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SMART GRID

GITA,BBSR

ABSTRACT
Today's alternating current power grid evolved after 1896, based in part on
Nikola Tesla's design published in 1888 (see War of Currents). At that time, the
grid was conceived as a centralized unidirectional system of electric power
transmission, electricity distribution, and demand-driven control.

In the 20th century power grids originated as local grids that grew over time,
and were eventually interconnected for economic and reliability reasons. By the
1960s, the electric grids of developed countries had become very large, mature
and highly interconnected, with thousands of 'central' generation power stations
delivering power to major load centres via high capacity power lines which
were then branched and divided to provide power to smaller industrial and
domestic users over the entire supply area. The topology of the 1960s grid was a
result of the strong economies of scale of the current generation technology:
large coal-, gas- and oil-fired power stations in the 1 GW (1000 MW) to 3 GW
scale are still found to be cost-effective, due to efficiency-boosting features that
can be cost effectively added only when the stations become very large.

A smart grid is a digitally enabled electrical grid that gathers, distributes, and
acts on information about the behavior of all participants (suppliers and
consumers) in order to improve the efficiency, importance, reliability,
economics, and sustainability of electricity services

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INTRODUCTION
Historical development of the electricity grid
Today's alternating current power grid evolved after 1896, based in part on
Nikola Tesla's design published in 1888. At that time, the grid was conceived as
a centralized unidirectional system of electric power transmission, electricity
distribution, and demand-driven control.

In the 20th century power grids originated as local grids that grew over time,
and were eventually interconnected for economic and reliability reasons. By the
1960s, the electric grids of developed countries had become very large, mature
and highly interconnected, with thousands of 'central' generation power stations
delivering power to major load centres via high capacity power lines which
were then branched and divided to provide power to smaller industrial and
domestic users over the entire supply area. The topology of the 1960s grid was a
result of the strong economies of scale of the current generation technology:
large coal-, gas- and oil-fired power stations in the 1 GW (1000 MW) to 3 GW
scale are still found to be cost-effective, due to efficiency-boosting features that
can be cost effectively added only when the stations become very large.

Power stations were located strategically to be close to fossil fuel reserves


(either the mines or wells themselves, or else close to rail, road or port supply
lines). Siting of hydro-electric dams in mountain areas also strongly influenced
the structure of the emerging grid. Nuclear power plants were sited for
availability of cooling water. Finally, fossil-fired power stations were initially
very polluting and were sited as far as economically possible from population
centres once electricity distribution networks permitted it. By the late 1960s, the
electricity grid reached the overwhelming majority of the population of
developed countries, with only outlying regional areas remaining 'off-grid'.

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Origin of the term 'smart grid'

The term smart grid has been in use since at least 2005, when it appeared in the
article "Toward A Smart Grid" of Amin and Wallenberg. The term had been
used previously and may date as far back as 1998. There are a great many smart
grid definitions, some functional, some technological, and some benefits-
oriented. A common element to most definitions is the application of digital
processing and communications to the power grid, making data flow and
information management central to the smart grid. Various capabilities result
from the deeply integrated use of digital technology with power grids, and
integration of the new grid information flows into utility processes and systems
is one of the key issues in the design of smart grids. Electric utilities now find
themselves making three classes of transformations: improvement of
infrastructure, called the strong grid in China; addition of the digital layer,
which is the essence of the smart grid; and business process transformation,
necessary to capitalize on the investments in smart technology. Much of the
modernization work that has been going on in electric grid modernization,
especially substation and distribution automation, is now included in the general
concept of the smart grid, but additional capabilities are evolving as well.

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SMART GRID

Smart grid refers to the next generation electric power network that makes use
of IT and high technologies. Compared to the telecommunication network, the
electric power network has not developed remarkably in terms of creating
innovative technologies. However, smart grid by revolutionizing the electric
power network and being almost as powerful as the internet, is attracting many
attentions among various industries.

Smart grid is a system that enables two-way communications in between


consumers and electric power companies. In a smart grid system consumers
information is received by the electric power companies in order to provide the
most efficient electric network operations. In addition to the efficient operations of
a power plant, smart grids also make it possible to control power demand and
distributed energy, including renewable energies. By installing an intelligent meter
(smart meter) on the consumer side, especially households, monitoring the use of
energy becomes much easier and even helps to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

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A smart grid delivers electricity from supplier to consumers using two- way
digital technology to control appliances at consumers homes to save energy,
reduce cost and increase reliability and transparency. It overlays the electricity
distribution grid with an information and net metering system. Power travels from
the power plant to your house through an amazing system called the power
distribution grid. Such a modernized electricity networks is being promoted by
many governments as a way of addressing energy independences, global warming
and emergency resilience issues. Smart meters may be part of smart grid, but alone
do not constitute a smart grid.

Overview of smart grid

A smart grid includes an intelligent monitoring system that keeps track of all
electricity flowing in the system. It also incorporates the use of
superconductive transmission lines for less power loss, as well as the capability
of the integrating renewable electricity such as solar and wind. When power is
least expensive the user can allow the smart grid to turn on selected home
appliances such as washing machines or factory processes that can run at
arbitrary hours. At peak times it could turn off selected appliances to reduce
demand.

