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Waves

2003
1. Which graph represents the sound wave with the highest pitch?

2. The diagram shows an arrangement of apparatus for light diffraction experiment.

Which diffraction pattern appears on the screen?


3. The diagram shows an electromagnetic spectrum.

The waves at P, Q, R and S are

P Q R S

A Ultraviolet X-ray Microwave Infrared


X-ray Ultraviolet Infrared Microwave
C Microwave Infrared Ultraviolet X-ray
X-ray Infrared Ultraviolet Microwave

4. At an airport, a passenger's bag is places in


the baggage scanner.
The contents in the bag are examined by using
A X-ray
B gamma rays
C ultraviolet rays
D infrared rays

5. Ahmad shouts in front of a high wall. He hears the echo of his voice 1.2 seconds later.
The velocity of sound in air is 340 m s-1.
What is the distance between Ahmad and the wall?

A 204 m
B 283 m
C 340 m
D 408 m
E 816 m

6. The following is a block diagram of a radio transmitter.

X is
A a tuner C a detector
B a filter D a modulator

2004
7. A system is oscillating at its natural frequency without damping.
What happens to the total energy of the oscillating system?
A It remains constant
B It decreases
C It increases

8. Which graph represents a wave with amplitude of 4. 0 cm and period of 0.05 s?

9. Which diagram shows the correct pattern of reflected water waves?


10. The diagram shows an interference pattern of two coherent water waves of sources, P
and Q.
Which of the positions A, B, C or D, does destructive interference occur?

11. The diagram shows an ultrasonic waves transmitted from a boat to the seabed to
determine the depth, D, of the sea. The speed of the ultrasonic waves in water is 1500
m s-1. The echo of the waves is received 2.0 s after the transmission.

What is the value of D? A 375 m


B 750 m
C 1500 m
D 3000 m
E 6000m

12. Which phenomenon indicates that light is a transverse wave?

A Reflection
B Refraction
C Polarization
D Diffraction

2005
13. Which graph represents amplitude modulated waves?

14. A tilted basin contains water. Water is dripped at a constant rate into the basin as shown
in the diagram below.

Which pattern of the wavesfronts will be observed in the basin?

15. In a Young's double slit experiment, red fringes are formed on the screen when a red light
source is used.
What will be observed if the red light source is replaced by a blue light source?

A Number of fringes decreases


B Brightness of the fringes increases
C Distance between fringes decreases

16. The diagram shows a wavefront pattern produced by a dipper vibrating at a frequency of
12 Hz in a ripple tank.

What is the speed of the waves?


A 2 cm s-1
B 8 cm s-1
C 12 cm s-1
D 18 cm s-1
E 36 cm s-1

17 The diagram shows the wavefronts of a plane wave incident on a plane reflector.

Which statement is correct about the reflected and incident waves?


A The speed of the reflected waves is the same as the speed of the incident waves
B The wavelength of the reflected waves is shorter than that of the incident waves
C The frequency of the reflected waves is lower than that of the incident waves
D The directions of the reflected waves are always at right angles to the incident waves

18 The diagram shows the wave pattern formed by waves from two coherent sources, X and Y.

Destructive interference occurs at


A R only
B Q only
C P and Q
D P and R

19 The graphs show the cross-sections of water waves.


Which wave has the greatest energy?
2006
20 A thin guitar string is strummed hard. It will produce a loud and high pitch sound. The
most suitable graph to represent the above situation is

21
The process of combining audio and
radio frequency signals is known as
A resonance C modulation
B damping D rectification

22 Diagram 18 shows the cross section of water waves.

Which of the following statements is true about the water waves?


A T and U have the same phase
B Wave energy is transferred from position from S to U
C The wave length is the distance between S and U
D The particle at U oscillates in a direction parallel to the direction of the wave
propagation

23 Diagram 19 shows ripple tank with a sloping base and a vibrator being vibrated.
Which of the following wave patterns can be seen on the screen?

24 Diagram 20
shows the interference patterns for water waves from two coherent source S1 and S2.

Wh i ch o f th e fol l ow i n g sho w s th e superposition of the waves at point Y?

25 Diagram 21 shows a submarine transmitting ultrasonic waves directed at a big rock on the
sea bed. After 10 seconds, the submarine detects the reflected wave.
Calculate the distance of the
submarine from the big rock.
[Velocity of ultrasonic wave = 1 560 m s-']
A 3.9 km D 31.2 km
B 7.8 km E 156.6 km

2007
26 Diagram 26 shows a wave pattern on water.
Diagram 26

Wavelength is the distance between the points


A P and Q
B P and R
C Q and S
D R and S

27 Diagram 27 shows a load being oscillated on a spring.

Diagram 27

Based on Diagram 27, which of the following displacement-time graphs


represents oscillation of the load from P to Q and back to 0?
Direction of wave propagation

28 Which of the following characteristics of waves, changes when the waves


are reflected?

A Direction of propagation
B Wavelength
C Frequency
D Speed

29 Diagram 29 shows water waves propagating in an area of different depths.


Which of the following diagrams shows the propagation of the waves correctly?

