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State of Qatar - Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs

Contents

Contents

i

1

Drainage Systems Design

1

  • 1.1 Policies and Environmental Controls

1

1.1.1

Flood Standards and Acceptability

................................................................................

2

1.1.2

Run-off and Recharge of Groundwater

.........................................................................

3

1.1.3

Multi-purpose Use of Attenuation Storage Areas

4

Standards

  • 1.2 .....................................................................................................................

5

  • 1.3 Sources of Information

5

Catchments

  • 1.4 ...................................................................................................................

6

1.4.1

Catchment

Boundary

6

1.4.2

Catchment

Characteristics

6

  • 1.5 Design Storms (Rainfall Intensity & Rainfall Depth)......................................................6

1.5.1

Introduction

....................................................................................................................

6

1.5.2

Rainfall

Data Availability

................................................................................................

6

1.5.3

Historic

Design Rainfall Parameters

8

  • 1.6 Run-off Estimation

14

1.6.1

Urban Run-Off

14

1.6.2

Non-Urban Run-off

......................................................................................................

14

1.6.3

Runoff Characteristics of Qatar

14

1.6.4

Estimation of Runoff

15

  • 1.7 Ground Permeabilities

................................................................................................

16

  • 1.8 Groundwater Levels and Quality

16

  • 1.9 Hydraulic Analysis Processes

16

1.9.1

Models (physical and mathematical)

17

1.9.2

Formulae

.....................................................................................................................

19

1.9.3

Prescribed Software

20

  • 1.10 General Design Considerations

21

1.10.1

Gullies

.........................................................................................................................

21

 

1.10.2

Pipeline systems and Outfalls

21

1.10.3

Pumping Stations (policy for surface water and groundwater discharge)

...................

22

1.10.4

Attenuation Areas and Detention Ponds

23

  • 1.11 Pipelines

24

1.11.1

Minimum Pipe Sizes and Gradients

............................................................................

24

1.11.2

Minimum and Maximum Flow Velocities

25

1.11.3

Pipeline Materials

25

1.11.4

Pipe Bedding Calculations for Narrow and Wide Trench Conditions

..........................

26

1.11.5

Manhole Positioning

....................................................................................................

28

1.11.6

Manholes and Access Chambers

29

1.11.7

Reinstatement and Back-filling

29

  • 1.12 Soakaways

30

1.12.1

Standard

Soakaways

30

1.12.2

Borehole

Soakaways

31

State of Qatar - Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs

1.12.3

Soakaway Trenches

31

Storage Facilities

  • 1.13 ........................................................................................................

31

1.13.1

Ponds/Depressions

31

1.13.2

Tanks

32

Groundwater Control

  • 1.14 ...................................................................................................

36

1.14.1

Groundwater Levels

....................................................................................................

36

1.14.2

Ground Water Drains

36

2

Pumping Stations

38

Standards

  • 2.1 ...................................................................................................................

38

  • 2.2 .........................................................................................................

Hydraulic Design

38

2.2.1

Hydraulic

Principles

.....................................................................................................

38

2.2.2

Pump Arrangements

40

  • 2.3 .....................................................................................................

Rising Main Design

40

2.3.1

Rising Main Diameters

40

2.3.2

Twin Rising Mains

40

2.3.3

Economic Analysis

......................................................................................................

40

2.3.4

Rising Main Alignment

41

  • 2.4 Maximum and Minimum Velocities

41

  • 2.5 .............................................................................................................

Pipe Materials

41

  • 2.6 ..............................................................................................................

Thrust Blocks

41

  • 2.7 Air Valves and Washout Facilities

42

2.7.1

Air Valves

....................................................................................................................

42

2.7.2

Vented Non-return Valves

42

2.7.3

Wash – Outs

42

2.7.4

Isolating Valves

42

  • 2.8 Flow Meters

42

2.8.1

Application and Selection

42

2.8.2

Magnetic Flowmeters

42

  • 2.9 Surge Protection Measures

44

Screens

  • 2.10 .......................................................................................................................

45

  • 2.11 Pumping Stations – Selection

46

  • 2.12 ......................................................................................................

Pumps and Motors

50

Sump Design

  • 2.13 ..............................................................................................................

50

  • 2.14 Suction/Delivery Pipework, Isolation

52

  • 2.15 Pumping System Characteristics

................................................................................

52

  • 2.16 Pump Pumps and Over-pumping Facilities

.................................................................

55

  • 2.17 Power Calculations including Standby Generation

55

  • 2.17.1 ..................................................................................................................

Introduction

55

  • 2.17.2 ...................................................................................................................

Load Type

55

Site condition

  • 2.17.3 ...............................................................................................................

55

  • 2.17.4 Generator set operation and control

56

of

  • 2.17.5 ......................................................................................................

Type

installation

56

of

  • 2.17.6 ...................................................................................................

Type

control panel

56

  • 2.17.7 Ventilation system.......................................................................................................56

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Volume 3

SW Drainage

1 st Edition June 2005 - Copyright Ashghal

State of Qatar - Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs

  • 2.17.8 .................................................................................................................

Fuel system

56

  • 2.17.9 Starting

method

57

Service facility

  • 2.17.10 .............................................................................................................

57

Generator set sizing

  • 2.17.11 ....................................................................................................

57

  • 2.18 Switch Gear and Control Panels

58

2.18.1

Type–tested and partially type tested assemblies (TTA and PTTA)

...........................

58

2.18.2

Total connected load

58

2.18.3

Short circuit level

.........................................................................................................

58

2.18.4

Type of co-ordination

..................................................................................................

59

2.18.5

Form

of

internal separation

59

2.18.6

Bus Bar rating

..............................................................................................................

60

2.18.7

Type of starter

.............................................................................................................

60

2.18.8

Protection device

61

2.18.9

Interlocking facility

62

2.18.10

Accessibility

63

2.18.11

Cable entry

63

  • 2.19 PLC’s SCADA/Telemetry

63

2.19.1

PLC

63

2.19.2

RTU.............................................................................................................................64

2.19.3

SCADA and Telemetry Systems

64

  • 2.20 .......................................................................................................................

Lighting

65

2.20.1

Light Fitting Selection Criteria

65

  • 2.21 ...................................................................................................

Maintenance Access

68

  • 2.22 Gantry Cranes and Lifting Facilities

............................................................................

69

  • 2.23 Ventilation, Odour Control and Air Conditioning

70

2.23.1

Ventilation

70

2.23.2

Odour Control

71

2.23.3

Air Conditioning

71

Structural Design

  • 2.24 ........................................................................................................

72

2.24.1

Substructures

72

2.24.2

Superstructures

79

  • 2.25 ..........................................................................................

Site

Boundary Wall/Fence

86

Site

  • 2.26 ...............................................................................................................

Facilities

86

  • 3 Documentation

87

General

  • 3.1 .........................................................................Error!

Bookmark not defined.

  • 3.2 Guidance on Environmental Impact Statements

87

  • 3.3 ............................................................................................................

Building Permit

87

Health and Safety

  • 4 ....................................................................................................

88

References

  • 5 ...............................................................................................................

89

State of Qatar - Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs

State of Qatar - Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs

  • 1 Drainage Systems Design

As stated in Volume 2 - Foul Sewerage, the drainage system in Qatar, for managing surface water (mostly stormwater runoff) and groundwater, is separate to that for managing foul sewage. The surface water drainage system serving development in Qatar is a mixture of highway and road drainage, and dedicated surface water drainage systems. The groundwater control system is the responsibility of the DA, and is usually combined with the surface water system, so that the combined flows are directed to common attenuation tanks, pumping stations and outfalls. These shared arrangements will minimise land use and environmental impacts of separate systems. The shared system will also operate all year round with groundwater flows, thus maximising reliability to deal with the much larger flows from the infrequent rainfall events.

Highway and road drainage is the responsibility of the Roads Department, and is to be designed in accordance with the Qatar Highway Design Manual (QHDM) i . The Qatar Highway Design Manual requires that “the highway engineer must carefully consider adjacent development and its discharge points and characteristics in order to accurately assess the total catchment that may be contributing to the highway drainage system under design.”

Highway drainage is provided for all urban roads, collecting all rainfall within the catchment area, and disposing of it within the highway limits or to a designated outfall point. Thus the highway drainage system should cater for both carriageway drainage and drainage of adjacent developments discharging to the road.

Carriageway drainage is achieved by longitudinal and transverse gradients of the road surface to direct storm runoff flows to gullies located in the edge channel or gutter. The gullies are then linked to the stormwater disposal system. Due to the flat topography and limited stormwater drainage system, the road gullies often discharge to an adjacent soakaway or infiltration trench. Most developments discharge their stormwater to

adjacent roads as surface runoff. There are thus relatively few pipeline systems discharging stormwater from developments to dedicated

stormwater systems.

