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EE 6365 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

LABORATORY
MANUAL
CE
EPEE

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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

1. Load test on DC Shunt & DC Series motor

2. O.C.C & Load characteristics of DC Shunt and DC AC generator

3. Speed control of DC shunt motor

4. Load test on single phase transformer

5. O.C & S.C Test on a single phase transformer

6. Regulation of an alternator by EMF & MMF methods.

7. V curves and Inverted V curves of Synchronous Motor

8. Load test on three phase squirrel cage Induction motor


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9. Speed control of three phase Slip ring Induction Motor


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10.Load test on single phase Induction Motor.

11.Study of DC & AC Starters

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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF DC SERIES MOTOR

CE
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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
Ex. No: 1a LOAD TEST ON DC SERIES MOTOR
Date:
Aim:
To perform load test on the given D.C series motor and to obtain the performance
characteristics.
Apparatus Required:

S.No Name of the apparatus Range Type Quantity

1 Voltmeter MC
2 Ammeter MC
3 Rheostat Wire wound
4 Tachometer Analog
5 Connecting wires
CE

Formulae:
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Input Power VxI Watts

Torque {9.81( S1 xS 2 ) R}Nm


R radius of brake drum
2NT
Output Power Watts
60

output power
% Efficiency X 100
input power
Precautions:
1. The motor should be started with some load.
2. Brake drum should be cooled throughout the experiment.

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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
Tabular Column:

V I N S1 S2 S1~S2 T Input Output


S.No Efficiency
(Volts) (Amps) (rpm) (Kg) (Kg) (Kg) (Nm) (Watts) (Watts)

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Model Graph:
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in %
N IL T %
T in N-m
Speed in rpm
IL in Amps

Output power in watts

Procedure:

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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram
2. Observing the precautions the DPST switch is closed.
3. The motor is started with the help of two-point dc starter slowly.
4. Load on the motor is varied with the help of pony brake arrangement.
5. Spring balance, ammeter, voltmeter and speed readings are noted down for various
line currents as the load is applied. Care must be taken to avoid the speed reaching
dangerously high values while reducing the load.
6. At a minimum safe load the DPST switch is opened.
7. Disconnect and return the apparatus.

Result:
The load test on the given D.C series motor was conducted and its performance
characteristics were drawn.
CE
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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR LOAD TEST ON DC SHUNT MOTOR

CE
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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
Ex. No: 1 b LOAD TEST ON DC SHUNT MOTOR
Date:
Aim:
To perform load test on the given D.C shunt motor and to obtain the
performance characteristics.
Apparatus Required:
Sl.No. Name Range Type Quantity
1 Voltmeter MC
2 Ammeter MC
3 Rheostat Wire wound
4 Connecting wires
5 Tachometer Digital

Formulae:
Input Power VxI Watts
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Torque {9.81( S1 xS 2 ) R}Nm


R radius of brake drum
2NT
Output Power Watts
60

output power
% Efficiency X 100
input power

Precautions:
1. The motor field rheostat should be kept at minimum resistance position.

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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
Tabular Column:

V I N S1 S2 S1~S2 T Input Output


S.No Efficiency
(Volts) (Amps) (rpm) (Kg) (Kg) (Kg) (Nm) (Watts) (Watts)

CE
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Model Graph:

in %
N IL T %
T in N-m
Speed in rpm
IL in Amps

Output power in watts

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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
Procedure:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. Observing the precaution the DPST switch is closed and the motor is started with
the help of 3-point DC starter slowly.
3. The motor field rheostat is adjusted and the motor is brought to rated speed.
4. Load on the motor is varied with the help of pony brake arrangement.
5. Spring balance, ammeter, voltmeter and speed readings are noted down for
various line currents as the load is applied. Care must be taken to avoid the speed
reaching dangerously high values while reducing the load.
6. At a minimum safe load the DPST switch is opened.
7. Disconnect and return the apparatus.

Result:

The load test on the given D.C shunt motor was conducted and its performance
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characteristics were drawn.


