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Original paper

Granular Material

a

Monash University, Sunway Campus, 46150, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia

b

AC College of Technology, Anna UniversityChennai, Chennai 600 025, India

Received 1 March 2007; accepted 1 June 2007

Abstract

The drying kinetics corresponding to the falling rate period is commonly modeled using Ficks diffusion

equation in uidized beds. The appropriateness of the use of Ficks diffusion equation to represent the

falling rate drying kinetics is the subject of the present paper. The estimated diffusion coefcient is normally

the single kinetic parameter to assess the kinetics of the drying and is often used to compare the drying

kinetics in different forms of drying. The dependence of the diffusion coefcient on the temperature and the

concentration is well understood from the basic concepts of mass transfer; however, the diffusion coefcient

estimated using Ficks diffusion model is found to vary with additional variables such as the solids holdup.

The dependence of the diffusion coefcient on additional parameters is purely empirical and has not been

justied in the earlier studies. Towards this, experiments are conducted in uidization columns of varying

diameter in order not to vary the quality of uidization while varying the solids holdup on a larger scale.

The estimated diffusion coefcient is found to vary by orders of magnitude with the variation in the column

diameter (solids holdup), necessitating the caution one needs to observe while comparing the kinetics of

uidized beds based on the diffusion coefcient.

Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden and Society of Powder Technology, Japan, 2008

Keywords

Fluidized bed, diffusion coefcient, drying

Nomenclature

C moisture content of ragi grain at any time (kg of moisture/kg of dry solid)

Ci initial moisture content of ragi grain (kg of moisture/kg of dry solid)

edu.my

Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden and Society of Powder Technology, Japan, 2008 DOI:10.1163/156855208X291774

74 C. Srinivasakannan, N. Balasubramanian / Advanced Powder Technology 19 (2008) 7382

Dc column diameter (m)

dp particle diameter (m)

Deff effective diffusion coefcient (m2 /s)

D molecular diffusivity of moisture in air (m2 /s)

K mass transfer coefcient across the particle surface (m/s)

r radial coordinate (m)

Re Reynolds number, dp U/

Rs particle radius (m)

RMSE root mean square error

Sh Sherwood number K dp /D

T temperature of heating medium ( C)

t time (s)

U supercial velocity of heating medium (m/s)

Ws solids holdup (kg)

Greek

density of air (kg/m3 )

viscosity of air (kg/ms)

1. Introduction

Fluidized beds are widely used for the drying of granular solids such as grains,

fertilizers, chemicals, pharmaceuticals and minerals, further to specialized applica-

tions such as drying of solutions, pastes and liquids sprayed on to the uidized bed

containing inert materials. Fluidized beds offer advantages such as: (i) the uidity

of the bed facilitating easy handling and transport of solids, (ii) high heat and and

mass transfer rates, (iii) perfect mixing of material in the bed, and (iv) the possibility

of applying other sources of energy such as immersed heating coils, etc.

The mode of operation of a uidized bed could either be batch or continuous.

The batch dryer nds application for small-scale production, while the continuous

systems are used for large-scale production. Prior knowledge on drying kinetics is

essential for the design and sizing of uidized beds. The drying rates in uidized

beds are strongly inuenced by the characteristics of the material and the conditions

of uidization.

C. Srinivasakannan, N. Balasubramanian / Advanced Powder Technology 19 (2008) 7382 75

known as the constant rate period and falling rate period demarcated with critical

moisture content. The critical moisture content is reported to vary with operating

parameters and with the type of drying equipment. The constant rate period is un-

derstood to have a maximum drying rate, which remains constant until the critical

moisture content with the resistance for moisture transfer in the gas phase. The

rate of diffusion of moisture to the surface of solids becomes the limiting factor

for moisture transfer as far as the falling rate period is concerned. The extent of

drying zones is decided based on the type of material, with materials like sand, ion

exchange resin, glass beads, etc., reported to have a larger duration of constant rate

period and short linear falling rate period, while brous grains such as mustard,

pepper, ragi, poppy seeds, etc., are reported to have a very short duration constant

rate period and a longer curvilinear falling rate period [1].

The complex hydrodynamics and process calculations are material and dryer spe-

cic, and hence numerous mathematical models have been developed to estimate

the drying kinetics. These range from analytical models solved with a variety of

simplied assumptions to purely empirical models, often built by regression of ex-

perimental data.