Shallow area

Deep area

Diagram 29

Section A
2004

1 Diagram 1.1 shows the arrangement of apparatus in Young's double slit experiment. A while
light source is passed through a coloured filter to produce a monochromatic light.
Diagram 1.2 shows the pattern of the fringe formed on the screen when a red filter is
used.
The experiment is repeated by using a blue filter and the fringes formed are shown in
Diagram 1.3
Diagram 1.1

(a) What is meant by a monochromatic light?


________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]
(b) Using the pattern of the fringes in Diagram 1.2 and 1.3, state two observations about the
distances between consecutive fringes for the red light and blue light.

1. ______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

2. ______________________________________________________________
Diagram 1.2
______________________________________________________________
[2 marks]
(c) Compare the wavelengths of red light to blue light.
________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]

(d) Compare the wavelengths of red light and blue light with the distances between consecutive
fringes in (b).
Diagram 1.3
____________________________________________________________

[1 mark]

(e) Name the wave phenomenon which forms the pattern of the fringes in Diagram 1.2 and 1.3.
_________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]
(f) A white light is used without the coloured filter and the double slit is replaced with a
diffraction grating. A spectrum is formed on the screen as shown in Diagram 1.4.

Diagram 1.4
Figure 6.4

Explain briefly how the spectrum is formed.

[2 marks]

2006

2 Diagram 2 shows two loudspeakers connected to an audio frequency generator.


Students are standing' at positions where loud sounds can be heard.
Diagram 2

(a) What type of wave is the sound waves?

___________________________________________________________
[1 mark]

(b) Why are loud sounds heard by the students at that positions?

___________________________________________________________
[1 mark]

(c) The distance between the two loudspeakers is 1.5 m. At 10.0 m from the loudspeakers, the
distance between two adjacent rows of students is 4.0 m.
Calculate the wave length of this sound wave.

[2 marks]

(d) The frequency of the sound wave is increased.


(i) What will happen to the distance between two adjacent rows where loud sounds are
heard?

[1 mark]

(ii) Give a reason for your answer in 3(d)(i).

____________________________________________________________________

[1 mark]
Section B
2005

3 Diagram 3.1 shows the arrangement of the apparatus for an experiment to study a
wave phenomenon.

Diagram 3.1

Diagram 3.2 shows the bright and dark bands of the waves pattern formed on the screen
when plane waves pass through the narrow and wide gaps.

Diagram 3.2
(a) (i) Explain how the dark and light bands are formed on the screen.
[4 marks]

(ii) Observe Diagram 3.2 Compare the waves patterns and the wavelength of the waves before
and after they pass through the gaps.
Relate the size of the gaps, the waves patterns and the wavelengths to deduce a relevant
physics concept.
[5 marks]

(iii) Name the wave phenomenon shown in Diagram 3.2.


[1 mark]

(b) Diagram 3.3 shows the seashore of a fishing village. During the rainy season, waves are
big. One year the waves eroded the seashore, caused the jetty to collapse and
damaged the fishermen's boats.

Diagram 3.3

To prevent similar damage in the future, the fishermen suggest building retaining walls and
relocating the jetty.
Make further suggestions of ways to help the fishermen solve their problems.
You should use your knowledge of reflection, refraction and diffraction of waves to explain
these suggestions, to include the following aspects:
(i) the design and structure of the retaining wall,
(ii) the location of the new jetty,
(iii) the size or energy of the waves.
[10 marks]
Section C
2007

4. Diagram 4.1 shows an audio frequency generator connected to a speaker and


placed near the corner of a wall. Three students , A ,B and C are standing
around the next corner.
The generator and speaker can produce sound with the same speed but
different pitch.

Diagram 4.1

(a) State the physical quantity that affects the pitch of the sound.
[1 mark]

(b) When a high pitch sound is generated , only student C can hear the
sound clearly.
Explain this situation.
[4 marks]

Diagram 4.2 shows a radar system at an airport. Signals are transmitted from
the radar system to determine the position of an aeroplane.

Signal
receiver
Parabolic
disc

Diagram 4.2

Table 4.3 shows the specifications of four radar systems , K , L , M and N , that
can be used to determine the position of an aeroplane.

K L M N
Radar system
Diameter of the parabolic disc
10 5 7 12
/m
Distance of the signal receiver Same as Less than Same as Less than
from the centre of the focal focal focal focal
parabolic disc length length length length

Types of wave transmitted Microwave Microwave Radiowave


Radiowave

Height of the parabolic disc High Low Low High


from the ground

Table 4.3

You are required to determine the most suitable radar system. Study the
specifications of all the four radar systems based on the following aspects :

- The diameter of the parabolic disc


- The distance of the signal receiver from the centre of the parabolic disc
- The types of waves transmitted
- The height of the parabolic disc from the ground

Explain the suitability of the aspects.

[10 marks]

(d) The depth of a sea is 90 m . A ship transmits an ultrasonic wave of frequency


50 kHz to the seabed and receives an echo 0.12 s later.

Calculate :

(i) the speed of the ultrasonic wave in the water


(ii) the wavelength of the ultrasonic wave in the water
[5 marks]