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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR OPEN CIRCUIT AND LOAD TEST ON D.C
SEPARATELY EXCITED SHUNT GENERATOR

CE
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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM TO FIND ARMATURE RESISTENCE

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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
Ex.No:2 OPEN CIRCUIT AND LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF SEPARATELY
EXCITIED DC SHUNT GENERATOR
Date:

Aim:
To draw open circuit characteristics and load characteristics of the given separately
excited DC shunt generator.
Apparatus required:
Sl no. Name Range Type Quantity
1 Voltmeter MC
2 Ammeter MC
3 Rheostat Wire wound
4 Tachometer Analog
5 Connecting wires
CE

Precaution:
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1. The field rheostat on the motor side must be kept at minimum resistance position
at the time of starting.
2. The field potentiometer on the generator side must be kept at maximum potential
position at the time of starting.
3. DPST switches must be kept open at the time of power on.
Procedure:
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. Observing the precautions the motor side DPST switch is closed.
3. The motor is started with the help of three- point DC starter slowly.
4. The speed is measured with the help of a hand tachometer.
5. If the speed is below the rated value, then it is brought to the rated value by
adjusting the field rheostat.

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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
Tabular column:

Speed = _________rpm

S. No. If (amps) Eo (volts)

Load Test:

Armature Armature
Load Load Generated emf
Field current drop=
current voltage [Eg = VL+IaRa]
Sl.no current If [Ia] in Ia* Ra in
[IL] in [VL] in in
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in amps Amps volts


Amps Volts volts
(Ia=If+IL)
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To find Armature Resistance:

Armature voltage Armature current


Sl.no Ra = Va/ Ia in ohms
Va in volts Ia in amps

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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
6. With DPST switch on the generator field side open the voltmeter reading is noted
down. (This is the residual voltage at the rated speed at which the motor-generator
set is running now.)
7. The DPST switch on the generator field side is closed.
8. By adjusting the potentiometer on the generator field side suitably for various
increasing field currents, note down the terminal voltages till around 125% of the
rated voltage. The speed is maintained constant throughout this process.
9. The generator terminal voltage is minimized to zero.
10. The speed is brought down to minimum value and the motor is switched off with
the help of DPST switch. (Note the starter holding coil releasing the handle else
bring it back to start position)
CE
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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
MODEL GRAPH:

Eo

If

Internal (Eg Vs Ia) and External (VL Vs IL) characteristics


Load voltage in Volts [VL]
Generated emf in Volts [Eg]

Eg Vs Ia
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VL Vs IL

Load current [IL] in amps


Armature current [Ia] in amps

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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
CE
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Result

Thus the open circuit characteristics and load characteristics of a


separately excited DC shunt generator are drawn.

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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF SPEED CONTROL OF DC SHUNT MOTOR

Model Graph
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Armature Control method Field control method


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Speed
rpm Speed
rpm

Armature voltage (volts) Field current(amps)

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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
Ex.No:3 SPEED CONTROL OF DC SHUNT MOTOR
Date:

Aim:
To vary the speed of the given dc shunt motor by the following methods.
(i).Armature control method (below rated speed)
(ii).Field control method (above rated speed)
Apparatus Required:

Sl.no Name of the apparatus Range Type Quantity

1. Ammeter M.C
2. Volt meter M.C
3. Tacho meter Analog
4. Rheostat Wire wound
5. Connecting wires
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Precautions:
1. The field rheostat must be kept at minimum resistance position at
the time of starting
2. The armature rheostat must be kept at maximum resistance position at
the time of starting
Procedure:
(i).Armature control method:
1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram
2. Switch on the supply
3. Keep the field current constant and for different armature voltage (by varying
armature rheostat) note down the corresponding speed.
4. Bring back the rheostat to initial position and switch off the supply
(ii) Field control method

1. Switch on the supply

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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
Tabular Column

(i).Armature control method:


Field current (If ) =
SL.No Armature voltage Speed
(volts) (rpm)

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(ii) Field control method


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Armature voltage (Va ) =


SL.No Field current Speed
(amps) (rpm)

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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
2. Start the motor by closing the DPST switch
3. Keep the armature voltage constant and for various field current note down the
corresponding speed.
4. Bring back the rheostat to initial position and switch off the supply

CE
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Result:

Thus the speed control of the DC shunt motor was conducted.