The drying rate in the constant rate period in uidized bed drying is modeled

using (i) a simple empirical correlation relating drying rate to the inuencing pa-

rameters or utilizing the heat/mass transfer coefcient between solids and gas in

uidized bed [26] or (ii) either two-phase or three-phase bubbling bed models,

which assume the bed to be made of a bubble phase, emulsion phase or a dense

phase with the exchange of mass and energy between these phases [713].

Similarly, drying kinetics in the falling rate period is modeled using simple

models considering the rate of drying to linearly reduce from the critical moisture

content to the equilibrium moisture content [14], which form characteristics of non-

porous material as well as material with very high porosity. Materials such as food

grains that offer high resistance for moisture diffusion exhibit a curvy falling rate

period that could be modeled using simple exponential time decay models (Newton

model, Page model, Henderson and Pabis model, two-term exponential model and

approximate diffusion model) which are purely empirical in nature [1517]. The

model that best ts the experimental data is chosen as the appropriate model. On

the other hand, complex models that serve the purpose of improving the fundamen-

tal understanding of drying kinetics are widely based on Ficks diffusion equation

[1823]. The drying rate is estimated by solving the partial differential equation

either using analytical solutions or using numerical techniques depending on the

boundary conditions selected to represent the experimental conditions. The evalu-

ated diffusion coefcients could well serve as a single kinetic parameter indicating

the rate of drying, which could well be extrapolated beyond the experimental con-

ditions within acceptable errors.

The use of Ficks diffusion equation to represent the drying kinetics in a uidized

bed assumes all the solids in the uidized bed to be exposed to uniform conditions.

76 C. Srinivasakannan, N. Balasubramanian / Advanced Powder Technology 19 (2008) 7382

The moisture in the solids is assumed to be uniformly distributed initially and the

model predicts the varying moisture concentration prole in the solids with respect

to time. The use of Ficks diffusion equation is also used as an appropriate mod-

eling tool in representing the drying kinetics in other kinds of dryers such as tray

dryers, wherein the shape of the solid slab is taken into consideration. Irrespective

of the kind of dryer, the diffusion coefcient estimated serves as an indicator for

the estimation of the drying kinetics and often comparison of the performances of

different dryers is based on the estimated diffusion coefcient.

It is the basic objective of this paper to test the reliability of the estimated kinetic

parameter (diffusion coefcient) to serve the good purpose of predicting the drying

kinetics of granular material in particular to uidized beds. An inconsistency in the

estimated diffusion coefcient from the experimental data is suspected, since the

model only considers single particles in the bed, ignoring in the quantum of ma-

terial in the bed. The dependence of the diffusion coefcient on the temperature

and the concentration is well documented and understood from the basic concepts

of mass transfer. However, the reported dependency on solids holdup could not be

reasoned with any justication. This is basically due to the inability of the model

to consider the geometry of the bed, resulting in the estimated diffusion coefcient

showing a dependency on solids holdup. Towards this, experiments are conducted

in columns of 0.148 and 0.245 m diameter, with the food grain ragi (Eleusine coro-

cana), a granular material, by varying the solid holdup in a broad range from 0.3

to 2.6 kg. The variation in the column diameter is to ensure that the increase in the

solids holdup does not affect the quality of uidization.

2. Experimental

Drying experiments were conducted using uidized columns of 0.148 and 0.245 m

internal diameter with a height of 1.2 m. The schematic diagram of the experimental

setup is shown in Fig. 1. The experimental setup consists of an air supply line from

an air bower, control valve (1), orice plate with monometer (2), electric heater

with temperature control (3), thermocouple (4), plenum chamber (5), perforated

air distributor plate (6), uidization column (7) and cyclone separator (8). The gas

distributor was 2 mm thick with 2-mm perforations having 13% free area. A ne

wire mesh was spot welded over the distributor plate to arrest the ow of solids

from the uidized bed to the air chamber. Air from the blower was heated and

fed to the uidization column through the air chamber (plenum). The electrical

heater consisted of multiple heating elements each of 2 kW rating. A temperature

controller, provided to the air chamber, facilitated control the of the air temperature

within 3 C of the set temperature for the entire operating range of 30110 C.

Airow was measured using a calibrated orice meter.

