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NORMAL DEVELOPMENT AND MENTAL HEALTH :

Development starts since the child is in fetal stages. After birth the child
develops fast

1. PRENATAL PERIOD
When the ovum is matured and reaches the fallopian tube where it fuses with sperm celt
spermatozoa. When spermatozoa fuses with ovum it teases the outwall of ovum and enters
into the nucleus. Immediately after this the ovum wall closes to so that the second or any other
spermatozoa may not enter the ovum. Ovum has a substance named yolk on which the ovum
survives till it reaches imbryo. Persons figure is like egg in this period while is called zygote,
when it of pen size. The infant from 2 nd week to eight week is called embryo. Upto two months
its weight is 20 gms. Upto this period many parts and organs develop take eyes, ear, nose,
mouth, heart and liver, etc. this infant from two months to birth is called foetus. The length of
the fetus grows just in this period. Roughly upto 18 months the fetuss movements start in
mothers womb.
Pasamanile & Lilienfeld (1935) saw in a study that, the probality of mentally week in
children of mothers less than 20 years and more than 35 years. Some studies shows that
mothers health and disease during prenatal stage also effect the childs personality. The
emotional status and diet of the mother during this stage effect childs personality status; like
if the mothers good is devoid of vitamins B, C, D then the child coming can have various
physical and mental deficiencies. Such a child will be below average in learning. A study
conducted on pregnant females show that use of Thalidemoide Chemical during this stage
gives rise to cuppled child. If smoking and other intoxicants are used by ladies carrying the
personality status of the child in embryo is affected. Some studies show that during labour, if
the doctor gives some pain reducing drug in larger quantity the personality of the child is
affected.
Example: The chils breathing can get slow, his mental alertness can be affected; the
rate of weight development slows down, etc.

2. INFANCY: 0-2 YEARS


All the sense organs of an infant are in working condition, hence he is effected by his
surroundings. In the beginning he sleeps 20 hours per day then with in a year gradually this
reduce to 12 hours per day. Upto one year of age he has to no control over his bowel
movements. Healthy and active infants develop faster than the other children.

A. PHYSICAL MATURATION
Nearly upto 2 years of age the physical development is very fast. Upto the end of one
year weight is thus times of his birth weight, length is one and half than the length at birth.
I.e. nearly 20 inches and weight is nearly 214 pounds. The head of the infant is a bit longer, it
is of the total body length. The first tooth grows with in 6-8 months period. Girls teeth grows
faster as compared with the boys With two years period the brain develops nearly of the
adult brain. The capacity of child at the time of birth is 1 ownce and it develops to 3 ounce in
one month. Till the end of 2 years the arms grows 68% and legs 40% of his birth development.

B. MOTOR DEVELOPMENT
The motor development of the child is effected by his neuromuscular system. As the
child gains his muscular strength, his capacity to co-ordinate with different movements
increases. This capacity to co-ordinate with is clear from, his various movements and eye
movements. The child of 3-4 months can be made to set by some support. Child of 6-7
months sits without any support. Till 9 months he can sit in a position till 10 minutes. Children
of approximately 6 months start kiking moleon of their legs and hands. Nearly a seven months
child if lies from his stomachs side he starts moving forward by the help of his hands and legs.
Child of nearly 10 months holds a thing and by a support start walking on his legs. A child of
one year starts walking few steps without any support.
Dennis (1960) on the basis of his experimental studies concluded that the children who
are left free to move their hands and feet start walking earlier. We observe in our daily lifes
experience that children of parents who prefer to keep them in their laps instead of free
movements start walking or kicking etc at later age. Therefore we can say that practice factor
is important in motor development. If an object is placed before a six month old child he his to
hold it with both his hands. From nine months he uses his one hand and later use fingers to
hold the thing, child of 15 months can easily hold his things and select them.

C. PERCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT
In an object is placed in 1 or 2 fat from the infant and if the stimulus is before his eyes,
them a clear image is formed before his eyes. A infant of 2 months can note down some
specific points regarding the object, like he recognize the eyes of his mother and some of her
movements. Child of 4 months starts looking various stimuli. Children of 4-6 months are more
effected by janulear faces. Therefore upto this stage their memory process starts.

D. SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
The infants in the beginning are closely in mothers contact. The only reason of this is
that their main requirement is fulfilled by their mother. Mother not only provides him food, but
makes all her effort to satisfy him. As the child grows his first social relation is with his mother.
Although upto 2 years, the childs relations are limited to his family. The social relation
established with his mother act as a model to his other social relation. Mothers shows her
affection for child by breast feeding, patting, kissing, caressing. All these effects the childs
personality and social development. If the weaning period of the child is shorter he further
develops frustration, etc.
Freud says that early infanty of child effects adult personality. Scolding, abusing,
affection, various habits, etc. effect the childs personality excessive love and affection makes
the child obstinate children with late weaning period develops as lagy, dependent personalities,
negligenu, unnecessary scolding,s caring, etc. effect childs personality development.

3. CHILDHOOD (2-12 YEARS)


A. PHYSICAL AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT
Like infancy development in this age is also from head to toe the development is more in
head area, then in body and then in legs. The ratio of 6 years of child is nearly as of adult ie of
hands and feet, head and body etc. the physical and motor development of child continues
during childhood. From 6 years of age is permanent teeth growth starts and his brain develops
nearly 90% of the adult persons brain. Till 12 years of his 24 to 26 permanent teeth grows.
The total weight of childs muscle at 8 years age is 27% of his total weight and this weight
becomes 30% at the age of 12 years. At 5 year of the weight becomes 5 times of his weight at
birth at 11 years the average weight of American boy is 85.5 pounds and girls is 88.5 pounds.
In 5 years the height becomes double of the length at birth. But the height of grows at a slow
speed from 5 to 11 years of age. The average height of American child at 11 years is nearly 58
inch.
B. INDEPENDENCE
The intimacy between mother and child is makes a great bond within the child. As the
child grows his dependency over mother reduces. The independency of the child, depends
upon the restrictions and acceptance of mother. Upto 10 years of age children try to be
independent of their parents. But girls do not show such tendency.

C. IDENTIFICATION AND CONSCIOUSNESS


The child in his efforts of being independent starts identification. By identification he
tries to be like other persons. In the beginning if he thinks himself different from the
environment then the think himself. Small and feeble or helpless in comparisons to the world.
As the child grows he recognizes the pawers of his parents and tries or makes efforts to be like
them. Nearly upto the age of thus he learns the gertunes and ortunes from his parents. As eh
grows up he learns their attitudes and values. By limitation and identification he learns the
attitudes ethical values and other personality trails of his parents. Upto the age of 6 years apart
from his guardians he adopts and identifies with the behaviour of his friends, play mates, and
other members in his society. Till the age 5-6 years he learns the meaning of worlds like rich,
poor, black, white, etc. the role of identification is important in childs socialization. Nearly upto
the age of 3 years the child develops the feeling of good and bad. If the guardians teach the
good and bad by physical punishment it takes longer time as compared to love and affection.
D. PEER AND SEX ROLES
Upto the age of 3 years the childs interactions are limited upto family but after that
interests wildens upto group activities and other children. in the beginning he liters to see other
children playing, and enjoy to see them playing. But as he grows up, starts playing with them.
From the age of 5-6 years the child starts playing co-operating games with the rest members of
the group. A child of 4-5 years likes to play in small groups. Upto the 8 years of age the chils
game metes act as his model and he learns many personality tracts from these models of his
play group. From 6-7 years the child starts distinguishing sex and makes separation of sexes.
But usually upto 10-11 years of age no major differences are found in the childrens play group
regarding their sexes. With the ggowings age person learns the occupation of their sexes.
Usually it is observed that the body learns the fathers role and the girls learns mothers role.
The children from 5-6 years age start thinking males to be the powerful and females weak.
Usually the children play games like doctor, school, teacher and dolls, etc. in their games
children not only learn their sex role but also play and act them. For instance in doctors games
the boy acts as a doctor and if the girls is she plays as lady doctor. In a study conducted by
Mischel (1966) it was observed that boys are expected to be stronge courageous, assertive and
ambitiocis and girls to be social, clean, neat and with good behaviour.
4. ADOLESCENCE
Due to better nourishment adolescence in western countries is earlier. If is observed
that the growth of girls at nearly 11 years and of boys at 13 years suddenly becomes rapid.
Upto some years this growth is fast. As the adolscence matures this growth gets slow, the
genicab of boys and girls develop in this period. Their childhood ends and adulthood is
visiable. Menstruation starts in the girls at this stage. The genitals of boys within 2 years of this
period grow up like adults. The hairs of beard and moustached of boys grow up.
A. SEXUAL RELATIONS
By the physical maturity of adolesence many important physical changes takes place in
the body of adolescents. By the aducent of this age the interest in opposite sex starts. The
meeting of boys and girls in our country are restrictions. But some of the western countries lay
no such restrictions. The development of genitab in adolescents gives them a new sensations.
They want to practice their theoretical experience gained during courses of development.
Kinseys (1948, 1953) report in this deviation are important. According to the study
nearly 20-30% of girls of 20 years of age undergo the process of intercourse before their
marriage and this percentage goes 30-40% in girls above 25 years of age. If is found that
some unnatural sexual relations like masturbation and sex with animals is popular among
adolescents from higher socio-economic status group. Adolescence form lower socio economic
status think this practice abnormal so the probability of normal intercourse is more. According
to Kinsey nearly half of the 15 age children from lower socio economic status have this
experience of intercourse, where as only 10% of adolescents of higher socio economic status
have this experience. The percentages in our country are low due to social restrictions.
B. FRIENDSHIP AND AUTONOMY
The nature of friendship changes with the adult of adolence. If were observe the
behaviour of boys, girls in our country we see that. Boys make boy friends and girls make girl
friends but this does not mean that there is no friendship between girls and boys. Many times
boys and girls are tied up in delicate emotional relations. Boys are compared to girls not only
prefer but demand freedom. Children if are given more liberty of freedom they may develop
social problem crime which is usually related to low socio-economic status, poverty, broken
homes, population, in appropriate education, etc.
If is observed that when the adolescents are devoid of freedom they get into habits like
drug abuse.
Kuhen (1970) saw in study the adolescents which were more inactive in their individual
relations, were the drugs lesers, it is clear that they could not free themselves from the
dependency of childhood.