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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF LOAD TEST ON A SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER

Model Graph:
CE
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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
Ex. No: 4 LOAD TEST ON SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER
Date:

Aim:
To perform load test on a single phase transformer and determine its performance
characteristics
Apparatus Required:

Sl.no Name of the apparatus Range Type Quantity

1. Ammeter M.I
2. Volt meter MI.
3. Watt meter Dynamo meter
4. Connecting wires
CE

Formulae:
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Input power = W1 x M.F1 watts


Output power = W2 x M.F2 watts
Output power
Efficiency = X 100 %
Input power

E 02 - V 2

Regulation = X 100 %

E 02

E 02 - No load secondary voltage


V2 - Secondary voltage at various loads
M.F Multiplication factor
W1, W2 - Wattmeter readings

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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
Tabular Column:

Input Out put


Sl.
No (%) %V reg
VL.V IL.V WL.V VH.V IH.V WH.V
(W) (V) (A) (watts)

CE
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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
Multiplication factor (M.F) = V I cos

No of divisions in the watt meter

Precautions:
1. Auto transformer must be kept at minimum potential point
2. There should be no load at the time of starting the experiment
Procedure:
1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram
2. Switch on the supply and vary the autotransformer to get rated primary voltage
3. Note down the no load readings
4. Add the load in steps and note down all the meter readings till the rated secondary
current is reached
5. Remove the load and bring back the autotransformer to original position.
6. Switch off the supply
CE
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Result:
Thus the load test on single phase transformer is conducted and its performance is
drawn.

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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR OPEN CIRCUIT TEST OF 1 TRANSFORMER

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR SHORT CIRCUIT TEST OF 1 TRANSFORMER


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EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT REFERRED TO PRIMARY SIDE:

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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
Ex. No: 5 OC AND SC TEST OF SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER
Date:
Aim:

To perform open circuit and short circuit test on a single phase transformer and

predetermine the efficiency at various loads and also draw the equivalent circuit.

Apparatus Required:

Sl.no Name of the apparatus Range Type Quantity


1. Ammeter M.I
2. Volt meter MI.
3. Watt meter Dynamo meter
4. Connecting wires

Formulae:
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From open circuit test:


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W0 = V0 I0 Cos 0 ( watts)
Cos 0 = W0
V0 I0
I w = I0 Cos 0 ( Iron loss component)
I = I0 Sin 0 ( magnetizing component)
R0 = V0 / I w (resistance to represent core loss)
X0 = V0 / I (reactance to represent magnetizing component)
W0 = No load input = core loss = Wi = Iron loss
I0 - No load input current

V0 No load rated input voltage

From short circuit test:


R01 = Wsc
Isc 2

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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
Model Graph

Open circuit test

multiplication factor:
CE
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Open circuit primary Open circuit Open circuit power Open circuit
Sl. (Woc) in Watts
current (IOC) primary voltage Secondary
no
In Amps (VOC) in Volts Observed Actual voltage in volts

Short Circuit Test multiplication factor:

Short circuit Short circuit power


Short circuit Short circuit
Sl. primary current (Wsc) in Watts
primary voltage Secondary
No (ISC)
(VSC) in Volts Observed Actual Current in Amps
In Amps

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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
Z01 = Vsc

Isc
X01 = Z012 - R012
R01 - equivalent resistance of transformer referred to primary side
X01 - equivalent reactance of transformer referred to primary side
Z01 - equivalent impedance of transformer referred to primary side
Wsc Full load copper loss
R02 = R01 x K 2
X02 = X01 x K 2
Z02 = Z01 x K 2
% Regulation = I2 R02 Cos + I2 X02 Sin X 100 %
V2
+ lagging Power factor
- leading powerfactor
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Cos - Power factor