Table 1 shows the physical characters of ragi as well as the experimental condi-

tions covered in the present study. A good uidization behavior in terms of perfect

mixing of the bed material was observed visibly. This was substantiated with low

C. Srinivasakannan, N. Balasubramanian / Advanced Powder Technology 19 (2008) 7382 77

Figure 1. Schematic diagram of the experimental setup: 1, control valve for air from blower; 2, ori-

ce plate with monometer; 3, electric heater with temperature control; 4, thermocouple; 5, plenum

chamber; 6, perforated air distributor plate; 7, uidization column; 8, cyclone separator.

Table 1.

Characteristics of the material and the details of the experimental conditions

Shape of material spherical

Size, dp 103 (m) 1.48

Particle density (kg/m3 ) 1200

Diameter of uidized bed (m) 0.148, 0.245

Minimum uidization velocity, Umf (m/s) 0.47

Terminal velocity, Ut (m/s) 6.9

Temperature of uidizing air ( C) 80

Fluidizing air velocity (m/s) 1.2

Solid holdup (kg) 0.302.6

uctuation in the bed pressure drop, which is an indication for smooth uidization

without the formation slugs. The minimum uidization velocity was not found to

vary with the temperature within the range of temperatures covered in the present

study.

Air at the desired temperature and ow rate was allowed to ow through the

uidization column. A known quantity of ragi with a known initial moisture con-

tent was introduced into the column after ensuring the steady temperature and the

air ow rate. As uidization continued, ragi samples of approximately 1 g were

scooped out of the bed each time, at regular intervals of time, for moisture con-

78 C. Srinivasakannan, N. Balasubramanian / Advanced Powder Technology 19 (2008) 7382

tent estimation. The samples were weighed and kept in an air oven at 105 C until

no further weight change of the samples was observed. The ratio of difference in

weight of the sample to the nal weight of the sample after drying at 105 C is the

moisture content of the sample (dry basis). The experimental data was checked for

reproducibility and was found to deviate within 2%. The equilibrium moisture

content was estimated by keeping the samples in an air oven at the desired tem-

peratures until no further weight change. The equilibrium moisture content is the

ratio of the difference in weight of samples kept at the desired temperature until no

further weight change to the bone dry weight of the samples, to the bone dry weight

of the samples (dry basis).

The acceptability of the effective diffusivity coefcient estimated using Ficks dif-

fusion equation to serve as a single parameter to assess the drying kinetics in a

uidized bed is the subject of analysis in the present paper. The analysis is per-

formed based on the experimental data generated in the present study.

Ficks diffusion equation assumes that the moisture diffuses from inside the par-

ticle to the surface of the particle and evaporates at the surface, and that all the

particles are uniform in size and spherical in shape. The uidized beds are perfectly

mixed beds and the solids at any point in the beds are exposed to same drying condi-

tions. The general form of Ficks diffusion equation to estimate the drying kinetics

for spherical particles is as given as:

2

C C 2 C

= Deff + . (1)

t r 2 r r

Different boundary conditions are utilized, which are varied and are selected to

reect the experimental conditions. One of the common boundary conditions, which

also accounts for the external mass transfer resistance, is:

at t = 0; 0 < r < Rs ; C = Ci ,

at t > 0; r = 0; C/r = 0,

at t > 0; r = Rs ; Deff (C/r) = K(Csj Cbe ),

where Csj is the moisture concentration just within the sphere and Cbe is the con-

centration required to maintain equilibrium with the surrounding atmosphere. The

analytical solution for equation (1) for the above boundary conditions was provided

by Crank [24]:

C Ce 6Bi2m exp(n2 Deff t/Rs2 )

= , (2)

Ci Ce n2 (n2 + Bim (Bim 1))

n=1

where n are the roots of the equation:

n cot n + Bim 1 = 0. (3)

C. Srinivasakannan, N. Balasubramanian / Advanced Powder Technology 19 (2008) 7382 79

The mass Biot number (Bim ) is dened as KRs /Deff and the mass transfer coef-

cient (K) can be calculated based on correlations reported in literature [2527].

A compilation of a number of mass transfer coefcients correlations was due to

Kunii and Levenspiel [28]. However, the equation due to Richardson and Szekely

[29] is utilized in the present study as the mass transfer coefcient was evaluated

for shallow beds:

Kdp 1.16 for 0.1 < Re < 15,

Sh = = 0.374Re0.5 (4)

D 2.01Re for 15 < Re < 250.