THEORIES IN DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONALITY


Various theories of personality maturation are presented in development
psychology classes as part of the curriculum in nursing programs. They are
categorized as psychoanalytical, cognitive, behaviorist and humanistic theories.

FREUDs psychoanalytic theory


Freuds theory of personality development describes three major categories
i) The organization or structure of personality
ii) The dynamics of personality and
iii) The development of personality
i) The organization or structure of personality
It consists of ID which is primitive drive and instincts dominated by pleasure
principles.
Ego Mediator and executive function of personality that operative at all 3 levels of
conscious
Super ego is composed of morals, mores values and ethics largely derived from ones
parents.
ii) The dynamics of personality
Each person has a certain amount of energy to cope with the problems of
everyday living. The Ids energy is used to reduce tension and may be exhibited. For
example by frequency of urination, daydreaming or eating. The egos energy controls
the impulsive action of the Id and the moralistic and idealistic action of the super ego.
iii) Development of personality
Freud also describes five phases of psychophysiology process that have a great
impact upon personality development
STAGE DEFINITION CHARACTER TRAITS

Is a period in which pleasure is Successful resolution of the oral


derived mainly through the mouth by phase provides a basis in character
actions of sucking or biting. structure for capacities to give to
Oral stage
According to Freud mouth and receive from others without
0 18
represents the first sex organ for excessive dependence or envy and
months
providing pleasure to the child. a capacity to rely on others with the
Thereafter it is used to derive, sense of trust, as well as with a
pleasure by putting anything candy, sense of self reliance and self trust
stick his own thumb etc

At this stage the interest of the child Successful resolution of the anal
shifts from the mouth to the organs phase provides the basis for the
of elimination that is anus or the development of personal autonomy
Anal stage Aretha. He derives pleasure by a capacity for independence and
(18 months holding back or letting go of the personal initiative without guilt, a
3 years) bodys waste material through the capacity for self-determining
anus or Aretha. This stage is behaviour without, a sense of
generally ranges from two to three shame or shelf doubt
years.

Phallic stage Phallic is stage of growth and The phallic stage provides the
or oedipal development in which the child foundations for an emerging sense
identifies with the parent of the same of sexual identity a sense of
sex forms a deep attachment to the curiosity without embarrassment
parent of the opposite sex, develops initiative without guilt, as well as a
a sexual identity of male or female sense of mastery not only over the
stage
role and begins to experience guilt. internal process and impulses. The
(37 years)
resolution of the oedipal conflict at
the end of phallic period gives rise
to powerful internal resources for
the regulation of drive impulses and
their direction to constructive ends

During the latency phase the person The latency period has frequently
learns to recognize and handle been regarded as a period of
reality has a limited sexual image, relatively unimportant inactivity in
Latency develops an inner control over the development schema. Recently
phase aggressive or destructive impulses great respect has been gained for
(7 years and experiences intellectual and the developmental processes that
adolescence) social growth takes place in this period. It is a
period of integrating and
consolidating previous attainment in
psycho sexual development and
adaptive functioning
Genital stage The physiological maturation of Genital phase sets the stage
(Adolescence systems of genital functioning and normally for a fully mature
in to Adult attendant hormonal system leads to personality with a capacity for full
life) intensification of drives. In which the and satisfying genital potency and
individual develops the capacity for self integrated and consistent sense
object love and mature of identify. Such as person has
heterosexuality. Identify and reached a self realization and
independence are established during meaningful participation in the
this phase. areas of work and love and in the
creative and production