The topography of Doha is relatively flat but undulating, and thus catchment boundaries and natural drainage routes are often poorly defined. Recent extensive development has caused flooding to become more problematic, especially in the Greater Doha area, due to:

Increased roofed and paved areas producing greater and quicker surface water runoff flows;

Reduced permeable areas for surface waters to soak into the ground;

Interference with natural flood paths by urban development and road construction;

No

provision

within

the

roads

services

hierarchy

for

surface

or

groundwater

drainage systems;

 

Development becoming increasingly distant from natural drainage outlets on the coast;

Greater public awareness of flooding;

 

Rising groundwater table, reducing the rate of surface waters soaking into the ground.

The drainage system is designed to address such flooding problems by managing both surface runoff and groundwater flows.

The existing Doha surface water and groundwater control systems comprise individual schemes to address particular flooding problems.

  • 1.1 Policies and Environmental Controls

The difficulty in draining catchments that have no natural outlet to the sea or to low-lying inland areas is recognised. The advantages of controlling surface runoff at source are also accepted.

The policy principles for design of surface water and groundwater control systems are:

Surface water and groundwater systems should use common facilities where possible;

State of Qatar - Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs

Where stormwater discharges above ground level, such as from buildings, runoff control systems (i.e. source control) should be installed;

Runoff control systems should be installed at source to regulate discharge to the public infrastructure drainage systems;

to

be

slow,

 

Where development is likely soakaway systems and / or

use of retention

areas should be used as an interim solution.

 

Positive drainage systems should be provided to

drain

flows

to

the

sea

or

other approved

discharge areas;

 

Where a SW system is planned or already exists, the permissible peak flow from the new sub-catchment into the SW system will be

determined by DA. If the calculated

peak flow

exceeds this figure, the difference must be catered for by a combination of attenuation tanks and soakaways;

Rate of runoff should be attenuated by the use of short-term flooding of roads, storage areas or tanks;

Soakaways to drain surface waters may be required to attenuate runoff to positive drainage systems or retention areas;

Flood plains and routes are to be identified and kept clear of development to facilitate runoff of surface waters;

Positive drainage systems, using pipes and culverts should be constructed where possible in carriageways in accordance with the agreed services hierarchy. The designer should note that there is currently no allowance for positive drainage systems within the road hierarchy and therefore the location of all drains must be agreed with the DA.

Much work is being carried out to manage the surface water and groundwater regimes in Qatar. However the urgent need for a thorough Master Plan Review is evident. This Review would bring focus to the ongoing drainage activities and allow future development, road construction and drainage infrastructure works to progress with confidence.

  • 1.1.1 Flood Standards and Acceptability

Flood Return Periods

The levels of flood protection required by the DA are shown in Table 1.1.1 below.

Table 1.1.1 - Levels of Flood Protection Required for Various Areas in Qatar

 

Event

Area

I in 2 Years Storm

Parks, playgrounds, natural areas and minor roads

1

in 5 Years Storm

Low cost housing, major roads

1

in 10 Years Storm

Government, institutional and other official development, technically sensitive property, basements, power equipment, etc High cost housing

1

in 25 Years Storm

High prestige or ceremonial developments

Acceptable Highway Flood Standards

The guidelines for flood standards proposed by the DA are shown in Table 1.1.2 below.

Table 1.1.2 – Guidelines for Flood Standards on Qatar Roadways

Road

Acceptable flooding

Small Local Roads

Flood depth of 0.15m maximum depth and duration of 2 hours

Main Local Roads

Flood depth of 0.15m maximum depth and duration of 1 hour

Major Roads

Flood depth of 0.10m maximum and duration of

  • 30 minutes

Primary Routes

Flood depth of 0.10m maximum and duration of

  • 10 minutes

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Volume 3

SW Drainage

1 st Edition June 2005 - Copyright Ashghal

State of Qatar - Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs

Surcharge

Drains should not be surcharged under groundwater flows, but may be surcharged under periodic flows from surface water runoff.

Building Levels

Finished floor

level

in

all

buildings

shall

be

constructed a minimum of 150mm above adjacent

road levels.

  • 1.1.2 Run-off and Recharge of Groundwater

  • 1.1.2.1 Surface Water Control

There are few districts served by truly separate systems (i.e. a foul sewer and storm drain in each road way serving all properties).

The Wadi Musherib system was constructed to deal with a major flooding area within C-Ring Road.

Engineered drainage schemes have been designed to cater for 2, 5 and 10-year storms, depending on the areas and importance of the buildings and facilities to be protected. For storms of greater severity, it is normal practice to retain storage areas (“flood plains”) to retain or convey the flood flows. Flood plains are areas that would not be damaged on inconvenienced by flooding, such as car parks and recreational areas. The limit of the flood plain is defined by the contour of the maximum level which the floodwaters would be expected to reach during the specified storm.

The enclosed catchments (being those without outlet to the sea or suitable low-lying inland areas) are the most problematic to drain, and therefore it is essential that both the volume and rate of storm runoff be controlled to minimise storage and pumping requirements downstream.

The DA is preparing detailed maps to define “flood plain” areas in two categories:

Primary Flood Plain areas which are subject to an increasing magnitude and frequency of flooding as urban development takes place in the upper catchment areas;

Secondary Flood Plain areas which can be in-filled or have drainage systems installed to avoid flooding problems, provided the storm runoff can be transferred (i.e. drain) to lower lying areas.

These maps will include basic information on the main drainage routes, and overland flow routes for each catchment. The intention is that these maps will be used by various government departments (i.e. Roads, Planning) to control development in “flood plain” areas and across natural drainage

routes.

  • 1.1.2.2 Groundwater Control

Groundwater levels in many parts of Doha have risen markedly in recent years, causing deterioration of buildings and buried services. The high water levels have restricted the performance of septic tanks and soakaways, and have caused subsidence of surfaces.

In inland areas, the flat and undulating topography, combined with highly impervious rock strata,results in perched water tables Such areas are without efficient drainage routes, and hence susceptible to significant rises in groundwater levels during heavy rainfall.

Urban development has also increased flows soaking into the ground, due to septic tanks, water supply leakage and irrigation. The result has been significant rises in groundwater levels, due to limited permeability of the ground.

Groundwater levels in Doha have been studied since the early 1980’s. The main conclusions are:

Groundwater levels have been rising due to recharge as a result of leakage;

Ground

conditions

and

permeability

are

highly

variable

even

within

very localised

areas;

Reductions in groundwater levels have been seen where sewerage systems are installed, due to closure of septic tanks and infiltration into the sewers;

Most groundwater

levels

rise

by

between

1.0m

and 1.5m

during

a

wet

period when

monthly rainfall exceeds 30mm. Level rise

State of Qatar - Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs

reduces to between 0.5m and 0.6m nearer the coast.

Groundwater drainage systems have used permeable drains, as were successfully used for the Wadi Musherib scheme. These are installed in the same trench as the deeper surface water drain, both systems discharging to common manholes, attenuation tanks and pumping stations.

  • 1.1.2.3 Re-Use of Groundwater

Water is a scarce and expensive commodity in the Middle East, and therefore every opportunity for its re-use should be exploited.

Irrigation

Currently in Qatar, water supply for irrigation is supplied by both fresh (drinking) water and treated sewage effluent (TSE). Fresh water is used to irrigate public areas, such as parks, due to concerns about possible infection from TSE. TSE is used elsewhere, such as for irrigating planting along highways, etc. As landscaping works spread, the demand for irrigation water is increasing, and therefore groundwater presents a possible source for highway irrigation. It is unlikely that groundwater would be of satisfactory quality for irrigation of public areas.

To re-use groundwater for irrigation would require:

Groundwater of suitable quality for planting, in view of the potential pollutants of groundwater from salts and chemicals derived from soils, and from septic tanks;

Infrastructure systems to treat as necessary,

and transfer

groundwater to the irrigation

system.

Re-Use for Flushing

Another destination for groundwater could be for flushing toilets, vehicle washing, etc. As with irrigation re-use, the groundwater would need to be of adequate quality to be safe for inadvertent exposure to humans. The necessary infrastructure would also need to be in place, such as dual storage and flushing systems in commercial and domestic premises. Such dual systems are used in other parts of the world, e.g. Hong Kong, where sea water is used for flushing toilets.

Ongoing Arrangements

Re-use of groundwater depends on water quality, and the feasibility of groundwater being treated to the required quality for reuse. Information on groundwater quality is limited, so a sampling and analysis regime should be set-up to analyse groundwater sources. The main potential sampling points would be the attenuation tanks and pumping stations on the surface water/groundwater control system, and boreholes within or near the urban area.

Assuming

that

an

adequate

supply

of

groundwater, of suitable quality can be made available, then a feasibility study should follow to

assess the practicality of transferring groundwater into any potential re-use systems. The study should include cost-benefit analysis, comparing costs of re-use arrangements, with costs of expanding current arrangements.