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Efficiency at various loads = X * KVA * P.f * 100 %


X * KVA * P.f + Wi + X 2 Wsc
X Load ratio
Precautions:
1. Auto transformer must be kept at minimum potential point
Procedure:

Open circuit test:

1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram

2. Switch on the supply and vary the autotransformer to get rated voltage

3. Note down ammeter, voltmeter and wattmeter readings.

4. Bring back the autotransformer to original position.

5. Switch off the supply

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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
Determination of Efficiency:

Efficiency at Various
Fracti Copper loss P.F
on of Output power at various o/ p
load/ 1000* ( X KVA Cos ) loads Total loss
o / p WT
Load in watts at Various P.F ( X 2 WSC ) in watts WT2=
(Woc ) +(X *Wsc)
factor in watts * (100 ) in %
(X)
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Determination of Regulation:
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Load % V regulation at loads of Unity % V regulation at loads of


factor Leading p.f p.f Lagging p.f
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0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8


0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8

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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
Short circuit test:

1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram

2. Switch on the supply and vary the autotransformer to get rated short circuit

current.

3. Note down ammeter, voltmeter and wattmeter readings.

4. Bring back the autotransformer to original position.

5. Switch off the supply

CE
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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
CE
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Result:
Thus the OC and SC test was performed and thus the efficiency and regulation are
predetermined.

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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR O.C AND S.C TESTSON 3 PHASE ALTERNATOR:

Tabulation:
Open circuit test:
CE
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Sl.No If Open circuit voltage


(Amperes) E0( Volts)

Short circuit test:

If2 (Amperes) Isc (Amperes)

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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
Ex. No: 6 REGULATION OF ALTERNATOR BY EMF AND MMF METHOD
Date:

Aim:
To pre-determine the regulation of alternator by emf and mmf method.
Apparatus required:

SL.No. Name Range Type Quantity


1 Voltmeter MI
2 Ammeter MC,
3 Ammeter MI
4 Rheostat Wire wound
5 Connecting wires

Formula:
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EMF method
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open circuit voltage


Zs = at constant field current
short circuit current

Rac = 1.6 x Ra
XS = ZS2 Rac2
ZS Synchronous impedance ()
XS Synchronous Reactance ()
Rac Effective Resistance ()
EO = (Vcos + IaRac)2 + (Vsin IaXS)2
( + lagging p.f and - leading p.f)
V rated voltage ( volts)
Ia rated armature current (volts)
Rac effective resistance ( )
Cos power factor

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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
Model Graph:

Eo
Isc
CE

If
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Emf Method

Cos % Regulation
leading lagging
0
0.2
0.6
0.8
1

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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
E0 V
% Regulation = ---------- x 100 %

V
MMF Method

Ifr = If12 + If22 + 2 If1 If2 Cos (90)


{ + lagging p.f and - leading Pf}
If1 field current required to generate rated terminal voltage
If2 field current required to circulate rated short circuit current
Ifr resultant field current
E0 The generated emf corresponding to Ifr (from graph)
E0 V
% Regulation = ---------- x 100 %

V
Precautions:
1. TPST switch must be kept open.
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2. Motor side rheostat must be kept in minimum position and alternator side
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rheostat in maximum position.


Procedure:
Open circuit test:
1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. Switch on the supply.
3. Start the motor alternator set by using starter.
4. Adjust the field rheostat of the motor to get the rated speed.
5. Increase the alternator field current in convenient steps and note down all the
meter readings upto 125% of the rated voltage.
6. Bring back the rheostat to the original position.
Short circuit test:
1. Close the TPST switch and adjust the potential divider such that the maximum
full load current flows through the armature winding.
2. Note down all the meter readings .
3. Bring back the rheostats to original position and switch off the supply.