ERIKSONS PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT THEORY


Erikson emphasizes the concepts of identity or an inner sense of sameness that preserves
despite external changes, identity crisis and identity confusion is the dynamics of personality
development
Developmenta Positive behaviour or resolution
Area of conflict and resolution
l stage of conflict
Basic trust Vs basic mistrust
Corresponds to the oral Displays affection, gratification,
psychosexual stage. Trust shown recognition and ability to trust
by ease of feeding, depth of sleep, others
Sensory oral or
bowel relaxation. Depends on
early infancy
consistency and sameness of
(birth to 1 yr)
experiences provided by care taker.
If basic trust is strong, child
maintains hopeful attitude,
develops self confidence
Autonomy Vs shame and doubt
Corresponds to the oral stage
Biologically includes learning to Co-operative, expresses oneself,
walk, feed self, talk displays self control views self part
Need for outer control, fitness of from parents
Muscular oral
care taker before development of
or later infancy
autonomy
(11/2 3yrs)
Shame occurs when child is overtly
self conscious through negative
exposure and punishment. Self
doubt can evolve if parents overtly
shame child (eg). About elimination
Stage 3 Initiative Vs guilt Tests reality, shows imagination
- Corresponds to the phallic displays some ability to evaluate
psychosexual stage. Initiative own behaviour exerts positive
arises in relation to takes for the controls over self
sake of activity both motor and
intellectual.
3 5 years
- Guilt may arise over goals
contemplated desire to mimic adult
world, involvement in oedipal
struggle leads to resolution through
social role identification
Industry Vs inferiority Develops a sense of duty scholastic
- Corresponds to the latency and social competencies. Displays
psychosexual stage perseverance and interacts with
Stage 4
- Child is busy building, creating, peers in a less infantile manner
6 11 years
accomplishing
- Receives systematic instruction
and fundamentals of technology
Stage 5 Struggle to develop ego identity Displays self certainty experiments
11 years to end preoccupation with appearance with role, express ideological
of adolescence group identity develop commitments, choose a carrier
Intimacy vs isolation Establishes nature relationship with
- Tasks are love and to work members of the opposite sex,
Stage 6 - Intimacy is characterized by self chooses a suitable marital partner
21 to 40 yrs abandonment, mutuality of sexual perform work and social roles in a
orgasm, intense socially acceptable manner.

Stage 7 Generativity Vs Stagnation Spends time wisely by engaging in


40 to 65 yrs - Generativity includes raising helpful activity such as teaching,
children, guiding new generation, counseling, community activities
creativity, altruism. and volunteer work.
- Self concern, isolation and
absence of intimacy are
characteristic of strengthen.
Integrity Vs Despair Reviews life realistically, accepts
- Integrity is a sense of satisfaction past failures and imitations, helps
that life has been productive and members of younger generations
worthwhile. view life positively and realistically
Stage 8
- Despair is a loss of hope that accepts death with dignity.
Over 65 yrs.
produces misanthropy and disgust.
- Persons in the state of despair are
fearful of death.

Piagets cognitive developmental theory


Piagets theory views intellectual development as a result of constant interaction
between environmental influences and genetically determined attributes. He categorizes the
cognitive development in to 4 stages.
i) Sensorimotor, ii) Preoperational, iii) Concrete operational, iv) Formal operational
i. Sensorimotor (0-2 yrs): The infant uses the senses in learning about self and the
environment by exploration of objects and events, and by imitation.
ii. Pre operational thought: is divided into
(a) Pre conceptual: Learning to think in mental images and the development of
expressive languages and symbolic play occurs between 2-4 years.
(b) Intuitive phase: During the age of 4-7 the child exhibits egocentrism seeing
thing from his or her own point of view. The child is unable to comprehend the ideas
of others if they differ from his own.
iii. Concrete operational stage: Begins at about 8 years and lasts until age 12. The child is
able to think more logically as the concepts of moral judgment, numbers an spatial relationship
is maintained.
iv. Formal operational stage: Occurs during the age 12 and lasts to adulthood. The person
develops adult logic and is able to reason, form conclusion, plan for the future, think abstractly
and built ideals.