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Ini adalah "detak jantung masyarakat," jembatan concept mapping.

Activities such as teamwork,

antara masa lalu, sekarang dan masa depan dan including poster preparation and presentation, are
maknanya menjadi lebih dalam dan lebih dalam better introduced into the practical classes.
dengan waktu. Orang perlu untuk kembali ke
pembelajaran sehingga dapat mengatasi situasi baru
yang muncul dalam kehidupan pribadi dan kerja 2.1. Applications of team work
mereka. Kebutuhan ini sangat jelas dan menjadi
It is well known that having students work in small
semakin kuat. Satu-satunya cara untuk mencapai hal
peer groups, is one of the better ways to teach science
ini bahwa setiap orang belajar bagaimana belajar.
[47, 64] and this includes teaching science via case
Untuk tujuan ini, perlu untuk tetap berpegang pada
studies! The use of peer group learning scenarios
empat pilar: belajar untuk hidup bersama, belajar
helps to overcome any initial student reticence,
untuk pengetahuan, belajar untuk actinag, dan belajar
untuk menjadi"[63]baru. fosters the development of good communication
skills, and promotes positive social interactions
untuk kehidupan di abad kedua puluh satu,
within the peer group Cooperative learning may
karakteristik pribadi diperlukan - memori,
kemampuan fisik, perasaan estetika, keterampilan occur in or out of class. In-class exercises may
involve answering or generating questions,
komunikasi, dan karisma pemimpin Pengetahuan
adalah dinamis dan terus berubah dari satu negara ke explaining observations, working through
derivations, solving problems, summarizing lecture
yang lain, yang adalah apa yang telah untuk diakuisisi,
material, troubleshooting, and brainstorming. Out-
dipulihkan dan digunakan dalam
of-class activities include carrying out experiments
or research studies, completing problem sets or
dunia hari ini informasi technology and collaborative
scientific research demands that students be able to design projects, writing reports, and preparing class
presentations [65].
communicate across disciplines and cultures. As
instructors, we need to help our students learn how to
apply the scientific process, and weave it into a
useable fabric with other disciplinary approaches. 2.2. Discussions in large classes
Large group discussions can be an excellent learning
tool, but how can we use them in a classroom? Most
science teachers do not have the experience to run
1. What should we do in the future? these types of classes. Preparation and control are the
We have been introduced to a number of theories of key ingredients. Teachers should use appropriate
learning and ways in which we can teach science to questions, body language, blackboard planning, and
encourage the development of deep learning strategies summarization to make it all work. This is method to
in our students. Contemporary teaching approaches in give students a question during his lecture, and allow
the sciences currently focus on student- centred them to discuss amongst themselves for 10 minutes
activities, and how we can encourage students to and then he lets students give their answers whilst he
develop lifelong learning skills. This is especially writes those he thinks are correct or relevant on to an
important in science with the current 'information overhead. He gives positive feedback and praise to
explosion'. the students and then finally gives a conclusion about
The purpose of teaching is not to import content the question.
knowledge only, but to encourage the development of
generic skills of a student (eg scientific writing,
communication, computing, problem solving and 2.3. Poster
experimental design, data handling skills and lifelong
Poster work is another useful team activity for
learning skills). Teachers need to reconsider what they
students. It is usually an out-of-class activity for a
will teach and must also understand how students
small peer group. Such activities help students to
learn. Encouraging a student-centred learning
develop a deeper understanding of what they are
learning, through cooperation with one another. In
addition it helps them develop design skills and
2. Combination of multiple teaching strategies presentation skills. There are other forms of
For teaching our course, I do not believe there is a teamwork like the peer group activity, eg by using
single teaching method suitable. The methods will interesting games to motivate students and generate
depend on the characteristics and content of the active participation in learning and helping them to
course. We should combine multiple methods of understand and consolidate what they have learned.
teaching together, using them appropriately according
to the actual situation. At present, we should retain the
traditional teaching form the lecture. Probably the
most useful teaching and learning strategies that could 2.4. Use of concept mapping
be introduced into the lecture would be the use of case Concept mapping is an activity with numerous uses
study scenarios and in the biology classroom. Its value in planning,