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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
%Regn

leading lagging
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%Regn
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MMF Method

Cos Lagging pf Leading pf


Ifr E0 %R Ifr E0 %R
0
0.2
0.6
0.8
1

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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
CE
EPEE

Result:
Thus the regulation of an alternator is predetermined using emf and mmf method.

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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF V AND INVERTED V CURVE OF SYNCHRONOUS
MOTOR

CE

Tabulation:
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At N= Ns (constant) VL = Vrated

Armat Power
Field ure Power Factor
Sl.
Curre Curre W1OB W1AC W2ob W2a W= = W/
N Load
nt If nt (A) S T s ct W1+W2 (3 *
O.
(A) VL *
IL )

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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
Ex No: 7 V & INVERTED V CURVES OF THREE PHASE SYNCHRONOUS
MOTOR
Date:

Aim:
To plot the V and Inverted V- Curves of the given Synchronous Motor at no-load
and on load.

Apparatus required:
Sl.No. Apparatus Range Type Quantity
1 Voltmeter MI
2 Ammeter MI
3 Wattmeter Double Element
4 Tachometer Analog
5 Connecting wires

Formula:
CE

Cos =Ia(min)/Ia
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PRECUTIONS:
1. Before giving the three phase supply, the three phase variac must be kept at its
minimum position.
2. Before providing d.c. supply to the field regulator of the motor, the field regulator
should be kept at minimum position and the field winding should be kept in open
position.
3. Start the synchronous machine preferably at no-load condition.
4. During the experiment the field current should not exceed 1.5 times the rated current of
the field current and the armature current/ ph (Ia ph) should not exceed 1.25 times the rated
armature current.

PROCEDURE:
1. Make connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. Keeping the field circuit of the synchronous motor open, close the TPST switch and
vary the auto transformer to obtain the rated three phase voltage. The machine will run at
a speed lesser than the synchronous speed. (with the help of damper windings as
induction motor)
3. Connect the field terminals of the synchronous motor to the d.c. supply by closing the
DPST switch and excite the field system. The machine will now begin to run at
synchronous speed by establishing magnetic locking between armature circuit and the
field system. Note down the field current, the corresponding armature current, line
voltage and wattmeter readings.

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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
Model Graph:

CE
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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
4. Vary the field current by adjusting the field excitation system and for each value of
field current (from low value of field current up to 1.5 times the rated field current) and
note down the corresponding meter readings.
5. Repeat the same procedure for various loading conditions carefully not exceeding 1.25
times the armature current and 1.5 times the rated field current.

CE
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Result:

Thus the v and inverted v curve of synchronous motor has been plotted at various
loads.

[Type text]

EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

CE
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Model Graph:

Efficiency
Speed
Slip
Power factor
load current
Torque

Output power in watts

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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
Ex.No: 8 LOAD TEST ON 3 SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTOR
Date:

Aim:
To determine the performance characteristics of the given 3 squirrel cage induction
motor by conducting load test.
Apparatus required:

Sl.No. Apparatus Range Type Quantity


1 Voltmeter MI
2 Ammeter MI
3 Wattmeter Dynamometer
4 Tachometer Analog
CE

5 Connecting wires
EPEE

Formula:

Input power = W1 x MF1+ W2 x MF2 (watts)


Torque(T) = ( S1 ~ S2 ) x 9.81 x r (N-m)
Output power = 2NT / 60 watts
Efficiency = output power / input power x 100%
Slip = NS N x 100 %
NS
Multiplication factor = VIcos
no. of divisions in the wattmeter
S1, S2= spring balance readings in Kg.
R = radius of the brake drum in m (circumference / 2)
N = Actual speed of the rotor in rpm
T = Torque

NS = Synchronous speed rpm

[Type text]

EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
Tabulation:

