60 19
80065A5,(DK70)1.6%Si 1.53 1.73 5 2.08 70 758 34 6.50 14
Nonoriented,nonsiliconsteel:
Newcor100065D5....... 1.59 1.75 8 2.15 50 770 12 7.00 9.6

Amorphousironboronalloys
(metallicglass)
Metglas2605S3....... 1.58 8 0.7 405 125 0.15(J=1.7T) 0.20(J=1.0T)
Metglas2605SC....... 1.61 5 1.1 370 125

Material FluxdensityB/TforH/(Am1)= Relativepermeability r Js HcB Br Curie Resistivity


(approx.%composition,balanceiron) point
1.0 10 50 100 1000 50000 Initial Maximum T Am1 T 10
C
i r
1000 1000

Nickelironalloys
Supermumetal
7080%Niwith 0.45 0.72 0.76 0.78 200 400 0.77 0.55 0.5 350
Nilomag771
small
0.30 0.70 0.75 0.77 80 300 0.77 0.8 0.45 350
Mumetalplus amountsofother

Mumetal elements 0.18 0.60 0.72 0.75 60 240 0.77 1.0 0.45 350
EPC20
Nilomag64165%Ni+small 0.41.0 200400 1.4 4 1.35 590
amountofother
elements,oriented

Nilomag471
0.03 1.02 1.25 1.4 1.62 211 50120 1.6 412 0.41.2 530
SuperRadiometal

50%Ni+small

Radiometal4550 amountsof 0.01 0.48 1.05 1.18 1.62 36 2050 1.6 1224 0.41.0 530
otherelements
Satmumetal 0.20 1.15 1.3 1.35 65 240 1.5 2.0 0.7 550
HCRalloy +orientedstructure 0.3 1.46 1.50 1.55 0.51.0 50100 1.6 10 1.5 525
Radiometal36 35%Ni 0.15 0.72 0.90 1.2 2 15 1.3 12 0.35 180270
Hyperm36 36%Ni constantpermeabilityalloy 1.75 6
R2799 30%Ni,temperature 0.1 0.45 70
compensatingalloy

Cobaltironalloys
Permendur2424%Co 0.002 0.02 0.05 1.45 2.34 0.25 2.0 2.35 950 1.65 980
Permendur4949%Co 0.01 0.13 0.33 1.85 2.34 1.0 7 2.35 140 1.5 980
Supermendur49%Co,2%V 2.05 2.1 2.3 2.34 70 2.35 20 2.1 980
Hisat5049%Co,0.3%Ta 1.5 1.8 2.3 2.44 18 2.44 40 1.8 980

Otheralloys
Heusleralloy61%Cu,26%Mn,13%Al 0.01 0.25 0.45 0.48 550 330
Isoperm30%Ni,11%Cu constantpermeabilityalloy 0.06 0.065
Perminvar40%Ni,25%Co constantpermeabilityalloy 0.30 1.5 1.55 100 715
Nickelcopper70%Ni,30%Cu 0.07 0.15 10100

Manufacturers: EuropeanElectricalSteelsNewport,Gwent. AlliedChemicalCorpn.,MorrisTownship,NJ,USA. TelconLtd,Crawley. Henrywiggin&Co.,Hereford.


Notes:
(1)Theinitialrelativepermeabilityvaluesforthenickelironalloyareforamagneticfieldstrengthof0.4A/m.
(2)ForfurtherinformationonthepropertiesofsolidsteelsseeJ.WoolmanandR.A.Mottram(19649)MechanicalandPhysicalPropertiesoftheBSEnSteels,Vols.1,2and3,Pergamon.

Material Initial Frequency Loss Temperature Flux Powerloss IEC Disaccommodation Curie Resistivity
relative range factor factor density densityfor hysteresis factor point
permeability at B/Tfor B=0.2T, coefficient
i MHz 106/C B 106 C
maximum H/(Am1) f=16kHz
frequency =800
mW/cm3
106

Carbonylironpowdercores
type100 30 0.12 700 20
type500 12 110 250 12
type900 10 150 600 12
type901 5 10100 1500 12
Magneticironoxidepowdercores
500
type910 4 20300 40
(at100MHz)
Ironflakecores
90at1kHz
usedforinterference
suppression,relative
initialpermeability
65at150kHz
fallsrapidlywith
frequency