teaching, revision, and assessment, and the attitudes of students and teachers towards its use, are
discussed.Comments made are illustrated with than about 20 concept boxes become rather
excerpts from interviews with teachers and students unwieldy, and might be better if they were 'pruned'
who were involved in classroom concept mapping or drawn as two separate maps.
exercises. The use of expert maps for scoring is In general, the research literature demonstrates
described, and some of the pitfalls are considered. reluctance to highlight any problems associated with
Finally, the value of concept mapping as an aid to concept mapping.
reflective practice is discussed. Hodson [71] notes that some students may wish to
conceal some aspects of their understanding and so
Visual construction tools their maps would not provide 'total insight' to the
There are various visual construction devices or student's perspective. In addition, it is clear from
'graphic organizers' available for use in the classroom. observations of changes in students' maps (even
Such tools help students to visualise how major ideas over a short period of time), that such structures are
are related to their own prior knowledge, subordinate in a continual state of flux in an active learner.
ideas, and associated ideas from other topic areas. Therefore, a map that is to be used as the basis for
With specific reference to science education, the range further instruction has a 'limited shelf life', after
of graphic organizers has been reviewed by Hamer et which it is simply an historical record. The active
al.[66].Each of these devices has its own strengths and use of concept maps could be applied to any of four
weaknesses, but it is concept mapping, as developed stages of the teaching/learning process: Planning
by Novak [67], about which the research literature has and preparation; Formative learning;
been so consistently positive. This technique is Revision/summarizing; Assessment.
explicitly grounded in David Ausubel's assimilation
theory of learning, of which the central idea is that of
meaningful learning (described in Novak, [68]). In this Planning and preparation
the student required to make a conscious effort to It has been shown that the planning of instructional
identify the key concepts in new knowledge and relate sequences can be helped by the process of concept
them to concepts in his/her existing knowledge mapping to provide a coherent structure to teaching
structure. materials and making essential links explicit (eg
Concept mapping is a highly flexible tool that can be Martin [72]). This may be particularly helpful in
adapted for use by almost any group of learners. The cases where 'non-specialists' (ie chemists or
standard presentation (described in this article) can be physicists) are teaching biology, as they may
modified to include: colour-coding of different appreciate the support offered by a biologist
concept types; grouping of concept types, or using colleague's map. Martin gave the following
variously shaped concept boxes, to guide students advantages to be gained by this approach to lesson
with special needs to an appropriate answer (eg preparation:
Adamczyket al.,[69]); creating three-dimensional map - Increased meaning of the material for the
structures as mobiles or cones to facilitate discussions teacher.
or the creation of concept mapping games (eg Kinchin, - Ownership of the material by the teachers.
[70]). - Increased concept integration.
An example of a traditional concept map format is - Decreased likelihood of omitting
given in Figure 1. The concepts are written in boxes key material.
and linked bylabelled arrows. The most inclusive - Increased capacity to meet student needs
concepts appear towards the top of the map, with more through recognizing students perceptions of
subordinate concepts towards the bottom. Where the material.
possible, these are anchored with specific examples. - Increased likelihood that teachers will see
Whilst each concept can only appear in one place on multiple ways of constructing meaning.
the map, it may be linked to any number of others. The Following from this, Martin viewed concept
map in Figure 1 has been drawn in a way that
mapping to be a viable agent for curriculum change.
emphasises the hierarchical nature of the ideas
This would put teachers in the position of being
described. 'active innovators' rather than the 'passive receivers
One of the questions that students and teachers often of innovation' that has been the implicit assumption
ask is 'how many concept boxes should be included?'. of so many recent educational reforms.
There is no right answer to this, but mappers should
be discouraged from using so many that it becomes
unmanageable or unclear, as maps are only really Formative learning
useful if they portray a clear representation of the
Previous studies have suggested that the use of
author's thoughts. I have found that maps with more
concept mapping in classes can help students to gain
a more unified understanding of a topic, organise
their knowledge for more effective problem solving,
Fig. 1: A
map giving

