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buckling test

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buckling test

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a stanchion. For moderate forces, the member gets a Little shorter because column

it is not perfectly rigid ( F / A = EeIL). However, when a critical load is

reached the member suddenly behaves differently - it undergoes a new

type of failure (Figure 35). Thisis called buckling. It is the most common

type of stability failure. A thin member in compression may support

something like only one thousandth of its compressive yield stress

capability. Indeed for thin wire and string it may be hard to measure any

compressive strength at all. A member which will be loaded in com-

pression, therefore, requires careful attention to its design.

Figure 35

The useful compressive strength of a strut is dependent on its length. If

samples of a given material and diameter hut different lengths are tested, a

curve Wre Figure 36 is found. For very short samples the strength is fairly

constant (A), but for long ones it is much less and decreases rapidly (B).

The type of failure is also different. In region A the material is irreparably

crushed and the strength corresponds quite well to the material compress-

ive failure stress times the cross-sectional area, F = aA. In region B, the

initial buckling occurs elastically, so the member - if not allowed to

collapse beyond initial failure -can recover its shape when the forces are

removed. The phenomenon of buckling is very important structurally, but Figure 36

can be observed on household objects too, such as a ruler or a strip of

cardboard. You may have noticed it when pushing on a thin knife blade or

using a woodsaw.

For compressive members in practical structures, buckling is a serious

problem, and there is often a clearly visible distinction between the

members in tension, which can be thin, and those in compression which

need to be much thicker, even for the same value of force. One example is

yacht rigging (Figure 37b) where the mast is much thicker than the tension

wire supports. Another is the crane (Figure 37a), where the control wires

and hoist cable are in tension, but the jib is in compression and so needs to

be much bulkier.

L.. _ -.

.........-.

Figure 37(a) Figure 37(b)

Engineers need to be able to estimate the buckling load for a compression

member. We can gain an initial insight into this by analysing the

arrangement of Elgure 38(a), two light rigid pin-jointed links with a sprung

hinge in the centre. For each radian of dc&ction at the hinge, this torsion

spring gives a toque of K (N m), i.e. it has a torsional stiffness of K

(N m sad-'). I shall neglect the weight of the links, so it does not matter

which way up it is. Figure 38(b) shows it in a 'buckled' position.

Figure 38(c) is the frce-body diagram for one half. For a small angle B

the vertical ddection of the centre is approximately LB. For rotational

Figure 38 equilibrium of the member, I shall take moments about the centre hinge

to avoid the effects of other forces there:

exerted by theapringisM=Kx28

What is the physical significance of these mathematical solutions? Either

8 = 0 or P = 2K/LTherefore, either the whole member is straight, or

Figure 39 P = 2KIL In other words, for an end force smaller in magnitude than

2K/L, the member will stay straight. If the end force reaches the value

2KIL (called the mtical l&), then B can be anything - the strut can

collapse (Figure 39). This simple model exhibits typical buckling b e

haviour. For struts of longer L the critical buckling load (P = 2KIL) is

consequently smaller.

Now we can begin to make sense of Figure 36. If the mcmber is short

L

failunW

(4 L), the buckling load is greater than the material limitations, so

buckling does not occur because the material itself fails first. As L becomes

bucklitq greater thc critical buckling load will fall below the material Mure

capability so buckling becomes the predominant mode of failure, and as L

increases the manimum possible applied load declines ( F h r c 40).

ten ~nam

Thc model that I have used to introduce buckling is a very simple one. All

Figure 40 the flexibility was concentrated at the centre (a 'lumped parameter' model).

This model gives a qualitative understandiig of buckling, but is not good

enough to make useful quantitative predictions about real struts with thc

Bcxibility distributed all the way along the member. Figure 41 shows a

more realistic uniform strut in a buckled position. Each section of the strut

has a bending moment in it. This bending moment is the same as you

looked at in d e t d whcn studying beams but this time is caused by the

o&t &ct of the line of action of P. At a point of ddktion y the moment

is M = Py. The largest delledon is near to the centre (for a symmetrical

strut, exactly so). To prevent buclrling this is, therefore, the most important

place to in- the thickness. Thc crane in Figure 37 has a jib thick in the

centre where required, thinning at the cnds to save material.

Mathematical analysis of the strut model of Figure 41 predicts a critical

load of

Figure 41

The physical argument underlying thc analysis is similar to that for the

hinged strut that we looked at. This is called the Euler fonmJo after

Lconard Euler (pronounced oiler), the Swiss mathematician (1707-1783).

The product E l is a measure of tbe member's stiffness in bending. E is the

material's Young's modulus and I is the second moment of area of thc

cross-section. This term is sometimes calledpexwal rigidity.

A metal bar (E = 200 GN m-2, av= UX)MN m-') has length 5 m and

d i e t e r 20 mm. Estimate (a) the material yield load and (b) the buckling

load, and compare them.

solullon

(a) The yield load estimate is P = avA = 63 kN.

(b) The buckling load estimate from the Euler formula is

The buckling load is less than one hundredth of the material stress Limit

load.

SA0 26

(a) If the diameter of the metal bar is increased to 63.5 mm, what is the

buckling load?

(b) How many times the amount of material of the previous bar is

needed?