Ferritecores
(a)forradio,TVand
lowpoweruses:
nickelzinc,
typeF13 650 0.051 130 180 300
typeF14 220 0.12 50 270 1000
typeF16 125 110 100 270 1000
typeF22 19 540 500 500 1000
manganesezinc,
typeF10 5000 0.010.1 12 180
typeF8 1500 0.050.5 80 180
typeF11 600 0.11 50 220
(b)perminvar,high
frequencylowpower
uses
typeF25 50 540 300 450 1000
typeF29 12 10200 1000 500 1000
(c)manganesezincfor
highpoweruses
typeF6 1500 0.45 150 180
typeF5 2000 0.48 75 200
(d)manganesezinc,high
stability,lowloss,
telecommunications
uses
typeP10 2000 12* 02 2.5 8 150
typeP11 2200 5* 0.51.5 0.8 5 150
typeP12 2200 3* 0.41.0 0.4 3 150

*Lossfactorat100kHz.
Note:FormorecompletedetailsofsoftferritematerialsseeE.C.Snelling,SoftFerrites,PropertiesandApplications(IliffeBooksLtd.,London).

(4)Permanentmagnet(magneticallyhard)materials
(a)TypicalalloysintheAlNiCoseries(castmaterial):

Material Approx. Remanence (BH)max Coercivity Curie Maximum Resistivity


composition Br point operating
HcB HcJ m
(balanceiron) kJm3 temperature
T C
% kAm1 kAm1 C


Alni
isotropic Ni25,Al13,Cu4 0.56 10.0 46 49 760 550 0.63
Alnico1

Alnico
isotropic Ni19,Al10,Co12,Cu6 0.73 13.5 45 48 800 550 0.65
Alnico2

AlcomaxIII
anisotropic 1.30 43 52 53 850 550 0.55
Alnico5

AlcomaxIII semi
Ni13.5,Al8,Co24,Cu3 1.32 49 56 57 860 550 0.55
Alnico5DG columnar

Columax
columnar 1.35 60 59 60 860 550 0.55
Alnico57
HycomaxII
Ni14.5,Al7,Co29, 0.85 32 95 97 850 550 0.50
anisotropic
Cu4.5,Ti5
HycomaxIII
anisotropic 0.90 44 127 129 850 550 0.50
Alnico8 Ni14,Al7.3,Co34,
Alnico9columnar Cu3,Ti5.25 1.05 80 124 126 850 550 0.50

Note:Theisotropicandanisotropicalloyscanalsobepreparedbysintering,inwhichcasethemagneticpropertiescanbeupto20%lessthanthoseforcast
material.
(b)Rareearthalloys:

Material Type Remanence (BH)max Coercivity Curie Maximum Resistivity


Br HcB HcJ point operating
m
KJm3 temperature
T C
kAm1 kAm1 C
Supermagloy,sintered
pressedaxially 0.90 160 680 1500 725 150 0.70
SmCo5
pressedisostatically 0.95 176 720 1500 725 150 0.70
anisotropic Sm2Co17 1.05 210 760 7002000 800 250 0.70
SmCo5+
bonded 0.58 56 380 760 * 60* 10
binder

Neodure Sintered
NdFeB 1.151.35 220350 880960 8901700 300320 150 1.50
Neorem anisotropic
Magnequench,isotropic 0.61 64 424 1200 * 60* 180
bonded,
Bemag5N
injectionmoulded, NdFeB+binder 0.40 32 300 600 * 150
NIN403
anisotropic

*Limitedbythepropertiesofthebondingmaterial.

(c)Ferrites:

Material Approx. Remanence (BH)max Coercivity Curie Maximum Resistivity


composition Br point operating
HcB HcJ m
(balanceiron) kJm3 temperature
T C
% kAm1 kAm1 C


Feroba1
sinteredisotropic 0.22 8 135 220 450 350 10
MMGD1
BaO+5.9(Fe2O3)
Ferroba2
Ferroxdure300 0.39 28 176 184 450 350 10

Feroba3 sinteredanisotropic

Ferroxdure380 SrO+5.9(Fe2O3) 0.37 26 240 230 450 350 10
Ferroxdure500 0.40 30 295 320 450 350 10
FlexamP5
bondedisotropic 0.14 3.2 85 175 * 120* 10
MMG01
Flexor45
bondedanisotropic 0.25 11.2 175 240 * 120* 10
FXDSP106

*Limitedbythepropertiesofthebondingmaterial.

Further information on the properties of permanent magnet materials and details of manufacturers are given in M. McCaig and A. G. Clegg (1987) Permanent Magnets in Theory and Practice, 2nd
PentechPress,London.

A.E.Drake.

Home| About| TableofContents| AdvancedSearch| Copyright| Feedback| Privacy| ^TopofPage^

ThissiteishostedandmaintainedbytheNationalPhysicalLaboratory2017.