perspective on 'animals'

meaningful learning, and appears to be ideally suited

understand how they learn (ie become more to address biological content.'
metacognitively aware).It has been suggested that the
promotion of meaningful learning resulting from 3. Are the learning outcomes relevant?
concept mapping can act to reduce subject-based Learning outcomes are descriptions of what students
anxiety and overcome differential gender-related should be able to know and do following a particular
performance with respect to learning and achievement course or program. Learning outcomes are useful in
in science. that they identify a set of goals for instructors to use
Concept mapping can also be used as a cognitive in their teaching. These learning outcomes provide
approach to compensate when a learner exhibits a one- an essential set of building blocks for the assessment
sided learning strategy (Huai [73]). For 'holists', who of students' performance. Most universities
have a 'global approach', concept mapping can help and professional organizations
the learner to focus on critical details, whereas, recommend that instructors identify a set of
'serialists' can be stimulated to take a wider objectives for each course and assess the extent to
perspective. students meet these objectives.
Students who gain most from concept mapping may Rigorously examine the learning needs of
be those identified by Silverman [74] as 'visual- spatial your students as future technicians,
learners', who excel when provided with visual scientists, and citizens, and compose a list of
representations. Such students reject rote learning outcomes that reflects those needs.
memorisation and have a need to see of the isolated Students will become good decision-makers
ideas typically presented in lessons. This suggests that only if they have practiced weighing
for teachers to optimise the benefits of concept information and making decisions. They do
mapping for their students, they first need to be not greatly benefit from simply being asked
familiar with their students' current learning strategies. to recall information.
In describing the value of concept mapping, Schmid For example, a learning outcome claiming
and Telaro[75] have commented that: 'Biology is so that students will be able to "describe"
difficult to learn because it consists of a myriad of biogeochemical cycling is of less ultimate
unfamiliar concepts involving complex relations. The benefit to the students as future citizens than
schools' favored approach to teaching unfamiliar is an outcome claiming students also will be
material is rote learning. Rote learning predictably able to interpret data, forecast pollution
fails in the face of multilevel, complex interactions impacts, and evaluate arguments regarding
involved in biology. Concept mapping ... stresses pollution risks.
A learning outcome claiming that students
will be able to "discuss" or "understand" the
evidence for evolution is of less use than an wild animal) with signs of a possible metabolic
outcome claiming that the students also will be pathology (eg,
able to critique arguments pertaining to phosphofructokinase deficiency) telling the
evolutionary evidence and rank novel evidence students that eventually they will have to
or investigative designs in order of inferential suggest a cause and possible treatment of the
power. disorder. After some instruction in cellular
A course outcome claiming that the students respiration, have the students work in small
will be able to "explain" or "describe" acid- base groups to brainstorm solutions to this case.
homeostasis incorporates a less diverse skill They will acquire a thorough grasp of the
repertoire than an outcome claiming that the biology, and in addition will develop skills of
students also will be able to solve problems in disciplined analysis, reflective thinking, and
acid-base physiology by applying the problem-solving. In determining what further
Henderson equation to case history information. information they require, the students will
An outcome claiming students will be able to learn to ask sagacious questions, a key skill for
describe an ecological footprint is of less value scientists and citizens alike.
than an outcome claiming that the students also Involve the entire class in critically assessing a
will be able to evaluate the environmental real community project, proposed project, or
impact of their personal reproductive decisions policy, over a period of a semester or two. This
in view of the birth/death surplus in North might involve the biological implications of a
America. land-use proposal, utility upgrade, utility
Try ranking the course outcomes in order of corridor, communicable disease control plan,
importance rather than in order of subject community health program, climate action
matter. Try listing them in categories such as plan, fishery, forestry, park or wildlife
occupational, personal, civic, national, and management plan, drug-abuse treatment
global. Try classifying learning outcome utility program, or whatever is available. Student
targets as one-year, ten-year, and life- long. groups may be assigned to investigate various
Don't underestimate the needs of non-majors. aspects of the project and perhaps collect field
Many, after leaving college, will become data, and once per week the project could be
involved in civic debates, in non- governmental discussed in class. The expectation that
organizations, and in politics. They can benefit students will make evidence- based
from skills in information- retrieval, they can recommendations guarantees an authentic
benefit from an ability to read a meta-analysis, learning experience and creates an appetite for
and from a proficiency in asking incisive learning on a need-to-know basis.
research questions. Design writing assignments that are authentic,
Learning outcome targets should be sufficiently such as constructing a web page or writing a
flexible to maximize the individual potential of position paper that must be sent to a politician,
each student. A rigid curriculum may fail to government department, or other organization.
cultivate unique talents, backgrounds, and Design laboratory activities involving
interests of individual students. meaningful open-ended investigative projects
You may be surprised at how your lists of that develop individual student potential and
learning outcomes differ from a traditional that contribute to the pre- employment resume
syllabus. When you have a prioritized list of of the student.
outcomes, apportion class time accordingly. Construct exams that present realistic case
And needless to say, test questions must problems requiring students to engage in
actually measure these higher-level learning reflective thinking, problem-solving, and
