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Soil Mechanics-First Course

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Soil

Mechanics

Lectures

Third

Students

Year

compaction, Consistency of soil, one dimensional fluid flow, two

dimensional fluid flows.

Soil Mechanics Lectures /Coarse 1-----------------------------2016-2017-------------------------------------------Third year Student

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Soil Mechanics Lectures /Coarse 1-----------------------------2016-2017-------------------------------------------Third year Student

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Soil Mechanics Lectures /Coarse 1-----------------------------2016-2017-------------------------------------------Third year Student

Chapter One

Soil Formation and Basic-Relation ships

Soil

Is any uncemented or weakly cemented accumulation of mineral particles

formed by weathering of rocks, the void between the particles containing

water/ or air. Weak cementation can be due to carbonates or oxides

precipitated between the particles or due to organic carbonates or oxides

precipitated between the particles or due to organic matter.

Depending on the method of deposition, soils can be grouped into two

categories:

1- Residual soils:

The soils which remain at the place of disintegration of parent rock.

2- Transported soils :

The soils, which carried away from their place of disintegration to

some other place by transporting agencies.

The transporting agencies may be classified as:

i) Water ii) wind iii)gravity iv) Ice

So in general soil is formed from disintegration of rocks over laying the

earth crust.

rain

wind

Weathering

Which are usually results from atmospheric processes action

on the rock at or near the earth surface.

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All type of actions that cause a disintegration of the parent rocks by

physical means such as, gravity, wind and water. The product of this type is

rounded, sub rounded or granular, its products called coarse grained soil e.g.

(gravel and sand ) they present in nature in a single grain structure .

Coarse grained soil

Sand & Gravel

Cohesion less soil

It properties are the same as parent rock.

2- Chemical weathering

All types of chemical reactions that occur between the minerals of the

rock and the environment (air, water ---et.) and will end up by disintegration

of parent rock into fine grain particles; these products have different

properties from the parent rock. They present in nature as a lumps of

number of plate like particles.

The physical property of this product does not reflect the same properties of

the parent rocks.

Fine grained soil

Silt and clay

Cohesive material

Its properties do not reflect the same properties of the parent rocks.

Soil

> 2

Dia: equivalents diameter (mm)

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Clay minerals: There are two basic structure units that form types of

the minerals in the clay:

a) Tetrahedral Unit : Consists of four oxygen atoms (or hydroxyls, if

needed to balance the structure) and one silicon a tom.

. 4 +

b) Octahedral Unit (consist of six hydroxyl ion at apices of an

octahedral enclosing an aluminum ion at the center).

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Formation of Minerals

The combination of two sheets of silica and gibbsite in different arrangements

and condition lead to the formation of different clay minerals such as :

1- Kaolinite Mineral :

This is the most common mineral is the kaolin. The structure is composed of a

single tetrahedral sheet and a single alumina octahedral sheet as shown in figure

below:

1- Strong Hydrogen Bond So not affected

by water

2- And its also called China clay

3-

2- Illite has a basic structure consisting of two silica sheets with a central alumina sheet.

There is a potassium bond between the layers.

Highly affected by water with high shrinkage and Swell and it is called expansive soil.

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Soil Mechanics Lectures /Coarse 1-----------------------------2016-2017-------------------------------------------Third year Student

In nature every soil particle is surrounded by water. Since the centers of positive and

negative charges of water molecules do not coincide, the molecules behave like dipoles.

The negative charge on the surface of the soil particle therefore attracts the positive

(hydrogen) end of the water molecules. More than one layer of water molecules sticks on

surface with considerable force decrease with increase in the distance of the water

molecule from the surface. The electrically attracted water surrounds the clay particle is

known as the diffused double-layer of water. The water located within the zone of

influence is known as the adsorbed layer as shown in figure:

Clay Particle

Clay structures:

1) - Dispersed structure

2) - flocculated structure

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Flocculated Dispersed

Basic Relationships:

Weight Wt = Ww + Ws Volume Vt = Vv + Vs = Va + Vw

+ Vs

Where

: total weight of soil

Total Volume

Weight of water

: Volume of Void

: Weight of solid

: Volume of air

Weight of air 0

Volume of water

: Volume of Soild

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= =

!

2- Water content %

$ ,

"# % = $ '(( )* +# = $ '((

$% ,%

3- Void ratio , e

v/

e =

v0

4- Porosity (n%)

33

1% = '((

34

5- Air content A%

36

5% = '((

34

6- Bulk Density (total density), 74

9

8 = :

/:

7- Dry density ,

,% B=

7;*< = (=,#,> ) )* ( )

34 ,>

8- Dry unit weight (C;*< )

$%

C;*< = (BD,> )

34

9- Specific gravity , E%

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7% , % 3 % ,%

E% = = =

7$ 7$ 3% 7$

C% $% 3% $%

E% = = = ( its value range between 2.6- 2.85)

C$ C$ 3% C$

, $

7% = % , C% = %

3% 3%

1- S.e = E% . +#

G

2- 1 =

'HG

1

3- G =

'I1

4- 5 = 1(' %)

GI+E%

5- 5 =

'HG

E% ('H+) E% ('H+)

6- 74 = 7$ )* C4 = C$

'HG 'HG

E% H%G E% H%G

7- 74 = 7$ )* C4 = C$

'HG 'HG

E% HG E% H G

8- 7% = 7 )* C% = C

'HG $ 'HG $

E E

9- 7;*< = % 7$ )* C; = % C$

'HG 'HG

10- 7GKK. = 7 = 7%64 7$

E% I'

11- CGKK = C = C$

'HG

Some typical values of void ratio, moisture content in a saturated condition, and dry unit

weight for soils in a natural state are given in the following table:

Table 1- Void ratio, Moisture Content, and Dry Unit Weight for some Typical Soils in a

Natural State.

Type of Soil Void ratio Natural moisture Dry unit weight ,C;

content in a

saturated state (%) ( BD,> )

sand

sand

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grained silty sand

grained silty sand

1 kg = 9.806 N

Example- 1: In its condition a soil sample has a mass of 2290 g and a volume of 1.15*10-3

m3. After being completely dried in an oven the mass of the sample is 2035g. The value of

Gs for the soil is 2.68. Determine the bulk density, unit weight, water content, void ratio,

porosity, degree of saturation and air content.

Solution:

N P.PQR N]

M = = = 1990 Z[\ = 1.99

O S.STSRUV ^V

N]

Unit weight ,_ = = 1990 9.8 = 19500 b\ = 19.5 Zb\

O

N PPQRIPR\T

Water content , c = = = 0.125 de 12.5%

N PR\T

f (1 + ch )

_ = _

1+i

2.68(1 + .125)

19.5 = 10

1+i

e = 0.538

k R.T\l

Porosity, n= = = 0.3490 ~0.35

SHk S.T\l

p. i = f . ch

R.SPTP.ql

Degree of saturation , S= = 62.267%

R.T\l

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9.8 %, f = 2.66. Determine:

M , Mt , i , u , p( %), vdwxi dyyxzi{ |} ~ie u{ vdwxi dyyxzi{ by soild?