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Smart Grid And its Need

Understanding the need for smart grid requires acknowledging a few facts about
our infrastructure. The power grid is the backbone of the modern civilization, a
complex society with often conflicting energy needs-more electricity but fewer
fossil fuels, increased reliability yet lower energy costs, more secure distribution
with less maintenance, effective new construction and efficient disaster
reconstruction. But while demand for electricity has risen drastically, its
transmission is outdated and stressed. The bottom line is that we are exacting
more from a grid that is simply not up to the task.

POWER SYSTEM

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Howsmartshould be a powergrid

The utilities get the ability to communicate with and control end user hardware,
from industrial- scale air conditioner to residential water heaters. They use that
to better balance supply and demand, in part by dropping demand during peak
usage hours.
Taking advantages of information technology to increase the efficiency of the
grid, the delivery system, and the use of electricity at the same time is itself a
smart move. Simply put, a smart grid combined with smart meters enables both
electrical utilities and consumer to be much more efficient.
A smart grid not only moves electricity more efficiently in geographic terms, it
also enables electricity use to be shifted overtime-for example, from period of
peak demand to those of off-peak demand. Achieving this goals means working
with consumers who have smart meters to see exactly how much electricity
is being used at any particular time. This facilitates two-way communication
between utility and consumer. So they can cooperate in reducing peak demand
in a way that its advantageous to both. And it allow to the use of two way
metering so that customer who have a rooftop solar electric panel or their own
windmill can sell surplus electricity back to the utility.
1. Intelligent
Capable of sensing system overloads and rerouting power to prevent or
minimize a potential outage; of working autonomously when conditions
required resolution faster than humans can respond and co-operatively in
aligning the goals of utilities, consumers and regulators.
2. Efficient
Capable of meeting efficient increased consumer demand without adding
infrastructure.
3. Accommodating
Accepting energy from virtually any fuel source including solar and wind as
easily and transparently as coal and natural gas: capable of integrating any and
all better ideas and technologies energy storage technologies. For e.g.- as they
are market proven and ready to come online.

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4. Motivating
Enable real-time communication between the consumer and utility, so consumer
can tailor their energy consumption based on individual preferences, like price
and or environmental concerns.
5. Resilient
Increasingly resistant to attack and natural disasters as it becomes more
decentralization and reinforced with smart grid security protocol.
6. Green
Slowing the advance of global climate change and offering a genuine path
towards significant environmental improvement.

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Features of the smart grid

The smart grid represents the full suite of current and proposed responses to the
challenges of electricity supply. Because of the diverse range of factors, there
are numerous competing taxonomies, and no agreement on a universal
definition. Nevertheless, one possible categorisation is given here.

Reliability
The smart grid will make use of technologies that improve fault detection and
allow self-healing of the network without the intervention of technicians. This
will ensure more reliable supply of electricity, and reduced vulnerability to
natural disasters or attack.

Although multiple routes are touted as a feature of the smart grid, the old grid
also featured multiple routes. Initial power lines in the grid were built using a
radial model, later connectivity was guaranteed via multiple routes, referred to
as a network structure. However, this created a new problem: if the current flow
or related effects across the network exceed the limits of any particular network
element, it could fail, and the current would be shunted to other network
elements, which eventually may fail also, causing a domino effect. See power
outage. A technique to prevent this is load shedding by rolling blackout or
voltage reduction (brownout).

Flexibility in network topology


Next-generation transmission and distribution infrastructure will be better able
to handle possible bidirection energy flows, allowing for distributed
generation such as from photovoltaic panels on building roofs, but also the use
of fuel cells, charging to/from the batteries of electric cars, wind turbines,
pumped hydroelectric power, and other sources.

Classic grids were designed for one-way flow of electricity, but if a local sub-
network generates more power than it is consuming, the reverse flow can raise
safety and reliability issues. A smart grid aims to manage these situations.

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Efficiency
Numerous contributions to overall improvement of the efficiency of energy
infrastructure is anticipated from the deployment of smart grid technology, in
particular including demand-side management, for example turning off air
conditioners during short-term spikes in electricity price. The overall effect is
less redundancy in transmission and distribution lines, and greater utilisation of
generators, leading to lower power prices

Load adjustment
The total load connected to the power grid can vary significantly over time.
Although the total load is the sum of many individual choices of the clients, the
overall load is not a stable, slow varying, average power consumption. Imagine
the increment of the load if a popular television program starts and millions of
televisions will draw current instantly. Traditionally, to respond to a rapid
increase in power consumption, faster than the start-up time of a large
generator, some spare generators are put on a dissipative standby mode .A smart
grid may warn all individual television sets, or another larger customer, to
reduce the load temporarily (to allow time to start up a larger generator) or
continuously (in the case of limited resources). Using mathematical prediction
algorithms it is possible to predict how many standby generators need to be
used, to reach a certain failure rate. In the traditional grid, the failure rate can
only be reduced at the cost of more standby generators. In a smart grid, the load
reduction by even a small portion of the clients may eliminate the problem.