outcomes. decision-making. This can, if necessary, be
Design classroom activities utilizing case accomplished with imaginative multiple-
problems that develop skills in self-directed choice questions.
learning, information retrieval, analytical Consider the use of open-book exams,
behavior, creative and critical thinking. For emulating the workplace, or allow students to
example, if the students are to study cellular bring to the exam a 4 x 6 inch file card that can
respiration, begin that section of the course with be filled with information. This forces you to
a captivating case of a person (or pet or design test questions that emphasize creative
thinking, analysis, interpretation,
and application of core concepts to novel of a volunteer such as a senior citizen. A
data. written report by the student can include an
interpretive pathophysiology. Similar
4. Are the teaching methods effective? assignments might include critical biological
analysis of a local industry, business, or
Short-term effectiveness is measured by exam results, utility. Students might focus on some aspect
but biology education should also confer lifelong of community drinking water protection,
benefits. Research shows that student achievement can sewage treatment, power plant impacts,
be enhanced by use of (a) case examples meaningful milling, fishery, foresty, forest health issues,
to the learner, (b) active learning rather than passive woodlot management, horticultural
listening (experience is always the greatest teacher), pathology, farm habitat protection,
(c) concrete application of core concepts in many alternative medicine practice, etc. The
contexts, (d) practice and repetition, opportunities are endless.
(e) feedback, and (f) emotional content. Lecture for a maximum of 20 minutes, then
Teach principles of biology using case employ practice -- active learning in the
examples and assignments that are classroom -- small group work on an
meaningful to students, eg, human assigned problem requiring discussion and
pathologies, local pollution, local industry, choices to be debated among the students in
natural disasters, cancer, genetically modified each group. This requires students to critique
foods, sports medicine, drug abuse, fad diets, the understanding of others in the group and
sexually-transmitted diseases, to explain concepts to each other (peer-
overpopulation, climate and environmental tutoring), creating a stimulus-rich learning
issues, evolution political controversies, field. Liberate class time for these activities
alternative medicine and health fraud, bio- by preparing manuals and hand-outs for
terrorism, influenza pandemics, or whatever is students, thus minimizing note-taking.
current. If there are biological concepts that Use dialogue and diagnostic questioning
cannot be presented in the context of when assisting an individual student.
interesting case examples, the instructor must Answer a question with a question. If a
seriously question whether or not those student asks "Please explain PCR to me,"
concepts are worth presenting. first ask the student "What do you think PCR
Emphasize generic process skills such as means?" "What is DNA?" You may well be
information-retrieval, investigation, analysis, shocked by the answers, but you will have
and self-directed learning, which have many revealed the learning pathways required to
opportunities for repetition, and which have aid the student. When teaching an
wide application beyond school. These skills individual, don't give a mini-lecture, rather
are likely to be remembered and are likely to employ dialogue and diagnostic questioning
serve students well in future. until you are satisfied that the student has
Focus teaching on fluency with core concepts, improved.
stripped of trivial details. Less is more. Allow students to learn from feedback --
Students can fill in details themselves when provide sample tests with model answers for
reading, studying, and problem-solving if they self-practice, provide writing assignment
have a strong grasp of key concepts and can exemplars, and allow extra credit for
apply them in a variety of contexts. Avoid revision of work critiqued by the instructor.
trivia-cluttering of key concepts to the point Arrange intervention for students who
where the students are overwhelmed by perform poorly. They should be referred to a
details. learning assistance center for diagnostic
Employ learning activities that have testing. The Whimbey Analytical Skillls
emotional content, such as student group- Inventory is a powerful predictor of success
work that demands some interpersonal skills in biology.
and conflict-resolution skills. Incorporation of
bio-ethical issues into case problems can 5. Problems, challenges and possible
facilitate this. solutions Educational activities should reflect what
Develop extramural assignments that require
students to interact with other people and that real people actually do, as biologically literate
create emotional content and social citizens or employees. Little of their time is spent
application. For example, ask students to watching lectures, rather they are involved in
investigate via interviews the health history application of information -- decision-making,
problem-solving, investigation, policy analysis,
debate, critical
thinking, creative thinking, and information-retrieval. These are the activities that should be occurring
in the lecture hall, field, and laboratory. Fortuitously, they are also the kinds of activities that create
an exhilarating learning environment.
All too often biology courses over-emphasize trivial and easy-to-test activities that ask students only
to recall, recognize, describe, or "compare and contrast" information that has been memorized. This is
no less true today with the availability of the Internet. The introductory course should incorporate a
diversity of learning outcomes, and this diversity should be reflected both in classroom activities and
in student assessment protocols.
Problem-based learning (PBL) is an exciting way to learn biology and is readily incorporated into
large classes in a lecture hall environment. PBL engages students in solving authentic biological case
problems, stimulating discussion among students and reinforcing learning. A problem-based learning
environment emulates the workplace and develops self-directed learners. This is preferable to a
mimetic learning environment in which students only watch, memorize, and repeat what they have
been told.
Effective problem-solving requires an orderly approach. Problem-solving skills do not magically
appear in students as a result of instructors simply throwing problems at them.
Our students use the following heuristic: "How to make a DENT in a problem: Define, Explore,
Narrow, Test."