Solution:

13.95

M = = = 1970.3 Z[/\

7.08 10I\

SQR.\ ]

Mt = = = 1794.4

SH SHR.RQl ^V

f

Mt = M

1+i

P.qq

1794.4 = 1000 e = 0.48

SHk

i 0.48

u = = = 0.324

1+i 1.48

S.e = f . c S. 0.48 = 2.66 * 0.098 S = 54.3%

^ ^

Mt = 1794.4 = = 12.7 Z[

O .Rl SRUV

^ S.PT

v = = = 0.00125 \

SRRR

^ ^ SP.

v = v = = = 0.00478 \

P.qqSRRR

Example 3:In the natural state, a moist soil has a volume of 0.0093 \ and weighs 177.6

N. The oven dry weight of the soil is 153.6 N. If f = 2.71 . Calculate the moisture

content, moist unit weight, dry unit weight, void ratio, porosity and degree of saturation.

S.qIST\.q

Solution: ch = = = 15.6 %

ST\.q

177.6 b

_ = = = 19096 \ = 19.1 Zb\

0.0093

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153.6 b

_t = = = 16516 \ ~16.52 Zb\

0.0093

O R.ST\q

e= , = = = 0.0058 \

O P.SSR

R.RR\T k R.q

e = = 0.6 u = = = 0.375

R.RRTl SHk SHR.q

Example 4: A soil specimen has a volume of 0.05 m3 and a mass of 87.5 kg. If the water

content is 15% and specific gravity is 2.68. Determine 1) void ratio 2) porosity 3) dry unit

weight 4) saturated unit weight 5) degree of saturation.

Solution:

87.5

M = = = 1750 Z[/\

v 0.05

^ l.TI^

~h = = 0.15 = = 76 Z[

^ ^

76

v = = = 0.028 \

f M 2.68 1000

/ R.RPSq R.

e = = = 0.77 , n = = = 0.43

/ R.RPl SH SHR.

f 2.68

_t = _ = 10 = 15.14 Zb/\

1+i 1 + 0.77

f + i 2.68 + 0.77

_ = _ = 10 = 19.49 Zb/\

1+i 1 + 0.77

S.e = f . ch S*0.77 =2.68* 0.15 S= 52.2%

)

_ k k H k

tH

SHk SHk SHk SHk

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Soil Mechanics Lectures /Coarse 1-----------------------------2016-2017-------------------------------------------Third year Student

Example 6: Given mass of wet sample = 254 gm, void ratio = 0.6133, volume of air = 1.9

cm3, mass of solid =210 gm. Determine degree of saturation, air content and dry unit

weight.

44

v = = = 44 y\

M 1

v = v + v = 44 + 1.9 = 45.9

T.Q

0.6133 = v = 74 y\

v 44 0.6133

p = = = 95.8% = u(1 ) = (1 0.95)

v 45.9 1 + 0.6133

= 0.019

Mt =

v

210 [

Mt = = 1.75 \ _t = 17.5 Zb/\

120 y

Example 7: A soil specimen is 38 mm in diameter and 76 mm long and its natural

condition weighs 168 gm when dried completely in an oven the specimen weighs 130.5

gm. The value of f = 2.73 . what is the degree of saturation of the specimen?

L= 76 mm = 7.6 cm

3.8 P

v = ( ) 7.6 = 86.192 y\

2

= 168 130.5 = 37.5 [

37.5

v = = 37.5 y\

1

~ 130.5

v = = = 47.8 y\

f _ 2.73 1

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\.T

p = = = 97.6%

\l.\lQ

Example 8: Given: mass of wet sample =254.1gm, void ratio = 0.6133, volume of air =

1.9 cm3, mass of solids = 210 gm. Determine: Degree of saturation, Air content, dry unit

weight.

Solution:

Volume of water = = 44.1 y\

H .SHS.Q

i= 0.6133 = = =

46

0.6133 = v = 75. y\

v

.S

p = = = 95.8%

q

k R.qS\\

A= (1 ) = (1 0.958) = 0.015 7

SHk SHR.qS\\

v = v + v = 46 + 75 = 121 y\

~ 210

f = = = 2.8

v _ 75 1

f 2.8

_t = _ _t = 10 = 17.355 Zb\

1 + i 1 + 0.6133

^ PSR

Or Mt = = = 1.7355 [/y\

SPS

Example 9: A soil specimen have void ratio of 0.7 , f = 2.72 . Calculate the dry unit

weight, unit weight and water content at degree of saturation of 75%.

Solution :

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P.P

_t = _ = 10 = 16 ,

SHk SHR. ^V

2.72 + 0.7

_ = 10 = 20.11 Zb/\

1 + 0.7

_ = _ = _k = _ _ = 20.11 10 = 10.11 Zb/\

_ T% = 10 = 19.1 Zb/\

1 + 0.7

0.75* 0.70 = 2.72 *c c = 19.3%

f . ch =

= = = p i

Example 11: Show that _t =

SH

= = = =

SH SH

k

Example 12 : Prove that u =

SHk

k

= = = =i

SHk SH

References :

1- Soil mechanics

R.F. Craig

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2- Soil mechanics

T.W.Lamb, R.V.Whitman

3- Soil Mechanics

A.Aysen

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Chapter Two

Plasticity is the ability of a soil to undergo unrecoverable deformation at

constant volume without cracking or crumbling. It is due to the presence of clay

minerals or organic material.

Consistency limits (Atterberg limits):

Atterberg, a Swedish scientist developed a method for describing the limit

consistency of fine grained soils on the basis of moisture content. These limits

are liquid limit, plastic limit and shrinkage limit.

Liquid limit (L.L): is defined as the moisture content in percent at which the

soil changes from liquid to plastic state.

Plastic Limit (P.L.): The moisture contents in % at which the soil changes from

plastic to semi solid state.

Shrinkage Limit (S.L.): The moisture contents in % at which the soil changes

from semi solid to solid state.

Plasticity Index (P.I.): it is the range in moisture content when the soil exhibited

its plastic behavior:

. . = . . .

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Liquidity Index (L.I. or IL) : a relation between the natural moisture contents

(c ) and (L.L.) and (P.L.) in form:

If LI = 1 then the soil at L.L.

If < 1 then the soil below L.L.

Activity: is the degree of plasticity of the clay size fraction of the soil and is

expressed as:

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.

yv} =

% d yw} i zeywi

Plasticity Chart: based on Atterberg limits, the plasticity chart was developed

by Casagrande to classify the fine grained soil.