Peak curtailment/leveling and time of use pricing


To reduce demand during the high cost peak usage periods, communications
and metering technologies inform smart devices in the home and business when
energy demand is high and track how much electricity is used and when it is
used. It also gives utility companies the ability to reduce consumption by
communicating to devices directly in order to prevent system overloads. An
example would be a utility reducing the usage of a group of electric vehicle
charging stations. To motivate them to cut back use and perform what is called
peak curtailment or peak leveling, prices of electricity are increased during
high demand periods, and decreased during low demand periods. It is thought
that consumers and businesses will tend to consume less during high demand
periods if it is possible for consumers and consumer devices to be aware of the
high price premium for using electricity at peak periods. This could mean
making trade-offs such as cooking dinner at 9 pm instead of 5 pm. When
businesses and consumers see a direct economic benefit of using energy at off-
peak times become more energy efficient, the theory is that they will include
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energy cost of operation into their consumer device and building construction
decisions. See Time of day metering and demand response.

According to proponents of smart grid plans, this will reduce the amount of
spinning reserve that electric utilities have to keep on stand-by, as the load
curve will level itself through a combination of "invisible hand" free-market
capitalism and central control of a large number of devices by power
management services that pay consumers a portion of the peak power saved by
turning their devices off.

Sustainability
The improved flexibility of the smart grid permits greater penetration of highly
variable renewable energy sources such as solar power and wind power, even
without the addition of energy storage. Current network infrastructure is not
built to allow for many distributed feed-in points, and typically even if some
feed-in is allowed at the local (distribution) level, the transmission-level
infrastructure cannot accommodate it. Rapid fluctuations in distributed
generation, such as due to cloudy or gusty weather, present significant
challenges to power engineers who need to ensure stable power levels through
varying the output of the more controllable generators such as gas turbines and
hydroelectric generators. Smart grid technology is a necessary condition for
very large amounts of renewable electricity on the grid for this reason.

Market-enabling
The smart grid allows for systematic communication between suppliers (their
energy price) and consumers (their willingness-to-pay), and permits both the
suppliers and the consumers to be more flexible and sophisticated in their
operational strategies. Only the critical loads will need to pay the peak energy
prices, and consumers will be able to be more strategic in when they use energy.
Generators with greater flexibility will be able to sell energy strategically for
maximum profit, whereas inflexible generators such as base-load steam turbines
and wind turbines will receive a varying tariff based on the level of demand and
the status of the other generators currently operating. The overall effect is a
signal that awards energy efficiency, and energy consumption that is sensitive
the time-varying limitations of the supply. At the domestic level, appliances
with a degree of energy storage or thermal mass (such as refrigerators, heat
banks, and heat pumps) will be well placed to 'play' the market at seek to
minimise energy cost by adapting demand to the lower-cost energy support
periods. This is an extension of the dual-tariff energy pricing mentioned above.

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Demand response support


Demand response support allows generators and loads to interact in an
automated fashion in real time, coordinating demand to flatten spikes.
Eliminating the fraction of demand that occurs in these spikes eliminates the
cost of adding reserve generators, cuts wear and tear and extends the life of
equipment, and allows users to cut their energy bills by telling low priority
devices to use energy only when it is cheapest.

Currently, power grid systems have varying degrees of communication within


control systems for their high value assets, such as in generating plants,
transmission lines, substations and major energy users. In general information
flows one way, from the users and the loads they control back to the utilities.
The utilities attempt to meet the demand and succeed or fail to varying degrees
(brownout, rolling blackout, uncontrolled blackout). The total amount of power
demand by the users can have a very wide probability distribution which
requires spare generating plants in standby mode to respond to the rapidly
changing power usage. This one-way flow of information is expensive; the last
10% of generating capacity may be required as little as 1% of the time, and
brownouts and outages can be costly to consumers.

Latency of the data flow is a major concern, with some early smart meter
architectures allowing actually as long as 24 hours delay in receiving the data,
preventing any possible reaction by either supplying or demanding devices.

Platform for advanced services


As with other industries, use of robust two-way communications, advanced
sensors, and distributed computing technology will improve the efficiency,
reliability and safety of power delivery and use. It also opens up the potential
for entirely new services or improvements on existing ones, such as fire
monitoring and alarms that can shut off power, make phone calls to emergency
services, etc.

Provision megabits, control power with kilobits, sell


the rest
The amount of data required to perform monitoring and switching your
appliances off automatically is very small compared with that already reaching
even remote homes to support voice, security, and Internet and TV services.
Many smart grid bandwidth upgrades are paid for by over-provisioning to also
support consumer services, and subsidizing the communications with energy-
related services or subsidizing the energy-related services, such as higher rates
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during peak hours, with communications. This is particularly true where


governments run both sets of services as a public monopoly, e.g. in India.
Because power and communications companies are generally separate
commercial enterprises in North America and Europe, it has required
considerable government and large-vendor effort to encourage various
enterprises to cooperate. Some, like Cisco, see opportunity in providing devices
to consumers very similar to those they have long been providing to industry.
Others, such as Silver Spring Networks or Google, are data integrators rather
than vendors of equipment. While the AC power control standards suggest
powerline networking would be the primary means of communication among
smart grid and home devices, the bits may not reach the home via Broadband
over Power Lines (BPL) initially but by fixed wireless. This may be only an
interim solution, however, as separate power and data connections defeats full
control.

Technology
The bulk of smart grid technologies are already used in other applications such
as manufacturing and telecommunications and are being adapted for use in grid
operations. In general, smart grid technology can be grouped into five key areas.