Define the Problem Carefully

What exactly are you trying to determine? Does the problem have several components? If several,
state them separately. Does everyone in the group agree with the way the problem has been framed?
Ask group members to "think out loud," as that slows down their reasoning and enables people to
check for errors of understanding.

Explore Possible Solutions

Brainstorm ideas that may contribute to a solution. Justify your ideas to group members. Clarify for
them the biology involved. Have them paraphrase your ideas. Listen carefully to the ideas of other
group members and give positive feedback. Make a list of learning issues. What do we know? What
don't we know? Is this problem analagous to any past problem? What core biological concepts may
apply to this problem? Assign research tasks within the group.

Narrow Your Choices

After developing a list of hypotheses, sort them, weed them, and rank them. List the type of data
required to test each hypothesis. Give priority to the simplest,
least costly tests. It is easier to get information on the diet of a subject than it is to do sophisticated
biochemical tests.

Test Your Solution

Seek from your instructor the data that you need to test your ideas. If all your possible solutions are
eliminated, begin the cycle again: define, explore, narrow, test. When you encounter data that confirm
one of your hypotheses you may be asked to write a biological explanation of your solution and
justify it using the available evidence.

Preparing students for their future requires active classrooms and labs and successful learning,
shaping of their personalities that are difficult to change later. Their integration into society later
greatly depends on their personal qualities and skills that are largely the product of well-organized
and well-completed education, including a warm atmosphere of mutual understanding and
experience during their studies.
Trying to implement this idea we have been faced with several problems: How should the world
educational process be organized in this rapid development so that students can learn successfully
throughout their lives? What are the psychological, pedagogical and social factors that influence
successful learning? How successful learning should be assessed? These questions build the
foundation of a successful society of tomorrow. These challenges have motivated us to try and find
some solutions that further stimulate other research.