Some useful notes:

v Constant at all stages

Degree of saturation (S %) at S.L. and up to =100%

Degree of Saturation in the region from S.L. and below < 100%

vt = v .. --------

vt = v ..

it = i..

Relative Density: is the ration of the actual density to the maximum possible

density of the soil it is expressed in terms of void ratio.

i^I i

(%) = 100

i^ i^

U

Or (%) = 100

I

i^ : The void ratio of the soil in its densest condition

i : The void ratio of the soil in its natural condition

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_t^ : Minimum dry unit weight (ati^ )

_t : Natural dry unit weight (ati )

RD Description

S loose

0 -

\

1 2

medium

3 3

2

1

Dense

3

Example 1: for a granular soil, given,_t = 17.3 , relative density = 82%,

^V

c = 8% and f = 2.65. If i^ = 0.44 . what would be i^ ? what would

be the dry unit weight in the loosest state?

Solution:

P.qT

_t = 10 17.3 = 10

SHk SHk

k Ik

i = 0.53 = 100

k Ik

k IR.T\

0.82 = i^ = 0.94

k IR.

f 2.65

_t ( wddi) = _ = 10

1 + i^ 1 + 0.94

= 13.65 Zb\

Example 2: a granular soil is compacted to moist unit weight of 20.45 Zb\

at moisture content of 18% . What is relative density of the compacted soil?

Given, i^ = 0.85 , i^ = 0.42 u{ f = 2.65 ?

Solution:

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(SH ) P.qT(SHR.Sl)

_ = _ 20.45 = 10

SHk SHk

k Ik

i = 0.52 = =

k Ik

0.85 0.52

= 100 = 76.74%

0.85 0.42

Example 3: A dry sample of soil having the following properties, L.L. = 52%,

P.L. = 30%, f = 2.7, e= 0.53. Find: Shrinkage limit, { density, dry unit

weight, and air content at dry state.

Solution

Dry sample it = i]k = 0.53

S.L.= 19.6%

P. ]^

Mt = M Mt = 1 = 1.764

SHk SHR.T\ h^V

i 0.53

= u = = = 0.346

1+i 1 + 0.53

= 34.6%

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Example 4: A saturated soil sample has a volume of 20 y\ at its L.L Given

L.L= 42% , P.L.= 30% , S.L.= 17% , f = 2.74. Find the min. volume the soil

can attain.

The minimum volume

occurs at S.L. or at dry

state.

v = v + v

v : is constant along all

state.

At L.L.

p. i = f . ch

1*e= 2.74 *0.42

i.. = 1.1508

v 20 v

i = =

v v

= 1.1508

p. i = f . c..

i.. = 0.4658 1* i.. = 2.74 0.17

i = v .. = 0.465 9.3 = 4.33 y\

v.. = v..

= 4.33 + 9.3 = 13.63 y\

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(0.202 kg). When completely dried at the volume of the sample was (87 y\ )

and it's mass (0.167 kg). Find

a) - initial water content. b)- shrinkage limit c)- specific gravity

Solution:

0.202

= =

v 97

= 2.08 [/y\

f + i

2.08 = 1 3 = #,>

1+i 3 = #, >

(1) W= 0.202 kg

202.167 W= 0.167 kg

ch = = = 21%

167

p. i = f . ch

1*e = f 0.21 (2)

Solving (1) and (2) ^

i = 0.565 u{ f = 2.69 At dry state : Mt = =

1.96 [/y\

P.qQ

But Mt = M 1.92 = 1

SHk SHk.

i.. = 0.4 1 0.4 = 2.69 c..

p. i. = 2.69 c.. c.. = 15%

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Chapter three

Soil Compaction

Soil compaction is one of the most critical components in the construction of roads,

airfield, embankments and foundations. The durability and stability of a structure are

related to the achievement of proper soil compaction. Structural failure of roads, airfield

and the damage caused by foundation settlement can often be traced back to the failure to

achieve proper soil compaction.

Compaction of soil:

Compaction is the process of increasing the density of a soil by packing the particles

closer together with a reduction in the volume of air only. Compaction increases the dry

density and decreases the void ratio.

Purpose of compaction:

2- Reduce void ratio thus reduce permeability

3- Controlling the swell-shrinkage movement

4- Reduce settlement under working load

5- Prevent the buildup of large water pressure

Water content

Type of soil

Compaction energy or effort

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The effect of types of soil on the dry density using the same

compaction Energy.

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Theory of compaction:

Compaction is the process of reducing the air content by the application of energy

to the moist soil. From compaction test we can find:

1- There is a unique relationship between the water content and the dry density

for specific compaction energy.

2- There is one water content (O.M.C.) (Optimum moisture content) at which

the max dry density is achieved

The two above points can be clearly shown through the following Figure:

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Soil Mechanics Lectures /Coarse 1-----------------------------2016-2017-------------------------------------------Third year Student

Compaction curve

Compaction Test

moisture content and the dry density of a soil for specific compactive effort. The

compactive effort is the amount of mechanical energy that is applied to the soil

mass. Several different methods are used to compact soil in field, and some

examples include tamping, kneading, vibration, and static load compaction. This

test will be carried out by using impact compaction method using the type of

equipment and methodology developed by R.R.Proctor in 1933, therefore , the test

is also known as the proctor test.

Two types of compaction tests are routinely performed: (1) The standard Proctor

and (2) The modified Proctor test.

test layer blows per of mold hammer drops

layer (#, )

> (kg) cm

Standard 3 25 1000 2.5 30

Proctor

Modified 5 25 1000 4.5 45

Proctor

Compaction Effort =

),G )K ,);

Test Procedure :

2- Determine the weight of the compaction mold with its base (without the

collar).

3- Start with initial water such (3% of Soil weight)

4- Add the water to the soil and mix it thoroughly into the soil until the soil gets

uniform color (see figure B and C).

5- Assemble the compaction mold to the base, place soil in the mold and

compact the soil in the number of equal layers specified by the type of

compaction method (see photo D and E).

The number of drops per layer is dependent upon the type of compaction.

The drops should be applied at a uniform rate not exceeding around 1.5

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Soil Mechanics Lectures /Coarse 1-----------------------------2016-2017-------------------------------------------Third year Student

seconds per drops, and the rammer should provide uniform coverage of the

specimen surface.

6- The soil should completely fill the cylinder and the last compacted layer

must extend slightly above the collar joint. If the soil below the collar joint at

the completion of the drops, the test point must be repeated.

7- Carefully remove the collar and trim off the compacted soil so that it is

completely even with the top of the mold.(see photo F).

8- Weigh the compacted soil while it's in the mold and to the base, and record

the mass (see Photo G). Determine the wet mass of the soil by subtracting

the weight of the mold and base.

9- Remove the soil from the mold using a mechanical extruder (see Photo H)

and take the soil moisture content samples from the top and bottom of the

specimen (see Photo i). Determine the water content.