Slip
Efficien
Input power (S)=
Input power Spring balance cy ()=
(W2) {(Ns-N)
(W1) reading Torque Outpu o/p / i/p
Load Speed of / Ns}
Load (T) = t x 100 Power
the motor x 100
current (s1~s2 power factor
S. voltage (N)
(IL) )* (R)* 2NT/ (cos)
no (VL)
S1 (9.81) 60 =
Observe Act Observ i/p / VLIL
d ual ed
Actual S1 S2 ~
S2 % %

Wat
Amps Volts Watts Watts Watts rpm Kg Kg Kg N-m Watts
ts

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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
PF = (W1 x MF1 + W2 x MF2)
3VL IL

Precautions:
1. There should be no load at the time of starting.
2. Auto transformer must be kept at minimum position
Procedure:
1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. Switch on the supply and adjust the auto transformer to get the rated voltage and
note down the no load readings.
3. Adjust the loads and for various loads note down the corresponding meters
reading till the rated current is reached.
4. Unload the motor, bring back the auto transformer to minimum position and
switch off the supply.
CE
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Result:

Thus the performance characteristics of the squirrel cage induction motor is


determined.

[Type text]

EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
Ex. No: 9 SPEED CONTROL OF THREE PHASE SLIP RING INDUCTION
MOTOR
Date:

Aim:
To conduct the speed control test on three phase slip ring induction motor.

Apparatus Required:

Sl.No. Apparatus Range Type Quantity


1 Voltmeter MI
2 Ammeter MI
3 Wattmeter Dynamometer
4 Tachometer Analog
5 Connecting wires
CE

Theory:
These motors are practically started with full line voltage applied across the stator
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terminals, the value of starting current is adjusted by introducing the variable resistance
in the rotor circuit. The controlling resistance is in the resistance being gradually cut out
of the rotor circuit, as the motor attains rated speed. It has been already shown that by
decreasing rotor resistance, the motor attains rated speed and at the same time the starting
torque is also increased due to improvement in power factor.

Procedure:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. Note down the resistance in each phase using Multimeter.
3. Switch ON the A.C power supply.
4. Then the speed of the motor is taken for each resistance per phase.
5. The graph was drawn between resistance and speed.

[Type text]

EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF SPEED CONTROL OF SLIP RING INDUCTION
MOTOR

Tabular Column:

Rotor resistance
Sl.no Speed in Rpm
(Position Or Value)
CE
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Model graph

[Type text]

EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
CE
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Result:

Thus the speed control on three phase slip ring induction motor is performed.

[Type text]

EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF LOAD TEST ON SINGLE INDUCTION MOTOR

Tabulation:

I/P Power Spring Balance O/P


Sl. VL IL Speed Torque
(W) reading Power %slip % cos
CE

No. (V) (A) (rpm) (Nm)


Obs Act S1 S2 S1~S2 (W)
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Model Graph:

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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
Ex N0 : 10 LOAD TEST ON INDUCTION SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION
MOTOR
Date:

Aim:
To conduct the load test on the given single phase induction motor and to plot its
performance characteristics.

Apparatus Required:

Sl.No. Apparatus Range Type Quantity


1 Voltmeter MI
2 Ammeter MI
3 Wattmeter Dynamometer
4 Tachometer Analog
5 Connecting wires

Formula:
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1. Torque, T= 9.81 (S1 ~ S2) R (Nm)


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where R=(r + t /2) (m)


R---effective radius of the brake drum (m)
r--- Radius of the braked drum (m)
t---thickness of the belt (m)

2. Output power, Po = 2NT/60 (W)


where N- actual speed of the motor (rpm)

3. Input power Pi = W (W)


where W- actual reading of the wattmeter reading (W)

4. % Slip S= (Ns-N)/Ns x 100 (%)


Where Ns-Synchronous speed (rpm), N=1500 rpm.