Integrated communications
Some communications are up to date, but are not uniform because they have
been developed in an incremental fashion and not fully integrated. In most
cases, data is being collected via modem rather than direct network connection.
Areas for improvement include: substation automation, demand response,
distribution automation, supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA),
energy management systems, wireless mesh networks and other technologies,
power-line carrier communications, and fiber-optics. Integrated
communications will allow for real-time control, information and data exchange
to optimize system reliability, asset utilization, and security.

Sensing and measurement


Core duties are evaluating congestion and grid stability, monitoring equipment
health, energy theft prevention, and control strategies support. Technologies
include: advanced microprocessor meters (smart meter) and meter reading
equipment, wide-area monitoring systems, dynamic line rating (typically based
on online readings by Distributed temperature sensing combined with Real time
thermal rating (RTTR) systems), electromagnetic signature
measurement/analysis, time-of-use and real-time pricing tools, advanced
switches and cables, backscatter radio technology, and Digital protective relays.
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Smart meters
A smart grid replaces analog mechanical meters with digital meters that record
usage in real time. Smart meters are similar to Advanced Metering
Infrastructure meters and provide a communication path extending from
generation plants to electrical outlets (smart socket) and other smart grid-
enabled devices. By customer option, such devices can shut down during times
of peak demand.

Phasor measurement units


High speed sensors called PMUs distributed throughout their network can be
used to monitor power quality and in some cases respond automatically to them.
Phasors are representations of the waveforms of alternating current, which
ideally in real-time, are identical everywhere on the network and conform to the
most desirable shape. In the 1980s, it was realized that the clock pulses from
global positioning system (GPS) satellites could be used for very precise time
measurements in the grid. With large numbers of PMUs and the ability to
compare shapes from alternating current readings everywhere on the grid,
research suggests that automated systems will be able to revolutionize the
management of power systems by responding to system conditions in a rapid,
dynamic fashion. A wide-area measurement system (WAMS) is a network of
PMUS that can provide real-time monitoring on a regional and national scale.
Many in the power systems engineering community believe that the Northeast
blackout of 2003 would have been contained to a much smaller area if a wide
area phasor measurement network was in place.

Advanced components
Innovations in superconductivity, fault tolerance, storage, power electronics,
and diagnostics components are changing fundamental abilities and
characteristics of grids. Technologies within these broad R&D categories
include: flexible alternating current transmission system devices, high voltage
direct current, first and second generation superconducting wire, high
temperature superconducting cable, distributed energy generation and storage
devices, composite conductors, and intelligent appliances.

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Advanced control
Power system automation enables rapid diagnosis of and precise solutions to
specific grid disruptions or outages. These technologies rely on and contribute
to each of the other four key areas. Three technology categories for advanced
control methods are: distributed intelligent agents (control systems), analytical
tools (software algorithms and high-speed computers), and operational
applications (SCADA, substation automation, demand response, etc.). Using
artificial intelligence programming techniques, Fujian power grid in China
created a wide area protection system that is rapidly able to accurately calculate
a control strategy and execute it.The Voltage Stability Monitoring & Control
(VSMC) software uses a sensitivity-based successive linear programming
method to reliably determine the optimal control solution

Improved interfaces and decision support


Information systems that reduce complexity so that operators and managers
have tools to effectively and efficiently operate a grid with an increasing
number of variables. Technologies include visualization techniques that reduce
large quantities of data into easily understood visual formats, software systems
that provide multiple options when systems operator actions are required, and
simulators for operational training and what-if analysis.

Smart power generation


Smart power generation is a concept of matching electricity production with
demand using multiple identical generators which can start, stop and operate
efficiently at chosen load, independently of the others, making them suitable for
base load and peaking power generation. Matching supply and demand, called
load balancing, is essential for a stable and reliable supply of electricity. Short-
term deviations in the balance lead to frequency variations and a prolonged
mismatch results in blackouts. Operators of power transmission systems are
charged with the balancing task, matching the power output of the all the
generators to the load of their electrical grid. The load balancing task has
become much more challenging as increasingly intermittent and variable
generators such as wind turbines and solar cells are added to the grid, forcing
other producers to adapt their output much more frequently than has been
required in the past.First two dynamic grid stability power plants utilizing the
concept has been ordered by Elering and will be built by Wrtsil in Kiisa,
Estonia. Their purpose is to "provide dynamic generation capacity to meet
sudden and unexpected drops in the electricity supply." They are scheduled to
be ready during 2013 and 2014, and their total output will be 250 MW.

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Economics of SMART GRID


Market outlook :
In 2009, the US smart grid industry was valued at about $21.4 billion
by 2014, it will exceed at least $42.8 billion. Given the success of the
smart grids in the U.S., the world market is expected to grow at a faster
rate, surging from $69.3 billion in 2009 to $171.4 billion by 2014. With
the segments set to benefit the most will be smart metering hardware
sellers and makers of software used to transmit and organize the massive
amount of data collected by meters.
General economic developments :
As customers can choose their electricity suppliers, depending on their
different tariff methods, the focus of transportation costs will be
increased. Reduction of maintenance and replacements costs will
stimulate more advanced control.

A smart grid precisely limits electrical power down to the residential level,
network small-scale distributed energy generation and storage devices,
communicate information on operating status and needs, collect information
on prices and grid conditions, and move the grid beyond central control to a
collaborative network.