10- Place the soil specimen in the large tray and break up

the soil until it appears visually as if it will pass through the #4 sieve, add 3%

more water on the soil and remix as in step 4. Repeat step 5 through 9 until a

peak value is reached followed by two slightly lesser compacted soil masses.

Analysis:

2- Compute the wet density in grams per cm3 of the compacted soil by dividing

the wet mass by the volume of the mold used.

3- Compute the dry density using the weight density and the water content

determined in step 1. Use the following formula:

Mk

Mt =

1 + ch

4- Plot the dry density values on the y-axis and the moisture contents on the x-

axis. Draw a smooth curve connecting the plotted points.

5- On the same graph draw a curve of Saturation line ( Zero air void line ) using

the following Equation :

Mt = M

SHk

p. i = f . ch For S= 1 i = f ch

Assume values of water content and find dry density, then plot the zero air

void line which must be parallel to the moist side of compaction curve and

never intersect it , If so that mean there is some error.

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Soil Mechanics Lectures /Coarse 1-----------------------------2016-2017-------------------------------------------Third year Student

f (1 )

Mt = M

1 + c f

The following Figures give the steps used in the test:

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Soil Mechanics Lectures /Coarse 1-----------------------------2016-2017-------------------------------------------Third year Student

Compaction Equipments:

2- Pneumatic roller (many different soils)

3- Vibratory rollers (mainly for granular material)

4- Grid rollers

5- Power Rammer

6- Vibratory plates.

Moisture content has little or no influence on the granular soils (except when the soil is fully

saturated) .

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Soil Mechanics Lectures /Coarse 1-----------------------------2016-2017-------------------------------------------Third year Student

2.3

2.2

2.1

1.9

1.8

1.7

1.6

1.5

Their state of compaction can be obtained by relating dry density to the minimum and

maximum dry densities and as in the following equation:

i^ i _t^ _t _^

= =

i^ i^ _t _^ _^

The results of laboratory tests are not directly applicable to the field compaction, because

1- The Laboratory tests are carried out on material smaller than 20 mm size.

2- Compactive efforts are different and apply in different method.

Relative compaction:

Or Degree of compaction is a means of comparing the field density with Laboratory results and

is defined as the ratio of the dry density in the field to the maximum dry density in the

Laboratory and in most construction works, the degree of compaction is specified as 95 % or

more.

C;*< KG;

G643G ),6#4)1 . = % )* 6% %G#K< 1 4G $)*B%

C,6 64 6.

So by using sand replacement method, find dry density at field then check the R.C

If ch kt < c then add water and compact the soil

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Soil Mechanics Lectures /Coarse 1-----------------------------2016-2017-------------------------------------------Third year Student

If ch kt > c then either postponed the compaction to other time or add some additive

(such as cement or lime) to accelerate evaporation of extra water.

1- Core cutter

2- Sand Replacement method

3- Air-Ball on method

4- Penetrating Needle

5- Radiation Technique.

Example 1 :

The following results were obtained from a standard compaction test. Determine the Optimum

moisture content and maximum dry density. Plot the curves of 0%, 5% and 10% air content and gives

the value of air content at the maximum dry density. Given the volume of standard mold is 1000 cm3

and E% = . .

Water content (%) 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

Solution :

Calculate dry density for each test and tabulate the results.

+(%) 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

7$G4 1.768 1.929 2.074 2.178 2.106 2.052 2.007

7;*< =,#, 1.7

> 1.82 1.92 1.98 1.88 1.8 1.73

+(%) A% 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

7;*< =,#, 0

> 2.44 2.32 2.22 2.13 2.04 1.96 1.88

7;*< =,#,> 5 2.32 2.2 2.11 2.02 1.94 1.86 1.79

7;*< =,#,> 10 2.20 2.09 2.00 1.92 1.84 1.76 1.69

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Comaction Curve

2.1

1.9

1.8

1.6

1.5

1.4

0 5 10 15 20

2.6

2.4

2.2

Comaction Curve

Zero air void line 2

% 5A=

1.8

% 10A =

1.6

1.4

0 5 10 15 20

Figure show the Zero air void line and a line of 5 and 10% air content

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Chapter Four

Soil Classification

Classification of soil is the separation of soil into classes or groups each having similar

characteristics and potentially similar behaviour. A classification for engineering

purposes should be based mainly on mechanical properties: permeability, stiffness,

strength. The class to which a soil belongs can be used in its description.

The aim of a classification system is to establish a set of conditions which will allow

useful comparisons to be made between different soils. The system must be simple. The

relevant criteria for classifying soils are the size distribution of particles and the plasticity

of the soil. Particle Size Distribution for measuring the distribution of particle sizes in a

soil sample, it is necessary to conduct different particle-size tests. Wet sieving is carried

out for separating fine grains from coarse grains by washing the soil specimen on a 75

micron sieve mesh.

1- Dry sieve analysis is carried out on particles coarser than 75 micron. Samples (with

fines removed) are dried and shaken through a set of sieves of descending size. The

weight retained in each sieve is measured. The cumulative percentage quantities

finer than the sieve sizes (passing each given sieve size) are then determined.

The resulting data is presented as a distribution curve with grain size along x-axis

(log scale) and percentage passing along y-axis (arithmetic scale).

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of soil grains in water. When a soil specimen is dispersed in water, the particles

settle at different velocities, depending on their shape, size, and weight. For

simplicity, it is assumed that all the soil particles are spheres, and the velocity of

soil particles can be expressed by Stokes law, according to which:

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In this method, the soil is placed as a suspension in a jar filled with distilled water to

which a deflocculating agent is added. The soil particles are then allowed to settle down.

The concentration of particles remaining in the suspension at a particular level can be

determined by using a hydrometer. Specific gravity readings of the solution at that same

level at different time intervals provide information about the size of particles that have

settled down and the mass of soil remaining in solution. The results are then plotted

between % finer (passing) and log size. Grain-Size Distribution Curve The size

The results are then plotted between % finer (passing) and log size. Grain-Size

Distribution Curve the size distribution curves, as obtained from coarse and fine grained

portions, can be combined to form one complete grain-size distribution curve (also

known as grading curve). A typical grading curve is shown.

From the complete grain-size distribution curve, useful information can be obtained

such as: 1. Grading characteristics, which indicate the uniformity and range in

grain-size distribution. 2. Percentages (or fractions) of gravel, sand, silt and clay-

size. Grading Characteristics A grading curve is a useful aid to soil description. The

geometric properties of a grading curve are called grading characteristics.

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To obtain the grading characteristics, three points are located first on the grading

curve. D60 = size at 60% finer by weight

D30 = size at 30% finer by weight

D10 = size at 10% finer by weight

The grading characteristics are then determined as follows:

1. Effective size = D10

2. Uniformity coefficient, Cu, =

(V )

3. Curvature coefficient, Cc , h =

If Cu > 4 for gravel and Cu > 6 for sand and Cc between 1 and 3 indicates a

well-graded soil (GW for gravel and SW for sand ). i.e. a soil which has a

distribution of particles over a wide size range

The consistency of a fine-grained soil refers to its firmness, and it varies with the

water content of the soil.