The DA will produce (in co-ordination with SCENR and other interested parties) the reuse regulations for surface and groundwater. The existing GW quality analysis results, the outcoming results of the comprehensive GW sampling programme, as well as the reuse regulations will provide a database. The feasibility study will then assess the practicality of transferring groundwater into any potential re-use systems.

  • 1.1.3 Multi-purpose Use of Attenuation Storage Areas

Positive SW systems are designed to collect and discharge rainfall as quickly as possible from the areas on which it falls. This is not always the most appropriate means of disposal because of the high runoff peaks that can be generated.

Sustainable drainage systems are being introduced in some countries, including facilities for the attenuation of surface runoff by the use of attenuation basins, and in some cases detention areas. These facilities can provide an opportunity for enhancing the environment by the creation of wildlife friendly habitat. This is particularly the case with detention ponds, which can be permanent features of the landscape.

Where it is only required to provide attenuation during high rainfall events, this can be achieved by

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Volume 3

SW Drainage

1 st Edition June 2005 - Copyright Ashghal

State of Qatar - Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs

using recreational areas such as football pitches or parkland areas. These areas are allowed to flood on those occasions when the rate of rainfall requires it. Such areas must be generally below the elevation level of the surrounding developed areas. Surface water is collected in a conventional system and discharged to the attenuation basin, from which it is allowed to drain at a reduced rate, commensurate with the ability of the receiving water course to accept the flows without damage. Where ground conditions allow, infiltration may occur which helps to reduce the impact on the receiving waters.

Constructed wetlands (CWs) are defined as engineered or constructed wetlands that utilise natural processes involving wetland vegetation, soils, and their associated microbiological features to assist, at least partially, in treating an effluent or other water source. The degree of wildlife habitat provided by CWs varies broadly. At one end of the spectrum are those systems that are intended only to provide temporary storage for an effluent such as TSE, and provide little or no wildlife habitat. At the other end are those systems that are intended to provide water reuse, wildlife habitat, and public use.

1.2

Standards

The following standards are of interest to designers in SW and foul sewerage systems. This list is by no means exhaustive, but is intended as an easy initial reference. (References are also included at the end of this volume). Volume 1, Section 1.5, also contains the complete list of references for all volumes of this manual.

BS EN 752 ii – Drain and sewer systems outside buildings (supersedes BS 8005 iii , which is withdrawn, and part of BS 8301 iv ).

Part 1: 1996

Generalities and

Definitions

Part 2: 1997

Performance

Requirements

Part 3: 1997

Planning

Part 4: 1998

Hydraulic Design

and Environmental

Considerations

Part 5: 1998

Rehabilitation

 

Part 6: 1998

Pumping

 

Installations

 

Part 7: 1998

Maintenance and

 

Operations

BS EN 598: 1995 – Ductile iron pipes, fittings, accessories and their joints for sewerage applications – Requirements and test methods v .

BS EN 1610: 1998 – Construction and testing

of drains and sewers vi . Sewers for Adoption – 5th Edition (WRc) vii .

BS EN124: 1994 Gully tops and manhole tops for vehicular and pedestrian areas – Design requirements, type testing, marking, quality control viii .

  • 1.3 Sources of Information

The following publications are of interest to designers in SW and foul sewerage systems. This list is by no means exhaustive, but is intended as an easy initial reference. (References are also included at the end of this volume). Volume 1, Section 1.5 also contains the complete list of references for all manuals.

Department of the Environment National Water Council Standing Technical Committee Reports, 1981, Design and analysis of urban storm drainage - The Wallingford Procedure, National Water Council UK.

State of Kuwait Ministry of Planning & Hyder Consulting, 2001, Kuwait Stormwater Masterplan Hydrological Aspects - Final Report. Cardiff, (AU00109/D1/015), Hyder Consulting.

Highways Agency, 2002, DMRB Volume 4 Section 2 Part 5 (HA 104/02) – Geotechnics and Drainage. Chamber pots and gully tops for road drainage and services: Installation and maintenance, London, Highways Agency.

Water Research Council, 1997, Sewerage

Detention

Tanks

A

Design

Guide,

UK,

WRC.

Sea Outfalls – construction, inspection and repair – CIRIA.

Construction

Industry

Research

and

Information Association, 1996, Report R159:

State of Qatar - Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs

Sea Outfalls – construction, inspection and repair, London, CIRIA.

Building

Research

Establishment,

1991,

Soakaway

Design,

BRE

Digest

365,

BRE

Watford UK.

HR Wallingford DC Watkins, 1991, Report SR271 -The hydraulic design and performance of soakaways, Wallingford UK.

Construction Industry Research and Information Association, 1996, Infiltration Drainage – Manual of Good Practice, London UK, CIRIA.

Chartered

Institution

of

Water

and

Environmental Management, 1996,

Research

and Development in Methods

of

Soakaway

design, UK, CIWEM.

 

HR Wallingford and DIH Barr, 2000, Tables for the Hydraulic Design of Pipes, Sewers and Channels, 7 th Edition, Trowbridge, Wiltshire, UK Redwood Books.

Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Agriculture, 1997, Qatar Highway Design Manual, January 1997, Qatar, MMAA.

Construction Industry Research and Information Association, 1996, Design of sewers to control sediment problems, Report 141, London CIRIA.

Clay Pipe Development Association Limited, 1998, Design and construction of drainage and sewerage systems using vitrified clay pipes, Bucks, UK, CPDA.

Construction Industry Research and Information Association, 1998, Report 177, Dry Weather Flows in Sewers, London, CIRIA.

Water

Research

Council,

1994,

Velocity

equations, UK, WRC.

 

Bazaraa, A.S., Ahmed, S., 1991. Rainfall Characterization in an Arid Area, Engineering Journal of Qatar University, Vol. 4, pp35-50.

1.4

Catchments

 
  • 1.4.1 Catchment Boundary Definition

The boundaries of each catchment can be defined either by survey or by reference to contour maps. The boundary will be defined such that any rain that falls within it will be directed to a point of discharge under gravity. It should be noted that catchment boundaries are not always readily definable from

larger scale maps, and may often have changed significantly due earthmoving operations. It is therefore essential that sufficient topographical survey is carried out to verify the catchment boundary during the design process.

Once

the

drain

layout

has

been

defined

approximately, the main catchment can be divided into sub-catchments draining to each pipe, or group of pipes in the area. Sub-catchments may also be defined, for convenience, to represent

areas with different runoff characteristics (see section 1.4.2 below).

Catchment and sub-catchment areas can be measured using a planimeter from paper plans or, preferably, using electronic methods where the catchment is represented on a GIS or other electronic format. Some computer based simulation software, for example InfoWorks, is capable of importing catchment data directly into the model from GIS records.

  • 1.4.2 Catchment Characteristics

Catchment characteristics are the various types of development and surface within the catchment. The different characteristics represent their potential to generate surface water runoff to be managed by the drainage system.

  • 1.5 Design Storms (Rainfall Intensity & Rainfall Depth)

    • 1.5.1 Introduction

This Section provides information about the availability of rainfall records in Qatar and their use in the development of design rainfall parameters such as intensity-duration-frequency curves, storm duration and storm profiles.

  • 1.5.2 Rainfall Data Availability

There is a scarcity of rainfall data in Qatar. The

only operating long-term rain gauge in Qatar

is

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Volume 3

SW Drainage

1 st Edition June 2005 - Copyright Ashghal

State of Qatar - Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs

located

at Doha International

25 15’N and Longitude 51 34’E) ix .

Airport (Latitude The rain gauge is

operated and maintained by the Department of Civil

Aviation and Meteorology, of the Ministry of

Communication and Transport, State of Qatar. It is a seven-day disk chart recorder that has been in operation since November 1976. Prior to that, a

storage gauge recorded daily rainfall from

1962.

about

Table 1.5.1 summarises the type of processed rainfall data available from the Doha International Airport rain gauge.

Table 1.5.1 - Rainfall data availability from the Doha International Airport Rain Gauge

Rain Gauge and Location

Data Type

Data Length

 

Daily rainfall

 

depths

1962-2000

Rainfall event

Nov 1976, Feb

Doha International

Station

data

1988 & Mar 1995

Monthly rainfall

 

Latitude 25 15’N

Longitude 51 34’E

totals

1962-2000

Monthly 24 hr maximum rainfall

1962-2000

No. of rain days per month

1962-2000

A number of other long-term gauges have been

referenced

in

several

sources

but,

during

the

compilation of this Manual, data could only be

obtained for the Doha Airport station.

In a Qatar University report by Bazaraa and Ahmed (1991) x , reference is made to a second climatological station installed in 1978 at Doha Port, within 4km of Doha International Airport Station. A comparison of rainfall data (1979-1989) at these two sites is outlined in Section 3 of Volume 1- Meteorology.

Since March 2002, the DA has had four tipping- bucket logger rain gauges (log–able SEBA) situated in pumping station compounds around Doha. Details

of the logger rain gauges are also shown in Table

1.5.2.

Table 1.5.2 - Details of logger rain gauges in Doha

Reference

Location

Logger ID

SW1

Wadi Musheirib (PS 1)

R02756

SW2

Luqta (PS SW 2)

R02757

SW3

Al Dana (PS SW 3)

R02759

SW5

Abu Hamour (PS SW 5)

R02758

The tipping buckets record every 0.1mm of rain to the nearest second and can provide hyetographs for even very short duration events. Remote logger downloads take place in Doha using telemetry, however manual downloads are also

possible.

The following table summarises the period in which sizeable rainfall events were recorded by the logger rain gauges.

Table 1.5.3 - Rainfall event data availability from logger rain gauges around Doha.

Rain Gauge

Data Type

Period of Rainfall Events

SW1 Wadi

Event Logger

Apr 2002

Musheirib

SW2 Luqta

Event Logger

Mar 2002, Apr 2002, Nov 2002 & Dec 2002

SW3 Al Dana

Event Logger

Mar 2002 & Apr 2002

SW5 Abu

Event Logger

Apr 2002

Hamour

Initial data from these gauges highlights the highly localised nature of rainfall in Qatar. Although the rain gauges are only 5km apart, the first thirteen events recorded were specific to a single gauge.

As previously stated, there

is

a

distinct lack of

long-term rainfall data in Qatar. The accuracy of rainfall analysis relies directly on having an adequate amount of rainfall data, which is currently not the case in Qatar. Proposals exist within the DA to install further rain gauges and collect additional rainfall data over the next ten years. These proposals include establishing a further five permanent rainfall gauges around Doha, in areas of new development, such as:

a

Wakrah PS W1

b

Doha Industrial area STW – Inlet Pumping Station

c

PS 32

d

Wajbah PS

State of Qatar - Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs

e

Duhail Army Camp – PS 12

f

West Bay Lagoon

One intention for the proposed rain gauges will be to enable real-time control on flood attenuation ponds in Qatar.

  • 1.5.3 Historic Design Rainfall Parameters

1.5.3.1

Intensity-Duration-

Frequency

The scarcity of reliable long-term

rainfall data

in

Qatar has hampered the development of reliable design rainfall criteria. To date, IDF (intensity- duration-frequency) curves have only been developed using records from the recording rain gauge at Doha International Airport. A thirteen-year series (1977-1989) was used by researchers from Qatar University for this purpose, but it was recognised that the limited number of storm events rendered even this data set inadequate.

Although statistical procedures for data processing and analysis could not be applied rigorously, a method was adopted whereby an IDF relationship was developed. This was considered to compare well with previous research for Qatar and neighbouring Bahrain.

The IDF relationship in common use for surface water drainage projects in Qatar is given by equation 1.5.1 below:

n =

0.787 (fitting parameter)

d = 10 (fitting parameter)

The IDF curves based on

the

work by

Qatar

University are shown in .Figure 1.5.1. A tabulated form of the IDF relationship is provided in Table 1.5.4., outlining rainfall intensities (mm/hr) for

varying storm durations (5 mins to 24 hrs) and return periods (2 to 100 years).

The

IDF

relationship

provides

the

average

intensity of rainfall during a storm event with a

specified duration and frequency of occurrence (return period). This can be taken forward to design runoff calculations.

Alternatively, the IDF relationship can be used to estimate the return period of a recorded event, given the total rainfall depth and its duration.

Rainfall data collected in Doha has been used to develop the IDF relationship. There is insufficient data elsewhere to determine if it is equally valid in all areas of the State. Although storms are generally highly localised in nature, this does not preclude the IDF relationship from being similar across Qatar.

Within the next ten years or so, the DA will review the rainfall data collected from various gauges around Greater Doha and an exercise will be undertaken to update the IDF curves presented in this manual.

 

I =

CT

m

r

 

(

t

+

d

) n

 

Equation 1.5.1

 

Where:

I

=

Rainfall intensity (mm/hr)

 

C

=

410 (fitting parameter)

 

Tr =

Return Period (years)

t =

storm duration (minutes)

 

m

=

0.206 (fitting parameter)

Page 8

 

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Table 1.5.4 - Intensity-Frequency-Duration (IDF) values recommended for use throughout Qatar

   

Return Period (years)

 

Duration (mins)

2

5

10

25

50

100

5

  • 56.1 67.8

 

78.2

 
  • 94.4 125.7

108.9

 

10

  • 44.8 54.1

 

62.4

  • 75.3 86.9

 

100.2

15

  • 37.6 45.4

 

52.3

 
  • 63.2 84.1

72.9

 

20

  • 32.5 39.3

 

45.3

 
  • 54.7 72.8

63.1

 

30

  • 25.9 31.3

 

36.1

 
  • 43.6 58.1

50.3

 

45

  • 20.2 24.4

 

28.1

 
  • 34.0 45.2

39.2

 

60

  • 16.7 20.2

 

23.3

 
  • 28.1 37.4

32.4

 

2hrs

  • 10.3 12.4

 

14.3

 
  • 17.3 23.0

19.9

 

3hrs

7.6

9.2

10.6

 
  • 12.8 17.0

14.8

 

6hrs

4.5

5.4

6.3

7.6

8.7

10.1

12hrs

2.6

3.2

3.7

4.4

5.1

5.9

24hrs

1.5

1.9

2.1

2.6

3.0

3.4

State of Qatar - Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs

Ra infall "In tensity-Frequen cy-D uration" Profiles (based o n resea rch by Q ata r U niversity)

60 80 6 0 4 0 1 20 10 0 0 20 Rainfall Intensity (mm/hr) 0
60
80
6 0
4 0
1 20
10 0
0 20
Rainfall Intensity (mm/hr)
0 .00
.00
20
.00
40
.00
2
.00
80
.00
100
.00
120
50-Y ear S torm
25-Y ear S torm
10-Y ear S torm
-Y ear S torm
5
-Y ear S torm

Time (minutes)

Figure 1.5.1 - Intensity-Duration-Frequency Relationship

Page 10

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  • 1.5.3.2 Selection of Design Storm Duration

A design storm duration and a specified design return period are required to determine a design rainfall intensity, i (mm/hr) from IDF relationships as discussed in Section 1.5.3.1. This section discusses the recommended processes for selecting a suitable design storm duration.

For sewerage and drainage design it is common to take the design storm duration as the time of concentration of the catchment, tC. Time of concentration is defined as the interval in time from the beginning of the rainfall to the time when water from the furthest point in the catchment reaches the point under consideration.

Time of concentration, tC, can be estimated by one of a number of formulae. Many formulae have been derived from catchments with well-defined drainage networks and do not necessarily lend themselves well to non-urban arid areas, where a combination of wadi and overland ‘sheet’ flow predominates. The following equation for tC is based on flow rate computations and has been recommended for use in Kuwait xi . It is considered that it will also have reasonable applicability in Qatar in undeveloped (non-urban) areas:

t c

=

526

×

1/ 3

nL

S

1/ 3

i

2 / 3

Where:

Equation 1.5.2

tC = Time of concentration (mins)

n =

Manning’s roughness coefficient

L =

Length of flow for furthest point (metres)

S = Average slope (metres/metres)

i =

Average rainfall intensity (mm/hr)

In this method the rainfall intensity, i, is required. The calculation is therefore performed iteratively using values of i from the IDF curves for different durations for the selected return period, until the value calculated for tC equals the duration that corresponds to that of the rainfall intensity used to derive it. It is recommended that an appropriate ‘n’ value to use for

undeveloped areas of Qatar lies between 0.020 and 0.035. This range has been established using a method for developing Manning’s ‘n’ values for floodplains (Arcement and Schneider, 1989) xii .

Having derived a time of concentration, the corresponding rainfall depth is used to define a storm profile. This estimate of storm duration should be considered as an initial estimate. Shorter and longer duration events should also be applied to the catchment until the duration giving rise to the highest peak flow has been identified.

One

alternative

for

determining

time

of

concentration

is outlined

in

the QHDM, which

recommends the following equations.

Manning’s equation, as shown in Equation 1.5.3 is initially used for the calculation of flow velocity.

V =

R

2 / 3

S

1/ 2

 

n

 

Equation 1.5.3

Where:

V =

Mean velocity of flow (m/s)

 

n =

Manning’s coefficient of roughness

R =

Hydraulic Radius (m)

 

S =

Slope (percent)

The mean velocity, V, calculated from Manning’s Equation, is used to determine the time of concentration using the following equation:

L

t c

=

V

 

Equation 1.5.4

Where:

tc =

Time of concentration (seconds)

V = Mean velocity of flow (m/s)

L =

Length

of

flow path

from

the point

of

consideration to the furthest catchment

extremity (metres)

 

This approach is recommended for use when the rational method of runoff calculation is used, and

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State of Qatar - Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs

is particularly appropriate for developed (urban) areas. However, it is recommended that in Qatar for non- urban areas, Equation 1.5.2 is used instead. When considering short duration storms, the rainfall intensity changes rapidly with only a small change in storm duration. This is exemplified in Figure 1.5.1. Therefore, it is crucial for small drainage areas that an accurate assessment of tC is undertaken.

Generally in Qatar, storms are of short duration (typically 0.5–2 hours) and catchments are small such that tC is usually of a similar magnitude.

Where inter-catchment transfers are involved, pumped-storage schemes are usually designed to cater for the runoff from a storm duration of 24 hours. This takes into account the total rainfall from multiple events occurring in a day. In this case, the use of IDF curves and a storm duration equal to the time of concentration of the catchment is superseded by the use of a 24-hour rainfall depth derived by the DA. The following depths are currently recommended for the design of small storage systems (e.g. soakaways, storage tanks, etc.). For higher return periods, these depths are comparable with those derived by the IDF curves for 24-hour duration events:

2yr 25mm

5yr 45mm

10yr 55mm

25yr

65mm

The above values are expected to be updated by the DA periodically.

For larger storage systems which have a significant outflow (e.g. detention ponds) it may be more appropriate to use rainfall depth values for durations of between 2 and 24 hours.

The choice of return-period depends on the design standard for the land use type concerned. However, for storms with a return period in excess of 25 years it is recognised and accepted that inundation will occur to some extent, and the focus changes from achieving a higher design standard to inundation management.

  • 1.5.3.3 Design Storm Profiles

The IDF relationship provides an average intensity of rainfall for given storm durations and return periods. Where a hyetograph (distribution of rainfall over time) is required, a storm shape or profile is needed. The storm profiles are used to simulate a design storm over a catchment.

As previously mentioned, there are insufficient records of local rainfall in Qatar, particularly hyetographs, with which to derive design storm profiles.

Such profiles have, however, previously been developed for the nearby State of Kuwait in the Kuwait Stormwater Masterplan (KSM) xiii . Kuwait shares a similar climate to Qatar, generally experiencing an annual rainfall of less than

100mm/year. Kuwait also experiences large inter- annual and regional rainfall fluctuations (refer to Section 3.6.2 of Volume 1 – Meteorology). A number of steps were taken in order to develop storm profiles for Kuwait. A total of 477 storms with depths greater than or equal to 5mm were available for analysis. The profiles of the available storms were analysed by grouping them into sets of varying storm durations including: 0-3 hours; 3- 6 hours; 6-12 hours; longer than 12 hours. Each storm was examined to determine the proportion of rainfall falling with variation in time. The developed storm profiles are provided in Table

1.5.5

In the absence of any other data to suggest otherwise, it is recommended designers use the above storm data for Kuwait for the purposes of design in Qatar.

Page 12

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Table 1.5.5 - Average storm profiles for varying duration, recommended for use in Qatar

Duration

0-3 hr storms

 

3-6 hr storms

 

% duration

0

0.16

0.33

 
  • 0.52 1

0.86

 

0

  • 0.72 0.71

0.12

0.3

   
  • 0.51 1

0.88

 

%rainfall

0

0.23

0.38

 
  • 0.54 1

0.8

 

0

  • 0.69 0.69

0.17

0.34

   
  • 0.53 1

0.87

 

Duration

6-12hr storms

 

12+ storms

 

% duration

0

0.12

0.3

 
  • 0.51 1

    • 0.71 0.89

   

0

0.11

0.31

 

0.71

  • 0.51 1

0.9

 

%rainfall

0

0.14

0.32

 
  • 0.52 1

0.89

 

0

  • 0.72 0.71

0.13

0.34

   
  • 0.54 1

0.88

 
  • 1.5.3.4 Areal Rainfall Reduction

Where relatively large catchments are being considered, with times of concentration in excess of three hours, lower intensity, longer duration rainfall events may become important in peak runoff generation. Single thunderstorms cover only a relatively small area. However, a large thunderstorm can be of the order of up to 20km diameter with the storm centre up to around 8km in diameter, and can last several hours. Such storms may sit entirely within large catchments, and in these cases the runoff- generating part of the catchment is restricted to the area of the thunderstorm overlying it. While these events contain the highest intensities, catchments with much larger areas may generate more runoff from more widespread, lower intensity, frontal-type events. For this reason, the area of the catchment under consideration becomes important in estimating the depth of rainfall over the whole catchment from the IDF curves, rather than the area of the thunderstorm.

Given the finite areal extent of thunderstorms, it is recommended that catchments with areas less than 50km 2 , that is, areas less than the centre of a large storm cell with a diameter of 8km, have no areal rainfall reduction applied to them. The centre of the storm cell should be considered to lie over the catchment, and rainfall depths taken from the IDF curves should be used directly. These rainfall depths can be considered as conservative.

It

should

be

noted

here

that,

implicit

in

this

recommendation, is the assumption that the IDFcurves are based on maximum rainfall intensities at the centre of thunderstorms.

Catchments in the Greater Doha area are all smaller than 50km 2 , however, some developed catchments are linked with pumped-storage schemes to facilitate runoff disposal. For inter-

catchment transfer schemes

where

the

total

catchment area exceeds 50km 2 , an areal

reduction factor should be applied to the overall

catchment

rainfall.

This

is

to

account

for

the

decrease

in

rainfall

intensity

with

increasing

distance from the centre of the storm. A method to

account for this decrease

is given

by Equation

  • 1.5.5 xiv .

P

a

=

P

m

(

10.03

A)
A)

Equation 1.5.5

Where:

 

Pa =

Catchment average precipitation

 

Pm =

 

Catchment maximum precipitation from IDF curve (mm)

A = Catchment area (km 2 )

 

The rainfall reduction described above

is

to

account for the reduction in storm intensity when moving away from the centre of the storm (i.e. a storm-centred areal rainfall reduction rather than the more common statistical rainfall reduction usually referred to as Areal Reduction Factor ARF). It therefore only applies to thunderstorm- type events.

For design purposes, rainfall durations of up to three hours are considered to be associated with thunderstorm events, whereas those of longer duration are considered to be associated with frontal-type rainfall. For this reason, the rainfall

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State of Qatar - Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs

reduction should not be applied to rainfall in excess of three hours duration.

For those catchments or inter-catchment transfer schemes with times of concentration in excess of three hours, it is recommended that two types of storm be applied to the catchment:

  • 1 A three-hour storm with areal rainfall reduction from Equation 1.5.5 applied, using the storm profile for storms up to three hours. This event corresponds to a thunderstorm-type event;

  • 2 A storm with a duration corresponding to the correct time of concentration for the catchment, without any rainfall reduction applied. The storm profile for the relevant duration should be used. This event corresponds to the more widespread rainfall associated with frontal-type conditions.

Proposals exist within the DA to install further rain gauges and collect additional rainfall data over the next ten years. For inter-catchment transfer schemes, where the total catchment area exceeds 50km 2 , it is recommended that efforts are made to reassess ARFs based on the latest rainfall data available at the time of scheme design. Because of the lack of rainfall data, periodic reviews of the ARF’s shall be confirmed with DA.

  • 1.6 Run-off Estimation

    • 1.6.1 Urban Run-Off

Once the total catchment area has been defined, estimates must be made of the extent and type of surfaces that will drain into each part of the system. The percentage impermeability (PIMP) of each area is measured by defining impervious surfaces such as roofs, roads, paved areas, etc. This can be done from maps or from aerial photographs.

Alternatively, the PIMP can be related approximately to the density of development.

A dimensionless runoff coefficient, C, is defined that accounts for initial losses such as surface depression storage, and continuing losses such as infiltration. This coefficient is applied to PIMP and may be a typical value as defined in Table 1.6.1 or may be determined by careful examination of the catchment characteristics.

Table 1.6.1 - Examples of Runoff Coefficients.

Area

Runoff

Surface

Runoff

description

coefft

type

coefft

 

Asphalt &

City Centre

0.70-0.95

concrete

0.70-0.95

 

paving

Suburban

business

0.50-0.70

Roofs

0.75-0.95

Industrial

0.50-0.90

Recreation

0.05-0.35

 

areas

Residential

0.30-0.70

Open areas,

gardens

0.05-0.30

Note: Weighted average coefficients are needed for areas of mixed land use.

  • 1.6.2 Non-Urban Run-off

Run-off from undeveloped, non-urban areas takes place via overland ‘sheet’ flow and, less frequently, via wadis and incised drainage channels. Qatar’s runoff characteristics are discussed in the following sections, but, in general, due to the low but undulating topography and shallow land gradients, runoff coefficients are typically of the order of 5–10%.

  • 1.6.3 Runoff Characteristics of Qatar

Qatar’s runoff characteristics

are

determined

primarily by its aridity, its generally very low relief,

and

its mainly sandy

soil surface. These three

factors result in infrequent runoff. As a consequence, there are no perennial streams in Qatar.

There are no flow gauging stations in the country, nor, it is believed, has there been any attempt to measure runoff from any non-urban area in Qatar. Consequently, there is no local knowledge nor are there any local data with which to estimate runoff characteristics for non-urban areas.

Generally, land gradients throughout Qatar are gentle (typically 1:350–1:400 in Greater Doha). Runoff, when it does happen, therefore generally occurs as overland flow. Very little incision has taken place, although there are localised occasions where runoff has cut through underlying

State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs

sandstone to form a more definite channel. However, these occurrences are rare and generally do not continue for more than a few tens of metres before opening back onto sandy plains.

Where gradients are sufficient (and certainly in excess of around 1%), wadi channels may be identified as slight depressions, usually no more than a few centimetres to a few tens of centimetres deep. The sand in these channels is usually of a lighter colour than that of the surrounding area, and is also much softer.

Although much has been written on the nature of arid zone runoff from mountainous desert conditions, literature searches have revealed that there is almost no information on the runoff characteristics of sandy desert conditions.

  • 1.6.4 Estimation of Runoff

Once the design storm has been defined, its effect on the catchment needs to be determined. Various hydrological processes happen that generally reduce the amount of rainfall that ends up as runoff from the catchment. These processes normally include interception by vegetation cover, satisfaction of soil moisture deficits and/or exceedence of infiltration capacities of soils in the catchment, and the filling of depressions (for overland flow). They are normally referred to as catchment losses.

  • 1.6.4.1 Interception Losses

In the desert catchments of Qatar, vegetative cover is minimal due to over-grazing. Consequently, the vast majority of rain falls directly onto bare soil, and interception losses are negligible.

1.6.4.2

Infiltration Losses

Infiltration losses occur when rainfall hits the ground. They are the most important component in the estimation of the amount, and timing, of rainfall that produces runoff.

The rate at which water enters the soil is known as the infiltration rate, and this reduces as the storm progresses and the soil becomes wetter. Surface runoff will only occur once the rate at which the rain falling on the surface exceeds the infiltration rate of

the soil.

The nature of

the

soil, and

its

infiltration

capabilities,

are

therefore

one

of

the

most

important

components

in

the

rainfall-runoff

process.

The maximum infiltration rates of sandy soils are very high, way in excess of the maximum intensity of the heaviest rainfall. If this were the whole situation, runoff would never occur from any of the sand-dominated soils of Qatar. However, research conducted in the arid regions of the eastern Mediterranean has shown that the impact of raindrops falling on bare sandy soils causes the formation of a surface crust or membrane xv . The infiltration rate of this membrane is very low, relative to the original infiltration rate of the dry soil, and has been shown to form after a certain depth of rain has fallen. The rate at which the membrane forms is relatively independent of the soil composition, the main factors being the exposure of the soil to the direct impact of rain drops, and the occurrence of antecedent rainfall.

  • 1.6.5 Depression Losses

Depression losses represent surface runoff that fills depressions before it can proceed to the catchment outlet. As such, it occurs after infiltration rates have been exceeded and overland flow has commenced. Typical figures for natural catchments are usually between 10-15mm xvi although they are sometimes assumed to be zero in large storms xvii . Values of 2mm and 6mm have

been used for pavements and turf at the plot scale, respectively xviii .

Depression storage is used up exponentially (decaying) through the storm once rainfall exceeds the infiltration rate, according to Equation 1.6.1.

V

S

=

S

d

(

1

e

P

e

S

d

)

Where:

Equation 1.6.1

VS =

Sd =

Pe =

Volume of water in depression storage (mm)

Maximum

(mm)

depression storage capacity

Precipitation in excess of interception and infiltration (mm)

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Once the volume and timing of excess rainfall, or runoff, has been determined, it needs to be routed down the catchment. As time progresses more and more of the catchment will contribute to the flow at the downstream end, until rain from the furthest point reaches the catchment outlet. The timing of this process, and the consequent build up of flow to derive the outflow hydrograph, is termed runoff routing.

The nature of the desert catchments in Qatar is such that there are no permanent watercourses or natural conveyance channels. In some cases there are wadis formed in the sand plains, but these are more concentrations of overland flow than of formal channel flow. Given the character of runoff production from these sand-dominated catchments, with rainfall- induced surface crusting being the principle means, runoff occurs primarily as overland flow.

  • 1.7 Ground Permeabilities

Indicative data on the bulk permeability of the ground are available from site investigations carried out for the studies listed in Volume 1, Section 1.4 of this manual. This data may be regarded as a starting point for estimation but studies indicate a wide range of values across comparatively small areas and variation with depth is similarly likely. As such, if permeability is a critical factor in the design process, actual site investigation data from permeability tests or pumping tests are essential.

Data for greater Doha compiled by the DA indicate the following permeability values as being applicable (all m/s):

Maximum: 10 -4 - 10 -5

(upper loose sands)

Average: 10 -6 - 10 -7 rock)

(fissured or weathered

Minimum: 10 -8 - 10 -9

(rock)

These values are generally applicable to the upper 20m of the Simsima Limestone and must be treated with caution, as the database has not been systematically collected to represent the whole of the Greater Doha area.

1.8

Groundwater Levels and Quality

Most groundwater levels and quality data relevant to the drainage issue that are available are applicable to the Greater Doha area. A review of groundwater levels and quality conditions is provided in Section 4.2 of Volume 1. A summary of the most important conditions is as follows:

Groundwater Levels

 

The rock formation most relevant to this issue is the Simsima Limestone, which outcrops over most of Qatar;

In Greater Doha, shallowest groundwater levels (less than 2.5m depth) are found within 3km of the West Bay Lagoon area and in topographic depressions;

Elsewhere,

levels

are

2.5–5m

depth or

greater;

Urban development has been accompanied by a general rise in groundwater levels due to over-irrigation, leakage from water mains, use of soakaway drainage systems etc. This rise has been checked in some areas where drainage systems have been installed but is continuing in others;

A seasonal variation of 1–2m recorded in some areas;

has been

This propensity for GW changes must be taken into account in the design of drainage systems.

Groundwater Quality

 

The Electrical Conductivity of groundwater is a guide to its total dissolved solids (TDS) content; under natural conditions, EC values of 10,000– 20,000umohs may be expected but values of 5000-6000umohs are sometimes recorded indicating the effects of urban leakage.

1.9

Hydraulic Analysis Processes

The ‘Modified Rational Method’ for hydraulic analysis has the following aspects:

It depends on a thorough knowledge of the local rainfall characteristics;

State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs

It requires accurate IDF curves from which rainfall intensities can be deduced for different storm durations for the design return period;

It assumes that, for

a

given

return period,

longer storms have lower intensities and

shorter storms have higher intensities;

It assumes that rain falls uniformly across the catchment;

Contributing impermeable areas are required for each pipe length;

A time of entry must be determined in order to avoid unrealistically high rainfall intensities;

Base flows from groundwater can be included in the design;

Iterative process for design;

 

Pipe sizes and gradients are adjusted to provide appropriate self-cleansing velocities;

Half pipe flow velocity is numerically equal to full pipe flow velocity;

The user must be aware of the limitations of this method of design;

The Modified Rational Method is suitable for catchments up to 150ha.

Design method

The following procedure should be followed for the Modified Rational Method:

  • 1. Determine from table 1.1.1 and confirm acceptance with DA the design rainfall return period (T), pipe roughness (ks), time of entry (te) and runoff coefficient (C).

  • 2. Prepare a preliminary layout of drains, including tentative inlet locations.

  • 3. Mark pipe numbers on plan in accordance with numbering convention.

  • 4. Estimate impervious areas for each pipe.

  • 5. Assume approximate gradients and pipe diameters for each pipe.

  • 6. Calculate pipe full velocity (vf) and pipe full capacity or discharge rate (Qf = πD2vf/4)

  • 7. Calculate time of concentration from time of entry and time of flow (tc = te + tf). For downstream pipes compare alternative feeder branches and select the branch resulting in the maximum tc.

  • 8. Read rainfall intensity from the IDF curves for t = tc for design storm return period T.

  • 9. Estimate the cumulative contributing impervious area.

10.

Calculate Qp from the formula:

Qp = 2.78CAi.i

 

Equation 1.9.1

Where:

Qp =

flow in drainage pipes

C =

runoff coefficient

AI =

contributing runoff area

i =

average rainfall intensity

11.

Check Qp < Qf and vmax >

vf > vmin.

  • 12 Adjust pipe diameter and gradient as necessary within the physical constraints pertaining and return to step 5.

Minimum Pipe Sizes and Gradients

The following aspects need to be considered:

Pipes should be of sufficient size to carry maximum design flows at a depth D, i.e. at pipe full condition;

Surface water drains require higher velocities than foul sewers for self-cleansing purposes because of the higher density of solid material to be transported;

Surface water drains should not be less than 300mm in diameter;

Self-cleansing velocities increase with pipe size;

Pipe sizes should not decrease downstream even when the calculations indicate that this would be hydraulically satisfactory;

Pipes should be designed to run parallel to the ground surface wherever possible.