The Sherwood number is the ratio of external mass transfer resistance to the mole-

cular diffusivity, while the Biot number is the ratio of external mass transfer resis-

tance to the overall mass transfer resistance. The effective diffusivity is estimated

by minimizing the error between the experimental data and the model prediction.

It is not the objective of the present paper to estimate the effect of various

parameters on the kinetics of drying. The experiments are designed to capture

the variation in diffusion coefcient with the solids holdup by varying the size of the

uidization column to have identical conditions of uidization. Figure 2 shows the

plot of relative moisture content with respect to time for solids holdup from 0.30

to 2.6 kg. A good uidization condition was maintained by having a column di-

ameter of 0.148 m for solids holdup until 0.6 kg and a 0.245-m column for solids

holdup above 1.3 kg. The moisture content is found to decrease with an increase in

the time of drying irrespective of the solids holdup until attaining the equilibrium

Figure 2. Variation in relative moisture content with drying time (T , 80 C; Ci , 0.210 kg/kg;

U , 1.2 m/s; Ce , 0.030).

80 C. Srinivasakannan, N. Balasubramanian / Advanced Powder Technology 19 (2008) 7382

moisture content. The rate of drying is found to decrease with the increase in the

solids holdup.

The temperature of the bed at any given time during the duration of drying is

found to be higher at a lower solids holdup as compared to drying with higher solids

holdup. This possibly explains the reason for the higher drying rate with lower

solids holdup. As the amount of solids is lower, the amount of moisture that diffuses

from the solids to the gas phase is lower, resulting in a higher bed temperature.

The higher bed temperature indirectly increases the rate of diffusion of moisture,

thereby increasing the drying rate. Although the bed temperature is bound to vary

from near the wet bulb temperature to the inlet temperature of the drying medium

with corresponding variation in the diffusion of moisture from the particles, the

model predicts only a single average constant diffusivity for the entire period of

drying.

Figure 2 shows a signicant variation in the drying kinetics with the increase in

solids holdup. The effective diffusivity coefcient for each of the drying curves is

estimated by minimizing the error between the model prediction and the experimen-

tal data. The estimated diffusivity coefcients are listed in Table 2. It can be seen

(Table 2) that the effective diffusivity coefcient increases with the reduction in

solids holdup. The variation of diffusivity coefcient with solids holdup is found to

vary by orders of magnitude. This large variation in effective diffusivity coefcient

cautions against the use of the effective diffusivity coefcient as a single parameter

to compare the magnitudes of drying and its use in estimation of drying kinetics.

Further, the empirical dependence of the model with additional parameters denies

extrapolation beyond the experimental range, very much limiting its application.

The application of Ficks diffusion equation for cases where the entire bed of

material is considered as single particles with known dimensions does not show any

additional dependence of the diffusivity coefcient. This nds wider application in

xed bed or static dryers/adsorbers. The application of Ficks diffusion equation to

uidized beds does not consider the whole bed, but rather considers the individual

particles that make the bed of material, with the assumption that all the materials

are exposed to uniform conditions. The variation of the number of particles with the

increase in the solids holdup could not be accounted for by the model, which brings

in the additional dependence of the model parameters with the solids holdup.

Table 2.

Evaluated effective diffusivity coefcient with the variation in the solids holdup

0.148 0.6 6.1 4.6

0.245 1.3 3.2 4.2

0.245 2.6 2.4 5.5

C. Srinivasakannan, N. Balasubramanian / Advanced Powder Technology 19 (2008) 7382 81

4. Conclusions

The use of Ficks diffusion equation to model the drying kinetics of the granular

material in a uidized bed shows a larger dependence of the evaluated effective

diffusivity coefcient on solids holdup. The dependence of the effective diffusivity

coefcient on solids holdup is due to the assumption of single particles in the bed,

rather than representing the whole geometry of the bed. The variation of solids

holdup causes the bed temperature to vary due to the variation in the number of

particles in the bed. Since the model does not have the ability to capture the variation

in the bed temperature due to the number of particles, an empirical dependence of

the effective diffusivity with the solids holdup results.

With the fallacies in the use of the basic Ficks diffusion equation in modeling

the drying kinetics of the uidized bed well known, the use of a simple empirical

approach makes good sense, as the complex models require numerical computation.

Further improvement of the basic models in terms of ability to account for the

variation in bed temperature with time is necessary before the models could be

utilized with a certain degree of condence.

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