A gradual increase in water content causes the soil to change from solid to semi-

solid to plastic to liquid states. The water contents at which the consistency

changes from one state to the other are called consistency limits (or Atterberg

limits). The three limits are known as the shrinkage limit (WS), plastic limit (WP),

and liquid limit (WL) as shown. The values of these limits can be obtained from

laboratory tests. (as explained in chapter 3)

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soils is very large: from boulders with dimension of over 300 mm down to clay

particles that are less than 0.002 mm. Some clay contains particles less than 0.001

mm in size which behave as colloids, i.e. do not settle in water.

Gravel, sand, silt, and clay are represented by group symbols G, S, M, and C

respectively. Physical weathering produces very coarse and coarse soils. Chemical

weathering produces generally fine soils.

Coarse-grained soils are those for which more than 50% of the soil material by

weight has particle sizes greater than 0.075 mm. They are basically divided into

either gravels (G) or sands (S). According to gradation, they are further grouped as

well-graded (W) or poorly graded (P). If fine soils are present, they are grouped as

containing silt fines (M) or as containing clay fines (C). For example, the

combined symbol SW refers to well-graded sand with no fines. Both the position

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and the shape of the grading curve for a soil can aid in establishing its identity and

description. Some typical grading curves are shown.

Curve B - a well-graded GRAVEL-SAND (i.e. having equal amounts of gravel

and sand)

Fine-grained soils are those for which more than 50% of the material has particle

sizes less than 0.075 mm. Clay particles have a flaky shape to which water adheres,

thus imparting the property of plasticity.

A plasticity chart , based on the values of liquid limit (WL) and plasticity index

(IP),

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Depending on the point in the chart, fine soils are divided into clays (C), silts (M),

or organic soils (O). The organic content is expressed as a percentage of the mass

of organic matter in a given mass of soil to the mass of the dry soil solids.

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Activity "Clayey soils" necessarily do not consist of 100% clay size particles.

The proportion of clay mineral flakes (< 0.002 mm size) in a fine soil increases its

tendency to swell and shrink with changes in water content. This is called the

activity of the clayey soil, and it represents the degree of plasticity related to the

clay content.

=

% yw} eydu (~i[)

Liquidity Index In fine soils, especially with clay size content, the existing state is

dependent on the current water content (w) with respect to the consistency limits

(or Atterberg limits). The liquidity index (LI) provides a quantitative measure of

the present

state.

+

=

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Example 1:

Following are the results of a sieve analysis. Make the necessary calculations

and draw a particle size distribution curve.

sieve (g)

4 0

10 40

20 60

40 89

60 140

80 122

100 210

200 56

Pan 12

Solution:

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Solution:

Find ,

qR 0.27

= = = 1.8

SR 0.15

(V ) (R.S)

h = = R.PR.ST = 0.71

% passing # 200 less than 50% so the soil is coarse , and since % passing # 4= 100

so the soil is sand and since Cu less than 6 , so the soil is SP.

U.S. Sieve No. Mass of soil retained on each sieve

(g)

4 0

10 21.6

20 49.5

40 102.6

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60 89.1

100 95.6

200 60.4

pan 31.2

II- Calculate the uniformity coefficient , , and cofficient of gradation ,

A)-For a soil given:

D10 = 0.1 mm

D30 = 0.41 mm

D60 = 0.62 mm

B)-for a soil given:

D10 = 0.082 mm

D30 = 0.29 mm

D60 0.51 mm

Home work 1:

U.S. Sieve Mass of soil

No. retained on the

sieve in g

4 0

6 0

10 0

20 9.1

40 249.4

60 179.8

100 22.7

200 15.5

Pan 23.5

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Chapter Five

SOIL PERMEABILITY

rocks, concrete, soils etc. are permeable. The flow of water through all of them obeys

approximately the same laws. Hence, the difference between the flow of water through

rock or concrete is one of degree. The permeability of soils has a decisive effect on the

stability of foundations, seepage loss through embankments of reservoirs, drainage of

sub grades, excavation of open cuts in water bearing sand, rate of flow of water into

wells and many others.

Hydraulic Gradient

When water flows through a saturated soil mass there is certain resistance for the flow

because of the presence of solid matter. However, the laws of fluid mechanics which

are applicable for the flow of fluids through pipes are also applicable to flow of water

through soils. As per Bernoulli's

equation, the total head at any point in water under steady flow condition may be

expressed as

Total head = pressure head + velocity head + elevation head

Hydraulic Gradient

When water flows through a saturated soil mass there is certain resistance for the flow

because of the presence of solid matter. The laws of fluid mechanics which are

applicable for the flow of fluid through pipes are also applicable to flow of water

through soils. The total head at any point in water under steady flow condition may

be expressed as:

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sectional area A as shown in figure1:

vP

= + +

_ 2[

h vhP

= + +

_ 2[

Figure

(1) flow of water through a soil sample

For all practical purposes the velocity head is a small quantity and may

be neglected.

The water flows from the higher total head to lower total head. So the

water will flow from point B to C.

= ( + ) - ( + )

Where, and = wivdu i{, and = Pressure Head.

The loss of head per unit length of flow may be expresses as :

=

Where i is the hydraulic gradient.

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Hydraulic gradient:

The potential drop between two adjacent equipotentials divided by the

distance between them is known as the hydraulic gradient.

DARCY'S LAW

Darcy in 1856 derived an empirical formula for the behavior of flow through

saturated soils. He found that the quantity of water q per sec flowing through a

cross-sectional area of soil under hydraulic gradient / can be expressed by the

formula

q = kiA

or the velocity of flow can be written as

=

Where k is termed the hydraulic conductivity (or coefficient of permeability) with

units of velocity. The coefficient of permeability is inversely proportional to the

viscosity of water which decreases with increasing temperature; therefore,

permeability measurement at laboratory temperatures should be corrected to the

values at standard temperature of 200C using the following equation.

Z : Cofficient of permeability at Lab. Temperture0 C

Viscosity of water at lab. Temperature

PR Viscosity of water at 200C

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Table (1) :The of at different temperature.

Figure below shows a soil sample of length L and cross-sectional area A. The

sample is placed in a cylindrical horizontal tube between screens. The tube is

connected to two reservoirs R1 and R2 in which the water levels are maintained

constant. The difference in head between R1 and R2 is h. This difference in head is

responsible for the flow of water. Since Darcy's law assumes no change in the

volume of voids and the soil is saturated, the quantity of flow past sections AA, BB

and CC should remain the same for steady flow conditions. We may express the

equation of continuity as follows

qaa = qbb = qcc

If the soil be represented as divided into solid matter and void space, then the area

available for the passage of water is only Av. If vs. is the velocity of flow in the

voids, and v, the average velocity across the section then, we have

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v v

v = v = v =

v u

CONDUCTIVITY OF SOILS (Coefficient of permeability).