5. Power factor cos =Pi / (V * I)


where V-line voltage (V)
I-line current (A)

6. Efficiency % = (Po/Pi) x 100 (%)

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7. Multiplication Factor (MF) of the wattmeter:

MF= (Current Coil Rating * Pressure Coil Rating * Power Factor)/ Full Scale Deflection
of the wattmeter

8. Ns = 120 * f/ P
Where f is the frequency of the supply (or) stator frequency
P is the no. of poles of the motor

Precautions:
1. Before starting the motor, release the load completely.
2. Before providing a.c supply, the single phase variac must be in the minimum position.
3. Handle the tachometer carefully.

Procedure:
1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram. Release any load available on the
motor. Switch ON the power supply by closing DPST switch.
2. Vary the single phase auto transformer for rated input voltage.
3. Initially when the motor is unloaded, note the readings of ammeter, voltmeter and
wattmeter. Measure the speed using a tachometer at this no load condition.
4. Load the motor in gradual steps up to the rated current. At each step, note down all the
above mentioned readings.
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5. Add cooling water to the brake drum as and when required when the motor is loaded.
6. Release the load on the motor and bring the auto transformer to initial position.
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7. Switch OFF the supply.


8. Measure the circumferential length of the brake drum and use the same for calculation
of the radius R of the brake drum.

Result:

Thus the load test on single phase induction motor is performed and its
performance characteristics are drawn.

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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
CE
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Fig.1

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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
Ext No: 11 STUDY OF D.C & A.C MOTOR STARTERS
Date

Aim:

To study the different kinds of D.C &A.C motor starters

Appartus Required:

Sl No. Name of the apparatus Quantity


1 Two Point starter 1
2 Three Point starter 1
3 Four Point starter 1
4 DOL Starter 1
5 Auto transformer Starter 1
6 Star-Delta Starter 1
7 Rotor Resistance Starter 1
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Theory :

The value of the armature current in a D.C shunt motor is given by


Ia = ( V Eb )/ Ra
Where V = applied voltage.
Ra = armature resistance.
E b = Back .e.m.f .

In practice the value of the armature resistance is of the order of 1 ohms and at the instant
of starting the value of the back e.m.f is zero volts. Therefore under starting conditions
the value of the armature current is very high. This high inrush current at the time of
starting may damage the motor. To protect the motor from such dangerous current the
D.C motors are always started using starters.
The types of D.C motor starters are
i) Two point starters
ii) Three point starters
iii) Four point starters.

The functions of the starters are


i) It protects the from dangerous high speed.
ii) It protects the motor from overloads.

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Fig 2
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Fig 3

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(i) Two Point Starters: ( Refer Fig 1)
It is used for starting D.C. series motors which has the problem of over
speeding due to the loss of load from its shaft. Here for starting the motor the control arm
is moved in clock-wise direction from its OFF position to the ON position against the
spring tension. The control arm is held in the ON position by the electromagnet E. The
exciting coil of the hold-on electromagnet E is connected in series with the armature
circuit. If the motor loses its load, current decreases and hence the strength of the
electromagnet also decreases. The control arm returns to the OFF position due to the
spring tension, thus preventing the motor from over speeding. The starter also returns to
the OFF position when the supply voltage decreases appreciably. L and F are the two
points of the starter which are connected with the motor terminals
(ii) Three Point Starter: (Refer Fig 2)
It is used for starting the shunt or compound motor. The coil of the hold on
electromagnet E is connected in series with the shunt field coil. In the case of
disconnection in the field circuit the control arm will return to its OFF position due to
spring tension. This is necessary because the shunt motor will over speed if it loses
excitation. The starter also returns to the OFF position in case of low voltage supply or
complete failure of the supply. This protection is therefore is called No Volt Release
( NVR).
Over load protection:
When the motor is over loaded it draws a heavy current. This heavy current also
flows through the exciting coil of the over load electromagnet ( OLR). The
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electromagnet then pulls an iron piece upwar6.ds which short circuits the coils of the
NVR coil. The hold on magnet gets de-energized and therefore the starter arm returns to
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the OFF position, thus protecting the motor against overload. L, A and F are the three
terminals of the three point starter.