  • 1.9.1 Models (physical and mathematical)

Modelling

is

the

process

of

replicating

the

hydraulic performance of drainage, pumping and treatment systems by constructing models of the

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State of Qatar - Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs

intended/existing installations. These models need to be verified before use to provide confidence that they adequately represent the actual performance of the system.

The

verified

model

is

then

used

to

test system

performance under its proposed use. The model

must be capable of modification to test various physical configurations and operating regimes for the

installation, to produce the optimum actual construction.

solution for

Traditionally

physical

models

were

favoured,

especially

for

coastal/estuary/river

systems

and

complex pumping

installations.

In

recent

years

mathematical models,

have

superseded

physical

models.

Mathematical

models

 

are

exploiting

increased computer hardware and software

capability, and

are

more

efficient

than

physical

models in time and effort.

  • 1.9.1.1 Physical Models

Physical modelling consists of constructing a reduced scale, geometrically similar model of a proposed system, and operating the model to simulate full- scale flow conditions. Model tests can provide the designer with the assurance that the proposed scheme operates satisfactorily, or allows him to improve the flow conditions and achieve a better design.

Changes in the model can be made by trial and error, and are usually based on the experience and intuitive understanding of the engineer conducting the tests. The amount of modification which can be undertaken on a physical model is limited, and therefore the initial model should be as accurate as possible.

Factors to be considered in deciding on the need for physical models include:

The similarity of the proposed scheme to existing satisfactory designs. As well as the designer’s own experience, much information is available from manufacturers’ published reports and design guides. However it should be recognised that most large scale and/or complex designs will be unique, and hence modelling will be needed;

The size and cost of the proposed scheme. Bearing in mind that physical modelling can take many months with corresponding high costs, then designers of small schemes should seek to adopt standard and well-proven designs for

small schemes. Large schemes, such as terminal pumping stations with multiple pumps and complex inlet arrangements would merit modelling. For general guidance, DA classify SW pumping station sizes as:

Small

flows <0.5m 3 /s

Medium

flows 0.5–1.0m 3 /s

Large

flows >1.0m 3 /s

As a rule, small pumping stations, will not require modelling, whereas large installations do. Medium sized installations will only require modelling if a new design philosophy is proposed, which hasn’t previously been adopted in Qatar. Physical models are still required where theory does not represent flow conditions in sufficient detail or readily cater for changes in boundary conditions (eg at entry to pumps) Where specially mentioned in the PSA, this will take precedence over the manual.

All

hydraulically

significant

details

such

as

screens, penstocks, support channels and benching, should be included in the model. No

components above maximum water level need be modelled.

Model

construction

should

be

in

durable

and

waterproof materials, with clear Perspex being the best for viewing purposes. Model size should be as large as costs allow. Scales can vary from perhaps 1:4 for very small sumps, up to 1:50 for large intakes to reservoirs or tanks. For sump models, 1:25 would be the smallest desirable scale.

Physical testing could typically take between one and six months for construction, testing and reporting.

  • 1.9.1.2 Mathematical Models

Mathematical models almost exclusively use computers and bespoke software to build and apply the model. Relevant computer modelling systems include sewerage, drainage and sewage treatment.

Sewerage and drainage models use construction record data to build representations of the system as linked pipes and nodes, with specific modules for ancillaries such as pumping stations and overflows. Inflows from connected developments

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and contributing areas are directed to the nodes, and a computerised hydraulic engine simulates the hydraulic performance of flows around the system.

The veracity of the model is established by verifying flows and depths predicted by the model against actual measurements taken by flow monitors temporarily installed at hydraulically significant points around the system. After the model has been verified, then simulations of future changes and system modifications are run to check the effect on the system and the effectiveness of proposed upgrading.

Sensitivity analysis may be performed on the verified model by varying some of the input parameters to indicate their impact on the theoretical outcomes. This is used to determine more cost effective and / or efficient design options

It should be noted that the rainfall characteristics in Qatar will not make it possible to verify models in accordance with common practice. The WRC Guide to Short Term Flow surveys xix recommends a minimum 5 week survey duration; however, surveys in Qatar should be planned to commence in October and may need to last up until April to capture a sufficient number of discrete rainfall events. Should these occur early in the survey, then it can be curtailed before the forecasted completion date, but conversely the survey may need to be extended for another rain season if insufficient rainfall occurs.

Hydraulic models shall be constructed, verified (where possible) and reported in accordance with the Code of Practice for the Hydraulic Modelling of Sewer Systems, as published by the Waste Water Planning Users Group (WaPUG) xx .

Models shall be retained electronically by the designer for a minimum period of 12 years from the date on which the last modifications for which the model was used have been commissioned and taken over by the DA. DA propose to model all of the trunk mains, and follow with infill models of local areas during the coming years.

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software is a general-purpose tool for fluid engineering analysis. The software applies established hydraulic equations to solve energy and mass transfer for laminar and turbulent flows.

The software is extremely versatile and can be tailored to address a wide range of fluid flow issues. It permits cost effective, detailed analysis of fluid flow

problems, providing an alternative to testing or

physical modelling, at design cycle.

an earlier

stage

in

the

CFD provides information on flow characteristics such as pressure loss, flow distribution and mixing rates and complements traditional testing and experimentation. CFD is used for early conceptual studies of new designs, for detailed design and development, for scale-up, for troubleshooting and for system retrofitting.

As computing power increases, CFD is being used for modelling of larger hydraulic structures, such as pumping station sumps, reservoirs and tanks.

1.9.2

Formulae

  • 1.9.2.1 The Colebrook-White Equation

The Colebrook-White equation allows calculation

of velocity of flow in a gravity drain flowing full for

any given

gradient, diameter, and roughness

coefficient, as follows;

 

v

= −

2

( 2 gDS )
(
2
gDS
)

log

 k υ  2.51 s  +  3.7 D D ( 2 gDS )
k
υ
2.51
s
+
3.7 D
D
(
2
gDS
)
 
 

Equation 1.5.1

Where

g = acceleration due to gravity, m 2 /s D = diameter, m S = slope or headloss per unit length

k

s

= roughness coefficient, mm

υ = kinematic viscosity of water (m 2 /s).

Thus, for a 400 mm diameter pipe with and slope 1 in 157, flow temperature velocity will be 1.33 m/s

k

= 1.5 , 15 o C, the

s

Using the relationship :

Q=Av

Equation 1.5.2

Where:

Q = flow in the pipe (m 3 /s)

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A = Cross-sectional area of flow

V = velocity of flow

This allows the pipe full discharge to be calculated where:

A=πD 2 /4

Equation1.5.3

Thus, for the above pipe at full flow, the capacity will be 167 l/s

A sample calculation sheet for sewers using the above formulae is included in Volume 1 Appendix 1

Tables are available from hydraulic research giving values for a wide range of pipe sizes at a range of gradients for various values of ks.

For detailed surface water modelling applications, the viscosity should be varied for a range of temperatures, but for routine applications a conservative approach will be to use the lower temperature of 15 0 C.

1.9.2.2 Manning’s Equation

Manning’s equation is an empirical formula for uniform flow in open channels. Manning’s equation is:

v=(1/n)R 2/3 S0 ½

Equation 1.9.5

Tables 1.5.1 and 1.5.2 below give recommended Where: values of ks and υ . Both are
Tables 1.5.1 and 1.5.2 below give recommended
Where:
values of ks and
υ .
Both
are
taken
from
the
n
is
Manning’s
roughness
Wallingford design tables xxi .
S0
is
bed
R is the hydraulic radius (= A/P, where
coefficient,
slope,
A is the
Table 1.9.1 - Pipe Roughness ks Values
Material
ks Value (mm)
cross-sectional area of flow and P is the wetted
perimeter of fluid in the conduit).
Normal
Poor
Typical values of Manning’s n are given below.
Concrete (Precast + O Rings)
Concrete (Steel Forms)
DI (PE Lined)
GRP
VCP
0.15
0.6
0.6 1.5
Table 1.9.3 - Typical Values of Manning’s n
Channel Material
n range
0.06
0.15
Cement
0.010-0.015
0.06 -
Concrete
0.010-0.020
0.06
0.15
Brickwork
0.011-0.018
Further values can be obtained by direct reference to
pages 32 to 33 of the Wallingford design tables.
Manning’s
equation
is
only
valid
for
rough

Caution should be exercised in the use of the Wallingford tables. It should be noted that the quality of pipes can vary considerably from one manufacturer to the next, and that condition of pipes can vary with time. Designers should avoid using the optimistic values quoted by some plastic pipe manufacturers, as these invariably refer to new pipes under laboratory conditions. Sewers for Adoption xxii recommends a value of 0.6 for all new design, which allows for deterioration in pipe surface and normal wear.