Coefficient of permeability

Laboratory methods:

1- Constant head permeability method

2- Falling head permeability method

3- Indirect determination from consolidation test

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Field methods:

1- Pumping test

2- Bore hole tests

Laboratory methods:

The coefficient of permeability for coarse soils can be determined by means of the

constant-head permeability test (Figure below): A steady vertical flow of water,

under a constant total head, is maintained through the soil and the volume of water

flowing per unit time (q):

A series of tests should be run, each at different rate of flow. Prior to running the

test a vacuum is applied to the specimen to ensure that the degree of saturation

under flow will be close to 100%.

For fine soils the falling-head test (Figure below) should be used. In the case of

fine soils, undisturbed specimens are normally tested. The length of the specimen

is l and the cross-sectional area A. the standpipe is filled with water and a

measurement is made of the time (S ) for water level (relative to the water level in

the reservoir) to fall from R d S . At any intermediate time t the water level in

t

the standpipe is given by h and its rate of change by . At time t the

t

difference in total head between the top and bottom of the specimen is h. then

applying Darcy's law:

{

=

{ w

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{

= {

w R

w R w R

= wu = 2.3 log

S S S S

Ensure that the degree of saturation remains close to 100%. A series of tests should

be run using different values of R u{ S

Example 1:

sand 4 in. in diameter and 6 in. in height . 10 u\

Of water was collected in 1.75 min, under a head of 12 in. Compute the

hydraulic conductivity in ft/year and the velocity of flow in ft/sec.

Solution:

Z=

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4P

= 10 u , = 3.14

\

= 12.56 uP

4

12

= = = 2, = 105 iy

6

SR SRUV

Therefore Z = = 3.79 = 31.58 10IT /iy

SP.TqPSRT kh

Example 2

A sand sample of 35 yP cross sectional area and 20 cm long was tested

in a constant head permeameter. Under a head of 60 cm, the discharge

was 120 ml in 6 min. The dry weight of sand used for the test was 1120

g. and f = 2.68. Determine (a) the hydraulic conductivity in cm/sec. (b)

the discharge velocity, and (c) the seepage velocity.

Solution:

QL

Z =

hAt

Q = 120 ml, t =6 min, = 35 yP , = 20 y, u{ = 60 y

SPRPR

Z = = 3.174 10I\ y/iy

qR\TqqR

qR

Discharge velocity, v= ki =31.74 10I\ = 9.52 10I\ y/iy

PR

Seepage velocity v

~ 1120

_t = = = 1.6 [y\

v 35 20

_ f f

_t = de i = 1

1+i _t

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2.68

i = 1 = 0.675

1.6

i

u = = 0.403

1+i

Q.TP SRUV

v = = = 2.36 10IP yiy

R.R\

1- Field test in unconfined aquifer

There are two cases :

Case 1- when R > R

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Several empirical equations for estimating hydraulic conductivity have been

proposed over the years.

Granular Soil

For fairly uniform sand (that is, a small uniformity coefficient), Hazen (1930)

proposed an empirical relationship for hydraulic conductivity in the form:

Z(yiy ) = SR

P

D10 = the effective size (mm)

The above equation is based primarily on Hazens observations of loose,

clean, filter sands. A small quantity of silts and clays, when present in a

sandy soil, may change the hydraulic conductivity substantially.

The accuracy of the values of k determined in the laboratory depends on the folloeing factors:

2- Viscosity of fluid

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4- Degree of saturation

5- Migration of fines during testing

6- Duplication of field conditions in the laboratory.

consolidation tests. This will be listed in details in "consolidation of soil".

Exercise:

1-

2-

3-

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There are three heads which must be considered in problem involving fluid flow in

soil (Figure 4):

weight of water

2- Elevation head at any point (k ): is the vertical distance above or below

some reference elevation or datum plane.

3- Total head, = + k

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Example 1: For the Setup shown (Figure 5a), plot, ht, he, hp and the velocity of

flow?

5

Datum

6

Figure(5b) Figure(5c)

Figure(5a)

Points ht(ft) he(ft) hp=ht-he(ft) V(ft/min)*=Ki

(Figure 5b) (Figure 5b) (Figure 5b) (Figure5c)

1 12 12 0 2

2 12 10 2 2

3 12 8 4 6

SPHR

4 = =6 5 1 6

P

5 0 2 -2 6

6 0 0 0 2

V I SPIR

*

= = =2

VU q

P

Seepage velocity = = = 6 /u

R.\\\

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Example 2

For the setup shown(Figure 6a) , Draw, ht, he , hp and velocity of flow ?

2

Datum

Figure ( 6)

a b c

1- Direction of flow is upward flow (look to the water'symbole usaually water

flow from higher one to lower one)

2- List all point with direction of flow

3- Construct a table to solve the problem

(Figure 6b) (Figure 6b) he(ft) (Figure6c)

(Figure 6b)

1 16 16 0

2 16 2 14

16 + 12

= 14

3 5 9

2

4 12 8 4

5 12 12 0

I SqISP

*

= = = 0.667

U q

R.qq

Seepage velocity = = = 2 /u

R.\\\

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Example 3: For the setup shown(Figure below) , Draw, ht, he , hp and velocity of

flow ?

Figure (7a)

3

2 4

Ft/min)

Datum 5

1

Figure (7c)

Solution:

1- Assume any arbitrary line representing the datum and let it at elevation

=0(Figure 7a).

2- The flow will be in horizontal direction (elevation head is constant)

3- Construct the table

Since pressure =3.4 psi=3.4*144= 489.6 lb/ft2

kk lQ.q= 7.84 ft

z = =

k] k qP.

1 7.84 0 8

2 7.84 3 5.84

3 3.92 3 0.92

4 0 3 -3

5 0 0 0

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P 7.84 0

= = = 1.3

PI 6

S.\

Seepage velocity = = = 3.9 /iy

R.\\\

Example 4

For the setup shown in figure 8:a) - Calculate the pressure head, elevation head,

total head and head loss at points B, C,D and F in centimeter of water. b)-Plot the

heads versus the elevation.

Solution (1):

B 40 35 5 0

C 40 20 20 0

D 20 7.5 12.5 20

F 0 -5 5 40

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Figure (8)Example 4

Example (5): for the setup shown Calculate and plot total head, elevation head and

pressure head.

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Example 5

Solution example 5:

A 5 -5 10 0

B 5 -5 10 0

C 2.5 -5 7.5 2.5

D 0 -5 5 5

Solution Example 5

Example -6 : For the set up shown , draw the variation of total head, pressure head

and elevation head along points A,B,C,D and E.

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Example 6

Solution of

Example 6

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Solution of Example 6

Head(cm) Head(cm) Head(cm) (cm)

A 18.5 8.5 10 0

B 18.5 6.5 12 0

C 16 4 12 2.5

D 13.5 1.5 12 5

E 13.5 0 13.5 5

Example 7: For the setup shown, Find total head (ht) , Elevation head (he) and

Pressure head(hp) for the soil the setup shown.

5 m

5 m Datum

ZS = 10ZP

5 m

ZS ZP

A B C D E

4m 4m 6m 3m

Example 7 setup

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Soil II, A= 0.186 m2 , n=0.5 and k=0.5 cm/sec.

1 3.6 m

2 2.4 m

Soil I

3 1.2 m

Soil II

4 0.6 m

5 0 Datum

1 3.6 3.6 0

2 3.6 2.4 1.2

3 2.4 1.2 1.2

4 0 0.6 -0.6

5 0 0 0.0

Solution :

1- qI=qII

Z = Z

S h^/kh R.T 9/0

= * 0.37 = 0.1 (1)

SRR (P.IS.P) SRR (S.PIR.q)

2- + = 3.6 (2)

= 2.4

= 1.2

Approach Velocity= ki

S.P

Approach velocity for soil I=Z = 1 = 1 y/iy

(P.IS.P)

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S

Seepage velocity = = = 2 y/iy

R.T

For soil II

P.

Approach velocity=Z = 0.5 = 2 y/iy

(S.PIR.q)

P

Seepage velocity (II) = = = 6y/iy

R.\\\

0 2 6

Velocity (cm/sec)

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Example 9: For the setup shown draw ht, he, hp and find the seepage force .

0.6 m

A

0.3 m

B

n=0.33, k=0.5 cm/sec

Soil 0.6 m

_ = 20.9 Zb\

C Datum

Supporting

Screen

nts m) m) m)

A 0.9 0.9 0

B 0.9 0.6 0.3

C 1.5 0.0 1.5

0.9

0.6

(ht (cm

(he(cm

(hp(cm 0.3

0

1.55-E-1 0.3 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.5

Elevation (/^ ) Zb Zb

( ) x( )

(cm) P P

0.9 0 0 0

0.3

*10=3kN/m2

0.6 3 0.3*10=3 0

0.6*20.9 =

12.54

0 15.54 1.5*10=15 0.54

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3 3

= +

6 kN/m2

15

Water pressure on soil sample (a) Boundary water pressure (b) Buoyancy water

pressure(static) (c) Pressure lost in seepage.

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piiz[i deyi _

= = = _

dwxi d dw

Quick Condition:

effective stress. When a cohesionless soil is subjected to a water condition that

results in zero effective stress, the strength of the soil becomes zero and quick

condition exists.

Quick condition: occurs in upward flow( for cohesionless soil) and when the

total stress equals to pore water pressure .

kkh = 0 = _ _ = 0

_

== = h

_

Example 10: Excavation is been carried out as shown in the figure. Find: 1-

the depth Z that could caused boiling at the bottom of clay layer.

2-The depth ( Z) for the factor of safety against boiling equal to 2 at the

bottom of the clay layer.

3- What is the thickness of the raft foundation that should be used before

boiling occurs. If an uplift pressure of 60 kN/m2 at the bottom of

excavation exist(_hhkk = 25 Zb/\ ).

4- Find the seepage force at an element of 0.2 m cube located at the center of

silt layer.

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Solution:

S = 21.5

\ UU PS.TI

1- = = = P = 14

SR ^ SR

zP = P iP = 14 10 = 4

To find Z

F. down = F. upward

t t hk

2- . p =

t hk

(8 ) 20

2 =

4 10

= 4

3- F down ward = F upward

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t*5*10*25 = 60*5*10

qR

= = 2.4 m (thickness of concrete)

PT

\

= *10* (0.2)3 = 0.06 kN

1- In soils v = Z

2- There are three heads of importance to flow through porous media: elevation

head ( k ), pressure head ( )and total head ( ).

3- Flow depends on difference in total head.

4- The seepage force per a volume of soil is i*_ and acts in the direction of

flow.

5- "Quick", refers to a condition where in a cohesion less soil loses its strength

because the upward flow of water makes the effective stress become zero.

Exercise 1: For the setup shown. Plot to scale elevation head, pressure head, total

head and seepage velocity versus distance along the sample axis.

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Exercise 2: For the setup shown, compute the vertical force exerted by the soil on

screen A and that on screen B. Neglect friction between the soil and tube. G= 2.75.

Exercise 3: For the set up shown: Steady vertical seepage is occurring. Make scaled

plot of elevation versus pressure head, pore pressure, seepage velocity, and vertical

effective stress. Determine the seepage force on a 1 ft cube whose center is at

elevation -15 ft. G for all soils = 2.75.

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containing water under artesian pressure. A stand pipe was inserted into the

gravel and water rose up the pipe to reach a level 2m above the top of the clay. The

clay has a particle specific gravity of 2.7 and a natural moisture content of 30

percent. The permeability of the silty clay is 3*10-8 m/sec. It proposed to excavate

2 m into the soil in order to insert a wide foundation which, when constructed, will

exert a uniform pressure of 100 kN/m2 on to its supporting soil. Determine (a) The

unit rate of flow of water through the silty clay in m3 per year before the work

commences. (b) the factor of safety against heaving: i) at the end of excavation ii)

after construction of the foundation?

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Soil Mechanics Lectures /Coarse 1-----------------------------2016-2017-------------------------------------------Third year Student

Most problems of flow are two dimensional flows, e.g. are shown in Fig.

below:

Impervious layer

Impervious layer

Impervious layer

Impervious layer

1- To find the amount of seepage per meter length (i.e. rate of flow).

2- Pressure distribution (pore water pressure)

3- Stability against piping or boiling.

4- Pizometer levels of selected point required.

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Seepage Theory:

The general case of seepage in two dimensions will now be considered.

In same principle used in one dimensional problem applied (Darcy's law

& Continuity flow state).

Consider the two dimensional steady state flows in the fig.

{

v + . {

Concrete Dam {

v

{

v + . {

Element A {

v

Impervious X

t t

(v + {){}{ + (v + {}){{

t t

t t

v dy dz +v dx dz =(v + {){}{ + (v + {}){{

t t

By simplification

{v {v

+ = (1)

{ {}

t

Darcy's law = v = Z

t

{v {P

= Z P

{ {

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Soil Mechanics Lectures /Coarse 1-----------------------------2016-2017-------------------------------------------Third year Student

{

v = Z

{}

{v {P

= Z P

{} {}

Sub. In equation (1)

t t

Z +(Z )=0

t t

{P {P

+ P = 0 zwyi ixdu

{ P {}

Consider a function (, }) so that

{

v =

{

{

v =

{}

t t

v = = Z

t t

t t

v = = Z

t t

(, }) = Z(, }) + y

Where c is a constant

Thus if the function (, }) is given a constant value equal to S & it

will represent a curve a long which the value of total head (S ) is

constant. If the function (, }) is given a series of constant value S

, P , \ etc a family of curves, such curves are called equipotentials

and this will corresponding to total head S , P , \ --------- from

the total differ nation.