SA0 27

The control linkage of an aircraft elevator includes an aluminium alloy rod

(E = 70 GN m-l) of length 2 4 m and solid circular cross-section 20 mm

d i e t e r , required to transmit a compression force of 400 N. (a) What is

the buckling load? (b) What is the load safety factor? (c) Estimate the

diameter of solid rod that would be on the verge of buckling.

state of affairs, requiring the usc of a lot of extra material. What can we do

to improve the resistance to buckling without using so much material?

From the Euler formula P=n2EI/L' you can see that we must either

innease E, increase I or decrease L. Increasing E is rarely a practical

solution. The materials are usually predetermined by other factors. It

might be possible to change from say aluminium to steel, but the

aluminium was probably heiig used for lightness, so the denser steel wiU

not be welcome. Reducing L, the overall length, may not be practical as it

would probably defeat the whole purpose of the member.

increasing the second moment of area, I, looks an intemting possibility.

To do this means moving the material further way 60m the bending axis

to make it more efective in resisting bending. For a rectangular section X-

(Figure 42). 1= ab3/12. By doubling b and halving a we can use the same

amount of material but increase I by a factor of four. However, when b .ba

1.-n

becomes greater than a, then buckling can occur by bending about the

other axis. The resistance to buckling depends on the least I value for the

given section. However, there are other ways. The material can be spread

1. -n

h=

F i p e 42

SA0 28

The solid 20 mm diameter 5 m long rod of the last example is to be

replaced by a tube with 50 mm average diameter and 2 mm w d thickness.

(a) By what proportions are the cross-sectional area and mass changed?

(h) Estimate the new buckling load. (c) By what factor has this changed?

The hollow tube is a considerable improvement in buckling resistana,

although often still far from the material strew l i t . The modem lamp-

post shows that the hollow tube can be a good way to achieve better I

values and bending resistana. Other sections which one sees commonly

are the rolled-steel joist I-section, angle, channel and tee (Figure 43).

These are cheaper to produa than hollow tube, but still retain the

advantage of hctter I valucs than round or square solid sectiollg

Another way to increase l is to split the member up into several parallel

separated pieces. This way each piecc is less prone to local damage than

thin tube. The jib of a crane is usually made this way.

8AOW

(a) Calculate the I values of the three cross-sections of Figure 44. They

have thc same arca so would use the same amount of material.

(b) E x p m the two better ones as ratios of the smallest value.

(Hint: the I value of a shape can be found by subtracting the value for a

Figure 44 'miising' piece from that for a simple shape.)

located on the bending axis can be expressed mathematically in another

usdul way. Figure 45 shows the member whose own neutral axis is G but it

is being bent about the axis XX. The small area bA is y from the neutral

axis. Mcasurcd from the bending axis XX, the second moment of arca of

SA is, by definition,

+

61, = 6A(h y)'

am

Now

jy2 dA = l , by definition.

J2hy dA = 0 because y goes equally positive and negative

(G is the neutral axis.)

This result cornsponds to the Padd Axis Thconm for second moments

of mass, which you met in Block 4 (Section 6.5).

With a good separation of the members nearly all the second moment of

area comes from the Ah2 term. Of cotme thia is just another way of saying

that I , is much larger than Io. Crane jibs, power pylons, the Eiffel tower

and many other structures bear witness to the importana of this in

improving bending, and hena buckling, resistana.

Returning to the cranejib, if we actually built a jib with this fourcornered

construction,but without any interior support, what would happen? Each

of the four corner members would have to carry onequarter of the total

axial load. But the buckling rcsistana of each corner on its own is only

provided by I , not I,, so they will buckle easily. Our calculated value of I ,

does not on its own assure a high load capability for the whole strut. We

must make the four corners act together by tinking them with bracing.

This is why steel structures such as power pylons arc full of triangulation

bracing, and bracing on the bracing and so on. It gets complicated, but on

a large structure it is chcaptr because the job can be done with so much

less material than a single solid piece. Such a structure can also be

assembled on site in m o t e areas.

There are a few other points that you should be aware of. Our model of

Figure 42 was ideally straight when unloaded, and the load was applied

exactly axially. A real strut will always be bent to some degree or another

even before the load is applied. The result of this is that the deflection-load

curve shows an increasing value all the way, and the effective collapse load

is reduced. S i a r l y the loads are never applied exactly axially, and this

has the same effect. In general the best performance of struts is achieved by

ensuring that the loads are, as accurately as possible, applied axially to a

straight strut.

I have only discussed one mode of buckling, but others are possible.

Details of these can be found in reference books but for this course you do

not need to know more than their existence. Figure 46 shows some

examples.

Figure 46

SA0 SO

Figure 47 shows an I-section of aluminium alloy (E = 70 GN m-').

(a) Estimate the second moment of area about each of the axes shown.

(b) Under what load do you estimate a 2.5 m long section would buckle?

Summary of Sectlon 4 A

Compression members (struts or columns) may fail by strength, stiffness Figure 47

or stability. A moderate load on a strut will cause length change e

(estimated from F/A = Ee/L, stiffness). A larger load will cause buckling

on a long member (estimated from the Euler formula, F =n2EI/L',

for stability). For very short members buckling does not occur but the

material itself will fail (estimated from F = aA, for strength).

Compact section members are very prone to buckling and so in practice

rolled I, L, T, U sections or tube are used, and for larger members built-up

structures, to improve the second moment of area.

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