US and UK savings estimates and concerns :


One United States Department of Energy study calculated that internal
modernization of US grids with smart grid capabilities would save between 46
and 117 billion dollars over the next 20 years. As well as these industrial
modernization benefits, smart grid features could expand energy efficiency
beyond the grid into the home by coordinating low priority home devices such
as water heaters so that their use of power takes advantage of the most desirable
energy sources. Smart grids can also coordinate the production of power from
large numbers of small power producers such as owners of rooftop solar
panels an arrangement that would otherwise prove problematic for power
systems operators at local utilities.

One important question is whether consumers will act in response to market


signals. In the UK, where consumers have had a choice of supply company
from which to purchase electricity since 1998, almost half have stayed with
their existing supplier, despite the fact that there are significant differences in
the prices offered by a given electricity supplier. Where consumers switch an
estimated 27-38% of consumers are worse off as a result.

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Another concern is that the cost of telecommunications to fully support smart


grids may be prohibitive. A less expensive communication mechanism is
proposed using a form of "dynamic demand management" where devices shave
peaks by shifting their loads in reaction to grid frequency. Grid frequency could
be used to communicate load information without the need of an additional
telecommunication network, but it would not support economic bargaining or
quantification of contributions.

Although there are specific and proven smart grid technologies in use, smart
grid is an aggregate term for a set of related technologies on which a
specification is generally agreed, rather than a name for a specific technology.
Some of the benefits of such a modernized electricity network include the
ability to reduce power consumption at the consumer side during peak hours,
called demand side management; enabling grid connection of distributed
generation power (with photovoltaic arrays, small wind turbines, micro hydro,
or even combined heat power generators in buildings); incorporating grid
energy storage for distributed generation load balancing; and eliminating or
containing failures such as widespread power grid cascading failures. The
increased efficiency and reliability of the smart grid is expected to save
consumers money and help reduce CO2 emissions.

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Enabling Technology

The bulk of smart grid technologies are already used in other applications such
as manufacturing and telecommunications and are being adapted for use in grid
operations. In general, smart grid technology can be grouped into five key areas

I. Integrated communications

Some communications are up to date, but are not uniform because they have
been developed in an incremental fashion and not fully integrated. In most
cases, data is being collected via modem rather than direct network connection.
Areas for improvement include: substation automation, demand response,
distribution automation, supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA),
energy management systems, wireless mesh networks and other technologies,
power- line carrier communication s and fiber-optics. Integrated communication
will allow for real time control, information and data exchange to optimize
system reliability, asset utilization, and security.

II. Sensing and measurement

Core duties are evaluating congestion and grid stability, monitoring equipment
health, energy theft prevention, and control strategies support. Technologies
include: advanced microprocessor meters (smart meter) and meter reading
equipment, wide-area monitoring system, dynamic line rating(typically based
on online reading by distributed temperature sensing combined with Real time
thermal rating (RTTR) systems), electromagnetic signature
measurement/analysis, time-of-use and real-time pricing tools, advanced
switches and cables, backscatter radio technology, and Digital protective relays.

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III. Smart meters

A smart grid replaces analog mechanical meters with digital meters that record
usage in real time. Smart meters are similar to Advanced Metering
Infrastructure meters and provide a communication path extending from
generation plants to electrical outlets (smart socket) and other smart grid-
enabled devices. By customer option, such devices can shut down during times
of peak demand.

IV. Advanced components

Innovations in superconductivity, fault tolerance, storage, power electronics,


and diagnostics components are changing fundamental abilities and
characteristics of grids. Technologies within these broad R&D categories
include: flexible alternating current transmission system devices, high voltage
direct current, first and second generation superconducting wire, high
temperature superconducting cable, distributed energy generation and storage
devices, composite conductors, and intelligent appliances.

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ENERGY CONSERVATION
TECHNIOUES
ENERGY CONSERVATION IN TRANSMISSION
SYSTEM:
Transformer is a static device. It does not have any moving parts. So, a
transformer is free from mechanical and frictional losses. Thus, it faces only
electrical losses and magnetic losses. Hence the efficiency of conventional
transformer is high around 95-98%.
Thus, energy conservation opportunities for transformer are available only in
design and material used. Also optimizing loading of transformer can increase
efficiency of system.

ENERGY CONSERVATION TECHNIQUES IN


TRANSFORMER
OPTIMIZATION OF LOADING OF TRANSFORMER

The environmental protection agency (EPA) brought study report that nearly 61
billion K WH of electricity is wasted in each year only as transformer losses.
Study of typical grid system showed that, power transformer contributes nearly
40% to 50% of total transmission and distribution losses.
Maintaining maximum efficiency to occur at 38% loading (as recommended by
REC), the overall efficiency of transformer can be increased and its losses can
be reduced. The load loss may be even reduced by using thicker conductors .

Transformer ratings Reduction in losses at 38% loading


25 KVA 685-466W

63KVA 1235-844W

100KVA 1760-1196W

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IMPROVISION IN DESIGN AND MATERIAL OF


TRANSFORMER
This is nothing but the reducing No-Load losses or Core Losses. They can be reduced
by following methods:-
1) BY USING ENERGY EFFICIENT TRANSFORMER-

By using superior quality or improved grades of CRGO (Cold Rolled Grain Oriented)
laminations, the no-load losses can be reduced to 32%.

2) BY USING AMORPHOUS TRANSFORMER

Transformer with superior quality of core material i.e. amorphous alloy is called
Amorphous Transformers. Amorphous alloy is made up of Iron-boron-silicon
alloy. The magnetic core of this transformer is made with amorphous metal,
which is easily magnetized / demagnetized. Typically, core loss can be 7080%
less than its molten metal mixture when cooled to solid state at a very high
speed rate, retain a random atomic structure that is not crystalline. This is called
Amorphous.

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Amorphous transformer

ENERGY CONSERVATION IN TRANSMISSION


LINE:-
Transmission losses can be reduced as follows:-
1) BY REDUCING RESISTANCE -

Losses are directly proportional to I2r in conductor. So, if we reduce R from


this surely the losses will be reduced. For this we can use stranded or bundled
conductors or ACSR conductors. And even this method is been adopted and
also successful.

ACC ACSR Conductor

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2) BY CONTROLLING VOLTAGE LEVELS -

This can be done by following methods-


1. by using voltage controllers
2. by using voltage stabilizer

3. By using power factor controller

AWRENESS IN CONSUMERS -
This is one of most important and useful/helpful for energy conservation. This
can be done by asking consumer to make use of energy efficient equipments, by
giving seminar about energy conservation and make them aware and understand
about the happening and there advantages and disadvantages etc.
Effective use of smart grid technologies by customer helps utilities
Optimizes grid use.
Improve grid efficiency and security.
Better align demand with supply constraints & grid congestion.
Enable distributed generation (especially from renewable sources)

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ENERGY CONSERVATION IN
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM :-
This is done by considering following points:-
1) BALANCING OF PHASE LOAD-
As a result of unequal loads on individual phase sequence,
components causes over heating of transformers, cables, conductors
motors. Thus, increasing losses and resulting in the motor
malfunctioning under unbalanced voltage conditions. Thus, keeping the
system negative phase sequence voitage within limits, amount of savings
in capital (saving the duration of equipment )as well as energy losses.
Thus, to avoid this losses, the loads are distributed evenly as is practical
between the phases.

1) POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT-


Low power factor will lead to increased current and hence increase
losses and will affect the voltage. The power factor at peak is almost
unity. However, during off peak hours, mainly (11 am to 3 pm ) the
power factor decreases to around 0.8, this may be due to following
reasons,
Wide use of fans.
Wide industrial loads.
Wide use of agricultural and domestic pumping motors.
Less use of high power factor loads like lightube etc.
Now, to improve power factor at off peak hours the
consumers must be aware of the effects of low power factor and must
connect compensation equipment DSTACOM, capacitor bank.

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SMART METERS

A smart meter generally refers to a type of advanced meters that identifies


consumption in more detail than a conventional meter and communicates that
information back to the local utility for monitoring and billing, a process known
as telemetering.

These meters includes additional functions to power measurement such as


communication, data storage, remote programming, and time-of-use rates, and
are intended to be deployed as advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) solution.
Smart meters are the next generation of electricity and gas meters. Smart meter
will empower customer to make choices on how much energy they use.
Supplier will install two-way communication system that display accurate real
time information on energy use in the home to the consumer and back to the
energy supplier.

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COMPONENTS USED
ATMEGA 16

PIN DIAGRAM OF ATMEGA 16

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The ATmega16 is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR


enhanced RISC architecture. By executing powerful instructions in a single
clock cycle, the ATmega16 achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz
allowing the system designed to optimize power consumption versus processing
speed.
Pin Descriptions

VCC Digital supply voltage.


GND Ground.
Port A (PA7..PA0)
Port A also serves as an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port, if the A/D Converter is not
used. Port pins can provide internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The
Port A output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink
and source capability. When pins PA0 to PA7 are used as inputs and are
externally pulled low, they will source current if the internal pull-up resistors
are activated. The Port A pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes
active,even if the clock is not running

Port B (PB7..PB0)

Port B is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected
for each bit). The Port B output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics
with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port B pins that are
externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated.
The Port B pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active,
even if the clock is not running.

Port C (PC7..PC0)
Port C is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected
for each bit). The Port C output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics
with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port C pins that are
externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated.
The Port C pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active,even if the
clock is not running. If the JTAG interface is enabled, the pull-up resistors on
pins PC5 (TDI), PC3 (TMS) and PC2 (TCK) will be activated even if a reset
occurs.

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Port D (PD7..PD0)
Port D is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected
for each bit). The Port D output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics
with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port D pins that are
externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated.
The Port D pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active,even if the
clock is not running.

RESET Reset Input.

A low level on this pin for longer than the minimum pulse length will generate a
reset, even if the clock is not running.

XTAL1

Input to the inverting Oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock
operating circuit.
XTAL2

Output from the inverting Oscillator amplifier.


AVCC

AVCC is the supply voltage pin for Port A and the A/D Converter. It should be
externally connected to VCC, even if the ADC is not used. If the ADC is used,
it should be connected to VCC through a low-pass filter.
AREF

AREF is the analog reference pin for the A/D Converter

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DTMF

The MT8870 is an 18-pin IC. It is used in telephones and a variety of other


applications. When a proper output is not obtained in projects using this IC,
engineers or technicians need to test this IC separately. A quick testing of this
could save a lot of time in research labs and manufacturing industries of
communication instruments. Heres a small and handy tester circuit for the
DTMF IC. It can be assembled on a multipurpose PCB with an 18-pin IC base.
One can also test the IC on a simple breadboard. For optimum working of
telephone equipment, the DTMF receiver must be designed to recognize a valid
tone pair greater than 40 ms in duration and to accept successive digit tone-pairs
that are
Greater than 40 ms apart. However, for other applications like remote controls
and Radio communications, the tone duration may differ due to noise
considerations. Therefore, by adding an extra resistor and steering diode the
tone duration can beset to different values.

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The Status of LEDs on Pressing Keys

The circuit is configured in balanced line mode. To reject common-mode noise


signals, a balanced differential amplifier input is used. The circuit also provides
an excellent bridging interface across a properly terminated telephone line.
Transient protection may be achieved by splitting the input resistors and
inserting zener diodes (ZD1 and ZD2) to achieve voltage clamping. This allows
the transient energy to be dissipated in the resistors and diodes, and limits the
maximum voltage that may appear at the inputs. Whenever you press any key
on your local telephone keypad, the delayed steering (Std) output of the IC goes
high on receiving the tone pair, causing LED5 (connected )to pin 15 of IC via
resistor R15) to glow. It will be high for a duration depending on the values of
capacitor and resistors at pins 16 and 17. The MT8870D/MT8870D-1 is a
complete DTMF receiver integrating both the band split filter and digital
decoder functions. The filter section uses switched capacitor techniques for high
and low group filters; the decoder uses digital counting techniques to detect and
decode all 16 DTMF tone pairs into a 4-bit code. External component count is

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minimized by on chip provision of a differential input amplifier, clock oscillator


and latched three-state bus interface.

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LCD

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IC 7805

The MC78XX/LM78XX/MC78XXA series of three terminal positive


regulators are available in the TO-220/D-PAK package and with
several fixed output voltages, making them useful in a wide range of
applications. Each type employs internal current limiting, thermal
shut down and safe operating area protection, making it essentially
indestructible. If adequate heat sinking is provided, they can deliver
over 1A output current. Although designed primarily as fixed voltage
regulators, these devices can be used with external components to
obtain adjustable voltages and currents.

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BLOCK DIAGRAM OF 7805

Electrical Characteristics (MC7805/LM7805)

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RELAY

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BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE


CIRCUIT

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Working Principle
Smart grid does a lot of works. It is not possible to demonstrate each of the
tasks in a single project. So an attempt is made to demonstrate some of its
functions like automatic scheduling, power shading, distance controls etc.

Description of loads:
1. Two simple houses representing a colony
2. A hospital
3. An industry

In case of the colony, the houses are supplied by the main supply. In case
of power cut, they are being supplied by the storage which is represented
by an UPS.
But when the storage discharges fully in case of long power cut, then the
colony remains in dark.

In the hospital, since many of the biomedical equipment like breather are
running continuously on the electricity, so there is an interruptible need of
electric supply.
So, for the hospital, an arrangement is made such that if the main supply
goes off, then it is being supplied by UPS. When UPS discharges, then it
is being supplied by another energy source representing renewable energy
source.

In case of Industry, two loads are shown by means of two bulbs. The first
load in the industry is its normal load and the second one is extra or
overload.
During normal operation, it is being supplied by the main supply. During
power cut, it is being supplied by the renewable energy source.

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In case of overload, a notification is given to the colony or general


consumers in form of a buzzer and then after sometime the power is cut
in the colony for load shading purpose.

All these devices and operation are controllable by mobile showing the latest
distance supervision and operation functions. This is done by means of DTMF
(dual tone multiple frequency).

Fig: Smart Grid

Here as can be seen, the main power supply is directly connected to the UPS
and then to the colony loads. This makes the houses to work under main power
cut conditions also by the use of UPS.

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Fig: UPS representing storage in the grid

Here as can be seen, in the UPS, a dc storage is there in form of lead-acid


battery followed by an inverter circuit and then by a transformer. Under normal
condition when main supply is there, the battery get charged. 230v ac is
stepped-down to approx.17v ac and is then rectified to 12v dc to charge the
battery.
In case of power cut, the storage acts as the source. 12v dc is converted to
approx. 17v ac by the use of inverter circuit and then is stepped-up to 230v ac to
supply to the loads.

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Fig: transformer with rectifier ckt. Fig: 2C relays


As can be seen in the figure, in the first circuit, the supply from UPS is also
stepped down to approx. 17v ac by means of a transformer and is then rectified
to 12v ac to operate the 2C relay.

The rectified output is given to the exciting coil of the 2c relay. Normally the
plate is attached to the NC pin of the relay under not excited condition. So we
have attached the NO (normally open) pin to the main supply, so that in case of
main power on, the supply is provided by the main to the hospital.
In case the mains gets off, the UPS supplies the hospital load. And if UPS too
gets discharged in case of long power cut, then the renewable energy source
connected to the NC (normally closed) pin comes into action and supplies the
hospital load.

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In case of industry too, the same concept is used. Ac supply from mains is
stepped-down to be rectified to yield 12v dc to run the relay. In case the mains
gets off, the renewable energy source supplies the industry load.
Another complication has also been added to the industry to show the load
shading. In case the extra or overload is on, a buzzer is made on by the help of
microcontroller and then after some time the colony power cut happens.