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Soil Mechanics Lectures /Coarse 1-----------------------------2016-2017-------------------------------------------Third year Student

t t

{ = . { + {}

t t

0 = v dx + v {}

v dx = v {}

{

v =

{}

{

v =

{

{v {P

=

{ {{}

{v {P

=

{} {}{

{v {v

+ =0

{ }

{P {P

= 0

{{} {}{

A, }@ Satisfy the Laplace equation

A gain a series of using S , P , \

Is selected and this function

d d

= { + {}

{ {}

0 = v { + Av @{}

v {= v {}

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Soil Mechanics Lectures /Coarse 1-----------------------------2016-2017-------------------------------------------Third year Student

{} v

=

{ v

Flow net:

The graphical representation of the Laplace equation is represented by the

two families of curve:

1- Equipotential lines: A series of lines of equal total head e.g.

S , P , \

2- Flow lines: A family of the rate of flow between any two adjacent

flow lines is constant.

For isotropic soil:

The flow net is formed by a mesh of the intersection of two lines with

the following limitation

1- Each element is a curvilinear square S

90

Flow channel

1- Laplace equation govern's the steady state flow in two dimensions

2- The solution is represented by two families of curve

a- Equipotential lines

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Soil Mechanics Lectures /Coarse 1-----------------------------2016-2017-------------------------------------------Third year Student

b- Flow lines

3- The intersection of the two lines is represented by a flow net of

square elements

4- Each element is a curvilinear square with dimension 1

5- The rate of flow is expressed /m length by

= Z

t

Q: rate of flow/m

Where k: Coefficient of permeability

H: Total head difference between the first and last equipotential

lines

b: bd. d wd~ yuuiw

b{: bd. d {edz (ixzdiuw {edz)

Steps in drawing a flow net:-

The first step is to draw in one flow line, upon the accuracy of which the

final correctness of the flow net depends. There are various boundary

conditions that help to position the first flow line, including:

1- Buried surface (e.g. the base of the dam, sheet pile) which are flow

lines as water cannot penetrate into such surface.

2- The junction between a permeable and impermeable material

which is also a flow line : for flow net purpose a soil that has a

permeability of one-tenth or less the permeability of the other may

regard as impermeable.

3- The horizontal ground surface on each side of the dam which are

equipotential lines.

The procedure is as follows:

a- Draw the first flow line hence establish the first flow channel

b- Divide the first flow line into squares (| )

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Soil Mechanics Lectures /Coarse 1-----------------------------2016-2017-------------------------------------------Third year Student

give an indication of the size of the square in the next flow

channel.

d- With compasses determine the position of the next flow line;

draw this line as a smooth curve and complete the squares in the

flow channel formed.

e- Project the equipotentials and repeat the procedure until the

flow net is completed.

Example:

Rate of flow

= Z

= | 1 Z de dui wd~ yuuiw

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Soil Mechanics Lectures /Coarse 1-----------------------------2016-2017-------------------------------------------Third year Student

=

u{

= *k * ( | )

t

= Z

this is for one channel

t

b

= b =

b{

Where H= difference in water level (upstream and downstream.

Example 1:

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Soil Mechanics Lectures /Coarse 1-----------------------------2016-2017-------------------------------------------Third year Student

Example 2

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Soil Mechanics Lectures /Coarse 1-----------------------------2016-2017-------------------------------------------Third year Student

Example 3

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Soil Mechanics Lectures /Coarse 1-----------------------------2016-2017-------------------------------------------Third year Student

Example 4

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Soil Mechanics Lectures /Coarse 1-----------------------------2016-2017-------------------------------------------Third year Student

Example 6

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Soil Mechanics Lectures /Coarse 1-----------------------------2016-2017-------------------------------------------Third year Student

Example 7

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Soil Mechanics Lectures /Coarse 1-----------------------------2016-2017-------------------------------------------Third year Student

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Soil Mechanics Lectures /Coarse 1-----------------------------2016-2017-------------------------------------------Third year Student

Example 8:

A flow net for around a single row of sheet piles in a permeable soil layer is

shown in figure below. Given that k= 5* 10 -3 cm /sec.

a) How high (above the ground surface )will the water rise if pizometers

are placed at points a,b , c and d?

b) What is the rate of seepage under sheet pile?

1 6

1

5

2

3 4

3

Solution:

5 1.67

= = 0.555

6

zdu = 15 0.555 = 14.445

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Soil Mechanics Lectures /Coarse 1-----------------------------2016-2017-------------------------------------------Third year Student

\ ^V

q =kH = '(I /iy (5 1.67) = . > '(I /

q kh

Example 9

depth of 10 m with an impervious ledge below. A sheet pile wall is driven into

deposit to a depth of 7.5 m. The wall extends above the surface of the soil and 2.5

m depth of water acts on one side. Determine the seepage quantity per meter length

of the wall.

Example 10-

For the flow net shown below includes sheet-pile cutoff wall located at

the head water side of the dam in order to reduce the seepage loss. The

dam is half kilometer in width and the permeability of the silty sand

stratum is 3.5 *10-4 cm /sec. Find (a) the total seepage loss under the

dam in liters per year , and (b) would the dam be more stable if the cutoff

wall was placed under its tail-water side?

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Soil Mechanics Lectures /Coarse 1-----------------------------2016-2017-------------------------------------------Third year Student

Solution:

a) Notice that = 6.0 , the number of flow channels b =

3 u{ bt = 10 by using = Z

h^ ^ \

q = (3.5*10-4 ) (6.0)

kh SRR h^ SR

= 6.3 10 m /sec/m

Iq 3

Since the dam is 500 meters wide, the total Q under the dam is

SRV k kh

Q= Lq= 500m (6.3*10-4m3/sec)( ) 31.5 10q =

S^V k

^ k

100

k

b) - No: Placing the cutoff wall at the toe would allow higher uplift

hydrostatic pressure to develop beneath the dam.

Home work:

1. Two lines of sheet piles were driven in a river bed as shown in figure. The depth of water

over the river bed is 8.20 ft. The trench level within the sheet piles is 6.6 ft. below the river

bed. The water level within the sheet piles is kept at trench level by resorting to pumping.

If a quantity of water flowing into the trench from outside is 3.23 ft3/hour per foot length of

sheet pile, what is the hydraulic conductivity of the sand? What is the hydraulic gradient

immediately below the trench bed? (Ans 1 x 10-4 ft/sec, 0.50).

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