Table 1.9.2 - Kinematic Viscosity υ Values

Temperature, 0 C

Viscosity, m 2 /s x 10 6

 
  • 15 1.141

 
  • 25 0.897

 
  • 35 0.727

turbulent and steady state flow conditions.

1.9.3

Prescribed

Software

The DA approved software is:

InfoWorks CS for modelling of sewerage and drainage systems;

Microsoft Access or Jet databases;

Access for asset

STC25 for management of sewerage and drainage asset information;

MapInfo for GIS mapping.

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  • 1.10 General Design Considerations

The

requirements

for

drainage

systems

are

essentially similar to those for sewerage systems in

respect of layout arrangements and standards (e.g. avoidance of buildings constructed over drains/sewers).

Flood routing and overland

flow

is

a

basic

requirement for

all

surface

drainage

systems,

to

ensure that flows generated by storms in excess of

the design event and drain capacity will not cause serious damage by flooding or erosion

1.10.1

Gullies

Gullies in Middle Eastern countries can be particularly problematic. For the majority of the year they are redundant and tend to fill with sand so that when the rain does arrive, the gullies do not function and flooding of the highway and adjacent areas can occur. Increased maintenance is one way of tackling this problem but can be expensive. Prevention of sand ingress is the best way to address the problem.

Different types of road gullies can be used but all are prone to siltation. Preventing the ingress of sand into the gullies is one of the most important considerations during design.

The different types of road gully are listed below:

  • 1. Conventional gully pot with surface grating. This type of gully can be protected from sand ingress by the attachment of a flat sealing plate over the grating that would have to be removed for the rainy season.

  • 2. Side entry gully. This type of gully is set under the line of the kerb and water enters it by way of an opening in the face of the kerb. This type of gully could be protected by the installation of a vertical sealing plate to cover the gully opening.

Combined

  • 3. side

entry

and

horizontal

grating.

These gullies are

a

combination of 1

and

2

above

and

therefore

would

require

both

a

horizontal sealing plate and a vertical sealing

plate.

  • 4. Slotted kerb drainage. This system comprises a concrete kerb with and integral pipe cast within the kerb. Water enters the pipe by way of a

longitudinal slot running the length of the kerb. At intervals along the length of the kerb line there are take-off points which connect to the surface water drain. As these systems are as long as the road, sealing them against sand ingress is difficult as it would mean sealing the entire length of the drain slot.

Note

that

design

and

spacing

of

gullies is

undertaken as part of roads projects and

controlled

by

the

RA, with

spacing specified in

QHDM.

The road surface (including gullies) and

soakaways

are

the

responsibility

of

the

RA,

whereas the

pipe network (positive drainage) is

that of DA. Design of gullies is to QHDM, but note

that spacing only caters for five year storms. The guidelines do not cater for greater periods, which may be required to prevent flooding in underpasses and other special areas. Table 1.1.2 refers

The prescribed gully spacing in the QHDM is used as a basis for attenuating storm runoff from the carriageway surfaces to the SW system

  • 1.10.2 Pipeline systems and Outfalls

System Layout

The system layout shall comply with any overall Master Plan requirements, and be subject to manhole and chamber positioning requirements

stated herein.

Drains and culverts shall preferably be located within public roads and highways. There is no agreed services hierarchy, and the location must be to the approval of DA and RA.

Control

of

Siltation

and

Access for

Maintenance

 

Steps should be taken to prevent sediment and debris from entering the drainage system. This can be achieved by requiring developers to include sediment settlement and wheel washing facilities in their site facilities to minimise discharge of sediment laden flows to the public drainage system.

Liaison

with

the

RA

is

also

needed

on

gully

cleaning and highway resurfacing operations.

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Due to Health and Safety requirements access to the drainage system for cleaning should be at designated locations only. Pipelines should be designed (using self-cleansing velocities, low flow channels, etc) to direct sediment to these locations. Sediment clearance facilities should minimise the need for man entry by providing access for mechanical equipment, either by ramp for full machine entry or by large openings for bucket entry. Sediment clearance facilities should be located to minimise disruption to traffic and the public during cleaning operations.

Inlet and Outfall Locations and Structures

Most upstream inlets to the system will be from highway gullies and other paved areas. However, there will occasionally be a requirement to design intake structures to capture flow from wadis and attenuation areas. Hydraulic conditions at these locations will require careful consideration to prevent siltation and local scour, whilst passing the required design flow.

Outfalls should be located in accordance with any overall Master Plan requirements, and in accordance with Development Plans. Outfall structures are likely to be large and visually intrusive constructions, and therefore liaison with the Planning Department will be required for their arrangement and finishes.

Structural design will need to take account of aggressive conditions due to seawater and potentially polluted flows, as well as from traffic loading. Increased cover to reinforcement should be applied, with possible additional non-structural protective finishes.

Coarse screens should be provided at all entry points accessible to the public. Such points would include large intakes and outfall pipes These screens have the dual purpose of preventing entry into the system and of retaining coarse materials. Screens should be constructed of stainless steel, with 75mm spaces between the bars. The screens should be top hinged and lockable for maintenance by the DA. Lockable bollards should also be provided to prevent entry or parking at large outfall structures.

Tidal Influences and Sea Outfall Siltation

Due to the low level and flat terrain of the coast of Qatar, it is to be expected that sea outfalls will be subject to tidal influences. Unless the foreshore is rocky, the outfalls will attract deposition of sand.

Outfall designs should recognise

that

it

is

impractical to remove such sand depositions. Allowance should therefore be made in the hydraulic design of the outfalls for the permanent presence of sand to a level consistent with that of the adjacent foreshore. Marine organism and seaweed will be attracted to sea outfall structures. However levels of such marine growth are generally not hydraulically significant.

The DA require all standard outfall pipe inverts to be at least 0.9m QND and weir outfalls at least 1.35m QND (ie highest recorded sea level). This, together with the requirements for minimum cover and large pipe diameters, means that all outfalls will require special design, such as the use of pressure sewers, and the use of wide diffusion aprons in low-lying areas.

Erosion protection should be provided at sandy outfalls where the beach or inland depression could be scoured. At beaches the outfall structure can alter the beach profile with time. Riprap or gabion surface protection should be provided to protect against scour.

Submerged outfalls to offshore deep water may be required in exceptional cases

  • 1.10.3 Pumping Stations (policy for surface water and groundwater discharge)

As explained in the Introduction, the choice of area for provision of surface water/groundwater systems has been the need to drain areas of flooding and high water table. This policy will continue, supported by the future Master Plans.

The

problem

of

intermittent

operation

of

stormwater pumping stations, and accompanying reliability problems, has to some extent been addressed by combining stormwater and groundwater systems. Thus attenuation tanks and pumping stations are operating all year round, although at much lower flows than result from rainfall.

Nevertheless, overall system planning should focus on achieving gravity flow throughout the

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network,

thus

minimising

the

need for pumping

facilities.

Preferred Types of Pumping Stations

As with sewage pumping stations, the preference is for centrifugal pumps using wet well/dry well or submersible pumping station arrangements, depending on the flow rates involved.

Septicity and odour are not usually of concern with surface and groundwater. Control facilities would therefore not be provided, unless there are specific problems such as polluted flows for septic tanks.

Storage Tanks

Due to the depth of the incoming drains and the large volumes to be stored such tanks are usually very large, deep and expensive installations. Hydraulic modelling to confirm that the most cost-effective combination of pumping and storage installation is being provided should therefore support their design.

Tank configuration should discourage deposition of sediment with sloping floors and low-flow channels. Settling ponds or catchbasins should be provided immediately upstream of the wet well to prevent accumulation of sediment in the vicinity of the pump suctions, with consequent wear on the pumps.

Inlet Screens

Inlet screens or trash racks should be provided upstream of the pumping station. Screens should be of stainless steel construction and with 50mm spacing between the screen bars.

Standby Power Generation

Due to the likely intermittent operation of the storm pumps, it could be argued that the least reliable aspect of the pumping station is the pumping and control equipment, rather than the power supply. Standby power generation is therefore not required at stormwater/groundwater pumping stations. However arrangements for entry, location and connection of portable power generators is to be provided.

the drainage master plans, but in recent years several of these areas have been built upon, exacerbating flooding problems. (see also section

1.13)

The publications “Sustainable Urban Drainage

Systems – Design Manual for England and

Wales” xxiii together

with “Sustainable Urban

Drainage Systems – Best Practice Guide” xxiv published by DETR, CIRIA, provide detailed guidance on the design of detention structures for surface runoff.

It is generally accepted that open areas that retain water should be designed with gentle side slopes, not exceeding 20% gradient, and should not result in a retained water depth exceeding one metre.

These structures should be designed as either detention or retention structures, depending on the intended function. Detention basins are normally dry and are used to attenuate flows of surface runoff in times of rainfall. As such, these structures can have a dual use, for example sports pitches can be used as detention basins. The water in a detention basin will be lost by one or more processes:

Firstly by discharge via a flow control device to a surface water drain or wadi;