In addition to all these, all the loads can be controlled individually by using a
mobile phone showing the distance operation using DTMF technology. For this
purpose, a 1c relay each is connected to individuals loads.
Also, the UPS charging or not charging can be controlled by distance operation
using DTMF technology.

Fig: relays with loads.

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COMPARISION BETWEEN TODAYS GRID AND SMART GRID


(MODERN GRID)

Characteristics Todays grid Smart grid (Modern


grid)
1) Self-heals Respond to prevent further Automatically detects &
damage. focus is on respond to actual &
protection of assets emerging transmission
following system faults. &distribution problems.
Focus is on prevention.
minimizes computer
impacts.
2) Motivates & Consumers are uniformed Informed involve &active
includes the &non-participative with the consumers. Broad
consumers power system. penetration of demand
response.
3) Resist attack Vulnerable to malicious Resilient to attach &natural
acts of terrors natural disasters with rapid
disasters. restoration capabilities.
4) Provided power Focused on outstage rather Quality of power meets
quality for 21st than power quality industry standards &
century needs problems. Solve response in consumers need. PQ issues
revolving PQ issues. identified &revolved prior
to manifestation. Various
levels of PQ at various
prices.
5) Accommodates all Relatively small no. of Very large no. of diverse
generation and large generating plants. distributed generation &
storage option. numerous obstacles exist storage devices deployed to
for interconnecting DER. complements the large
generating plant.

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Obstacles & Challenges


In Europe and the US, significant impediments exist to the widespread adoption
of smart grid technologies, including:

Regulatory environments that don't reward utilities for operational


efficiency, excluding U.S. awards.
consumer concerns over privacy,
social concerns over "fair" availability of electricity,
social concerns over Enron style abuses of information leverage,
Limited ability of utilities to rapidly transform their business and
operational environment to take advantage of smart grid technologies.
concerns over giving the government mechanisms to control the use of all
power using activities, and
Concerns on computer security.

Before a utility installs an advanced metering system, or any type of smart


system, it must make a business case for the investment. Some components, like
the power system stabilizers (PSS) installed on generators are very expensive,
require complex integration in the grid's control system, are needed only during
emergencies, but are only effective if other suppliers on the network have them.
Without any incentive to install them, power suppliers don't. Most utilities find
it difficult to justify installing a communications infrastructure for a single
application (e.g. meter reading). Because of this, a utility must typically identify
several applications that will use the same communications infrastructure for
example, reading a meter, monitoring power quality, remote connection and
disconnection of customers, enabling demand response, etc. Ideally, the
communications infrastructure will not only support near-term applications, but
unanticipated applications that will arise in the future. Regulatory or legislative
actions can also drive utilities to implement pieces of a smart grid puzzle. Each
utility has a unique set of business, regulatory, and legislative drivers that guide
its investments. This means that each utility will take a different path to creating
their smart grid and that different utilities will create smart grids at different
adoption rates.

Some features of smart grids draw opposition from industries that currently are,
or hope to provide similar services. An example is competition with cable and
DSL Internet providers from broadband over power line internet access.
Providers of SCADA control systems for grids have intentionally designed
proprietary hardware, protocols and software so that they cannot inter-operate
with other systems in order to tie its customers to the vendor.

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With the advent of cybercrime there is also concern on the security of the
infrastructure, primarily that involving communications technology. Concerns
chiefly center around the communications technology at the heart of the smart
grid. Designed to allow real-time contact between utilities and meters in
customers' homes and businesses, there is a very real risk that these capabilities
could be exploited for criminal or even terrorist actions. One of the key
capabilities of this connectivity is the ability to remotely switch off power
supplies, enabling utilities to quickly and easily cease or modify supplies to
customers who default on payment. This undoubtedly a massive boon for
energy providers, but also raises some significant security issues.
Cybercriminals have infiltrated the U.S. electric grid before on numerous
occasions. Aside from computer infiltration, there are also concerns that
computer malware like Stuxnet, which targeted systems on the SCADA
software language widely used in industry, could do to a smart grid network

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PROS & CONS

Advantages Of Smart Grid-


Reduces the cost of blackouts.
Helps measure and reduces energy conservation and costs.
Help businesses to reduce their carbon footprints.
Opens up new opportunities for tech companies meaning more jobs created.

Disadvantages of Smart Grid


Biggest concern: it has security and privacy.
Two-way communication between power consumer and provider and
sensors so it is costly.
Some type of meter can hacked.
HACKER-
Gain control of thousand even millions, of meters.
Increases or decreases the demand of power.
Not simply a single component .various technology components are used
are software, system integrators, the power generators.

Future
In the new future, will not be any vast development.
Risky because of financial developments and regulations.
In the long run, attitudes will change, wide spread usage of the smart grid
from every business to every home just like the internet.

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Resources of information

Articles

Energy Conservation Through Energy Management


- by Prof. S. P. Rath (IEEMA magazine, January
2008)

WIRELESS Transmission Of Electric Power


- by Syed Khadeerullah (Electrical India magazine, January
2008)
Magazine of Electrical India 2010

Websites:-
www.nima.com
www.howstuffworks.com
www.wikipedia.com
www.xcelenergy.com/smartgridcity
www.schneider.com
www.powersmiths.com
www.renewableenrgyworld.com

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