(iii) Four Point Starter: (Refer Fig 3)

The connection diagram of the four point starter is shown in fig 3. In a four point
starter arm touches the starting resistance, the current from the supply is divided into
three paths. One through the starting resistance and the armature, one through the field
circuit, and one through the NVR coil. A protective resistance is connected in series with
the NVR coil. Since in a four point starter the NVR coil is independent of the of the field
ckt connection , the d.c motor may over speed if there is a break in the field circuit. A
D.C motor can be stopped by opening the main switch. The steps of the starting
resistance are so designed that the armature current will remain within the certain limits
and will not change the torque developed by the motor to a great extent.

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ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
CE
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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
STUDY OF INDUCTION MOTOR STARTERS
Auto Transformer Starting
An auto transformer starter consists of an auto transformer and a switch as shown
in the fig. When the switch S is put on START position, a reduced voltage is applied
across the motor terminals. When the motor picks up speed, say to 80 per cent of its
mornal speed, the switch is put to RUN position. Then the auto-transformer is cut out of
the circuit and full rated voltage gets applied across the motor terminals.
(Ref. To text book for fig)
The circuit dia in the fig is for a manual auto-transformer starter. This can be
made push button operated automatic controlled starter so that the contacts switch over
from start to run position as the motor speed picks up to 80% of its speed. Over-load
protection relay has not been shown in the figure. The switch S is air-break type for small
motors and oil break type for large motors. Auto transformer may have more than one
tapping to enable the user select any suitable starting voltage depending upon the
conditions.
Series resistors or reactors can be used to cause voltage drop in them and thereby
allow low voltage to be applied across the motor terminals at starting. These are cut out
of the circuit as the motor picks up speed.

Star- Delta Method Of Starting:


The startor phase windings are first connected in star and full voltage is connected
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across its free terminals. As the motor picks up speed, the windings are disconnected
through a switch and they are reconnected in delta across the supply terminals. The
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current drawn by the motor from the lines is reduced to as compared to the current it
would have drawn if connected in delta.The motor windings, first in star and then in delta
the line current drawn by the motor at starting is reduced to one third as compared to
starting current with the windings delta-connected.
In making connections for star-delta starting, care should be taken such that
sequence of supply connections to the winding terminals does not change while changing
from star connection to delta connection. Otherwise the motor will start rotating in the
opposite direction, when connections are changed from star to delta. Star-delta starters
are available for manual operation using push button control. An automatic star delta
starter used time delay relays(T.D.R) through which star to delta connections take place
automatically with some pre-fixed time delay. The delay time of the T.D.R is fixed
keeping in view the starting time of the motor.
(Ref. To text book for fig)

Full Voltage Or Direct On-Line Starting:

When full voltage is connected across the stator terminals of an induction motor,
large current is drawn by the windings. This is because, at starting the induction motor
behaves as a short circuited transformer with its secondary, i.e. the rotor separated from
the primary, i.e. the stator by a small air-gap.

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ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB
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At starting when the rotor is at standstill, emf is induced in the rotor circuit
exactly similar to the emf induced in the secondary winding of a transformer. This
induced emf of the rotor will circulate a very large current through its windings. The
primary will draw very large current from the supply mains to balance the rotor ampere-
turns. To limit the stator and rotor currents at starting to a safe value, it may be necessary
to reduce the stator supply voltage to a low value. If induction motors are started direct-
on-line such a heavy starting current of short duration may not cause harm to the motor
since the construction of induction motors are rugged. Other motors and equipment
connected to the supply lines will receive reduced voltage. In industrial installations,
however, if a number of large motors are started by this method, the voltage drop will be
very high and may be really objectionable for the other types of loads connected to the
system. The amount of voltage drop will not only be dependent on the size of the motor
but also on factors like the capacity of the power supply system, the size and length of the
line leading to the motors etc. Indian Electricity Rule restricts direct on line starting of 3
phase induction motors above 5 hp.

Result:

Thus the construction and working of different starters for starting D.C series,
shunt, compound and three phase induction motors are studied.
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EE 6365
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB