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WORKS Highly Experienced and Famous


John Rudolph Glauber

Great Variety of Clioice Secrets


Mint anD mp
In the Working of METALLICK MINES, and the
Separation of M E T A L S -^^ :

Various Cheap and Eafic Ways of making- ^alt-pCtre, attd Improving of
^Barren^JlanD, and the ftnit& of the Earth.

Together with many other things very profitable for all the Lovers of Art and Indujiry.

Tranflated into Englijh, and Publifhed for Publick Good by the Labour ^ Care^ and Charge^ of
CHRISTOPHER PACKE, Philo-chymko-MeJicus.

Pri >y Thomas MilboMrr?y{or the Author, and are to be fold at his Houfe next Door to the CUfi in
Littlc-Moorfieldi ; by D. Newman at the King's- Arms in the Poultry, and W- Cooler at the
Pcllican in Little Britain. M DC LXXXIX.
^'^ I -if

'x* "'A* ^^^^"^ ''i^^'i ^^^^^^"'^

c| -
r* j^^

Opera Johannis Rudolphi QIauberi

Tho* Witherfy Praefes Coll. Med. Lonl

fomnes Betts ^

Edvardus Browne
Guilielmus Briggs

Qulielmm D^f\ms

i^'^S^x'^^^^* ^i i^Si&i i^l><U!Ki4^4^]^

\\ f^
Honoured, and Truly Learned,

Edmond Dickenfon^ M. D
Phyfician to the K I N G 'S Perfon and Family.

ArtofChymiftry, (Honoured Sir) although in its Speculations
moft Noble and Delectable to a Philofophick Mind, and in its
Pradice highly Infervient, and Beneficial to Mankind yet hath ;

it not efcaped the Obloquies, and falfe Imputations of Detradlors,

and Calumniators, who either through Ignorance, Idlenefs, or

Envy (or all of them conjoined) have made a falfe Reprefenta-
tion of this moft Noble Art to the Woi Id, and endeavoured to fet Mankind at the
greateft diftance from that which is its higheft intereft to court. For which caufe
fuch Writings as Promulge, and offer at the advancing of the Chymical Art^ ftand in
need of fuch a Patron as is able to defend them againft all the Cavils of Pride, Envv
and Ignorance.
And if the Exquifite Parts, and Profound Learning in the more Abftrufe Philo-
lophy, together with a Long, and Indefatigable Scrutiny and Labour ia the Chy-
mical Art, accompanied with a happy Practice in the Honourable faculty of Phy*
fick, be fit Accompliflimcnts to Entitle one a ^ttxXi^^ of this Art ; then are thofe
Excellencies all met and Concentred your
as is evident ro the whole World
in felf,

by your Curious and Learned Epiftle to l3UnDanUS!, and iiis Anlwer to it, which
anfwer will be a Lafting Teftimony of your great Worth and Merit.
For certainly, Sir, it is no fmall evidence of your Worth and Abilities in the
Tyiotechmck Jrt^ that a Philofopherwho had been more than forty years an Adept in

all that time fliould not find three Perfons, befides your felf, whom he thought wor-
thy to make of the truth of what they fought, and afpired after; and yet
gave you an Ocular Sadsfa^ion and Certitude of that which Thoufands havedeh=:
red to fee, but could not : And further ferioufly profeflTing, that if he
had hid the
fame liberty from his Mafler, that fome Adepts enjoy, that he would have revealed
to you the whole Secret.

Ti-ne ie
The E^^illle Dedicatory.

Thefe things have induced me humbly to offer this Book to your Patronage, not
doubting but under your Name and Procedion, it will be able to overcome many
Difficulties, and obsain a free paflage in this out Bngltjl) World, to the benefit and
advantage of many well-difpofed perfons, who feck after Honeft, Profitable, and
Commendable Arts, which I am fully perfwaded w^as the chief end of the Author
in Writing ; and I am fure is mine in Tranflating his Works. You are throughly ac-
quainted with Glmhers ff^n>mffi,you know his Menftruums,and his Medicines,andare
able to atteff the truth of what others may account falle and impoflible. As for fuch
of them as concern the higher Clafles of Chymiflry, I fliall fay nothing (being yet
but ad Corinthnm yer^cns) but commit them to your Mature Judgment, and Pro-
tedion, humblv craving your pardon for thismy prefumption, and for what Errors
or Overfights I may have committed in this Work and defiring your Favourable

Acceptance of thefe my poor Endeavours. I take leave to conclude with a paffage

of the abovementioned Excellent ^UtlDtinUS. / am fully perjmdedj that by the

Bleffin^ of (Sod upon your Sagacious Labour s^ you'^ill at length obtain that -i)fhich will abundantly

CompenJ are your ^ains and Cojl. To which I adjoin my own hearty Wifhes ; and that
after you have been as happy in this World, as true Philofophy can make a Man,
you may be Eternally Happy in that which is to come. I am


An Honourer of

Tour ?iame and Learnings



the Art of Chy miftry is very ufeful and highly ferviceahle in Phyficl^, Chymrgery^ Husbandry^ and
Michanick^Arts^ is long (ince evinced by the Excellent Mr.Boyl (jhe Honour both of our Age and
CoHtitry') in his Experimental Philofophy, cr Philofophicl^EJf.iys ; who in Et^ay I. znd 11- pews that the
Examination of the Juices of Human Bodies^ by t ,e Art of Chymiftry, znay tUujirate their Vfe and
Ntnture. And that by it may be Explicated the Nature of our feveral DigefHons-, and their Aberrations. And af'
terwardsCv^- VIII. pag 194. freaking of the advamages th.n Chymiftry afords to the Therapeutick or C\iTZ-
twt part of Phyjickj (jonchis the chief and principal)^ and to which all the other parts are jubfervient) is plea fed
to expre/s himfelf thus : I cannot but think that if Chymiftry did no more than aflift us, by the refolution of Bo-

dies, to extricate theirmore adlive parts, and partly by fuch Refolutions, and partly by alTociating Bodies
together, to alter the former Texture of Natures producT:ions, or prefent us with new Concretes of new
Textures ; by this very means, if Men want not Curiofity and Induftry, to vary and profecute Experiments,
there mull; neceilarily arife fuch a ftorc of new and active Medicines, that in all probability, many of them
willbe found endow'd with fuch vertue as have not been (at leaft in that degree) met with, in the ufual Me-
dicines, whether Simple or Compound, to be bought in Apothecarys Shops i and confequently, even without
any notable difcovery, or improvement of Principles, Chymifls fevcn as Matters now ftand with them) may
confidcrably add to the Pharmaceutical part of Phyfick. But if the Operations of Chymiftry were ferioufly
enquired into, and throughly underftood, I make little doubt, but by a skilful Application of them, and c-
fpeciallybya fericsof them, in a Rational and Orderly way fucceeding one another, there may be found
out a great many preparations of Remedies, both very different from the common Ones, and far more No-
ble than they. And prefemly after he adds. That if we had but a few Potent Menftruums to diflblve and un-
lock Bodies with, I fcarce know what might not be done in 'hymiftry.
^ Then further in that Effay where he
treats of the ufefnlnefs of Chymiftry to the Empire of Man over the Inferiour Works of Nature ; he proceeds to jhcw
that Chymiftry is very ferviceable to Husbandry in all its parts, and toother profejfions that ferve to provide Men
with Fojd or Raiment J or do otherwife minifter to the Necejftties or Accomodations of Life, as Bakers, Brewers^
DyerS) c^c
Thus far this Learned Philofopher : To which I fljall only add this. That if when he wrote thofe Ejf.iys, Chymifts
were able to contribute fo much to the Necejftties and Conveniences of Afa-^hind., when Chymiftry was but young m
England, ard but few Chymifts who were accurate in their Operations, and perhaps, fewer who had any competency
of Lrarntng^ or fo ?nuch as lightly TinH^ed with the Htrmctick Ph'ilofophy ; if, I fay, that it difcoveredfo great
a Irght when It had but newly afcended our Horiz.on, and was, as I may fay, but in its Infancy what ajfiftance may

mw behad froin it^ when Qiotwithflanding all the Ohftacles, atid unkind iifage it hath met withal) it is grown to a
tnoi Irile Age and Vigour '. But although Chy miitry be much enlarged, and advanced in England, in nfpet of
the Numbers, and Qu.dtfic at wis of the Lovers, andprofjfjrsof it\ yet are not Chymifts free from preffing Difad-
vantages^ not havin^^ the freedom of adminiftrtng their own Medicines^ how powerful and falutiferous foever^ and
othcrwife adapted to the Necejfities (f the Sic\^ than the common Ap[)Zratas of Ph^ftck- So, that as the Cafe no^v
ftands, the he'p and Succour which the Sick and Difafed receive from Chymical Pnyfick,, is but xery fmall to what
they might havc^ if kl'owing Chymifts had the freedom of exerciftngthat Art wall its parts^ which with much /
'difftry^ Labour^ andCofts, they have been follicitous to attain. But when this difi-iccuragement of ingenuity and
Obflaclc of thepublick g'>od^ fliall become more apparent to thofe in whrfe power it is to redrefs it, I do not djuht but it
will meet with a Remedy,
But now ^ togivi jome account of my prefent under takln(r. I have at length {byGoi's help, and' the affiftance cf
my Sitbfcribers') fi/iijhed my Iranftation of Glauber'^ Works, and here prefent it to the Reader, in the Engliftl
T)ngue. How well I have performed it, / muft fuhmit to the judgments of dthtrs 1 could have been very glad to
ha ve
Jht P "KEF A C E.
heretofore fropofidthe dmr,g but of fome farts of 'Jo' J'

h^::;nc^;ri7d^^rhifome ubkr ha.d bnt xvhcn I havs

27hor ihnldbe fo /o4 extam, andth^tnor>e jhonld


/I -tvfc/-yI/>/...e.r.o;.W..e^Engli(h An.fts there,.,htstehng

htm of Latin
them th.t 1 r^o.deredfo
^r>d German Cown;;..,
^ge rv as mt worthy of n, fo that ^tfeem to rnc
toJnL^l Drefs^ I ^^-^ ^^'^ fo^ H-^^^ '^'f
although to he done by one of the mea.ef^ of he Sons f
Zt the ProS. rr o God had referred it for fitter ttmes myTartSy
have ac^.tud my fdf m thts matter, as rvdl as the flendermfs of
v7voi^ch7y. But thkj can fay, that J
my Laboratory mtdd ^ermtt me bnt
mnkrnfs of Body, and the neceffary Affairs of

Ubi defint Vires, acceptanda eft Voluntas.

accept my Ldotr-s, mththe fame good will that I have m>dergone them, haviv^
/ defire the Lovers of Chy miftry to
And I hereby return thanks to all thofe generous fpmted Gentlemen and others,
r.o other end but to ftrve my Country .

wtthont ivhofc 4fiflance{the Charge being very ^eat , as well as

whohavcS^'bfcnbcdto, aid promoted this Work,
table) it mufl yet have remained bid aidmfervmaide to the Englidi Reader. But
the libour (tome ) almofi i>.fHppor
Gentleman (whom ought to name were it lawful to do it
lam in 4ri efpccial manner obUged to that public^ Fpir'ted
without his leav.) who freely offered me and pnt mo
my hands a not i,confiderable part of the ^f^rmls for this Work.,
had not the Spirit of fome, {who mjnfily hwder'd it 1 been as
which part alfo had been more confiderable than it was,
in part, tnade up to me, by a well-minded Anifi, to
Mian and Sordid, as his was Generous. But that Lofs was., '

whom 1 alforeti'.rnTba>h. , ^ r i . j r . .i .
.. r r r t
lar<^er Paper than I propofed to do it in; for at the time of fettmg forth

I have Printed this Book, upon far better and

when they came to my hands upon a more accurate computation
my firfi Propofals, I had not the German P'cces, but
go on to do the Work upon the Paper 1 had propofed, the Bookwould fweUtotoo
of themttter Ifoundthntf I Ihould
length, and not be only ,U fi>aped iut inconvenient to he read. By this
ireat a t hi diefs for its breadth and
than J promtfed thim, although the Charge hath alfo been Confiderably
means my Sttbjcrivers h.ive a much better Bouk
tome, than J at firj} expected.
r n-j t c j ji-
which Glauber ever Printed as far as I can find upon diligent Enquiry at
.. t--
The ReadJr hath all herein one Column the Original Copper
Printed, and where I purchafed Plates belonging to
Amfterdam where all his Writings were page 177. That the Cut there defcribed
/,^; W;e Explication of MiraculumMundl,
t^yemB'a whereas, as 'tis
nortobe found among theOriginal Plate, ; yet notmthftandmg, I was nnwih
was not Pnntedinthe LmnCopies^
liner that the Work, ^dgo without the Figure of fo ufefula
Metals, for which
Furnace as that is, for the lorrefying, or Calcining
reafon I have caufed it to be Delineated and Printed
Jores andfiparating, tnd depurating their
Miraculum Mundi, ^/rer page 1 88. / have alfo procured from the hand of
lith others before the Continuation of
Art, the Draught of the Refrigeratory, Furnace, or Inftrument which ferves
another Friend, ^^0 is a Leaver of
Wine, punfymg, and fixing of Argcnt-vive, Antimony Sulphur, &c. and
for the making the Mercury of
Ingenious Artifi Will find out. This Furnace the Author always endeavpured to conceal,
many other uffs which an
the beginning of the fixth part of k Spagyrical D.fpenfatory ..
m tp/,.c^ Defcrip-
hirt defcribesit m
fome part
The Figures of the fever al rcffels and Infhumms belonging to the Fiftu Part of the
tion J have added the Figure.
the Fourth Part, but fmce, for the better orders fake J have placed them
Furnaces are referrd to at the beginning of
ht fore the faid Fifth Part.
following Treatifes were never
Printed in
LiUn, m Gtrmiin t
hut the Tongue

only, viZ.
7k Third,

W Fifth Centuries; ffce Second
^^'i^^^he Artift
W Third Appendixes fo^^eSew.^^ Partof /kSpagyricalDifpen-
The three Fire-ftones. The Purgatory of
r/.e Book of Fires. Proferpinc
yJll which I have caufed to be Tranfia-
DKiiornnhrr^ De Laoide Animali. The Secret Fire of Philofophers.
wellsk,li'd both in the High Dutch, andalfoin Chy
^}dOn&tn?S:Z^^^^ German Tongue, by a perfon
altogether m.ferviceable nor unacceptable even to the Learned ; befides, all
miftrv whereby! h'pethis ook.will not be
at all) to be met with at any Booksellers Shop in
TlVohsof this Author that aretn Latin are very difficultly {if upon this Tranfiatwn, J was forced to
at a dear rate
that arc, : For wkn I had entered fend to
London, and thofe
have all the Lzunpiecescompleat.
AmOicrdzm to
Opus Vegetabile,
, _ ...
Wtfce ^
. , . err
Concentration of Heaven

The Juthor in many places refers to his Opus Saturnl, which alfo feems
never printed at leafi under thofe Tttles) to be
and Earth, whnh Treatifes, I am affured,
were i

or General Appendix, wherein he inculcates that for want of time,

manifefi from his Evifile to the Firft Century,
hadUcrted the um of them all in th.'t Treatife.
alfo mentions a Seventh part of the Profperity of Ger-
h which was never Printed under that Title
mnnv in the Preface to the Second Part of Pharmacopeia Spagyrica,
as partly appears by coinpanug it with the forefaid
hulam induced to believe it is the Lumen Chy micum.
his Writings he hath mentioned a Treatife by one Name, and af.
Prrfac And It is evident that in fome farts of
Ver which was afterwards Printed by the of Name
terLrds Printed it by ano, kr, as, The Teftimonium

Fvnliratio Miraculi Mundi. for A

the Saturni, / h.ive heardthat there arejome Manufcnpt Copies oftt,and
hands, but both failed me. I have been a Jo informed, that there are Five
had hopes of okainin^ U from two fevcral
have Printed, but couldnever underflandtn what hands they were, except oneof
fVnr/ries / Manufcritt more than I
wnuldnot be fokind as tolet mhave it tofrint.
them\vi.then.xth, the proprietor of which
1 h le (by the advice of an
Honourable Perfon) left out th^ AHthor->s Religious and Moral Digreffions where I
matter as alfo his Apologetical Writings, except his Apohgy agamft Farmer,
cculd do it without prejudice to the -,

mi.xt with many profitable Secrets, which perhaps he would not luve pub-
which I have printed, for afmuch as
tt is inter

time if they had not been, at it were , extorted from him by the ill Treatment of that On.
lijlicd, at leafi not at that

whtchthe Author publifl>ed them, without breaking the order of

^'"^Tf'idfrTplacethe feveralTreatifes inthat order
Mundi, Spagyrical Pharmacopcca, and Profpenty of Germany ; for being
the feveralparts, as of the Miraculum
promilcucully, but how they fucceeded one another fo far as the Nztmt of
many years in publ,fli:nf, they wtre done
the Preface to that Treatife. And as his Writings were pubhfi^edby piece-
i.U. -the Reader Ly' at isfie hi mfelf
teacheth, fcattered^p^nd down, n divers parts of them, one pl.tce he treat. m
meal fo are the priJpal Secrets be
Tht P K E F A C E,
eth of a thing obfciirely, or hut in fart ; in ofiother fLice of the fime tbinf openly in thjt part which he bad veiled
in the other. Sometimes be declares a Procefs very openly^ omittinv only fome fntall Circiini/tances, or Manual Ope^
ration J which xvoidd feem to many either unpcTtmenty or not neccjj try taS; done, n-ben notrvuhfta-'idifi^r^ the bitfinefs
will not fuccei-d withimt it. An tn^arxe of this may he given ti, his Sal Mirabilis, whafe prep.iral ion%e teacheth ob-
fcurciy in the Nature o( Salts, bntmoreopeidyinthe Second P.trt of Miraculum Miindi. /-'r/^e Nature ofSalts
and in the Sixth P^rr 0/ //?e Phai raacopccia Spagyrica, he teacheth buw t'l Dijfolve Gold therewith^ t-nd thence t)
make a ki'id cf Aurovn PotabilC) L'i:t wholly omits the adding of acert.iinycget.vj'.c Sidfbnr ^without rvhich the work
willnor r.nfndr the Defcription ; this Defti he fiipplys in the Second Century, after a t 'refold /f!an?:er., the one not
obvious to eajery Man''s Apprehenfion^ I mean the intent of the Author ^m'u. tn thofe Puxcfles where he (hews the
muhmg of a Fegttable Sulphur ; hut the other Jl.'emththe n.ajj'ary A'l.r/tu.d Opsr.-itio-i in plan ani 'pen And
this he h^th done with all his Secrets on fet pufpnfe, that they jhonU bef.itnd out but the Indttlrious.
Andthis hath given occafon to many^ whoh.ive not tak^n pamsto read him with diligence, cr not heina expsrienced
in Operating.^ to reproach him fer an ohfcioc, yea, evn for a fal/e Writer^ becaufe they have made two or three Su-
perficial, or Vnsktlful Trials <f his Procejfes, which have not fiiccceded according to their Expectations when in-
deed, the faidt was in themfelves, either in not fcrceivimr the A/ithoi ''s intention^ or their own want of skjll in right'
ly managing the Operatio'i : And I know jome Perjtns that fome time fince f.ud Glauber had been too dark^ in his
Wtitings, wh'j r.ow thihk^hi hath wrote too flam.
But hiving mentioned this, I will here {for the fake of thofe Country Ge>/tleni:n,who have fithfcribed to this Work")
a lit tie Elucidate the Anhor^s Proccjs ab itt the inver/ion of Common Salt, with L<me, for the enriching of "oor
and Barren Land. He indeed peaks of feveral Sali^ie Ptepnrativi.s, which greatly promote the fertility ofthe
Enrth, hut this with Common Salt, and Lime, is the cheapeji tf all, and^lfo ts nw^ eafie to be done, for any Plow-
ma'^^ or Labourer, having hut once fccn it done, may he prcjently able to manage it. The Jam of it is that Com-.

r ives the Procefs of the preparation in iplain and open words in the
aiid m/viy other places ; ktt Appendix to the Fifth
Prfrtc/WjeProfperity of Germany? page 416-
Neither IS the praSiee of preparing either the Land, or the Seed-, in order to tie better Crop, altogether Novel., as
in Virgil, Georgic Lil). i . where he f.tith,
itiay partly he fcen

Semina vidi equidem multos medicare ferentes,

Et Nitro prius, & nigra perfunderc amurca ;
Grandior ut fcetus iiliquis fallacibus eilet, &c.

Wliich in EngUpy may found thus

Some have I feen their Seeds to fow prepare.

With Nitre andOyl-Lees, for they ly care
Will grew far greater, an^ he fooner ripe^ &C.

The Lime miiji be fpread upon theground^ where no Rain can come to it, till it ^.tkc it feif by the Air and fall
into a Powder \ of this Powder you are to take four hundred weight to one hundred weight of a>iy common foul Salt
which impure for the uft of the Kitchen, where fuch may be had^ otberwife clean Salt^fjor that vpill be cheaper
ts too
than the Salt and L<rne are to be well mixed, and then mjificned with fuch a t]:u>!tity of Water, (or rather
Vrine where it maybe had) as will bring the Lime aid Salt mixed, to the Confiflency <f a ^iff Adortar. Of this
Adafs Balls are to be made about the hignefs of O'/es F//1:, and laid under a Shtad, or Hoveb. to dry j hein^ dried
ihty are to be burnt in a Kiln as Lime is^ fo that the Balls may he red hot for anhjur at leaft j or where no LitnC'Kitn
tsnear, they by building a File in thi Field, ^rjiwith a Lay of Wood, then a Lay of Balls, then Wood
may be burnt
.Tgam, and fj the Balls arc placed fit for burning.
till all When the Balls are burnt, they are to be again placed upon
a Fhrr under a Shead, cr Hovel, where they may be expofedto the A.'r.^ btu kept free from the Rain, and ifyou break,
them with a Clod-beater prcfently, the Arr will the fooner aft upon them, and ca'ufe them again to fall into a Poirder ;
which Puwd.r 7nay then ie carried out and fpread, or ratier fowcdout of a Seedlet, thicker or thinner as the Land
ihall riqiitre. Provided this be done in t hie beginning of Summer about the time of Fallow^ far that bein<r many
Ho>jhs before the Seed IS to be fowed, the fiery nefs of this rich Cump'ft will be Contemperated by the AirZnd the
Earth, and ih.wged i>.t-j a Nitrous fatncfs^ wl.ich joining it fif with the Eaith, is again Maanetically attrafled
vy theSrfd when it is fown.^ whofe growth ii thereby fwtftly promoted, avd its Adaltiphcation much aufrme::ted. But
if aiy jh ut'dcafl this Matter upon his Land foon after n is burnt, and prefenily after that jhjuld fow his Seed, ;-
lictdfof ha!"tig a greater Crop than he ujed to have, he wouid have a lefs, or per hips no le, that Tear^Jiut the next
I'e.v^ oiidfJO" fur many Tears, the fame Land would bring forth plentifully. Therefore it ts necefiTary, that this
A fatter jhould lie fix or feven Aionths fpread upon a Floor, and now and thin turn'^d with a Shovel, as you turn Malt,
that it may and A'limatcdby the Air or be caft upon the Land fo long before the Seed be fown. The
he Conteinpered, ;

reafon is fame as with Dung, for none takes frefii Dung and fpreads it upon his Land when he is abput to
the very
low his Seed, for if he fuuld, his Seed would be burnt up ; but the Husbandman lets his Dung lie fome time to rot as
he Calls It ^ after which he lays it on his Land^ and lets it lie jpread fome time before he Flows it in, and all this is
but to Contemper the heat of the Animal Salt contained in the Dung, and turn it into A Nitrous Naticre, Thus much
I thought good to fay about this Matter in the plainefi words, kafi any, not throughly iindcrfianding the Author'*s Im
tc!!tm,ll)0jild erre in the firfi Experiment^ andfo unjuftly bUme the Author, and forbear themfeldts and dtterr others

( a ) from
from frofcainn^thatta/it: Pra^ice, vhich I amif riohtly m.mageU^ vnllhrwg luitch pejitto mahy fct^
confuit/.t ,

fosui this Niino'!. TmsMHfi alfoof t.acjjiiy bt a yruficMc H utk to thfewhonili iMMrt.ikc it upon the acaunt of
jnakinnuf Salt pcU'C t/jtii.tlly to fuch ,ts lunicrfiaiul ths afid Ger;cratio of that ExcciUnt fait-, which is

in the l',ip.ii\itiu vj Akditi'.xs^ fcfar..t:,!Jvf Mitnls.^ afuiir. tnchy M(chan:ik.Arts.

(f JiiCh ifXCMfcO-Huk lift:
Now forajmtch as tnthis iVcrkS^il Mirabilis, Spirit ol Nitre, ^.'' Sipirit of Salt, <;><-- rcconnnaidtd to-voy

mat-y lifts-, andevcry oi:c th.n h.:th utund loiuake tvitii ihi/.'i, i/iciy/^ot h.ivt the Icmrlednc, cr the cof:-

've^iioiiy of prcp(irt>itf enby fionfe-, that J i.ti,.d (Gcdwilluia ) to prepare a'.d l^ep by ffu the yii:thor'*s
thcm^ J i

Sal Mirabilis 0/ bcth forts, that peculiar Spirit of Sa!t nhiLh bt cammends anah.ft tU Sct^r^y r.nd vtkr Dtfta-
fes, a>.d alfotoki^ep Bttr from fowrirtg in tuc Stim//;er^ i'? /k- Confolaticn of Navigators. /j'/V Panacea of An-

timony, ^iff^ Golden Panacea, Ijckifof ir.the Securd Part if tht Pharmacopceia Spagyr- the Explication of
'^llrzcalamMwdi, afid divers othir I Ltces. /:/m Aurnm Diaphorcticum, 'Ujo the TU'dine of Gold, or Au=
ruin Potabile, arediftrttid to be mud^of :k Irreducible Blood of the Lyon) in the Sixth part of rkSpagyri-
cal Pharmacopcriaj Chap. 22. Thife / jurpoje cofJh.>,tly to hep by n:e for the accommodathig if Phyjiettir.s^ and
others, xvhojhall have cca/iw to buy them. 'ihofe are Exccliot Mec.icints, and Jiich as c. Phyfcia/i M.iy have (orr.e
confidefice in ; and indeed^ this Bookcontains a great variety of fuch Medicines us will get a Pi^yfiiim Honour twhich
(I hope) will be tryed by all thofe who delight to do good^ and Im brought into ufe for the general Help and Comfort
vf the fick. Fir J freely confefs-, t oat if J have a/iy thing in Mtdtiihe.^ beyond what is commonly known., J havip
had the Found,;tions of it from this Author ; and if Cod jhall pleaje to grant me life to a ft time, I doubt not but I
jbaH from thofe Foundations be able to raife fitch a Super fl mature as jhall teflife the truth of his Writings, and
powerfully evince the Worth and F.xulk/icy of Ci:ymn..l AJcdicmes, and that demonjtratively tn matter tf F^El^y'ix.
by the Curing of both Acitte and Ch" ick^Difcufts. ,

Aid now by w.iy if Concliifion^ I have only one thi(T mere to add ; and that is a Reqitesi to all the Ingenious Lo-.
vtrsof Chymiftry^ that they would not cccafon this Work^whiib 1 have undergone with fo much labour.^ and lofs of
time from my prix'itc Concerns.^ mecrly for the good of ethers.^ to redound to my own hurt ; my meaning is, I
might not be tut to the charge andtroiible of Litters about Cm loiis Enquiries, wherein I am to have net the k aft
frofit : This I mention, becaufe I have
had divers fuch Lctttrs cime to my hands fince 1 h^ve been about if, and
that fometifties two or three very long ones with many Otteries^ in one IVeck- Now fwidd this continue, and I endea-
vour to fat isfie all the Doubts, andgratifie allthe Curiofitiesof all fuch non-confidertng perfons, truly J Jliould have
710 time befides what this would tal^e up, to provide for tny felf and Family. But notwithflanding J have faid,
if any Ingenious Per fon fliall flavd tn need of my y)Jftfiance, in preparing of any thing for him, or other wife, wherein

J may have a reafonable recompence for my Time and Trouble, I will be ready to give him the bift afftfiance I can.
For I a>n now but jiift ready to receive aWr it
of Eafe from three Tears daily labour and care about this Work^ and I
would be willing to enjoy it fame time, that I might again with diligence apply my felf to my Laboratory, the effects of
which, if God fiiall fee good, may at one time, or other, fliew themfslves to the World. In the fnean time, J wijh
all Honefi and Ingenious Lovers of the Spagyrick^ Art, good Juccefs tn their Studies and Labours, that thence the
Penuries and Mijeries of Mankind, efpecially of the fickj may be effeilually remedied ; that they may Cooperate as
Inftruments with the great ends and providences of the Almighty, to bring about that time, in which Cod fitall be

Glorified all the World over, and Men live in a more ferene and tranquil condition than yet they have done, which
fiall always be the Defire and Prayers of him that is a Lover of Pyrotechnyj and Honwrer of aU true Artifts.

From my Houfc next Door to the Sign

oi thtCmlxi Little MoOY'Fields, ^t Chf P^ckc



Subfcribers NAMES.
THo. Archer, Med. Hertford. / Rob. Cooper, Apoth. Wolverhampton. John Harborotigh, M. D.
Allen, Med. Lurgarflial.
''John Mr. Thomas Garden. Newberry. Rob.Hnpkin,GQnt.Ajhton.Underlie.
William AJams,Chyrurg.Camhr. Cape. Conoway. Rich. Ho^e, Med
John Agar, Chyrurg. Kmgfton. Gahr. Hubbard, Med.
John Ajhhy, Gent. D Capt. Hen. Hatley.
Mr. John ABon. John Holliard, Chyrurg.
Matthew Dudley, Baronet.
Mr. John Hall.
B Edmond Dickenfon,yi..'D. Phyfician Mr. Hooker.
to His Majefty.
John Harvy,UQCi. Saffron Wdden.
The Right Honourable John Earl William Dawes, M. D. Mr. Luke Halfhide.
of Bridgwater. George Dean, Med. Wefiminfier.
Mr. Noah Hodgfon. York.
Sir James Butler, Kx. Judge of the John Dimfdell, Med. Hertford. Mr. Hardijig.
Mar^ialfea Court. William Dyn, Gent.
Mr. Edward He/lop.
Sir John Bo-ivyer,Kn\ght. Warwick. Thomas Dibben,Gent Somerfet. Mr. Jajper Harman,
Sir Robert Barcham,Kt. Warwick.
The Honourable Ro. Boyl, Efq;
Tho. Bertnger, Efq; I'ver,
Luke Bales, M. D. Wellin.
Tho. Bradfl]aw,'E{q:, Warwick.
"Thomas Enden, Gent. Lancafier.
William Jobnfon,y[.Y). Warwick
John Banfon, Gent. Mr. Jofeph Jewell
T7w.</, Apothecary. Warwick.
Thomas Browne, Gent. Robert Johnfon, Med.
John Bourne, M. B. Mr. William Johnfon
Rich. Boreman, Med. Kent. Rich. Ingerfal, Bookfeller
Jonath. Blewet, Chyr. Huntingdon Simon Folkes,'Efq; Bury St. Edmond.
John Burr, Chyrurg. Ifaac Foxcroft, Efq; Wefiminfier.
Nich. Bennet, Chyrurg. Bucks. Charles Ferris, PhyloChym. William Lloyd, Efq;
John BiJJwp, Chym. Mr. George Fewtrell
Joftah Lane, M. D. Banbury
Mr. William Boys. Mr. Nicholas Finckley
Edward Babb, Gent. Henry Lewis, A. M. Norfolk
William Bromfield, Chyr. Hit chin. Mr. John Long
Mr. John Bell. Mr. Jer. Lammas
Mr. Tho. Badmanaring. Henry Guy, Efq; Mr. Robert Lydall
Richard Blome, Gent. Thomas Gardiner, Chyrurg. Mr. Littleton

Mr. John Bulfinch. Richard Gee, Gent. Mr. Job Lord

Mr. John Bennet. Stephen Giles, Chyrurg. Matthew Lambert, Chyrurg.
Mr. John Stephen Godfrey, Gent.
Mr. William Gibbon.
Mr. Andrew Gland, Apothecar)'. Thomas Marriot, Efq; Warwick
Arthur Moor, Gent.
Daniel Cox, M.D. H John Aloufe, Med. Wellingborough
Samuel Codrington, Efq; Somerfet.
M. D. Mr. Mord. Moufe. Bucks
Ifaac Chancey, SirJames Hayes, Kt.
Chrificpher Crelle, M. D. John Hayes, Efq;
Mr. John Mathews
Mr. I^en. Mandey
Thomas Cox, A. M. Battle/den. Rich. Harrifon, E(q; Hertford.
The Honourable Mr. William Milward
M. How-
BtlltJge Clayton,
Mr. William
Cooler, Bookfeller. ard, Efq;
Mr. Matfon
Mr. Awnjham Churchill, Bookfeller. John Huxley, Efq; Stanly.
Mr. Henry Clare. Capt. Eltfiia Hutchtnfon.
Mr. David Congnard,]un\or James Harding^ Gent. Walter Needham, M. D.
Mr. David Cunningham. Turvey. John Hellyman, Gen t. Wrexham Franfu Nicholfen, Efq;
(b) Mr. Jamet
A Catalogue of the Sdfcrikrs Names.
Mr. Jamts Newton Mr. Edmund Read f Jofmh Thorald, U. D.
Mr. John Newman Mr. Simon Romny Mr. John Till
Mr. D. Newman^ Bookfeller. Mr. Michael RoJ'e John Trotter, Student in Aftrology
Mr. James Ranee Mr. Henry Tajh
O Mr. William Rohardjon Mr. If'aac Taylear
Mr. Robert Rofs Mr. John Tunfiall
Mr. Dan. Oley

The Right Honourable Sir John
Warwick Sir Tho. Witherly, Kt. Phyfician to
Sir Henry Piickering^Kt. Shorter, Kt. Lord Mayor of
William Penn, Efq; His Majefty, and Prefident of
the Ciry of London
Tho. Powell, Efq; the Colledge of Phyficians
Nicholas Salter, Efq; Bucks
Richard Palmer, E(q; Richard Wharton , Efq;
Nathaniel Staughton, Elq;
Cape. Tho. Powell Mr. Robert Wolley
Col. John Stawell. Somerfet
Charles Panton, Med. Mr. Edward Wejt
Svmerfet Nath. Slade, M. D. Wrexham
Mr, Francis Porter Mr. Richard Wyn, Apcth.
Dr. Symcotts
Mr. Edward Powell Mr. Thomas Wigg
William Smith, Gent. Bath
Edward Paltefon, Chym. Mr. Ifrael WormaT
Mr. Thomas Samborne. Somerfet
John Peck, Chyrurg. John Walraven, Chyrurgion
Mr. John Spire
Mr. yoh7t Peacock James Wafs, Chyrurgion
Mr. Thomas Stone
Mr. Edward Page Charles Wells, Gent. Huntingdon
Mr. Wlliam Savage
Mr. Samuel Philips Mr. Jofeph Wells
Mr. Richard Salick
Mr. William Wheeler
Tho. Saffold, Student in Aftrology
Mr. John IVehb
R Mr. Philip Seddal
William Williams, Med.
Mr. John Sloakham. Colebrook
Luke Rugelj, M. D. Mr. David Withers. Berks
Mr. Francis Smartfoot
Samuel Reynolds, McA. Iffwich Mr. Edward Wilfon
Mat. SarfaXi, Chym.
William M. D.
Rnjfel, Mr. Keeblewhite
John Rallet, Med. Braintry Mr. Philip Wafiburn
Jofeph Rawfon, Cyrurg Ailshnry Mr, Richard Weekes
John Rttdd, Med. Robert Toope, M. D. Bath. Mr. Randal Watfon
Mr. Tho. Rawlififcn, Difti.ler John Tanner, Med. Amerpam Mr, John Withers.
Mr. Rokrt RawUnfon, DiftiHer John Tomkys, A. M. Warwick


Philolophical Furnaces.
Containing a new Art of making Spirits, Ojls, Flowers, and
other Medicaments, by the help of the firft of thofe Furnaces, after a very
cafie and peculiar manner out of Vegetables, Animals and Minerals :

With their Chymical and Medicinal ufe.

A Preface to the Courteous Reader.

referved to my felf as Secret fome peculiar Furnaces and compendious Ways
IJIave hitherto s^ of
ivhich with diligent fludy and peculation I found out fome yean few fince, hy which
many excellent Works, done hy the vulgar Art, may he performed ; hut now
impoffible to be
at lafl I my felf how advantageous it may he
have, confide ring with to the World, determined
to conceal th s Art no longer, hut for the good of my Neighbour to publi(h
it, hy giving to Chy mills

a perfect andfundamental information oj this new-invented Art, that they may no longer for the fu-
ture fpend their Time and Money in long tedious Operations, hut may after a more eafe ivay, by the
help of my Furnaces^ he able to effed many excellent things. Now this Book /hall be divided into
Five Parts, the firfi whereof fhall teach how to build a Furnace, in which incombuftihle thin<rs are di-
fiilled and fublimed, and indeed fuch things which cannot be done by Retort or any other Veffels and.
how the Spirits, Flowers, and Oyls of Minerals, and Metals may hy the help thereof he prepared as
alfo what their Vfe and Fertues are.
In the Second Fart fhall he fhewed another Furnace, in which combuftihle things, as Vegetables, Ani-
tnals, and Minerals are diflilled and mofi perfectly fubtiliied : hy help whereof many mofl excellent
Medicaments for the cure of mofl grievous and otherwife incurable difeafes may he prepared.
In the Third fhall be taught a certain new invention hit her 'o unknown, of difl tiling B aningSpirits,
as of Wine, Corn, Fruits, Flowers, Herbs and Roots ; as alfo the Waters of Vegetables and Animals,
and that in a great quantity, in a fhort time, and without much cofls ; af alfo of boyl/ng Beer, Mead,
Wine, and other things, which otherwife are made in Copper or Iron Fejfels ; and all this by the
help of Wooden Veffels, and benefit of a certain fmall Copper, or Iron inflrument of two or three pound
weight, and that after a certain eafie manner without Furnaces. This newly-invented Art doth alfo
teach divers Chymical Operations, as Putrefatlions, Digeftions, Circulation's, Extratiions, AhflraCii-
cns, CohobatioHS, Fixations, &ic. And this invention is very neceffary and profitable for yomg begin-
ners in this Art, for they need not in the making of burning Spirits, Waters of Vegetables, Extracts,
and other Medicaments fo many Furnaces, and fo many Copper, Iron, Tin, Earthen and Qlafs Veffels,
for it IS here taught how all the aforefaid Operations may he done onely by the hglp of a certain fmall
Copper or Iron Inflrument in Wooden Veffels as well as by Alembicks and other great Copper Veffels,
hy which means a great deal of Cofts is faved.
In the Fourth Part fhall be taught another certain, and hitherto unknown Furnace, in which all Chy-
mical Operations may mofl eafely be done : being mofl profitable for the trying of the Natures of Mine-
ralsand Metals \ as alfo for the proving, examining, melting, cupelling, andjeparating of Metals, that
nothing may be lofl of them, and that after a compe}:dious and eafie way, and alfo to great advantage.
In the Fifth fhall be taught how to make and prepare Iron, Earthen, Glafs, and other kind of Inflru-
ment s neceffary for the aforefaid four Furnaces, as alfo other neceffary, and mojt proftable Manuals.
And in the Firfl Part, the Fabrick of the firfi Furnace being delineated, Ifhall alfo fhew how by the
help thereof may he made Spirits, Oyls, Flowers, and other mofl profitable Medicaments, alfo their
A Vreface to the Reader
fertues and Vfe, and that as faithfully as I may, and without fraud. And truly 1 do not douht hut theje
cf mderjlandi'Kr^ will approve of this Work, hut ignorant Zoiluss will contemn it: For it is faid ac-
cording to the Proverb, He that builds by the highway, will hear many things from them that
find fault, and efpecially from the vulgar, &cc. But it would he well if thofe Thralbes would put
forth fomething more excellent^ hefore they find fault with and carp at other Mens pants and la-
Wherefore let no one rajhly judge of this Work, unti/I he throughly h inforrtied concerning the

fame, and then I do not doubt but the Autbour jhall be by him commended.
And if haply fucceed ivell, to his mind, with him that pall build
all things jhall not prefently
this furnace, and operate therewith, let him think with himfelf that perhaps he hath erred in feme
party (for it is a new and unknown work, in which any dne may eajily err } and not prefently there-
fore murmur againft the Authour, blaming him, becaufe he hath not wrote clear enough, but let hirn
afcrihe it To his own i<i>wrance, and let him Jiudy to underftand the Authour s meaning, and flill be
pra^ifing upon it, and then I do not douht, but he will have betttr fuccejs, ivhich I pray every one
may have. Amen.

The EXPLICATION of the Figures of the firll Furnace in all its parts.

FIG. I. "E-The firfi Suhliming-Tot, which is fet in- in the Dijh dofiow. N. A
Scre7V to be raifed highe^
to the npper hole of the Furnace. D. The upper at pleafure for the better joynittg the Receiver to the
hale of the Furnace. F. The fecond Pot. G. The Pipe, and it gceth through a Stool. O. The place of
third. H. The fourth. the Pipe for the DifiiUmg of Spirit of Vitriol and Al-
FIG. II. A. The Ajli-hole, with the widenefs of the lom. P. A
Grate eonfifling of two ftrong crofs Iron
Furnace. B. The middle hole, by which the Coals and Barrs, fafined in the Furnace, and four or five more
Matter to be dijiilled, are cafi in. C. A Stopper of lefs, that are moveable y for the better chanfmg of the

Stone, which is to flop the [aid hole after cafiing in the Furnace.
matter. D. The upper bole with a certain falfe hot- F I G. 11 G. The firfi crooked Pipe fitted to the Pipe

torn, which ts to be filled with Sand, E- The Cover of the Furnace. F. The Pipe of the Furnace. H. A
of the upper hole, which is put on after the putting m Receiver fitted to that Pipe, atidfet in a Tub ofwattTy
the Coals and Materials. F. A Pipe going out of the for accellerating the Operations : whidi Receiver bath
Receiver, and joyned to the firfi Pet. G. The firfi a Cover with two holes, through the firfi whereof gc-
Receiver. H. The fecond. 1. The third. K. A eth a fingle crooked Pipe, and through the other two
Stool on which the firfi Receiver fiands, having a hole crooked Pipes, whereof onegoeth into the Receiver, as
in the middle, through which the Neck of the firfi Pot, did the fingle, and the other out of the Receiver H,
to which a Difl) fs annexed, pa^eth. L. The Di^i into H. H. I. The Tub of Water. M. A
third Pipe.
through the Pipe whereof the refrigerated Spirits di- By this way Flowers are jublimed, and Sprits difiil-
fiill, M. A Receiver into which the Spirits collected ledfpeedily, and in great quantity.

Place this, Part I. Afore the Explication, before P^ge i.


The Second Furnacer



^Jilofoptitcal jfuntaces.

Of the StruBure of the Fir

ft Furnace.

As for the Furnace, it may be


or leller as you
built greater
pleafe , a regard being had of
the quantity of the Matter to
be diftilled > and alfo either
round or fquare i either of
Bricks, or by a Potter with
Of the Receivers.

Let the Receivers be made of glafs,

earth, Grc.
or of ftrons

Hafliack. Frechheimenfian. Siburgic

They are better that are made of elafs,
Potters Clay. Now when the if they are to be. had and thofe efpecialiy
Diameter is of one fpan, viz.. withinfide, the height are made of ftrong and firm glafs, which may
muft be of four, viz.. one from the bottom to the Iraoothed about the joints with a
Smiris ftone, and
grate, another from the grate to the hole made for 10 htted that they may the better be
joyned together
putting in of Coals, and two from thence to the and then they need not luteing
(but how they fhal!
top of the pipe, which muft at lead go forth out of be fmoothed with the Smiris
ftone, and be fitted.
the Furnace one fpan, left the receivers Ihould by Oiall be taught in the Fifth
part, which treats of
the necrnefs of the Furnace be heated: The Pipe Manuals) becaufe by this means they
are joyned fo
alfo muft have on the fore part a Diameter,, anfwer- clofe , that no fpirits can
go through the joyrts :
ing the third part of the intrinfecal Diameter of the otherwife you muft clofe the joynts
with the beft
Furnace ; alfo a little larger on the hinder part than Lute, fuch as will not let the
fpirits exhale, which
the forepart- Let the grate be fuch an one, as may Jhall be taught in tJie Book
treating of Manuals.
be taken out at your pleafure and made cleany being 1 ne torm of the recipient you may
fee in the de=
ftopt by the Matter that is caft in and diftilled
: for ineation thereof. As for the quantity thereof.
ic is of Salts melted with
eafily ftopt in diftilling Know that by how much the greater
they are, fo
the coals, whereby the aire is kept from coming to much the better they are, for then you need
the ftv}-.
the fire, and thediftillationby confequence hindred er, but the more, by how
much the lefler they are-
Or let there be put into the Furnace crofs-wife two Let the fuperiour orifice be larger
than the inferiour,
ftrong iron bars upon which lay four or five lefler,
, lo that alwaies another receiver
may with its inferi-
diftant the one from the other the breadth of a fin- our orifice be joyned to it, and
let the inferiour ori-
ger , going a little out of the Furnace , by which hce have a Diameter of three
fingers breadth , or
when they are ftopt, you may take them out with thereabouts ; I mean in cafe the Diameter
of the
a pair of Tongs, and cleanfe thenl from the burnt Furnace be of one fpan. For a greater Furnace
Matter , and then again put them into their own requires greater holes, as alfo orifices of
the receiv-
places: wherefore alfo the Furnace muft on the ers, by which means a fuificient and due
fore part be open under the graEe> that you may .of air may be given to the fire : or if the Diame-
the better order the grate. ter of the Furnace be more than a
fpan , ic muft
Alfo the grate muft have above, a covering* of alfo have two or three pipes
( which being conii-
Iron or Stone, with a hole in the middle thereof dered together , Ihould iiave a widencfs anfwering
with a certain diftindion, which is to be filled with the widenefs of the third part of the Furnace,
fand, that the cover may the better and more fitly fo great a widenefs, and fo much air is
required', if
ftuit the hole , and prevent the exhaling of the the fire burn freely and do its office) to which
fpirits which by this means will, being foixed, go fels of the aforefaid proportion
muft be applyed,
forttithorow the Pipe into the receivers, after you that the fire be not choaked.
have caft in the matter which is to be diftilled. Now, the Figure that is annexed will teach the
B coDjnn^ftion
Tbe FirH Part of
In this diftilling, you may at your pleafure
way of
conjundion of the Receivers, as alfo their applica-
And, in the place, the ceafe, and begin again without any danger.
tion to the Furnace. firft

Receiver Hands hored thorow

in a three-foot ftool
When you will make clean the Furnace, you need
middle, that the neck of the firft Receiver do nothing elfe, then draw out the Iron bars that
in the
applyed a di(h with a lye on the crofs bar, that the Cafut Mortiw.rii may
may pafs thorow, to which is

To the firft fall down , which afterwards may be taken away

pipe receiving the dropping fpirits :

and with a Fire-fliovel, which being done, you myft put

there is joyned a fecond, and to that a third,
ladder) in the bars again, and lay them on the crofs-bars
fo confcquently (viz.. near unto a wall or
as before, upon which you muft caft burning Coals,
fo many as Let the upper Receiver,
you pleafe-
and upon them others, until there be enough, ihea
and indeed all the reft, be left open : To the lower
on them all, being well kindled, caft your materials.
as hath been faid, is joyned a didi vath a pipe, by
which the diftilled Spirits run down into another cer-
When you go to make clean the receivers) acd to
begin to diftil another thing, you need not remove
tain glafs veiiel added thereunto,which being filled,
of it, them, but only pour pure Water into them, viz.. by
is taken away, and another is fet in the place
their upper receiver^ by the defcending whereof the
becaufc that is fet under it without luting,and there-
And if you pleafe other are purified-
fore may eafiiy be changed.
to diftil any thing elfe, you may take away that
And by this way, not only out of Vegetables, and
volatile Minerals Cincombuftible) but alfo out of
difh with a pipe, and make it clean, and then joyn
forth) fixed Metals and Stones, fpirits, oyls, and flowers,
it clofe again (that no fpirit may breath
And if that are drawn forth wonderfully, ealily, and in good
to the neck of the lower receiver.
joyned, that nothing ex- quantity , which otherwife could never have been
difh cannot be fo clofely
pour a fpoonful of Water, for that doth done by the vulgar art of diftilling.
hale, in
aftringe, neither doth it hurt the fpirits, becaufe in
Now, in this Furnace arc diftilled only fuch ma-
terials, which being diftilled , yield an incombuftible
the redifying it is feparated-
humidity, as common Salt, Vitriol, Allom, and other
Minerals and Metals, each of which doth yet require
Ofthefttblimtng Fcjjels.
their peculiar manuals, if operated upon.

Thefe you need not make of glafs, or of fuch Now, becaufe this Furnace doth not fcrvc for eve-
ry matter, becaufe the materials to be diftilled are
earth as may retain the fpirits, as hath been above
caft upon burning Coals, which are things coaibufti-
mentioned j it is fufficient, if fo be they be made
ble, 1 have fletermined irt the fecond part to give
of good common Potters earth, and be well glazed
another, viz.- a Iclfer, unlike to this, yet convenient
within, viz.. of fuch a form and figure, as appears
to diftil all combuftible things that are endued with
by the annexed delineation-
volatile fpirits, as Tartar , Harts-horn, Amber, Sal
Yet you muft chufe good earth that will endure
Armoniack, Urine, G-c. There are, by the help
the fire, for the lower pots are fo heated by the
Ihould not hereof, made moft fubtile, volatile, fulphureous fpi-
fire, that they would be broken if they
rits of Salts, and Minerals, as of common Salt,
be made of good earth-
Vitriol, Allom, Nitre, Antimony, and of all other Mi-
Now 1 will fliew yon in general the manner-it fclf
nerals and Metals, which otherwife, without this
of diftilling ; as alfo , the manual necefiaries in
Furnace, could not have been made, with which
every diftillation.
fpirits, wonderful things are performed in Medicine

Tbe manner of Diftilling.

and Alchymy, as in the Second Part fliall be demon-
ftrated more largely.

In the firft place, let there be fome burning Coals

Now 4 will (hew you a way to make other Re-
ceivers belonging to the firft Furnace, and indeed,
put in, which afterwards muft be covered with more
fuch as are more fit for fome Operations ,
until the Furnace be full almoft to the pipe, which
the former were more fit for others wherefore let
being done, let not the uppermoft cover be laid over

way, him that will operate, chufe thefe, or the other,

its hole (that the heat and fmoak may pafs that
which will as he pleafeth.
and not thorow the pipe, and receivers,
thereby be red hot ^ and this will be a hindrance to
As therefore the former being ercded upwards
by a wall-, or ladder, by which means the fpirit
the diftillation; until the fire be fufRciently kindled,
and the Furnace be throughly hot; then caft in, might afceud from one into another fo long, until be-
with an Iron ladle, of the matter prepared for diftil- ing refrigerated and condenfed miaht again drop
lation as much as will cover the Coals, which being
downward into the difti that is annexed thereto :
fo thefe are a contrary way fet and placed collate-
done, ftop the Furnace very clofe, by prelTmg down
ral in a vellel filled with cold Water to condenfe the
ftrongly the upper cover upon its hole or fand, which
fpirits, by which means you need not fo many recei-
is put in the lower part of the hole, being a place
alio they muft not be fafliioned like the for-
made for that purpofe. Now let him that cafts in vers ;

any thing thorow the middle hole, prefently ftop it mer, as to be open above, and below, but only above
with a ftopple of ftone, and that very clofe, for by like pots that lerve for boyling: but this you muft

this means all thofe things which were caft in, will obferve, that by how much the deeper and larger
be forced, after the manner of a thick Cloud, to they are, by fo much the better they are-
break forth through the pipe into the receivers, Alfo you muft joyn them together by the help of
and there to condenfe themfelves into an acid fpirit earthen pipes, being fo diftinft, that the fpirits may
or oyl, and thence to dfftil into the difli fet under, be kept back, being yet hot ( and not refrigerated )
through the pipe whereof they do yetdiftil down from pairing out of one into the other, but being
further into another glafs receiver- The Coals be- forced through the middle of the feparation of the
ing burnt out, and all the fpirits being come forth, pipes, may goto the bottom of every receiver^ and

you muft caft in more Coals, and more materials, thence arife by another pipe into another receiver
until you have got a fufficient quantity of Spirits- that hath a double cover like the former, where again
Philofofhical Furnace f.

dcfcending to the cold bottom, remain refrigerated than a hundred the other. As for example , he
and condenfed. Now three or four of thcfe are that will try, Ihall make a pound of fpirit of Salt
enough fwhereas of other, thirteen or liftccn are re- inone hour with three, four, or five pounds of coals

quired ) a regard being had of their Grcatncfs. whereas after the other way are required fifty or
You may fee the figure of thefc receivers, as alfo lixty pounds, and at leaft twenty or thirty hours

their joyning together by the annexed delineation. time, viz.^ in the common way by the help of re-
Now, for the molt part, one is fufficient for him torts: which is indeed very tedious.
that dillils a few things, efpecially it the matter be Alfo by this way may be made the flowers of
not pretious, and then let one crooked earthen pipe minerals, and metals, in a great quantity, very
at leall be joyned, one arm with the pipe that go- ealily, and in a fhort time without great coft, fo

cth forth of the Furnace, the other with the Recei- as that in one hours fpace, with three or four pound

ver, but lb that ic go into the receiver downwards, ot coals may a pound of the flowers of Antimony be
even to the middle thereof, and then you need not made- And this is no fmall help to the Phylitian,
Ihut the orifice of the receivers, for it is no great and Chymift.
matter if fomewhat evaporate, "^i^- if the matter to Moreover this furnace
being once built, endures
be diftilled be not prctious- And by this way may for ninny years, and being broken is cafily repaired.
new fpirits and new flowers be made every hour, And by this wsy you fliall need only materials
with the help of one Furnace, and one recipient, but to be diltillcd, no retorts and receivers are in dan-
with this caution, that for every new diftillation, ger, by which means much coll is faved.
the recipient be waflied with Water before it be put Beiides the aforefnid ways, I have yet another,
to the pipe i which being put to, you may then caft and that more coir,!)c:;dious, viz. of diftillin^, and
your fpecies into the Furnace and this do till you
fubliming, and moreeafy, by which means in a ve-*
have a fufficient quantity of fpirits- ry little time, an incrc'ii cjiiantity of fpirits of
And this way of difhillation fervcs efpecially for Salts, and flowers of Mineri is, and metals may be
the trying of the natures and properties of mauy and madej which I fliall refer till ar.other time, be-
divers Minerals, fuch as yield in the (ire fpirits and caufe for the prefent I have faid enough.
liowers. For it would be too. tedious in every new Now 1 do not doubt, but diligent Chymifts will
diftillation to apply a new and difliniH; receiver as al-
follow my fteps , and find out thofe things which
fo many Itudiousof the Chy'mical art would quit their are unknown to me. For it ts caji:r t> ctdd to
ftudy, being able to make by retort but one tryal ihiiij^s foi'.ud out^ thai to find cut thi'.gs unknown.
in a day. And no wonder if expences, and Jofs of The conftrudion therefore of the furnace being
time fhould deter many. in my opinion clearly fliewed, there now follows
Now here there is no need of many Retorts, nor of the manner of diftilling, and fubliming with it-
luting them, nor of receivers, and fuch like fupcrflu- Although haply, and contrary to my hope any
ous things neither is there here required the conftaut
; obfcurity fliould be met withal, yet one procefs
prefence of the operator, the obfervation of the re- wilJ explain another and the diligent operator,

giment of fire, the neglect whereof would other- and fearcher of Nature fliall without doubt, by his
wife endanger the lofs of the retorts and receivers, pradife attain the efi"ei5t after the fame manner as
and by confequente the lofs of labour. Thefe and I have prefcribed: which together with the blef-
fuch like tedious things are not here to be cared for, fing of GOD,_ I heartily wifli all pious Chymifts,
becaufe it is fufficient only to caft the Matter upon Amen.
the coals, and cover the Furnace, and then prefently
go forth the fpirits, and flowers of the fame kind
with their mineral : of which when thou haft got a
fufficient quantity , thou muft draw out the Iron Horn the Spirit of Sdt is to he diJlilleJ.
bars , upon which the coals lye, that they may fall
down, and be taken away ^ and whilft the Furnace
is yet hot , to put in the Iron bars again, and upon
TH fait,
E reafon
I enter upon the
fay any thing of the fpirits
fpirit of
them to lay frefli coals, which then will of their own vegetables , is this , viz.. becaufe it is even the
accord be kindled with the heat of the Furnace. In chiefeft which can be made in this furnace
, for :

the mean time you muft takeaway the receiver, and few exceed this in ftrength and vertues ; where-
make it clean and fet it to again, or if you had rather fore I alfo have given it the preeminency. Nei-
put another clean one, viz.. for the new diftillation ther is there any of the acid fpirits, about which
of another Alatter. the Chymifts hitherto have been more bufied, than
And by this way, divers things may be in the this, wherefore alfo it is of all, of greateft price,
fpace of one hour diftillcd, and fublimed, viz., in &c. for fome have mixed fait with potters clay 7
a fmali quantity- But he that will diftil, or fub- and have made this mixture into little balls, which
lime in a greater quantity, let him take three or they have to get the fpirit, forced by retort in a
four pots that the fpirits may pafs from one in- very ftrong fire: fome have mixed fait with bole,
to another, that nothing thereof be loft- Here fome with the powder of tyles, others with burnt
needs not fas 1 faid before) the continual prefence Allume, c^c-
of the operator, for he may be gone , ccafe , or Others ufing a more compendious way have made
repeat as he pleafe, becaufe the work is without fait to jiow in a retort, which hath a pipe both
danger of breaking the retorts, and receivers. in the upper, and hinder part , by the uper pipe
He that knows the ufe of this Furnace, may do of which they have dropped in cold water, to e-
many things in a (hort time with little coft- For levate the ponderous fpirits of the fait, but by the
any one may do more by the help thereof in one hinder they have blown with Bellows, to force the
hour, than in the common way in twenty four, by fpirits into the retort and this way is not alto-

which way alfo there is a great faving of coals, gether to be flighted, yet it hath this inconvenien-
becaufe ten pound of coals will do more this way cy, that in procefs of time the retorts are broken
B 2 tha:
The FirU Pan of
the flowing of metals-, and being diflblved
that they can no longer retain the fait, and fo the

diltillation is intercepted. Some have attempted warm water ferves alfo for a glyfter againft the
it with Iron retorts , but by this means the Ipirits Worms, which it kills, and purgeth alio the Bo-
becaufe they calily fet upon the wels.
have been deaded,
of fpirit they have had flegme- wilt objed, that the fpirit made after this
Iron, whence inltcad
and other tedious wayes of diftilling manner, is not the true fpirit of fait by reafon of
And fuch,
have invented and by the belt of them in- the mixture of vitriol and allome, but mixed, and
they ;

they could fcarce diftiLl one pound in 25. or compounded. ! anfwer ; There can by this way
diftil no fpirit of vitriol, or allome, being tl;ac which
30. hours fpacc with 50. 60. or 100 pound of I

often tryed, cafting vitriol or allome into the fur-

coals-, this being the reafon, becaufe the laic is ve-

few nace, where I received no fpirit at all the reafon

ry little wrought upon, and therefore it is that

tvcr had the fpirit right and good , whence alfo of this is, becaufe thefe fpirits are far more heavy
than the fpirit of fait, neither can they afcend lb
the vertucs thereof have been unknown.
And this therefore I was willing to make known, great a heighth, viz.. of three fpans, but are burnt,
might appear, what price this fpirit hath whence unlefs the flegme, nothing diftils. Where-
that it
fore the fpirit of fait that is made after this man-
hitherto been of, and how eafie, and abundantly
ner is not mixed, but pure and meer fpirit of fait,
and with what little coft, it may after my new in-
of the fame taft and vei-tue as that is of, that is
vented way be made.
It is ftid above, that the materials may in this made by it felf i becaufe in this furnace the fpi-
be immediately cafb into thehre^ rit of allome and vitriol, cannot be made unlefs
way of dillilling
For although a pipe go out of the furnace neer tlie grate
yet this mull be wifely underflood.
preparation as you may fee by the delineation of the fur-
fome of the fpecies may without any
into the yet it doth not nace , for otherwife it cannot be made ; befides,
be immediately cafb fire,

and every one of them muft for thefe fpirit are better, and more truly taught in
follow that all :

difcretion, as the fecond part- And if it be granted that fome-

in fome of them we muft ufe our
diftilling of fait- For if the fait be imme- what together with the fpirit of fait comes forth
in the
no (which is yet impoQible ) what hurt I pray you
diately caft into the fire, it will not only yield
until comes from thence either in the folution of metals,
fpirits, but will leap fo long upon the coals,
the lowelt part of the furijace : medicine ?? wherpforp
or n\prlirine
r>i- wherefore thp made nfrpr
Tnirir mcirlp
the fpirit afcer tViic
it find a defcent to
way is not to be fufpeded. Yet I will fatislie the
Now this may be prevented divers wayes and firft -,

incredulous, and will fliew him another way with-

indeed after this manner Dillblve fait in common

quench burning coals with this wa- out tlie addition of allome or vitriol, for the di-
water, then
impregnated with the fait, ftilling of that fpirit, but that will be in the fecond
rer, tliat they may be
but part of thisBook, where I will teach you the fur-
which afterwards fet on fire in the furnace :

coals, upon nace, by which is made fpfiit of Nitre, Aquafoitis,

you mult firft call in other burning
impregnated and amongft combuftibles, the Oyles of vegetables,
which you muft caft thofe that are
above and Fats of animals and other things which cannot
fait untill the furnace be full , as
burn, the fait is refoived be made by this : and by this way I will fatisfie thofe,
faid : and while the coals
who are not pleafed with the former.
by the force of the fire
into fpirit.
that he that diftils fpirit Nowfor want of glafs receivers, we are forced
Now you muft obferve
to ufe earthen, but thefe cannot retain the fpirit of
of after this
fait manner , muft make choice of
whileft it is hot, fait made after the aforefaid wayes in which cafe

rlafs receivers, becaufe the fpirit

fubtilty, thofe I could indeed difcover a certain little manual, by
penetrates by reafon of its wonderful
vertue of which the aforefaid fpirit may be recei-
that are earthen- And .this fpirit is of
a moft grate-
indefeft of glafs receivers, I fliall ved even in a great quantity in earthen recipients:
ful tafte. But
way wherein you may ufe thofe but for certain caufes I ftiall here be filenr, and
(hew you another
fliall refer it till the edition of the fecond part-
that be of earth.
Let it fuffice therefore that 1 mentioned fuch a thing,
Miv and vitriol or allome together, grind-
(for by how much wherefore omitting that, I Hiall proceed to Ihevv
ing them very well in a Mortcr
ground, the more Spirit they you the vertues, and ufe of this fpirit, as well in
the better they are
mixture the fire with Alchymy, as in Medicine, and other Mechanical
yield.) Then caft this into
viz.. lb much of it as will be fufficient Arts.
an Iron Ladle,
the coals and then with a great fire the
to cover ,
Spirit of Salt.
come forth into the receivers, where being Of the VJe of the
coagulated, they diftill down into the difh, and
know- worth while, to
is fpeak of the power , and
thence into another receiver. And if thou ITvertues fpirit ^ what other Au-
the fpirits will like water of this excellent
eft how to work aright,
thors have clearly defcribed, I ftiall herepafs over,
continually run out thorow the pipe, the
every hour and refer the Reader to the writings of thofe Au-
of a ftvaw ; and thou mayeft eafily
Now the reafon why thors touching
; only on fome few of which they
make a pound of the fpirit.
have more than by faid nothing.
thou fiialt by this way fpirits
"-''i. becaufe the vitriol and al- The Spirit of fait is by moft accounted a moft exceh
the other, is this,
lent medicine, and fafely to be ufed, as well inwardly
lome, which is mixed with the Mt^f^ti
it flow

as outwardly Itextinguiflieth a preternatural thirft

it is presented from fall-

ouickiy, by which means

the lower part of in hot difcafes, abftergeth and confumeth flegma-
ing down through the coals to
coals is almoft all tick humours in the Stomack, exciteth the Appetite,
the furnace, but fticking to the

of it turned into fpirits. The Oip"t ^

Mwnnm is good for thcin that are hydropical, have the
through Stone, and Gout, c>c. It is a menftruum diifolvj
which is reddifii, eafily falls with the afiies

diftilled, but yields ing metals, excelling all other therein : For it dif-
the grate, and can no more be and
folvethall metals and minerals (excepting filver)
by cxcoaion a white fixed fait, which ferves for
Pbilojofhkal Furnaces.
almofl (being rightly prepared) and re-
all ftones cover the wood, then place it with its Alembic/:
duceth them into excellent medicaments. It doth in Sand, and give it fire by degrees that the fpirit
alfo many excellent things in mechanical arts- of fait may boyl, and all the Oyle will diftill
Neither is it to be llighted in the kitchen, for with a little flegme ; for the fpirit of fait doth
with the help thereof are prepared divers pleafant with Its acrimony penetrate the v.-ood, and freeth
meats for the fick as well as for thofe that are in the Oyle that it may diftill off the better and
health, yea and better than with Vinegar, and o- fier. And by this way the Oyle is not loft; by the
ther acid things : and it doth more in a fmall quan- addition of that great quantity of water in thofe
tity, than Vinegar in a great. But efpecially it great and large veflels, but is drawn in lefler glafs
ferves for thofe Countries that have no Vinegar. vellels with the addition of a little
moyfture. Di-
It is ufed alfo inlteadof Verjuice, and the juice of ftillation being finilhed the fpirit is poured
off by
Lymons. For being prepared after this way, it is inclinationfrom the wood, being again ufeful for
bought at a cheaper rate than Vinegar or juice of the fame work. And if it hath contrafted any im-
Lymons. Neither is it corruptible as exprelTed purity from the wood , it may be redified : but
juices are, but is bettered by age. Being mixed the rcfidueofthc fpirit which remains in the wood
with Sugar it is an excellent fauce for roalt meat- ye may recover, if that wood becaftinto the afore-
It preferves alfo divers kinds of Fruits for many faid turnace upon burning by which means
years. It makes alfo Raifins, and dryed Grapes to it may come forth again pure, and
clear: and by
fvvcll, fo as to acquire their former magnitude a- this means we lofe none of the fpirit of Salt-
gain, which are good to refrefh a weak Stomach after this way by help of the fpirit
of Salt, are
in many difeafes, and ferves for the preparing of drawn forth Oyls of dearer
Vegetables together
divers kinds of meats of Fiefh and Fifh ^ but you with their Fruit, which cannot be done
by a ftill.
mufl: mix fome water with the fpirit, or elfe the There are made alfo by means thereof Oyles of
Railins will contraift too much acidity. This fpirit Gumras and Rolins, clear, and perfpicuous.
doth efpecially fervc for making meats delightful-
ly acid ; for whatfoever things are prepared with
it, as Chickens, Pigeons, Veale, &c. are of a more The clear Oyle of Mafiick^ And Frar.kincenfe.
pleafant tafte than thofe which are prepared with
Vinegar. Beef being macerated with it, becomes TAkeofFrankincenfe orMaftick powdered fmall,
In a few dayes fo tender, as if it had been a long as much as will ferve to fill
the third part
time macerated with Vinegar. Such, and many ot a Retort Cwhich muft be coated) upon which
more things can the Spirit of Salt do. pour a fufficient quantity of fpirit
of Salt, taking
heed that the Retort be not filled
too full, or elfe'
A diJiilUtion of Vegetable Oyles^ whereby a greater the Ipirit when it boyles, flows
over it, then place
qH.vnity is acquired , than by that common way It in fand, and give fire
by degrees, and there wiU
ky a Fefica. hrit come out fome phlegme,
after which a clear
tranfparent oyle together with the fpirit
of fait,
AS njany Diftillers as hitherto have been, have which muft be kept by it felf, after this a certain
been ignorant of a better way to diftill Oyles yeUow Oyle which muft be received by it felf, and
of Spices, Woods, and Seeds, than by a vefica or alem- laft of all there follows a red Oyle, which altho'
bick, with a great quantity of water. And altho' It IS not to be caft away, yet it is very unlike to
they may alfo be made by retort, yet there is a the firft, ferving for outward ufes, and to be mix-
great deal of care required, or elfe they contraft ed With Oyntraents and Emplafters, for it doth
an Empyreuma ; wherefore that way, by a Hill, is wonderfully confolidate, and therefore good in new
alwayes accounted the better, which way indeed is not ancl old Wounds. The firft being well redified, is
to be flighted , if you diftill Vegetables of a low in Its fubtilty, and penetrating faculty not unlike
price, and fuch as be oleaginous i but not fo in the to fpiric of wine, and may profitably be ufed in-
diftillation of Spices, axid of other things that are wardly and outwardly, viz.. in cold affeds, but
of a greater value, as are Cinnamon, Mace, Saf- efpecially in the ftiffhefs of the Nerves, caufed by
fron, <^c. which cannot be diftilled in a gourd ftill cold humors , upon which follows a contraftion
without lofs, becaufe then there is required a great out then you muft firft rub the member contracted
quantity of water, and by confequence great, and with a Iinnen cloath, that it may be
well warmed,
large velFels, to which fomething adheres, where- into which then the Oyle muft be chafed with
fore we lofe almoll half, which is not to be fo much warm hand. For it doth do wonders in fuch like
valued in vegetables that are oleaginous, as in Annif- affeds of the Nerves.
feed. Fennel, and Caryoway-feed, dfc. But the lofs After the fame manner may Oyles be made out
made in the diftilling of dryer and dearer vegeta- of all gumms. The red, tenacious and ftinking
bles, as of Cinnamon, Lignum Rbodii , Cajfia^ is Oyles of Tartar, Harts-horn, Amber, z^c diftilled
evident enough, and by confequence not to be flight- after the common way by retort are alfo
ed. Neither can it be, that all things can be di- with fpirit of fait fo as to become tranfparent
and to
ftilled that way, for a good quantity by coftion ac- lofe the Empyreuma contrafted by diftillation.
qiiireth a gummy tenacioufnefs, which cannot afcend Now the caufe of the blacknefs, and fetidnefs of
with the water. But that this way for the future thefe kind of Oyles, is a certain volatile fait
may be prevented,! will fliew another way to diftill the is to be found as well in Vegetables, as certain A-
Oyles of Spices, and other precious things, which nimals, which is eafiJy mixed with the Oyle,
is done with fpirit of fait, whereby all the Oyle makes it of a brown colour- For every vola-
is drawn forth without any lofs, the procefs where- tile fait whether it be of Urine, Tartar,
of is this, viz.. Fill a gourd with Cinnamon or Harts-horn, and of other Vegetables and
any other Wood, or Seed, upon which pour fo is of this condition and nature, as
to exalt, and al-
much of the fpirit of fait , as will be fufficient to ter the colours of fulphureous things, and
that either
G for
The FirH Part of
for the worfc or for the better : but for the molt part of not to be taken away, bccaufe the Vertue of

it makes Oyles thick, black and (linking, as you them thereby loll, as if tire Vertue ccnfilled in

may fee in Amber, Harts-horn, and Tartar- The the fetidnefs thereof; but that is a very great er-
caufe therefore of the blacknefs, and fetidnefs of ror, becaufe fetidnefs is an enemy to the heart and
thefe Oyles being known we may the more eafiiy brain, and in it is no good. But this is granted,
take heed thereof in diftilling, and being contrad- that they that take away the fetidnefs of thofe
?d, correcfl them again by the help of fpirit of Salt, Oyles mortifie the vertues of them. But thou Hiyft,
or all volatile fait hath contrariety to any acid How the;i muft we proceed in taking away their
fpiritj and on the other fide, every acid fpirit hath fetidnefs without the lofs of the vertues.^ Muft they
a contrariety with all volatile falts, that have the be rectified by the fpirit of fait as even now thou

nature of fait of Tartar. For metals that are dif- taughteft- R. No, for although I faid that Oyles
folved with acid fpirits are as well precipitated might be clarified with fpirit of fait, yet it doth
with fpirit of Urine, or any volatile fait as with not follow that my
meaning was, that that clarifi-
the liquor of fait of Tartar ; which fhall be more cation was the mending of them This is only :

at large declared in the fecond part. a way of clarification whereby they become more

The volatile fait therefore is by the mortifying grateful ; and it is not to be flighted, a better be-
acid fpirits, as of Salt, Vitriol, Allom, Vinegar, ing unknown. But how they are to be redificd
&e. deprived of its volatility , and is fixed , by from their fetidnefs and blacknefs, without the lofs
which means being debilitated it forfakes its aflbci- of their Vertues, and to be made more noble, doth
ate which was inferted with blacknefs by it it is :
not belong to this place, becaufe it cannot be done
neceflary that we fhould proceed after the fame man- by this Furnace 1 fhall refer the reader therefore

ner with thefe fetid Oyles, viz.. as follows- to the fecond part, where it fhall be fhewed, how
Take any fetid Oyle of Tartar, Amber, &c. with fuch fpirits are to be redified without tlie lofs of
which fill the fourth part only of a glafs Retort their vertues, which being fo prepared may well be
and upon it pour by drops the fpirit of fait ; and it accounted for the fourth Pillar of Phylick. And thefe
will begin to be hot, as it is ufed to be, when A- things I was willing at Icaft for information fake
qua fortis is poured on fait of Tartar ; wherefore to fhew you, not to offend you, and that becaufe
I was moved with pity, and companion towards
the fpirit is to be poured on it by little and little,
and by drops for fear of breaking the glafs: Now my neighbour.
the figne of the mortification of the volatile fait
isj when it ceafeth to make a noife, and then no
The Qujntcjfetice of all ycgetabks,

more is to be poured on, but fet your Retort in Spices, Seeds, Woods, Roots, Fruits,
fand, & give fire to it by degrees,as is ufed to be done
POur upon
Flowers, Gt-c. the Spirit of Wine well redifi-
in the redtifying things of eafic elevation : and firll of ed, place them in digeflion to be extracted, until!
all will go forth a certain {linking water, after all the elTence be extraftcd , with the Spirit of
which comes a tranfparent clear, and odoriferous Wine ; then upon this Spirit of Wine, being im-
Oyle, and after that a certain yellow, clear, and pregnated, pour the beft Spirit of Salt ; and being
alfo well fmelling Oyle, but not fo as the firft, thus mixed together, place them in Balneo to di-
wherefore each muft be taken a part by changing geft, untill the Oyle be feparated, and fwim above
the receivers. Now thefe Oyles become more grate- from the Spirit of Wine, then feparate it with a
ful than thofe fetid ones of the fliops. For thefe Oyles feparating glafs, or diftili off the Spirit of Wine
retain* their clearnefs, and fairnefs, the caufe of in Balneo, and a clear Oyle will afcend i for if
their fetidnefs, and rednefs being taken away by the the Spirit of Wine be not abftraCled, then that
fpirit of fait- In the bottom of the Retort re- Oyle will be as red as blood ; and it is the true quin-
mains the black volatile fait with the fpirit of fait, teffence of that vegetable, from wtence by the Spi-
from whence it may be fublimed into an odoriferous rit of Wine it was extraded.
fait refembling fait armoniack in tall. The fpirit of
fait is alfo deprived of its acidity, and coagulated by The Qu'tntejfcnce of all Metals and Minerals.
the volatile fait, and is like tartantm vitriolatum ^
appointed alfo for its ufes , as fhall be fpoken in DIfl'olveany metal (excepting Silver, which rauft
be diffolved in Aqua fortis j in the ftrongell
the fecond part, of the fpirit of Urine.
fpirit of Salt, and draw off the flcgme in Balneo i
After the fame manner alfo are redified other
to that which remains pour the beft redificd fpi-
Oyles, which by length of time have contraded a
rit of Wine , put it to digefting, untill the Oyle
clamminefs, as are Oyle of Cinnamon, Mace, Cloves,
&c. with the fpirit of Salt, if they be redified by be elevated to the top as red as blood , which is
the tindlure, and quintelTence of that metal, being a
Retort, for then they acquire again both the fame
moft Precious treafure in medicine.
clearnefs , and goodnefs , as they had when they
were newly diftilled.
Here I mufl; make mention of a certain error of
A fvpeet and red Oyk, of Met alt and Minerals.

Phyfitians, not only of ignorant Galenifts but Spa- Dllfoive a Metal or Mineral in fpirit of Salt
gyricks, committed in the preparations of fome diffolve alfo an equal weight of fait of Wine
Chymical medicaments. For many have perfwad- and diftilt them
effentificated ; mix thefe dilfolutions,
ed themfelvcs that Oyle of Tartar, Harts-horn, e^c. by retort in a gradual heat, and there will come
having loft its Itink, is a Medicine radically tak- out an oyle fweet, and as red as blood, together
ing away all obflrudlions ; but this raud be taken with the fpirit of Salt ; and fometimes the neck of
with a grain of falc. For fome have rcftified thefe the retort and receiver wiU be coloured like a Pea-
kinds of Oyles by calcined Vitriol, and by that cocks tail with divers colours, and fometimes with
n^eans have fomewhat made them lole their Em- a golden colour.
fyreufiu^but with all their Vertues*, which others And becaufe I would without any difference cotn-
cb|rvin have coaceived that (be fettdnels there- prchcnd all Metals and Minerals uodcr one certain
Pbilofofbical Furnaces,

general procefs j let him that would make the efTence fuddenly,if withal Purges be adminiftred- It cures alfo
of filvertake the fpirit of nitre, and proceed in all any fcab- That red mafs (being yet unrefolved) being
things as was fpoken of the other metals. Con- put on the oyle of fand, or flints fof which in the fe-
cerning the ufe of thefe eflences, 1 need not fpeak cond part ) makes a tree to grow in the fpace of one
much thereof ; for to him that knows the prepara- or two hours, having root, trunk , and boughs
tion (hall be difcovered the ufe thereof. Concerning which being taken out, and dryed, in the teft yields
the corrofive oyles of metals and minerals, feeing good gold, which that tree extradls from the eartli,
/. e. from the flints, or fand-
they cannot be defcribed by any one procefs, it will Thou inayft if thou
be worth while to fet down what is peculiar to each pleafeft, more accurately examine this matter.

of them, as foUoweth.
Oyle of Venus.
The Oyky or Liquor of Gold.
Spirit of Salt eafily work upon Copper,
doth not
DIflblve the calx of gold in the fpirit of fait, unlefs itreduced into a calx, and that af-
be firft

( which muft be very ftrong, or elfe it cannot ter this manner. Take plates of Copper made red
diflblve it ) but in defe<ft of the llrongeft fpirit hot in an open crucible, quench them in cold watery
thereof, mix a little of the pureft falt-peter ; but and they will cleave into red fcales then the re- :

that oyle is the befl: which is made with the fpirit mainders of the plates make red hot, and quench
of fait alone. From the gold dilfolved abftraft half as before do this fo often, till thou haft got a fuf=

the folution, and there will remain a corrofive oyle, ficient quantity of the calx^ which being dryed,

upon which pour the exprelTed juice of lemons, and and powdered, extraft with the reftified fpirit of

the diflblution will become green, and a few feces fait, in fand, until the fpirit of fait be fufficiently
fall to the bottom, which may be reduced in melting. coloured with a green tindure, which you muft de=
This being done, pat this green liquor in Balneo, cant, and filter-, and then abftrad from it the fu-
and draw off the flegme : that which remains take perfluous raoifture, that there may remain a greed
out, and put upon a marble in a cold moilt place, thick oyle, which is an excellent remedy for ulcers,
and it will be refolved into a red oyle, which may efpecially fuch as are Venereal, being applyed out-
fafely, and without danger be taken inwardly, curing wardly.
thofc that are hurt with Mercury. But efpecially it
is commended in old ulcers of the mouth, tongue,and Oyle of Jupiter and Saturn.
throat) arifing from the Frcrch pox,leprofy,fcorbute,
&c. where the oylof other things cannot be fo fafely
ufed. There not a better medicine in the exuice-
N Either are thefe two metals eafily diflblved ia
the fpirit of fait, yet being filed, are diflblved
in thebeft reftified fpirit
of fait- Bat the operation
ration, and fwelling of the glandules, in the ulcers
of tongue and jaws, which doth fooner mundify, is performed better with the flowers of thefe me-
and confolidate- Neither yet muft we negledt ne- tals ( the preparation whereof fliall be hereafter

celTary purgings, and fudorificks, for fear of a re: tught- ) Take therefore the flowers, upon which
lapfe, the caufe not being taken away. a gourd glafs pour the fpirit of fait, and pre- .

Neither will there any danger follow, whether it fently the fpirit will work upon them, efpecially
be given inwardly, or ufed outwardly, as in the ac- being fet in a warm places filter the yellow folu-
cuftomed ufe of other medicaments, and gargarifms , tion, and abftraft the humidity, until there remain
for it may daily, and truly without all danger be ufed a yellow heavy oyle, which is proper againft pu-
at leaft three times with a wonderful admiration of trid ulcers.
a quick operation-
Oyle of Mercury-
Oyle of Mars.

DIflblve thin plates of Iron in rectified fpirit of

take the folution, which is green, of a
N Either
is this eafily diflblved
fait: but being
with the fpirit
fublimed with vitriol, and
Being diflblved , it yields
fait is eafily dilfolved.
fweet and fmelling like fetid fulphur ; and filter
taft, an oyle very corrofive, which muft be ufed vvitli
it from that filthy and feculent refidence then in a
: difcretion, wherefore it is not to be adminiftred,
glafs gourd in fand, abftraft all the humidity (^viz.. unlefs it be where none of the other are to be had.
with a gentle fire) which will be as infipid as rain- For I faw a woman fuddenly killed with this oyle^
water, becaufe the iron by reafon of itsdrynefs, hath being applyed by a certain Chyrurgeon. But this
attraded all the acidity to it felf : but in the bot- oyle is not to be flighted in eating ulcers, tet-
tom will remain a mafs as red as blood, burning the ter, &c. which are mortified by it.
tongue like fire : it takes away all proud flefli of
wounds, and that without all danger. It is to be Oyle of A'lthnony,
kept in a glafs clofe ftopt from the air, left it be
refolved into an oyle, which will be of a yellow CRude Antimony that hath never undergone the
colour. But he that defircs to have the oyle, may fire,hardly diflfolved in fpirit of fait: as al-
fet it on a marble in a moift Cellar, and within a fo the Regains thereof i but the Regnlus being fub-
day it will be refolved into an oyle, which will be tilly poudered , is more eafily wrought upon, in cale
in colour betwixt yellow and red It is a moft
: the fpirit be fufficiently rectified-
excellent fecret in all corroding ulcers, fiftulas, can- The f^itrum is more eafily , but moft eafily of
cer, crc. being an incomparable confolidator, and all the flowers are dilfolved , being fuch as arc
mundifycr. And it is not without profit mixed al- made after our prefcription a little after fet down.
fo with common water to wafh the moift, fetid Neither is Biityntm jintimomi (being made cut of
ulcers of the leggs-, which caufe tumours, by being fublimed Mercury, and Antimony j any thing elie
applied warm like a bath, for it dryes, and heals but the Rtgnlni of Antimony diflblved with fpirit of
C 2 fait-
8 The Firn Fart of
fait for fablimed Mercury being mixed with Anti-
The Dofc is, that i- 2. 3. 8. 10. grains be
macerated for the fpace of a night in wine, which is
mony, feeling the heat of the fire, is forfaken by the
the An-- to be drank in the morning, and it worketh upward
corrofive fpints allbciating themfclves with
whence comes the thick Oyle whileft which and downward . But it is not to be given to chil-
timony, ,

fulphur of Antimony is joyned to the dren, thofe that be old , and weak, but to thoie
is done the
to that be llrcn; , and accultomed to vomiting. When
Qiiick-iilver, and yields a Cinnabar, flicking
the Mer- at any time this infufion is taken and doth not work,
the neck of the Retort i but the refidue of
with the Ca^it Mor- as fometimes it fails out, but makes the Patient very
cury remains in the bottom
part thereof doth diftill off: fick, he mull provoke vomiting with his finger, or elfe
tiin.-n, becaule a little
mayft recover the whole it will not work, bn*- make thofe that have taken
And if thou halt skill thou
weight of the Mercury again.
it to be fick, and uebilitated even to death. We
mull aifo j:, tiie over much working of thefe flow-
And thefe things I was willing the rather to fhew
of Mercu^ ers drink a draught of warm Beer, or rather of
thee, becaufe many think this is the Oyle
and therefore that white powder made thence warm Water, decoiled with Chervil, or Parfly, and
of water they call they will work more mildly. But let not him that
by' the pouring on of abundance
is able to bear the operation thereof any way hinder
jiU'Curius vita, with which there is no mixture at
meet Regulus of Antimo^ it, for there is the greater hope of recovering his
all of Mercury, for it is
which is again fe- health thereby, for they do excellently purge cho-
ny dilfolved with fpirit of Salt,
poured on the Anti- ler, and evacuate flegme in the Scomack, being hu-
parated when the
water is

as feen by experience ^ For that

mors that will not yield to other Catharticks \ they
monial butter ; is

being dryed, and melted in a cruci- open obllruftions, refill the putrefadlion of the blood,
white pouder
partly a yellow Glafs, and partly alfo a the caufes of many difeafcs, fuch as are Feavers
ble yields
Head-aches, &c. they are good for them that are
Keeulus, but no Mercury at ail-
Leprous, Scorbutical, Melancholical, Hypochondri-
Whence it doth neceffarily follow that that thick
acal, infeded with the French- Pox, and in the be-
ovle is nothing elfe but Antimony
dilFolved in fpi-
flowers of Antimony being ginning of the Plague. In brief, they do work
rit of Salt. For the
make an oyle in all re- gallantly, and do many things-
mixed with fpirit of Salt,
which is made of Anti- After the taking of them, the Patient muft flay
fpcfts like to that butter
Mercury, which alfo is after in his bed or at leafl not go forth of his houfe,
mony, and fublimated
aftufion of a good quanti- for to avoid the aire, or otherwife they may be
the fame manner by the
into a white pouder, which miftrufled.
ty of water precipitated
Mrcm/ vit^: It is alfo by And becaufe of their violence they are feared,
is commonly called
into Bez^omd^cum mineral^ viz. and hated, I (liall in the fourth part of this Book for
the fame way turned
fpirit of Nitre, and it is nothing the fake of the fick fet down fuch as are milder ,
by abltrafting the
Diaphoretick Antimony. and fafer, fuch as fliall work rather downward than
elfe but
Diaphoretick be upward, caufing ealie vomits, which alfo thou may-
For it is all one whether that
of Nitre, or with Nitre it fetfe ell give to children, and thofe that are old with-
made with fpirit
have the fame vertu^, out danger, yet forae refpeft being liad of the di-
wi corporeal, for thefe
that is to be feafe, and age.
althouph fome are of opinion that
the truth is, there
preferred before the other ; but
every one be free in his own The fiorvers of Antimony diafhoreticaU
is no difference. But let
which have wrote, I have
judgment, for thofe things I

not Writ out of ambition, but to find out the truth- THEted Nitre,
forefaid flowers
and be
they be call into mel-
a while in melting, are
Now again to our purpofe, which is to fhew an
the fpirit of fait. made fixt, fo as to become Diaphoretical, and lofe
oyle of Antimonv made with The acid water being
the flowers of Antimony ( of their Cathartical Vertue.
Take a pound of
upon which pour two pound feparated from the flowers, if it be evaporated,
which a little after )
fpirit, mix them well together leaves behind the befl fpirit of fait, ferving for the
of the belt reftified
fand a day and night fame or fuch like ufes again.
in a glafs, and fet them in
that folution together
to diilolve, then pour out
Of the External ufe of the Corrofive- Oyle of
with the flowers into a retort that is coated, which
give a gentle fire, untill the
fet in fand, and firft

Iki^me be come off, then follows a weak fpirit with

remain THis oyle hath been long ufed by Chirurgions,
a little fironger fire, for the ftronger fpirits
for they have with a feather applyed it to
the bottom with the Antimony:
then give a
there will come forth an oyle like wounds almofl uncurable, to feparate impurities,
ftronger fire, and
Antimony made with fublimed for the acceleration of the cure, that afterwards other
to the butter of
appropriated to the fame ufcs, as medicaments being applyed may the better ope-
Mercury, and is
rate. But it is better if it be mixed, with fpi-
rit of Salt, for they are eafily mixed and it

made more mild thereby, and the too great cor-

if A'ltimony, White and
Tk flowers rofive faculty thereof is mitigated. Neither is there
any other befides the fpirit of Salt, with which
much as you pleafe
TAke of this butter as
or any other
glafs gourd, this oyle can be mixed, unlefs it be the ftrongefl
upon which in a
quantity of water until fpirit of Nitre, for the weak fpirit of Nitre preci-
hrce glafs pour a great
precipitate no more then pitates the butter of Antimony, as you may fee in
the"^ white flowers will \
But the
which edul- the preparation of Bez.oardtciim Mtnerale,
decant otr the water from the flowers,
dry with a gentle heat, ftrongefl fpirit of nitre diflblving this butter, makes
corate with warm water, and
white pouder. a red folution of wonderfiill Vertue in Chymiftry,
and thou (halt have a
of which wc are not to treat in this place ; and if
T bilojofhical Furnaces,
this be drawn ofF again by diftillation, it leaves be- ity thereof were feparated from it artificially,
hind the firft time a fixed Antimony, and Diaphorcti- gold would be manifcflied therein ; now the greatcfl:
cal which otherwife mull be drawn off twice, or part thereof is volatile, and immature, and cannot
thrice '^'^- if '^^ be weak, and not able to diflolve eafily be reduced into a body in melting, wherefore

the butter without precipitation- hitherto that ftone hath not been eflieemcd of by Cliy-
Now this Bez.oareiicnm is the belt, and fafeft Dia- mifts, but to the wife was alwayes pretious, crc.
phoretick in all difeafes that require fweat, as in the
plague, French pox, feavers, fcorbute, leprofy, &c. The ufeof the Oyl of Lz^\% Calaminaris.
lo. to twenty grains in pro-
if it be given from 6. 8.
per vehicles , it penetrates the whole body, and eva- it be given frorti drops to ten, and fifteen
i. 2.
humours by fweat and urine.
IF with futable

cuates all evil purgeth the dropfy, le-

vehicles, it
profy, gout, and other noxious fixed humors not
The Oyl of Arfenic and Auripigmentum. yielding to vegetable Catharticks, of which more at
large in the fecond Part of the fpirit of urine and falc

AS Antimonythe fpirit of fait doth not eafily work upon

by reafon of the abundance of crude
of tartar. It ferves outwardly for an exctllent vul-
nerary balfome, the like to which canfcarce be Oiew-
fulphur, unlels it be reduced into flowers, in the pre- ed, not only in reducing old corrupt wounds, but al-
paration whereof, fome part of its fulphur is burnt-, fo in thofe that are green, for it doth powerfully dry,
foalfo Arfenic and ^r/'/)t^we/;fw are hardly diffolv- mundify, and confolidate-
cd with fpirit of fait, unlefs they be reduced into It is alfo ufed in houihold affairs, for birdlime be-

flowers, anti the fpirit of fait be very Itrong, which ing diflblved in it, yields a certain tenacious matter
may be able to work upon it. Thefe may be diftilled ferving to catch birds, mice, &c. about the houfe or
by retort like Antimony into a thick heavy oyl , in the field For it is as permanent in the heat of the

which being ufed in cancrous eating ulcers, exceeds Sun, as in the cold of Winter, wherefore it may be
that of Antimony in mortifying, mundifying, and ufed at any time of the year all fmall animals ftick

purging thofe evils. After the fame manner may to it if they do but touch the matter.
corrofive oyls be made out of all the realgars being A ligature or Itring fmeered therewith, and bound
ordained for outward ufes. about any tree prevents the fpiders from climbing up
thereon, and other kinds of infers that are noxious
Oyl of Lapis Calaminaris. to the fruit; a thing worth taking notice of.
This oyl is not by the pouring on of water corrupt-
TAke of the befl yellow or red Lafis CaUmiHorh ed, neither is it precipitated, as that of Antimony

very fubtilly powdered, as much as you pleafe, wherefore it is ufeful for many things. Common
and pour upon it five or fix times as much of rectified yellow fulphur boy led in it, viz.. in a ftrong fire,
fpirit fait, mix and ftir them well together, and
of as to be difl"olved in it, fwims upon it like fat,
do not leave them long unftirred, but ever and anon thereby purified and made as tranfparent as yellow
fliake the glafs with the materials ; and this do of- pellucid glafs, and a better medicine than thofe
tentimes, or elfe the Lafis CaUrntrjaris will grow to- mon flowers of fulphur it ferves alfo for other ufes,

gether into averyhardftone,whichcanbedinblvedno all which to relate here it would be too

more,and is prevented by the aforefaid often fhaking This oyl being mixed, with clean fand, and diftilled
and when the fpirit of fait will diflolve no more there- by retort in a fire that is very ftrong ( otherwife the
of warm fand fo long, un-
in fr-igido^ fet the glafs in fpirit of fait will not leave the laps calaminaris') yields
tilthe fpirit be tinged with a moft yellow colour, a moft fiery fpirit, the laps calaminaris remainint^
which then decant, and pour onfrefh, and again fet the bottom of the retort-
it in digeftion to extraft, and do not forget to fliake This fpirit
fo ftrong, that it can fcarce be kept
the glafs often. The folution being finiflied filter it, it diflblves metals, and all minerals ( excepting
and caft away the refidue of the terra mortua. After= filver and fulphur) wherefore by the help thereof
wards fet the folution in fand, and give fire, and al- many excellent medicaments are made, which cannot
moft three parts of the fpirit of fait will go over in- be made with the common fpirit though never fo well
fipid, which is nothing but the flegme, although the reftified, which although it be often revftified, yet it
fpirit was never fo well reftified the reafon whereof
; is not without flcgm, which cannot be feparated from
is the moft: dry nature of laps caUmtnariS) to which it by the power of redification , io well as with la-
the fpirit of fait is very friendly, and therefore very ps cala/ninaris.
hard to be feparated from it. Fpr I never knew any This doth perform many things in medicine,
fpif it
mineral or metal ( befide Zinck ) which exceeds laps & alchymy,as alfo in other arts,as you may eafily con-
c.tlaminarts in drynefs. At lalt when no more flegm jedure ; but here is not opportunity to fpeak more of
will go over, let all things cool which being done,
thefe things, yet for the fake of the fick I fliall add
take out the glafs, and thou flialt find a red thick one thing,to which few things are to be compared \ the
oyl, as fat as oyl olive, and not very corrofive ^ for plain & Ihort procefs whereof I would not have thee
that fpirit of fait being almoft mortified with the Upis be offended at- And it is this,^'/^. mix this fpirit with
calaminaris is deprived of its acidity. This oyl is to the bcft rectifyed fpirit of wine, digeft this mixture
be kept from the air ^ or elfe within a few dayes it fome while, and the fpirit of fait will feparate the
attrafts much air which it converts into water, and fpirit of wine, and will make the oyl of wine f^im
thereby becomes weakened.
on the top, the volatile fait being mortified: and
This Oyl is of wonderful Vertue, being ufed as this oyl is a moft incomparable cordial, efpecially
well inwardly as outwardly. And 1 wonder that in if with the faid fpirit of wine, fpices have firft been
fo long a time there hath been no body, who hath extraded, and with the faid fpirit of fait, gold hath
operated in laps calaminaris and defcribed the nature been difl'olvcd. For then in the digeftion of this
thereof, feeing it hath in it a golden fulphur
( of mixture, the oy/ of wine being feparated, attraiT;s
which thing in the fourth Part ) for if the terreftre- the eflcnce of the cordial fpecies, and of other ve-
D getablestf
10 The Firn Part of
of trad the tinfture of gold, and of other metals, leav-
getables, being extrafted before with the fpirit
and by confe- ing a white body, which tindure is a medicine not
wine, as alfo the tindure of gold, fo
to be flighted. Wherefore now feeing it is mani-
quence a mofl: efficacious incomparable and univcrfal
difeafes, fortifying the Humidumra. feft how great things this fpirit can do, every one
medicine for all
enemies , will defire a good quantity for his houfliold ufes, ef-
dkale, that it may be able to overcome its
the im- pecially feeing moft excellent fpirits may be made af-
for which let praife and glory be given to
ter an eafie and Ihort way.
mortal God for ever who hath revealed to us fo
great fecrets.
How an acid fpirit^ or vinegdr may bt dijlilkd ont of all
Kitchen. vegetables^ as hearbsy woods^ roots^ feeds ^ &c-
Of the Extrinfecal life of the fpirit of Salt in the

FIrft put a few living coals into the furnace, .then

Said before that inflead of Vinegar, and verjuice
put upon them the wood that is to be diftilled,
^ it may be ufed, as alfo inftead of the
juiceof Li-
that it may be burnt out of which whilft it is burn-
mons, now it remains that I (hew you how it is to be :

ing goes forth the acid fpirit thereof into the re-
ufed, and that indeed as well for the fake of the heal-
ceiver, where being condenfed it falls down into a-
thy as the fick.
will drefs a pullet, pigeons, nother receiver, refembling almoft common vinegar
Let him therefore that
quantity in its fmell, wherefore alfo it is called the vinegar of
veal, &c. in the firft place put a fufficient
of fpices, of water, and butter, and then as he plea-
And after this manner you may draw forth an acid
feth a greater, or.lefler quantity of fpirit of fait:
fpirit out of any wood, or vegetable, and that in a
and by this means flefhes are fooner made ready be-
great quantity without cofts, becaufe the wood to be
ing boyled, then that common way; an old hen
diftilled is put but upon a very few living coals, and
though the fl^ih thereof be old is made as tender as
but he that upon that another, for one kindles the other , and
a chicken by the addition of this fpirit :

with roft this fpirit requires no more charges than of the

will ufe it inftead of the juice of Limons
of Limons for prefer- wood to be diftilled ^ which is a great difi^erence
meat, mull put into it the pill
preferves it. It is ufed in- betwixt this, and the common way of diftilling,
vaiion fake, becaufe it
where befides retorts, is required another fire ; and
Head of verjuice by it felf alone, or mixed with a
out of a great retort fcarce a pound of fpirit is drawn
little fugar, if it be too acid-
in the fpace of five or fix hours whereas in ours in
He that will ftew beef, and make it as tender as

the fpace of one day, and that without any coft or

kid, muft firft diffolve in it tartar and a
little fait be-
will not labor may be extrafted twenty or thirty pound, be-
fore he wets the flefh therewith, and the flelh
thereby: but to caufe the wood is immediately to be caft into the fire
only be preferved but made tender
muft mix fome water to be diftilled, and that not in pieces, but whole.
keep flelh a long time you
therewith, and with weights prefs down the flelh, Now this fpirit (being reflified j may commodioufly
with the pickle for by this be ufed in divers Chymical operations, for it doth
that it may be covered :

eafily diifolve animal ftones, as the eyes of Crabs, the

means flelh may be preferved a great while.
all kinds of garden
ftones of Perches, and Carps, Corals alfo and Pearl,
After the fame manner may
cucumbers, purflain, fennel,
<^c. as doth vinegar of wine. By means thereof
fruits be preferved, as
c^r. and indeed better than alfo are dilTolred the glafles of metals, as of tin,
broom, German capers,
lead. Antimony, and are extraded, and reduced in-
in vinegar. Alfo flowers, and hearbs may a long
to fweet oyles.
while be preferved by the help thereof, fo that you
all the winter.
This vinegar being taken inwardly of it felf doth
may have arofe
caufe fweat wonderfully, wherefore it is good in ma-
Itpreferves alfo wine, if a little be mixed there-
ny difeafes, efpecially that which is made of Oak,
with. A
little thereof being mixed with milk pre-
Box; Guaiacum, Juniper, and other heavy woods
cipitates the cheefe, which if it be rightly made is

for by how much the heavier the woods are, by fo

never corrupted, being like to fuch cheefe as they
much the more do they yield-
acid fpirit
call Parmcfin. The whey of that milk diflolves I-
waflied there- Beingufcd outwardly mundifies ulcers, wounds,
ron, and cures any fcab being
confolidates, extinguifheth, and mitigates inflamma-
tions caufed by fire, cures the fcab, but efpecially the
With the help of fpirit of fait is made with honey,
decodion being made of its own wood in the fame.
and fugar a moft pleafant drink, not unlike to wine.
Being mixed with warm water for a bath for rhe low-
There is made alfo of certain fruits with the fpirit
er part of the bodv, it cures occult difeafes of wo-
of fait a very good vinegar like to the Rhenifti vi-
men as alfo malignant ulcers of the leggs.
negar- Such and many more things, which I will i

This fpirit therefore deferves fome place in the

not now divulge, may be done with fpirit of fait-
it is unjuftly rejeded in the (hops, feeing
And thus have I in fome meafure taught the ufe of ftiops, i. e.

to be made.
it is eafie In diftilling of wormwood and
the fpirit of fait, which I would not have you take
for, brevities fake, other vegetables, there remaines in the bottom of the
as if had revealed all things

fome other rcafons I have filently palfed furnace afties, which being extraded with war.m wa-
as alfo for
ter yields a fait by decodion, which being again
over many things. Neither do I know all things my
diflblved in its own fpirit or vinegar, and filtred, doth
felf: but thofe things, which I do know,
I have fo

far declared that others may from thence have hints by the evaporation of the flegm, being placed in a
feeking further. He that would defcribe all, and cold place pafs intoaCryftalline fait, which is of a
pleafant taft, not likeuntoa/.v/i;;.'.'w, nor unto other
every power and vertue thereof, had need to write a
falts that arc diflTolved in the air.This fait is alfo m.ore
whole volum, the which is not my purpofe at this
efficacious (being reduced into Cryftals by its proper
time to do, but may perhaps be done another time-
Spirit; than that which is made by the help of fulphur,
There fhall alfo be flievved in the fecond part of this
book, fome fecrets which may be prepared by the or Aqua fortis, and oyl of Vitriol, and ctherways
help of this fpirit : as how it may be dulcified to ex- which Chyrailts, and Apothecaries ufe.
Philofopbical pHrnacef, II

isoften mention made in the books of Philofopher<:,

Thefpirit cf paper and Ur.nen cloath. by the help whereof, many wonderful things are
performed in the folution of metals, the name where-
Pieces of linnen cloth gathered> and got from Semp- of the ancients have been (llcnt in of which I do( ,

fters being caft into the furnace upon living coals, not here treat, becaufe it cannot be made by this
yield a moft acid fpirit, which tingeth the nailes,skin, furnace 5 but I ftiall treat of it in another part; yec
& hair with a yellow colour ,reftores members deftroy- fo that I incur not the Curfe of the Philofophers,
ed with cold, is good in a gangrene, and eryfipelas
if linen clothes wet in the fame be applyed there-
Hoxo fpirit s may be made out of the fait of tartar^ vi-

to, C7-C- Thefamedothfpirit made of paper, v/x.. triolated tartar^ the fpirit of fait tartariz^ated^ and
of the pieces thereof of other fuch like fixed falts.

The fpirit of flki

AS many Chymifts as thi;re hath been , almolt
have been of the opinion that a fpirit can

manner is there a fpirit made of not be drawn out of fait of tartar, and other fixed
AFter the fame
pieces of filk, which is not fo (harp as that falts. For experience hath taught that by retort
which is made of linnen and paper, neither doth it little or no fpirit can be drawn from thence, as I

tinge the Skin, but is moft excellent in wounds as had often experience of before the invention of
well old as green, and it makes the Skin beauti- this furnace: the reafon of which thing was the

ful- admixtion of fand, earth, bole, pouder of tiles, &c.

for to prevent the flowing of the fait of tartar, being
The fpirit of mans hair^ and of other animals^ as alfo by this means difperfed. But this is done through
of horns. the ignorance of Authors, who have been ignorant
of the properties of fait of tartar. For a ftony

horns alfo
, and hair

it is
made a fpirit,
not fo ufefuU
matter, as fand, flint, bole, <^c. being mixed with
fait of tartar, feeling the heat of the fire, and be-

although otherwife it may ferve for divers arts : be- ing made red with the fame, is joyned to it moft
ing retlified it comes clear and to be of the odour clofely, fo as no fpirit can be drawn from thencCj

of the fpirit of urine- It diflblves common ful- but become a moft hard ftone. For fand, and fuch
phur, and yields a w^ter, that cures the fcab in a things that are like to it, have fo great an affinity
very fhort time. with the fait of tartar, that being once united can
Now for this bufinefs > fhreds of woollen cloth fcarce ever be feparated. Yet it may be made by
undyed may fervc , being caft in a good quantity Art by the addition of pure fand, or ffint, becaufe
into the furnace. Pieces of cloath dipt in this fpi- the whole fubftance of the fait of tartar may be
rit and hanged in vineyards , and fields, keep out turned into a fpirit in the fpace of one or two
Deer and Swine from coming in beoeufe they are hours, as fliall be taught in the fecond part, and
afraid of the fmell of that Ipirit, as of an huntfman it excells all other medicaments in vertue, in curing

that waits to catch them. the ftone, and gout. And if by the regiment of
art there be left any Caput MortHnm in the diftil-
The fpirit of vinegar > honey., and fngar. lation, it hath, being difljolved in the air, a power
to putrify metals being prepared, and mixed with

HE that will diftil liquid things, muft caft red hot

coals into them, as for example into vinegar
it, in the fpace of few hours, fo as to make them

become black, and to grow up like trees with their

in the furnace, or if it be honey, or fugar, let them roots, trunks, and boughs, which by how much the
firft be diflblved in water, by which means they will longer they are fo left, become the better- Of calx
be drank up by the coals, which being therewith im- of lead being fubtilized, and of fait of tartar may
pregnated, muft afterwards at feveral times be caft be made a jpiritus gradatorius of wonderful vertues
into the furnace, and be burnt ; and whilft the coals as well in Medicine as Alchymy- There is made
are burning, that which is incombuftible comes forth. of the Caput MortHHm^ per deli^Hium a green liquor
And by this means you may diftil liquid things in a which doth wonderful things ; whence it is proved.
great quantity. That Saturn is not the lowefi of the Planets ^ enough
Vinegar which isdiftilled this way, is of the fame to the wife.
nature, as that which is diftilled in clofe veflels.
But honey and fugar that are diftilled after this Andfo is the Lac f^irginis^ and the Philofophical Smnghis
manner, are a little altered, and acquire other ver- Draconis made.
tucs but how they fliall be diftilled without the lofs

of their volatile fpirit Ihall be taught in the fecond Sometimes there is found a certain earth, or bole,
part. Alfo after this manner may all liquid things which hath no affinity with tartar, which being
being drunk up by living coals be diftilled. mixed with fait of tartar yields a fpirit, but very
Of the ufe of diftilled vinegar many things might little. But in this furnace may all fixed things be
be faid, but becaufe the Books of all the Chymifts elevated, becaufe the fpecies not being included in
treat abundantly thereof, I account it needlefs to it, but difperfed, being caft upon the fire, are from

repeat vhat they have writ- Yet this is worth the fire elevated through the aire , and are being
taking notice of, that the Iharpeft vinegar hath a refrigerated in the recipients again condenfed, which
great affinity with fome metals, which may be ex= cannot be fo well done by a clofe retort.
traded by the help thereof ; alfo diffolved, and re- He therefore that will make the fpirit ofthe fait of
duced into medicaments ; yea, many things may be tartar, need do nothing
than to caft the calci-
made with the help thereof, as the books of all the ned tartar into the fire , and it will wholly come
Chy mills teftify. over in a fpirit: but then there are required glafs
But there is yet another vinegar, of which there recipients, tecaufe thoTe that are earthen cannot re'
tain it. D 2 And
i:2 Tke FirH Pan of
And this is the way whereby moft fixed falts are though it be true,
that nothing comes from gold

furnace- In the fe- in the fire, althour.h fliould remain there a long
dillilled into a fpirit by the firll it

time, and from filver but a lictle except it have cop-

cond furnace (t;/^.. in the furnace of the fecond Part)
and ealier, where together per or any other metal mixed, which yet vapours a-
it may be done better,
with the preparation (hall be taught the ufe there-
way but by little and little-
Which I fay although it be fo, yet they being bro-
ken and fubtilized and fcattered upon coals, and
and [alts of Minerals and fi ones. fo difperfed , may by the force of the fire and
The fpirit s, flowers^
help of the air be fublimed, and reduced into flowers.
way may be raifed from any mine- iNow feeing theaforefaid metals are dear, and of
BY this
ral or ftone,
and that without the addition of a- a great price, and the furnace with its recipients
vet fo as that the minerals, and large, I would not that any one fhould caft them in,
ny other thing :

flints, Cryftal, talk, Lifts calam;>!ans^ efpecially gold, becaufe he cannot recover them all ;
{tones, as
Marcafite, Antimony, being ground be with an
Iron but I fliall to thofe that delire to make thefe flowers
caft upon the coals, and there will arife toge- ihew another way in the fecond part, whereby they
ther with a certain acid fpirit, fome fait and flowers,
may make them without the lofs of the metal to ;

For this furnace fervesfor

which are to be wafhed oft'frora the recipients, and which refer the reader-

filtred, and the flowers will remain in

CiMrtahbnU, the fublimmg of metals, and minerals, which are

or filter for the water together with the fpirit, and not fo pretious, the loofing of part whereof is not
the fait palTeth through the tiker, all which may fo much regarded. And thus much is faid to fliew
for and although fixed, may be fub-
be feparated, reaified and be kept by themfelves that gold, filver,

their proper ufes- Now

this you muft know, that limed. Now other metals may more ealily be fub-
been limed, yet one more eafily than another, neither need
Vou mufl choofe fuch minerals which have not
touched by the Are, if you defire tQ.have their fpi- they any other preparation but beating fmall, before
they be calt into the fire-

and metals may he reduced intofioToers^ Flowers of Iron and Copper.

//ctt> mi>!erals,
and of thttr vertnes.
TAkeof the
filings of Iron or Copper, as much
have you pleafe, caft them with an Iron laddie up=
Hitherto the flowers of metals, and minerals as

not been in ufe, excepting the flowers of An- on burning coals, viz.. fcacteringly, id there will
eafilyfublimed for arife from Iron a red vapour, but from Copper a
timony, and fulphur, which are :

dared to attempt the fublimation green, and will be fublimed into the fublimatory
Chymilts have not
and fixed minerals, being content velfels- As the fire abates it muft be renewed with
of other metals,
of them with Aqua fortis, and cor- frelh coales, and the cafting in of thefe filings be
with the folution
liquor of continued, until you have got a fufficient quantity of
rofive waters, precipitating them with the
fait of tartar, and afterward
edulcorating, and dry- flowers, and then you may let all cool. This being
have called *done take olf the fublimatory vellels, take out the
ing them ; and being fo prepared they
under- and keep them, for they are very good
them their Flowers: but by Flowers I flowers, if

help of they be mixed with unguents, and emplafters and

ftand the fame matter which is by the fire :

ufed inwardly caufe vomiting-, therefore they

without the addition of any other thing fublimed, being
pouder, not to be per- are better in Chirurgery, where fcarce any thing is
and turned into a moft fubtile
which indeed (in my to be. compared to them. Copper being diflblved
ceived by the teeth or eyes, is

accounted for the true flowers in fpirit of fait, and precipitated with oy! of vitriol,
iiidgment to be

flowers which others make are more edulcorated,

dryed, and fublimed, yields flowers,
when as the
corporeal, and cannot be fo well edulcorated, but which being in the air refolved into a green bal-
retain fome faltnefs in them, as may be
perceived fom is moft ufeful in wounds and old putrid ul-
cers, and is a moft pretious treafure.
by the incveafe of their weight, and therefore

ful to the eyes, and other parts.

Flowers of Lead and Tin.
But our flowers being by the force of the fire fub-
limed by themfelves, are not only without faltnefs,
but arealfo fo fubtile that being raken
inwardly pre= YOuneed not reduce thefe metals into fmall crums,

their powers, wz,.accor- they be caft in piece by piece,

it is fufficient if
fently operate,and put forth
pleafure of the Phylltian. Neither is but then you muft under the grate put an earthen
ding'to the
platter glazed, and filled with water, to gather that
ihei*r preparation fo coftlyasthe others.
which flows down melted, which is to be taken out,
Metals alfo, rni minerals are maturated, and a-
and caft again into the fire, and this fo often until all
mended in their fublimation, that they may be the
the metal be turned into flowers, which afterwards
more fafely taken ; but in other preparations they
as experience are again, the veflels being cold, to be taken out,
are rather deftroycd, and corrupted,
are to as hath been faid of the flowers of M.trs and Coihs.
witncfleth : Now how thefe kind of flewers
indeed of each metal And thefe flowers are moft excellent being mixed with
be made I fliall now teach, and
the preparation can- plaifters and oyntments in old and green wounds,
by it felf, whereby the artift in
for they have a greater power to dry, than metals
rot evre, ard firft thus.
calcined, as experience can teftifie.

Of Cold and Stiver.

Of Mercury.
Gold and filver can hardly be brought into flow-
reduced into flowers, becaufe it is
ers, becaufe many are of opinion,
that nothing THis is eafily
but not for the aforefaid reafon,
from Gold, very volatile,
comes from them in the fire, elpedally
which al- becaufe ic leapes in the fire, and feeks to defcend.
although it Ibould be left there tor ever :

Pbilo/opbical Furnaces.
And you defire to have the flowers thereof) mix
if for thefe things, they (hall be fpoken of in the fourth
it firll with fulphur that you may pulverize it, and part.
calt it in mortified- And if you caft into a red hot But you need not make flowers for this work, be-
crucible fet in the furnace, a little quick Mercury, caufe crude Zinck doth the fame, although the flowers
v:z:. by times with a ladle , prcfently it will fly out,
. do it fomething better : whence it appears that a
and forae part thereof will be refolved into an acid metal contra<fls a higher degree of drynefs in fubli-
water, which is to be preferred before the flowers in mation-
niy judgment ; but the reft of the Mercury drops into Flowers of Antimony.
the receiver. But here are required glafs veflTelsj be-
caufe the aforefaid water is loft in earthen. And THere is no difficulty to make the flowers of Anti-
this water without doubt doth fomething in Alchy- mony, for Chymifts have a long time made ufc
my It is alio good being applyed outwardly, in the
: of them, and becaufe their preparation was tedious,
i'cab, and venereal ulcers- they were not fold at a low rate-
Wherefore there was no body willing to attempt
The fiovpers of Zincl^. any thing elfe in them, becaufe they were ufed only
for vomiting; thedofe whereof was from
metal, and found in the fpagy-
ITricala wonderful

anatomy to be meer

fulphur, golden, and

grains to 8. and 10. in aff"eifls of the ftomack and of
the head, as alfo in fcavers, plague, morbus gallicus,
immature- Being put upon burning coals doth fud- ^''c. Neither is it a wonder if Chymifts tryed no far-
dcnly fly away wholly ; it is inflamed alfo, and part- ther in them, for we fee that there are found men
ly burns like common fulphur, with a flame of a- in thefe days who perfwade themfelves that there is
nother colour, viz.. golden purple and yields moft : nothing which was not found out by the learned an-
gallant white, and light flowers. cients, can be found out in thefe days, and if there
were any thing to be yet found out it was found out
The ufe, already by them. But this opinion truly is very fooI=
ifh, as if God gave all things to the ancients, and

BEing given from 4) 5,6, grains to 12, they pro- referved nothing for them that fhould come after.
voke fwcat wonderfully, and fometimes vomit, Neither indeed do they underftand nature in their Os
and according to the offending matter. The
{tools, perations, which works inceOantly, and is not wea=
vercues thereof being externally ufed are alfo won- ried in her labours, &c. But however it is raani-
derful, for there are not found better flowers, for feft that God hath revealed things in thefe
tfief do not (^nly fpeedily confolidate frefh wounds, which were hid from them of old, and he will not
but alio IdjT fuch as always drop water, in which ceafe to do the fame even to the end of the world.-
cafes they excelTalt^ther medicaments. For they are But to return to our purpofe again, which is to
of fuch dryncfs, which hatb joyned with it a con- fliew an eafier way of making the flowers of Antimo-
folidating vertue, as that they do even things incre- ny, whereby a greater quantity may be had, as alfo
dible. They may be ufed divers ways, astobeftrew- that they may ferve for other ufes-
ed by themfelves, putting over them a ftiptick plaifter, Take of crude Antimony poudered as much as you
or being brought into an unguent with honey to be pleafe, and firft make your fiirnace red hot, then
put into wounds ; which unguents in deep wounds caft in at once a pound of Antimony, or thereabouts,
may be boyled to a hardnefs for the making of fmaH viz.. fcatteringlyupon the coals ; and prefently it
fuppofitories, which are to be put into the wounds, will flow, &
being mixed with the coals by t^e force of
which muft afterwards be covered with fome plai- the fire will befublimed through the air into the re-
ner, and preferved from the air. Being applyed ceivers like a cloud, which will there be coagulated
after this manner they cure fundamentally, being into white flowers. Note, that when the firft coals
mixed with plaifters alfo they do wonderful things. are burnt up, more muft be put in to continue the fub=
if they be mixed with rofe, or rain water, fo as to limation, and thofe muft be firft kindled before they
be united together, and afterwards fome of this mix- are put in, left the flowers be by the duft of the coals
ture be fometimes every day dropt into red eyes that arifing together with them difcoloured, and contratft
water, yielding not to other ophthalmicks, do reftore, thence a gray colour: but it matters not if you will
and heal them. not ufe them by themfelves to provoke vomiting, be-
Thefe flowers being taken up in lint and ftrewed caufe there is no danger thereby, for that colour
upon thofe places of Children that are galled with comes only from the fmoake of the coals, where=
their urin (thofe places being firft waflied with water) fore you need not be afraid of them. But let hira
heal them quickly- They heal alfo quickly any ex- that diflikes this colour, firft kindle the coals before
coriation which is contraifted by lying long in any he put them into the furnace, and then he fhall have,
licknefs, and is very painful, if they be ftrewed white flowers- Alfo you muft not Ihut the middle
thereon. hole through which the coals, and Antimony are caft
Thefe flowers alfo are more eafily difl"oIved in cor- in, that thereby the fire may burn the more freely :
rofive waters, than other metals, and minerals, nei- for elfe the flowers of the fuperior pots will be yellow
ther doth the fpirit leave them in the fire, but an and red, by reafonof the fulphur of the Antimony,
inlipid phlegm only leaving a fat and thick
diftills off, which is fubliraed higher than the regulus. Now you
oyl, as is above faid concerning the laps calaminaris^ may by this way make a pound of the flowers with
being ordained for the fame ufes, but more efficaci- 3 4. or 5- pound of coals- It is a little that goes away

ous then that. Which fpirit if it be by the violence from the Antimony, vtz.. the combuftible fulphur,
of fire driven forth, is of fo great ftrength, that it which is burnt, all the reft going into flowers. You
can fcarce be kept. And not only fpirit of fait, but muft have a care to provide a fufficient quantity of
alfo Aqua fortis, and Regia may after this manner fubliming pots by reafon that a large fpace is re-
be exalted, fo as to be able to do wonderful things in quired for the fublimatioH of the flowers-
the feparation of metals^ but here is not place
E Tb^
The Firn Tart of
The flowers that are prepared after this way, to the fire you may be gone, which is a fafe
and ,

rate, ib that one pound there- eafy calcination, whereas the common way requires
are fold at a lower
of thofe that the continual prefence of the artift ftirring the
of is cheaper , than half an ounce
Alfo they are matter, who alfo takes out the matter when it is
are made after the other manner-
as being made with an open free
flame of once grown together, and grinds it again j by
fafer ,

vomit fo vehe- which means he hath much to do, before the mat-
the fire, for they do not provoke
of the lower pots ter come to a whitenefsi but by our way, the
mently ; moreover the flowers
diaphoretical, as if they had matter is at the firft time made fufficiently white,
are not vomiting, but
for thus they are cor- and more than by that common way of calcina-
been prepared with nitre,
the tion and agitation. I fuppofe therefore that I have
reded by the fire And by this way at one and

(hewed to him that will make glafs of Antimony,

fame operation divers flowers of divers operations
the and hitherto unknown way which being
may be made, for the flowers of the lower pots
beft, ,

vomi- taught, I hope there is no man will hereafter like

are diaphoretical , of the middle a little
vomitive- a fool go that tedious way of the Anticnts, but
tive, but of the uppermoft vehemently
have endured rather follow my fteps. For by this way may any
For by how much the more they
are they corrected Phyfitian, moft eafily be able to prepare for him-
the fire, by fo much the better

felf vomitive and diaphoretical flowers, and alfo

from whence the diverfity of their power proceeds.
be kept by them- glafs of Antimony fcr fe.
Wherefore each of them are to
felves, and the uppermoft for plaifters or butter, Of thofe Flowers may be made oyls both fweet
and corrofive, and other medicaments, as hath been
or oyl, and thofe to be made fweet or corrofive
above faid of the fpirit of fait, and fliall after-
thereby; The middle for purging, and vomiting,
wards be fpoken in the Second Part.
but the lowermoft for fweat, being more
AntimoniHm Diapho- Let him that will make Flowers of the Regu-
than BezoardkHfn Minerals^ or
Truly 1 do not believe lus , fairer than thofe which are made of crude
retiatm made with nitre.
making vomiting, Antimony, caft ic being poudered into the fire, and
that there is an eafier way of
and diaphoretical flowers, than ours.
Now for in all things proceed as hath been faid, and he
that thole fhall have them, &c. for they are eafily fublimed-
the ufe of them , you muft know
that are vomitive are to be
admimftred to thofe Now, how the regulus is to be made after a com-
to vomit but to pendious manner, you fhall find in the Fourth Part-
that are ftrong, and accuftomed :

as hath The fcoris alfo are fublimed , fo as nothing is

Children and old Men with difcretion ,

butter of Antimony but loft. But he that will make Flowers that fliall be
been faid above of the :

may be given without difi^olved in the aire into a liquor muft add fome
thofe that are diaphoretical
thofe that are in calcined tartar, or fome other fixt vegetable fait,
danger to Old and Young , to
and he fliall have Flowers that will be dilfolved
health and to the fick ; in any afflidion that re-
quires fweat i as in the Plague,
Morbus Gallicus, in any liquor but he that will make red Flowers

Scorbute, Leprofy, Feavers,

<i''c. The Dofe of as well thofe that are diaphoretical , as thofe
that are purging, muft mix iron, and he fliall have
them is from 3, 6, 9, i^, grains to 24. with proper
they do expel as Flowers like to Cinnabar Let him that defires
vehicles to fweat in the bed ; for

humours. And green, mix copper, if purple, Ufts caUmviaris.

well by fweat, as by urine, all evil
are in a greater And thus out of any mineral may be made
becaufe they that are vomitive
diaphoretical, and not Flowers whether it be fixed, or volatile; for it is
quantity than thofe that are
and there may be many more forced to fly on high being caft into the fire. And
fo neceffary as thefe,
dofes out of them ; it is neceffary to Ihew
you how thefe may be ufed diverfly in Chyrurgery, in plai=
into dia- fters and unguents j for they dry and aftring po-
thofe that are vomitive may be turned

wayes^ tently, efpccially thofe that arc made of lapis ct-

phoretical ; and that may be done three
fhewed con- laminaris. Neither are they to be flighted that are
the two former whereof I have before
made of the golden, and filver marcafite- Thofe that
cerning the butter of Antimony made of

with fpirit of fait, the third is this,

viz.. put the flow- are made of arfenic & auripigmentum,are poyfonous,

ers in a crucible covered, (without luting) left

any but are ufeful for Painters. Arfenic &
them by themfelves in a being calcined with nitre, and then fublimed, yield
thing fall into it, fo fet
Flowers that are fafely to be taken inwardly, ex-
gentle fire, that they melt not, but be made only
then pefling all poyfons by fweat and ftool For they
darkly glow for the fpace of feme hours \

fixed aud diapho- are correded two wayes, viz.. firft by the nitre,
let them cool, for they are become
retical. Although they had before contraded fome fecondly by the fire in the fubliming they are not

therefore to be feared becaufe that Arfnick was

yellownefs or afli-colour , yet by this means they

Al- poyfonous before the preparation thereof For by

are made white, fixed, and diaphoretical.
ftiptick plaifters by how much the greater poyfon in .was before prepara-
fo thefe flowers are ufed in
tion, fo much the greater medicine afterwards.
reafon of their dry nature , with which they are
The Flowers of fulphur are taught in the Se-
cond Part, alchough they may alfo be made by
Alfo they are melted into a yellow tranfparent
this furnace, viz.. the natures and properties there--
glafs, neither is there taught an eafier way of re^
of being known by an expert Artift, or othervvife it
ducing Antimony by it felf into a yellow tranfpa-
is burnt.
rent glafs , where crude Antimony is firft fubli-
So alfo ftones being prepared are brought into
med, and being fublimed is melted into glafs.
of calcination, Flowers, and many other things, of which we need
This fublimation ferves inftcad
more fub- not fay any thing, only let him that pleafeth make
by the help whereof 20 pound are eafily
tryal thereof.
limed, than by the help of the other one pound is
And now I fuppofe I have made plain, and flievv-
brought into calx.
ed you clearly how diftillation is to be made in
Neither is there here any danger of the afcend-
this our furnace wherefore I will uow end.
ing fumes, becaufe when the Antimony is caft in-
Pbilofopbicd Furnaces. J5

for the making of the central fait, and of the hw

therefore that underftands and knows the
He midtim radicak of them all.
the furnace ( which he may underftand But becaufe it cannot
brick of
and the ufe thereof, be done after the aforefaid way, by which things
by the delineation thereof;
deny but that 1 have done a good work, are caft into the fire to get their flowers, and fpi-
will not
rits, but after a certain fecret Philofophical man-
and will not difapprove of my
ner, by the power of a certain fecret fire, hither-
And this is the befl: way ofdiftilling, and fublim-
incombuftible things- In the Second Part you to concealed by the Philofophers ( neither fliall I
furnace in which are diftilled proftrate that fecret before all) , It is fufiicient that
(hall find another
combuftible things, as alfo moft fubtil fpirits,
&c. I have given a hint of it for further enquiry, and

The firft furnace ferves alfo for other ufes, as the have fliewed the way to other things.
reparation of metals \ of the pure from the impure ;


^^<r^r l^it f<1^4^4^<]^>2



Wherein is T>efcribed the Nature of the Second Furnace j by the help whereof^ all Volatile]

fuhtle , and combuflihk things may be diftilled -,

whether they be Vegetables, Mimah^
or Mnerals^ and that after an unknown and Very compendious Way ^ whereby nothing is loji,

but e'Ven the moft fuhtle fpirits may be caught and preferyed^ which tlfe without the means

of this Furnace is impoffible to be done by <^torts or other Viftilling Inftrumeitts.

Of the StruUure of the Second Furnace,

TH E VefTel mull be made of rials ( corrofive or not corrofive ) yon may have
good earth, fuch as can abide proper veffels, and fit furnaces for their diftilling,
Iron, or
in the fire ( whereof in the fifth Part and that they may not he fpoilcd by things con-
of this Book it fhall be taught) and trary and hurtful to them- The fhape of the vef-
you may make it as big or as little as you pleafe, fel is Ihewed by the foregoing figure, ^'^.. the
according as your occafion fhall require- That of lower part of it fomewhat wider than the upper
iron is moft fit to be ufed for fuch fpirits, as are part , and twice as high as wide at the top ha- ,

not very fharp or corroding, elfe they would cor- ving a hollow fpace between the two edges or brims,
rode the Veflel but that of earth may be ufed whereinto the edge of the lid may ciofe and en-

for fuch things, as fhew their adtivity upon the ter in an inch deep. The lid muft have a ring or
Iron, and do make it to melt, as fulphur, Anti- handle, by which it may be taken off and put on
mony and the like and therefore you ought to again with a pair of tongs. The lid mult have a

have two fuch velTels, wx. one of iron, and one deep edge anfwering to the hoUow fpace aforefaid.
of earth, to the end that for both forts of mate- The lower part muft haye three knobs or Ihoul-
E 2 ders
i6 Tke Second Part of
ders thereby to reft upon the wall of the furnace , through the lute, if that be not good, but if that
the form whereof is no other, than that of a cora- be good, fo that the fpirits cannot pafs through it,
nion diftilliDg furnace with a fand Copple as the , then they break the recei>, er , becaufe it cannot
figure of it doth lliew but if you will not have the
: pofilbly hold fuch a quantity of fubtle fpirits at once.

furnace, then it needeth no knobs or flioulders, if For when they are coming, they come fo plenti-
fo be the diftilling vefiel be flat at the bottom, or fully, and with fuch a force, that the receiver can-

clfe have legs, for to ftand upon them Beneath : not contain them, and fo o/ neceflity muftflye afun-
the edge of the vefiel there comes forth a fpoutor der, or muft pafs through the lutum ; All which is
pipe of a fpan in length, and one or two inches not to be feared here, becaufe there is but a little
wide, and foniewhat narrower before than behind, caft in at once, which cannot yield fuch a quantity
through which the fpirits are conveyed into the Re- of fpirits, as to force the receiver to break : And
ceiver- when there comes forth no more fpirits, and the
former is fettled, then more of the matter is to be
See the fourth Figure before the firft part, where- caft in ; and this is to be continued fo long, until
in the Letter ^. reprefents the Furnace, with the you have fpirits enough. Afterward take off the
Iron diftilling VelTelfaftned into it, whereunto a Re- receiver, and put the fpirit into fuch a Glafs fas
ceiver is applied. in the fifth part of this book, amongft the Manuals,
. The Diftiller, with his left hand taking off fliall be difcovered ) wherein it may be kept fafely

the lid, and with his right hand cafting in,his prepa- without wafting or evaporating.
red matter. In this manner all things, Vegetable, Animal, or
C. The external form of the diftilling vefiel. Mineral, may be diftilled in this Furnace, and much
-D. The internal form of the vefibl. better, than by means of a Retort efpecially fuch

. Another diftilling vefiel, which is not faftned fubtile fpirits ( as by the other way of diftilling can-
to a furnace, but only ftandeth upon Coals. not be faved, but pafs through the lutum ) are got
by this our way ; and they are much better than
The way or manner to perform the Di(iillatiofJ. thofe heavy oyles, which commonly are taken for
fpirits, but are none, being only corrofive waters.

WHen you intend to diftil, then firft

the Furnace, that the diftilling vefi'el come

make a fire For the nature and condition of a fpirit is to be
volatile, penetrating and fubtile, and fuch are not

to be very hot. But if it be not faftned to the Furnace, thofe fpirits of fait. Vitriol, Allome and Nitre,
then fet it upon a grate, and lay ftones about it,and which are ufed in Apothecary fliops, they being but
coals between, and fo let it grow hot, and lay mel- heavy oyles, which even in a warm place do not
ted lead in the fpace between the two edges or brims, evaporate or exhale-
the end, that the lid , when it is put on, may But a true fpirit, fit for Medicinal ufe, muft rife or
can get through. afcend before the phlegm, and not after ; for what-
clofe exaftly, fo that no fpirit
of the matter you intend foever is heavier than phlegm, is no volatile fpirit,
This done, take a little
but a heavy fpirit or (rather called) a fowre heavy
to diftil, and caft it in, and prefently put on the
lid, and there will be no other
pafiage left but oyl. And it is feen by experience, that the Apo-
through the pipe,.to which there muft be applycd thecaries fpirit of vitriol will cure no falling fick-

and luted a very big receiver. As foon aS the Tpe- nefs, which vertue afcribed to that fpirit, and in-

go tiaeir fpi- deed juftly for the true fpirit of vitriol perfor-
cies caft in cogie to be warn?? th^y let

rit, which doth come forth into the receiver: and meth that cure out of hand. Likewife their fpirit
becaufe there was but little of the matter caft in, it of Tartar (as they call it) is no fpirit, but only a
hath no power to force tlirough the lute , or to ftinking phlegm or vinegar-

break the receiver, but nnifl: fettle it felf. This The way make fuch true fpirits I will now
to ,

done, caft in a little more .of your matter , cover fliew, becaufe much good may be done by them in
it and let it go till the fpirit
be fettled continue : all manner of Difeafes- And this way of diftil-
proceeding fo long, until you have fpirits ling fervedi only for thofe which feek after good
enough : but take heed, that you caft in no more Medicines but others which care not whether their

at once, than the receiver is able to bear, elfe it

medicines be well prepared or no , need not take
will break- And when your vefiel is full, thediftilla- fo much pains as to build fuch a furnace , and to

tion not being ended, then take ofi^the lid, and with make their fpirits themfelves, for at any time they
take out the Caput Mortuum ; and fo can buy for a fmall matter , a good quantity of
an iron ladle
begin again to caft in? and ftill but a little at a time, dead and fruitlefs fpirits at the common fellers and
and continue this as long as you pleafe.
Thus one day you may diftil more in a fmall
Hence it is no marvel that now adaies fo lit-

good done by Cbymical medicaments, which

vefiel, thanotherways you could do in a great re-
tle is

tort ; and you need not fear the leaft lofs of the of right fliould far out-ftrip all the Galenical in
goodnefs and vertue- But alas it is come to that
fubtile fpirit, nor the breaking of the receiver by

the abundance of the fpirits and you may ceafeor

: pafs now, that a true Chymift, and honeft Son of

leave off your diftilling , and begin it again when

Hermes, is forced almoft to blufii, when he heareth
you lift alfo the fire cannot be made too ftrong,
men talk of Chymical medicines , becaufe they do
fo that it might caufe any hurt or damage-, but by no fuch miracles, as are afcribed unto them- Which
this way you may make the raoft fubtile fpirits, infamy is occafion'd by none more, than by carelefs
impofilble to be done by any Retort. But Phyficians, which though they make ufe of Chymi-
which is

if you will diftil a fubtil fpirit by a Retort , as of cal medicines, ( becaufe they would fain be efteemed

Tartar, Harts-horn, Salarmoniack, or the like, you to know more than others) yet they do take grea-
ter care for their kitchen, than for the welfare of
cannot do it without prejudice ( though there were
their Patients and fo buying ill-prepared Medicines
but half a pound of the nxatter in it) tliefubtleft ;

penetrate of unskilful and withal ufing them undiH

fpirits coming forth with force, feek to
Philofopbicd Pumices. i1

creetly fwliereby they many times do more hurt ther with the black oyl, and pour upon it the vola-
than good to the fick) they lay fuch foul afper- tile fpirit, which in the redifying went over firft,

tions upon the noble Art of Chymiftry. put the retort into the fand, and apply a receiver,
But an induftrious and accurate Phyficianis not and give it a very gentle fire, end the volatile fpi-
afhamed to make his Medicines himfelf, if it be rit will come over alone, Iciving its phlegm be-

podible, or at leafl: to have them made by good hind with the oyl, which by reafon of its dry-
and well-exercis'd Artifts whereupon he may bet-
: nefs doth eafily keep it. Thus the fpirit beir>5
ter rely, and get more credit, than one that know- freed from all phlegm, is become as ftrong as a
eth not whereof, nor how his Medicine which he meer fire, and yet not corrofive. And if this fpi-
doth adminifter to his patients is prepared. But rit be not rc(5tified from its own oyl , it will not

fuch wicked and ignorant men will one day fall remain good, but there doth precipitate a red
(hort of their anfwer before the Judgment of the powder after it hath ftood for fome fpace of time,
righteous Samaritan. and the fpirit lofeth all its vcrtue, infomuch chat
it is not to be difcerned from ordinary water,
How to make the Acid Oyl and the volatile fpirit of which doth not happen when it is redtified. The
rttrit. reafon of this precipitation is no other than the
weaknefs of the fpirit, which is accompanied with
Hitherto I have taught, how to diftil in gene- too much water, and therefore not ftrong enough
and to get the fubtle fpirits. There re-
ral, for to keep its fulphur, but muft let it fall : but
maineth now to defcribe what Manuals or Prepa- after it is reftified by its own oyl , it can keep its
rations are fitting for every matter in particular , fulphur well enough, becaufe then it is freed from
and iird , its fuperfluous moifture. However the red powder
is not to be thrown away , but ought to be kept
Of Vitriol. carefully \ becaufe it is of no lefs vertue than the
fpirit it felf. And it is nothing elfe but a Vola-
TO there needs no other prepa-
diftil Vitriol,
ration, but only that it be well viewed, and if
tile fulphur of Vitriol. It hath wonderful vertucs*
fome of which fljall be related.
there be any filth amongft it, that the fame be care-
fully pickt out, left being put together with the The Vfe and Dofe of the Narcotickjulphur ofFitriol.

Vitriol into the diftilling veilel, the fpirit be cor-

rupted thereby. But he that will go yet more
exadly to work , may diflblve it in fair water,
OF this fulphur 1,2,3,4. or more grains (ac-
cording to the condition of the patient ) given
then filtrate it, and then evaporate the water from at once mitigates all pains , caufeth quiet fleep 5,

it till a skin appear at the top, and then fet it in not after the manner of Opium, Henbane, and
a cold place, and let it fhoot again into Vitriol \ other the like medicines, which by ftupifying and
and then you are fure that no impurity is left benumbing caufe fleep, but it performeth its ope-
in it. ration very gently and fafely, without any danger
Now your veflel being made red hot, with an at all, and great Difeafes may be cured by the
Iron ladle caft in one or two ounces of your Vi- help thereof. Paracelfus held it in high eftcem,
triol at once, put on the lid, and prefently the as you may fee , where he doth write of Sulphur
fpirits together with the phlegm will come over embryonatHm.
into the receiver, like unto a white cloud or mift-,
which being vanifhed, and the fpirits partly fettled, Of the Vfe and Ferine of the volatile fpirit of
carry in more Vitriol , and continue this fo long, Fitriol.
until your veflel be full : Then uncover your vef-
fel, and with a pair of tongs or an iron ladle take
THis fulphurous Volatile fpirit of Vitriol, is of
out the Caput Mortuura , and caft more in ; and a very fubtle and penetrating quality, and of
continue this proceeding as long as you pleafe, ftill a wonderful operation ^ for fome drops thereof
emptying the veflel when it is filled, and then cafting being taken and fweated upon, doth penetrate the
in more matter, and fck proceeding until you con- whole body, openeth all obftruftions , confumeth
ceive that you have got fpirits enough. Then let thofe things that are amifs in the body, even as
the fire go out, and let the furnace cool ; take off fire. an excellent medicine in the Falling fick-
It is
the receiver, and pour that which is come over in= nefs, in that kind of madnefs or rage which is cal-
to a retort, and fet the retort in fand , and by a led Mania, in the Convulfion of the Mother, cal-
gentle fire diftil the volatile fpirit from the heavy led Sujfocati.0 M^tricis, in the Scurvy in that other,

oyl i having firft joyned to the retort the receiver, kind of madnefs which is called Melancholia Hypo-
which is to receive the volatile fpirit, with a good chondriaca ; and other Difeafes proceeding from
lutum, fuch as is able to hold fuch fubtle fpirits, Obftrudions and Corruption of the Blood : It is
the making whereof fliall be taught in the fifth alfo good in the Plague, and all other Feavers :
part of this Book, amongft the Manuals. mingled with fpirit of wine, and daily ufed, it doth
All the volatile fpirit being come over, which wonders in all external accidents Alfo in the Apo::

you may know by the falling of bigger drops, then plexy, flirinking and other difeafes of the Nerves,
take off the receiver, and clofe it very well with the diftreffed limb rubbed therewith , it doth pene=
wax, that the fpirit may not make an cfcapc ,
trate to the very marrow in the bones ; it doth
then apply another (without luting it) and fo re- warm and refrefh the cold finews, grown ftiff : In
ceive the, phlegm by it felf, and there will remain the Gholick, befides the internal ufe, a little there-
in the retort a black and heavy corrofive oyl, of in a clyfter applyed, is a prefent help : Exter-
which if you pleafe, you may reilifie , forcing it nally ufed in the Gout, by anointing the places
over by a ftrong fire, and then it will be clear ; if therewith, affvvagech the Pains, and taketh away
not , let all cool, then take out your Retort toge- all tunoars and inflatntnations : It doth heal fcabs,

F tetter*
i8 Tke Second Part of
tettersand ring-worms, above all other medicines-,
it cureth new
wounds and old fores, as Fillulaes, The way to make a fair blew Vitriol out of Luna (that
Cancers, Wolves, and what name foever elfe they is^Jilver.)
inflammations, fcal-
extinguilheth all
may have : It

dings, the Gangrene, diflipateth

and confumeth the
In a word, DIlToIve the (havings or filings of filver with refbi-
knobs and excrefcencies of the
men of old called SuU oyl of Vitriol, adding water thereunto,
this fpirit, which the wife
2II difea= but not fo much as to Iron and Copper : Or elfe,
thur Fhtlofphoriim, doth aft univerfally in
cannot fufiiciently be praifed which is better, diffolve calcined filver, which hath
fes, and its vertue
And it is much to be admired, been precipitated out of Aqua fortis either with
and exprelled :

where to be Copper or fait water the folution being ended

that fo excellent a Medicine is no

pour it off and filtre it, and drop into it of fpirit

found. J ., . .

water, it doth make of urin or Sal armoniac, as long as it doth hifs, and al-
If it be mingled with Spring
moft all the filver will precipitate again out of the oyl,
pleafaiuly fowriHi, and in tafte and vertue
like un-
and fo there will fall a white powder to the bottom ;
to the natural fowre water of
may be cured at This precipitated filver together with the liquor
Alfo by this fpirit, many difeafes
not go to bathes afar off, pour into a phiall-glafs, fet it to boyl in fand for
home fo that you need

twenty four hours, and the liquor will diffolve again

for to be rid of them. .
almoft all the precipitated filver-calx and become
Here I could fetdown a way, how fuch a fpirit may
ufe of bathing, blew thereby. Then pour off the folution (or liquor)
be got in great abundance for the
diftillation, whereby miraculous things may
and filtre it through brown paper, and abftrad; the
of men, moifture till a skin arife at the top ; then in a cold
be done, but by reafon of the ungratefulnefs
another time. place let it fhoot to Vitriol. With the remaining
it fhall be referved for
liquor proceed further, as above in the prepara-
and ufe of the corroftve oyl of Fttriol. tion of the Vitriol of Iron and Copper Lath been
Of the vertne
although By this way you will get an excellent Vitriol out of
THis oyl is not much ufed in Phyfick,
in every Apothecaries Ihop, filver, which from 4, 5, 6, ro 10. grains ufed only
it be found almoft
a tart to their fy- of itfelf, will be a good purge, efpecially in difeafes
which they ufe for to give fowrifli
Mingled with fpring water and of the brain.
rups and conferves.
the unnatu- If you have a good quantity of it, that you may
given in hot difeafes, it will extinguifh
internal parts of the body. diftill a fpirit thereof, you will get not only an acid
ral thirft, and cool the
all unclean fores, applyed (or fowre) but alfo a volatile fpirit, which in the
Externally it cleanfeth
feparateth the bad from the good, infirmities of the brain is moft excellent ; that which
with a feather; it
the cure- in the diftilling remains behind, may be reduced a-
and layeth a good foundation for
firft, fome metals may be dif- gain into a body, fo that you lofe nothing of the
Alfo if it bereftified
Vitriols, efpe- filver, fave onely that which is turned into fpi-
folved with it and reduced into their
this is to be done by add- rit.
cially Mars and Venus ; but
elfe will hardly lay Moreover, the acid (or fowre) oyl of common
ing common water thereunto, it

doing Vitriol, doth precipitate all metals and ftoncs of

hold on them. The way of it is thus.
beafts or fifhes ; alfo pearls and corals, they being
Mars and Venus. firft diffolved in fpirit of fait or of Nitre, and mak-
How to make the Vitriol of
eth fair light powders of them (which by the Apo-
came over, -viz,. thecaries are called Magifteries j much fairer than by
TAkc of yourwith
heavy oyl, as
phelgm (but that the Vola-
jnft it
precipitation with fait of Tartar is done, efpecially
be drawn off from it firft j as much as you of corals and pearls, fuch a fair gliftering and deli-
tile fpirit
cate powder is made and likewife alfo of mother
pleafe, put it into a glafs body together with
plates ;

warm fand, and let it of pearl, and other fhels of fnailes, that it giveth as
of copper or iron, fet it in
diffolve no more of the fair a glofs to them, as the faireft oriental pearls
boyl until that the oyl will
through have which way hath not? been made common hi-
metal, then power off the liquor, filtre it
therto, but being known only to few, hath been kept
brown paper, and put it into a low gourd glafs, and
evaporate until very fecretby them, as a fiugular Art Sjch Magi-
fet it in fand, and let the phlegm
skin at the top, then let the fire go fteries commonly were precipitated out of vinegar
there appear a
only by fait of Tartar, which for lightnefs, white-
out, and the glafs grow cool ; then fet it in a cold
there, will fhoot fair nefs and not cor^ i^jrable at all to ours :
fair glofs are
place, and within fome days
of Copper, then if But if inftead of the oyl of Vp
.ol you take oyl of ful-

Cryllals; if of Iron, greenifli ;

take them out and dry them up- phur, then thefe powders will be fairer than when
fomething blewilh ;
the remaining liquor, which did they are done by the oyl of Vitriol, in fo much,
on filtering paper,
and that they may be -ufed for painting for a black
not fhoot into Vitriol, evaporate again in fand,
before ; continue this proceed- skin.
then let it llioot as
until all the folution (or filtred liquor j be turn- Having made mention of Magifteries, I cannot for-
bear to difcover the great abufe and error, which
ed to Vitriol. This Vitriol is better and purer than
is committed in the preparing of them.
the common for it yieldeth a better Volatile fpirit,

did fet down the way how to paracclfiis in his Archidoxes teacheth to make Ma-
and for that reafon I
which he calleth extratled Magifteries :
make it. There may alfo be made a good Vitriol gifteries,
but fome of his difciples teach to make precipitated
ofboth thefe metals by the means of ordinary yel-
but becaufe the making of it is more Magifteries which are different from the former.
low brimftone ;
Paracelfiis is clean of another opinion in the prepa-
tedious, than of this here fet down, I_ think it need-
defcribe its preparation in this place.
ring of his Magifteries, than others in the making
lefs to
of theirs : doubtlefs P(tracetfns his Magifteries were
Pbilo/ofbkal Furnaces. >9
good cordial living medicines, whereas the other are vomit it may be dlminilhed in fome mcafure. But
but dead carkafes, and although they be never fo fair, becaufe that not every one can abide vomiting, it is
white and gliftering, yet in tik(X they prove but a therefore no wifdome to turn evil into worfe. Shall
grofs earthy fubltance, deftitute of vertue. then this tartar be killed and deftroyed by contra-
I do not deny,
but that good medicines may be ries, which indeed in fome fort may be effcded ; as
extraded out of pearls and corals, for 1 ray felf when you ufe vegetables or animals, whofe vertue
alfo do defcribe the preparations of fome of them j confifteth in a volatile fait: fuch are all fpecies or
but not at all after fuch a way as theirs is- For what forts of crefles, Muftard-fecd, horfe-radifh, fcurvy
good or exalting can be expefted by fuch a pre- grafs, alfo the fpirit of Tartar, of Harts-horn, and
paration, where a ftony matter is dilfolved in cor- of urine and the like, which by reafon of their pe-
rofive waters, and then prcciptated into ftone again ? netrating faculty pafs through all tlic body, finding
Can its vertue be increafed thereby ? furely no, but out the Tartar thereof, dcltroying the fame, as be-
rather it is diminifhed, and made much the worfe ing contrary unto it ; and in this combat tv;o con-
thereby- For it is well known, that the corrofive trary natures is kindled, a great burning heat, where-
fpirits (no lefs than fire) do burn foms certain by the whole body is throughly heated and brought
things ; for not all things are made better by fire or to fweating ; and whenfoever by thefc contraries a
corrofives, but molt of them are abfolutely fpoy- fweating is caufed, there is always mortified fome of
led by them- Some perchance will fay, that fuch this hurtful Tartar- But becaufe that of that acid
preparations of Magifteries are onely for to be re- humor but a little at a time can be mortified and e-
duced into a finer powder, that fo much the fooner dulcorated by contrary volatile fpirits, and that
they may perform their operation- To which I therefore it would be required to ufe them often, for
anfwer, that pearls, corals, and other things of the to kill and expell all the Tartar and becaufe alfo

like nature, if they be once difiblved by corrofive (as hath been mentioned before) a ftrong fweat al-
waters, and then precipitated and edulcorated, never ways is caufed by every (uch operation, whereby the
or hardly can be diflblved again by acid fpirits. natural fpirits are much weakened, fo that the pati-
Whence it is evident that by fuch preparations they ent would not be able to hold out long thereby, but
a; e not opened or made better, but rather clofed or by taking away of one evil, another and greater one
made worfe. And we fee alfo by daily e.'vperience would be occafioned.
that thofe Magifteries do not thofe efFerts, which And therefore fuch things muft be offered to that
are afcribed unto them. By which it appeareth hungry acid humour, by which the corrofive nature
clearly, that to the Archeus of the ftomach they thereof, may be mortified and grow fweet, with that
are much lefs grateful than the crude unprepared provifo neverthelefs, that thofe things be fuch as
corals and pearls \ whofe tender eflence being not are not contrary or hurtful to the nature of man,
burnt up by corrofives, do oftentimes produce good but grateful and friendly, as are corals, pearls and
efFeds. For our Anceftors have afcribed unto co- crabs eyes, &c.
rals and pearls, that they purifie the impure and For amongft all ftones none are more eafily to
corrupt blood in the whole body, that they expel be diffolved than Pearls, Corals, Crabbs-eyes, and
Melancholly and fadnefs, comforting the heart of other ftones of filhes-
man, and making it merry, which alfo they eSeftu- But the truth of this, viz.. that every corrofive is
ally perform whereas the Magifteries do not. And killed by feeding upon pearls and corals, and there-

this is the reafon , why unprepared corals, pearls by can be made fweet \ and befides> how a fowre co-
and ftones of fifhes have more effed, than the burnt agulated Tartar, by the help of corals or pearls
Magifteries. For it is manifeft and well known, that may be reduced to a fweet liquor (a pleafant and ac-
the abovefaid difeafes for the moft part do pro- ceptacle medicine to the nature of manj which ne-
ceed from obftrudtions of the fpleen, which ob- ver can be coagulated again by any means, ftiall
ftrudions are nothing elfe, but a tartarous juice or be afterwards proved and taught when I (hall come
a fowre flegme which hath pofiefted and filled up to treat of Tartar.
the entrals, and coagulated it felf within them- By Now in tartareous coagulations and obftrudions
which obftrurtion not only head-ach, giddinefs, pan- of the internals proceeding from the predominancy
ting of the heart, trembling of the limbs, a fponta- of an acid humor there is no better remedy, than to
neous lafiitude, vomits, unnatural hunger ; alfo, give the patient every morning fafting from ^fs. to
loathing of vidtuals^ then cold, then hot flnlhing 5 i- fmore ob lefs, according to the condition of the
fits, and many more ftrange fymptomes are caufed ; patient) of red corals and pearls made into powder,
but alfo a moft hurtful rottennefs and corruption is and to let him faft two or three hours upon it,
introduced into the whole mafs of blood, from and fo to continue daily until you fee amendment
whence the leprofie, fcurvey, and other loathforae By this means the hurtful acid humor is mortified,
or abominable fcabs do fpring. and dulcified by the corals and pearls, {o that after-
Of which evil the onely caufe (as hath been faid^ wards it may be overcome by nature, whereby the
is a crude acid Tartar, from which fo many great obftruftions are removed, and the body freed from
difeafes do rife. the difeafe.
This to be fo may be proved ^ for it is
eafily This ray opinion of the abufe of Magifteries and the
notorious, that melancholick folks, hypocondriaques, good ufe of Corals 1 could not conceal, although I do
and others do often caft up a great quantity of ^a- know for certain, that it will take but with few, in
cid humor, which is fo fharpe that no vinegar is regard that it will feem very ftrange to moft. How-
comparable to it, and doth fet their teeth on fuch ever, happily there may be fome yet, that will not
an edge, as if they had eaten unripe fruit. be unwilling to fearch into the truth, and to confider
What remedy now ? take away the caufe and the further of it, and at laft will find this not to be fo
difeafeis taken away. If you could take away the ftrange, as it feemed to them at the firft : but he that
peccant matter by purgings, it would be well, but cannot believe or comprehend it, may keep to his
it remaineth obftinate and will not yield to them. By Magifteries.
F^ And
20 The Second Part of
fo ftrange unto any, that corals or
they had made the fteel more foluble (whereas they
And if it feem
made more
it infoluble J than it was of it felf before,
pearls made into powder fliall be conceded in the
then they had done a good work for he that know-
and fo put forth their vertue, what will
eth fulphur, doth know well enough, that by no^-
you fay then, if I do prove, that even whole pearls,
totally cjnafortis or Aqua Regis it can be dilfolved and how
crabs eyes, and corals being fwallowed, are

confumed by the Melancholy humor, fo that nothing how could it then be confumed by an animal humor ?
Hitherto hath been pr,
cometh forth again among the excrements ? and
it fufficiently, that in

more, may befaid of hard and fome men, efpecially in thole mat are of a Melancho-
which is e'ven the like
lick conftitution there is an acid humor, which can
Compad metals, as Iron,and Speaucer or Zinck : But
a Me= fufiiciently diflblve all eafily foluble metals and
this muft be underftood only of thofe that are of
ftones and that therefore needlefs to torture,
lancholick conftitution but not fo in others, v:z,, thofe
: it is

and diflblve pearls, corals and the like with corro-

that are of a fanguine,and thofe that are of aphlcgma--
waters before they be adminiftred to patients
tick conftitution, to whom fuch like things are feldpm
but that the Archeus of the ftomach is ftrong enough
prefcribed. For I have feen many times, thatagamft
obftruaions, to ftrong bodies there .hath been given by the help of the faid humors to confurae thofe eafi-
ly foluble things, and to accept of that which ferv-
at once from 9fs. to 3 i. of the lliavingsor filings of
eth his turn, and to rejed the reft-
Iron, and they found much good by it, yea more
help then by other coftly medicines of the Apothe-
But it is not my intent here, that this (hould be un-
derftood of all metals and ftones ^ for I knov/ well,
caries, whereof they had ufed many before, but to
that other metals and ftones ffome excepted j before
no purpofe, by reafon whereof their excrements came
from them black, jull as it ufeth to fall out with thofe they are duly prepared, are not fit for Phyfick, but
that makeufe of medicinal fowre waters, which run
muft be fitted firft, before they be adminiftred or
given unto patients.
through iron mines, and thereby borrow a fpiritual
mineral vertue. For this relation I made only for to ftiew, how
fometimes good things (though with intent to make
Now if thofe filings of iron had not been confumed
are them better) are made vvorfe, and fpoiled by thofe
in the ftomach, how come it that the excrements
that do not make an exaft fearch into nature and her
turned black ? fo then it is fufficiently proved, that
even a hard unprepared metal can be confumed in
well foft pearls I hope this my admonition will not be taken ill,
the ftomach : and if fo, why not as
becaufe my aim was not vain-glory, but only the
and corals .'

Which is that are

alfo to be feen by children,
good of my neighbour-
troubled with worms, be given unto them
if there Now let us return again to Vitriol.
filings of
4, 6,8. to 12- or i6. grains of the fineft
ft'eel or iron, that all the worms in the body are Of the fweet oyl of yitriol.

killed thereby, their ftomach and guts fcowred very

clean, and their ftools alfo turned black. But this
THE Ancients make mention of a fweet and green
oyl of Vitriol, which doth cure the falling fick=
muft be obferved by children, when the are
(becaufe that the nefs, killeth worms, and hath other good qualities
l^illed, and yet remain in the guts

iron fmal quantity is not ftrong enough for to ex-

in a
and vertues befides : and that the Oyl is to be diftil-
pel them, but only make the body foluble) that a
led fer defcerfum. To attain unto this oyl the la-
ter Phyfitians took great paines, but all in vain : be-
purge muft be ufed after, for to carry them out ; for
caufe they did not underftand at all the Ancients a-
elfe if they do remain there, others will grow out of
their fubftance- But to thofe that are more in years, bout the preparing of this oyl, but thought to get
fo much the ftronger, as from it by the force of fire, and fo ufing violent diftilla-
you may give the Dofe
worms alfo may be carryed out, tion, they got no fweet oyl, but fuch as was very
3 i. to oi. that the
they being bettr able to endure it than little chil- fowre and corrofive, which in tafte, efficacy and ver-
dren, and although fometimes a vomit doth come, yet tue, was not comparable at all to the former.

it doth no hurt, but they will be but fo much the

However they afcribed unto it (though falfely)
healthier afterward. the fame vertues, which the ancients (according to
And thus may
be ufed, not only againft
Iron truth) did unto theirs. But daily experience fiiew-

worms, but ftomach-agues, head-ach,

alfo againft all eth, that the oyl of vitriol as it is found ordinarily,

and obftruitions of the whole body, without any cureth no falling ficknefs, nor killeth worms, where-
danger and very fuccefsfully, as a grateful or very as this Philofophical doth it very quickly. Whence

for after a powerful it appeareth, that the other is nothing like unto the
acceptable medicine to Nature ,

magnetical way it doth attrad all the ill humors in the true medicinal oyl of vitriol, neither is it to be com=

body, and carrieth them forth along with it. Of pared to it-
1 muft confefs indeed, that
pf defcenfum out of
whofe wonderful vertue and nature, there is fpoken
common vitriol by the force of the fire , there
more at large in my Treatife of the Sympathy and ,

may be got a greenilh oyl, which yet is not bet-

Antipathy of things. Which fome Phyfitians per-
ceiving and fuppofing by Art to make it better, they ter than the other, becaufe it proveth as (harp in taft,

fpoiled it, and made it void of all vertue for they :

and of as corroding a quality, as if it had been di-
taking a piece of fteel, made it red-hot, and held it ftilled through a Retort-
againft a piece of common Sulphur, whereby the fteel Thofe that found out this oyl, as Paracelfiis, Ba-
fillus , and fome few others, did always highly e-
grew fubtle, fo they did let it drop into a velTel
filled with water ; then they took it out, and dryed
fteem it, and counted it one of the four main pil-
it, and made it into powder, and ufed it againft ob- lars of Phyfick. And Paracdfns faith exprefly in
writings, that its viridity or greennefs muft not
ftruftions, but to no elFed almoft ; for the Iron was his

fo altered by the fulphur, and reduced to an infoluble be taken away or marred (which indeed a very little
fubftance (which ought not to have been foj that it heat can do; by thefire,for f faith he; if it be depriv-
could perform no confiderable operation ut; if :
ed of its greennefs, it is deprived alfo of its effica-
Philofofhical FurmccT. 2t

cy and pleafant cflence. Whence it maybe perceiv-

ed fufTiciencly, that this fweet green oyl is not to The freparation of the fweet oyl of Fttriol;

be made by the force of the fire as hitherto by ma-

ny hath been attempted, but in vain. Commonly in all fat foylesor clayie grounds, ef-

And it is very probable, that the ancients, which pecially in the white, there is found a kinde cf

did fo highly praife theoyi of vitriol, happily knew ftones, round or oval in form, and in bigncfs like

nothing of this way of diftilling, which is ufed by unto a pigeons or hens-egg, and fmaller alfo, ^/^. ns
us now a days they only fimply followed Na-
: for the joynt of ones finger, on the outfidc black, and
ture, and had not fo many fubtle and curious inven- tlierefore not eftcemed when
found, but caft ^- it is

tions and ways of diftilling. way as a contemptible ftone. Which if it be ciennf-

But however it is certain, that fuch a fweet and cd from the earth, and beaten to pieces, looks with-
green oyl cannot be made of vitriol by the force of in of a fair yellow and in ftreaks, like a goldMarca-
the fire, but rather muft be done by purification, af- fite, or a rich gold Oare, but there is no other taile
ter a fingular way ; for the Ancients many times to be perceived in it, then in another ordinary
underftood purification for diftillation : as it is evi- ftone ; and although it be made into powder, and
dent, when they fay, diftill through a filtre, or boy led a long time in water, yet it doth not alter at
through filtring paper : which by us is not accoun- all, nor is there in the water any other talle or co-
ted for diftillation, but by them it was. lour, than that which it had fuft (when it was poured
However, this is true and veryfure, that a great upon the ftone) to be perceived. Now this itone is
Treafure of health (or for the health of man) lyeth nothing elfe, but the beft and pureft Minera (or Oare)
hidden in Vitriol: yet not in the common, as it is of Vitriol, or a feed of Metals^ for ^N^ature hath
fold every where, and which hath endured the heat framed it round, like unto a vegetable feed, and
of the fire already \ but in the Oare as it is found fowed it into the earth, out of which there ;nay
in the earth, or its mine- For as foon as it com- be made an excellent medicine, as followeth.
eth to the day light, it may be deprived by the heat Take this Oare or Minera beaten into pieces, and
of the Sun of its fubtle and penetrating fpirit, and fo for fome fpace of time, lay or expofe it to the cool
made void of vertue which fpirit, if by Art it be
air, and within twenty or thirty days it will magne-

got from thence, fmelleth fweeter then musk and tically attrafl a certain faltidi moyfture out of the

amber, which is much to be admired, that in fuch air, and grow heavy by it, and at laft it falkth
a defpicable mineral and grofs fubftancc (as it is funder to a black powder, which muft remain furtl-,cr
deemed to be by the ignorant) fuch a royal medi- lying there ftill, until it grow whitifii, and that ic
cine is to be found. do tafte fweet upon the tongue like viiriol. After-
Now preparation doth not belong to this
this ward put it in a glafs-vefiel, and pour on fo mucii
place, bccaufe we treat here only of fpirits, which fair rain water, as that it cover it one or two inches
by the force of fire are driven over- Likewife alfo, ftir it about feveral times in a day, and after a few

there doth not belong hither the preparation of the days the water will be coloured green, which you
green oyl, becaufe it is made without the help of muft powreofF, and powreon more fair water, and
fire. But in regard, that mention hath been made proceed as before, ftirring it often until that alfo
of it here, I will (though I kept it always very fe- come to be green : this muft be repeated fo often,
cret) publilh it for the benefit of poor patients, ho- until no water more will be coloured by ftanding up-
ping that it will do much good to many a fick on it- Then let all the green waters which you pou-
man. red off, run through filtring paper, for to purifie
For be well prepared, it doth not only cure
if it them and then inaglafs-body cut ofFfliort let them

perfe(n:ly every Epilepfie or Convulfion in young and evaporate till a skin appear at the top then fet it:

old ; and likewife readily and without fail killeth all in a cold place, and there will fhoot little green
worms within and without the body, as the Ancients ftones, which are nothing elfe but a pure vitriol :

with truth afcribed unto it ; but alfo many Chroni- the remaining green water evaporate again, and let
cal difeafes and fuch as are held incurable, may be it flioote as before and this evaporating and Cry-

happily overcome and expelled thereby, as the ftallifing muft be continued until no vitriol more will
plague, pleurefie, all forts of feavers and agues, what flioote, but in warm and cold places there remain ftill
ever they be called, head-ach, collick, rifing of the a deep green pleafant fweet liquor or jnyce which :

mother; alfo all obftruJlions in the body, efpecially is the true fweet and green oyl of Vitriol, and haih

of the fpleen and liver, from whence Mdu?ichoUa all the vertues above related.
Hyfochoiidriacii^ the fcurvy, and many other intole- But now this green oyl further without fire may at
rable difeafes do arife Alfo the blood in the whole
: laft (after the preparing of many fair colours be-
body is by the means thereof amended and renewed, tween) be reduced to a blood red, fweet and pleafant
fo that the Pox, Leprofie, and other like difeafes pro- oyl, which goeth far beyond the green both in plea-
ceeding from the infeftion of the blood are eafily fantnefs and vertue, and is in comp-irifon to ic like
cured thereby: Alfo it healeth fafely and admi- a ripe grape to an unripe Hereof happily (liall be

rably all open fores and ftinking ulcers turned to fpoken at another time, becaufe occafion and time
fiftula's in the whole body, and from what caufe fo e = will not permit me now to proceed further in it. And
ver they did proceed, if they be anoynted there- therefore the Philo-Chymical Reader is defired for
with, and the fame alfo be inwardly ufed befides. the prefent to be contented with the green oyh to
Such and other difeafes more (which it is needlefs prepare it carefully, and to ufe it with difcretion ,

here to relate) may be cured fuccefsfully with this and doubtlefs he will get more credit by it, and do
fweet oyl efpecially, if without the lofs of its
more wonderful things then hixherto hath been done
fweetnefs it be brought to a red colour ^ for then it by the heavy corrofive oyl-
will do more then a man dare write of it, and it
may ftand very well for a Panacea in all difeafes.

22 The Second Tart of
fame form and fhape, until it cometh to the air,
The II fs and Dofe of the [met oylof Vitriol. which is its earth or ground, wherein it putrefieth
and groweth. For firft it fwelleth and groweth like
>F this green oy], there may be taken from i. 2. as a vegetable feed doth in the earth and fo taketh:

^ 4.8. lo. or 12. drops at once, according to its increafe and grows out of the air, jufl as a feed of

the condition of the patient and the difeafe, in fit anhearb in the earthy and the air is not only itsMa-
tri.v, wherein it groweth and doth increafe like a
Vehicles in Vv ine or Beer, in the morning fafting,
as other medicines are iifually taken Alfo the Dofe : vegetable, but it is alfo its Sun which raaketh it ripe.
may be increafed or lelTened, and as often reiterated For within four weeks at the furtheft it putrefieth
as rhe difeafe Ihall require. and groweth black and about a fourtnight after it

This Oyl expelleth all ill humors, not only by groweth white, and then green ; and thus far it
ftoolc and vomits, but alfo by urin and fweating, hath been defcribed here : But if you proceed fur-
according as it doth meet with fuperfliiities; and ther Philofopher-like therewith, there will come
this very fafely, and without any danger at all j
forth to light at the laft the faireft red, and moll
u'hereby many difcafes radically or perfeflly may pleafant Medicine, for which God be praifed for ever
be cured. and ever. Amen.
Let no man wonder that I afcribe fuch great ver-
tucs unto this oyl, it coming from fuch a defpicable Of the SulphHreCHS "volatile and Acid fpirit of common
li:onc, and its preparation requiring no great Art or
Salt^ and of Allome,
paincs, as thofc intricate deceitful procelfes do, that
are every where extant in books quite filled up with THefor fame way, which above
the making of the
hath been taught
them. And it is no marvel, that men are in love of vitri-
volatile fpirit

with fuch falfe and coftly proceffes^ for the moft ol, muft be likewile ufed in the making of the vola-*
of them do not believe, that any good is to be found tile fpirits of conmion fait and allome.

in things that are not in efteem ; but only make

The manner of preparing.
great account of dear things, far fetcht, and requi-
ring much time and paincs for to be prepared.
Such men do not believe the word of God, tefti- ALlome is to be caft in as it is of it felf, without

fying, That Gud is po refpeH^er of

['Crfons, but that mi.King of it, but fait muft be mixed with bole,

all men that fear and love him, are accepted of him. or fome other earth, to keep it from melting with :

If this be true (which no good Chriftian will doubt j the fpirit volatile, there goeth alfo along an acid

then we miift believe alfo, that God created Phy- whofc vertue
fpirit, is defcribed in the firft part.

lick or the matter of Phyfick as well

for the poor The Oyl of Allome hath almoft the like operation
as for the rich. Now if it be alfo for the poor, with the oyl of vitriol. Alfo the fpirit volatile of
then certainly fuch will be the condition thereof, both theie, is of the fame nature and condition with
that it may be obtained by them, andeafily prepa- that which is made of vitriol: but common fait, and

red for ufe. So we fee that Almighty God caufeth allome, do not yield fo much, as vitriol ; unlefs both,
not only in great mens grounds to come forth good
viz.. fait and allome be mixed together, and fo a
Vegetables, Animals and Minerals, for the curing of fpirit diftilled of them.
the infirmities of mankind, but that the fame alfo are
volatile fpirit of Minerals and Me^
found every where elfe. Whereby we perceive, that Of the ftilphureous
and of their preparation,
the will of God, that they (hall be known
it is alfo
by all men, and that he alone, as the Maker of all
Sllch a penetrative fulphureous fpirit may be made
good, may be praifed and magnified by all men for
alfo of Minerals and Metals, which in vertue go-
the fame.
I doubt not but that there will be found felf-con- eth beyond the fpirit of vitriol, that of common fait,
ceited fcoffers, that wiltdefpife this fo little regard= and that of allome, -viz.- after the following man-
ed fubjeft, as if no good thing could be made of it, ner.

bccaufe they could (ind nothing in it themfelves. But

be it known to them, that neither to me nor them all
Tk preparation of the volatile fpirits of Metals.

things have been difcovered, but that yet many

DIflblve either Iron or Copper, or Lead or Tin
wonderful works of Nature arc hidden to us and :

with the acid fpirit of vitriol, or of common

bcfidesthat I amnotthefirft that writ of Vitriol and
dear Anceflors, fait: abftra-.T; or draw off the phlegm then drive
its medicine. For the Ancients, our

had always Vitriol in very great efteem, as the fol- the acid fpirit again from the Metal, and it will car-
lowing Verfe doth prove. ry along a volatile fpirit, which by redifying muft
be feparated from the corrofive fpirit. And fuch Me=
ytfitabis Jnteriora Terra, Rcciificando tallical fpirits are more effeftual than thofe that are

Jnvenies Occulttm L,ipdtm^ Vtram Mediciram. made of the falts.

they would give us to underftand, that The preparation of the volatile fpirit of Minerals.
a true medicine is to be found in it- And the fame
alfo was known to the latter Philofophers : for
Ba- TAke of Antimony made into fine pouder, or
lilts and Paracelfiis have always highly commended
golden Marcafite, or of fome other fulphure-
it, as in their writings is to be
found. ous Mineral , which you pleafe, two parts, mix
It is to be admired, that this Oare
or Metallical therewith one part of good purified Salt nitre, and
feed, which may juftly be called the gold of Phy- caft in of that mixture a fmall quantity , and then a-

fitians Tin regard that fo good a medicine

can be made nother, and fo forth after the manner above defcri-
of not changed or altered in the earth, like o-
it) is
bed ; and there will come over a fpirit which is not
inferiour to the former in efficacy and vertue but it
ther things that grow in it, but keepeth always the

muft alfo be well redified.
Pbilo/opbical Furnaces.

Mother way. Of the life of the red volatile fpirit

CEment what laminated or granulated Metal you THis volatile fpirit, which (being quite freed from
pleafe , ( except gold ) with half as much in * flegm) remaineth always red, and doth look
vveighc of common fiilphur , clofed up in a ftrong like blood, in all occafions may
be accounted like in
melting pot or crucible, fuch as doth not let the ful- vertue unto the former fulphureous fpirits,
phurgo through, for the fpace of half an hour, until in extinguifhing of inflammations
and Gangreens it
that the fulphur hath penetrated and broken the IS a great treafure, clothes being
dipt in it, and laid
plates of Metal: Then beat them into powder, mix upon the grieved place Alfo
goeth almoft beyond
i it
them with the like quantity in weight of common all other medicines in the
Eryfipelas and colick and :

fait, andfodiltil it after the way above mentioned, if there be any congealed blood in the body
and you will get a volatile fpirit of great vertue : came by a fall or blow) this fpirit outwardly
and every fuch fpirit is to be ufed for fuch fpecial with fuch waters as are proper for the grief,
part or member of the Body, as the Metal is pro- alfo taken inwardly, doth diffolve and cxpell
it and :

per fr, out of which the fpirit is made. So fil- being mingled with the volatile fpirit of urin it
verfor the brainy Tinn for the lungs, Lead for the yield a wonderful kind of fait, as hereafter
Ihall be
fpleen, and fo forth. taught.

The fpirit of Zinc^. The nfe of the mhite acid fpirit of fait nitre.

OF Zinck there both a volatile and

is diftilled
good for the heart ; whe-
alfo an acid fpirit,
THenotheavy and corrofive
much ufed though it be found
in Phyfick,
fpirit of fait nitre 19

ther it be made by the help of the fpirit of vitri- almofl: in all Apothecaries fliops, and there is
kept for
ol, or of fait, or of allome or elfc by the means of
: fuch ufe, as above hath been mentioned of the fpiric
Sulphur ^ for Zinck is of the nature of gold- of vitriol, VIZ.. to make their conferves, and cool-
ing-drinks taft fowrilh.- Alfo it is ufed by fome
The volatile fpirit of the Drofsof RcgHlns Mortis. the colick, but it is too great a corrofive,
and too
grofs to be ufed for that purpofe and although its

black fcoria of the Rtgulus Manis^ being firfl

THc fain afwnder in the air, yields likewife a very
corrofivenefs may be mitigtated in
fome meafure,
by adding of water thereto, yet in goodnefsand
ftrong fulphureous volatile fpirit, not much unlike tue it is not comparable at all to the volatile
in vertue unto the former. but is as far different from it, as black from white'
T he like Sulphureous volatile fpirits be made may and therefore the other is fitteft to be ufed in Phy-
alfo of other minerals, which for brevities fake we ITck^ but this in dealing with metals and minerals,
omit, as alfo in regard, that they are almoft the for to reduce them into vitriols, calxes, flores, and
fame in vertue. crocus-

How to Tnake a rrhite acid, mid a red volatile fpirit out of jAqua Regis.
fait mtre-
you di/ToIve common
Twhich hath been de-
IFcrepitated fait
TAke two of Allome, and one part of fait
parts acid fpirit of fait nitre,
firft; in this
nitre, make them both into powder> mix them redifie it by a glafs retort in fand j by a good
well together, and caft into the ftill a little and a lit- fire. It will be fo ftrong, that it
is able to diflblve
tle thereof, as above in the making of other fpirits gold, and all other metals and minerals,
except fil-
hath been taught, and there cometh over an acid ver and fulphur ; and feveral metals may
by the
fpirit together with the volatile fpirit ; and fo many means thereof be feparated much better than by that
pounds as there is of the materials, which are to be Aqua regia which hath been made by adding of Salt
caft in, fo many pounds of water mull be put into Armoniack. But if you redifie itv]\thlap:s cal.imina-
the receiver, to the end that the volatile fpirits may ns or Ziack, it will be ftronger yet, fo as to
be able to
fo much the better be caught and faved- And when diflblve metals and Minerals ffilver and fulphur ex-
the diftillation is performed, the two fpirits may be cepted) whereby in the handling of Metals, much
feparated by the means of a gentle reftification made more may be efFeaed, than with common fpirit of
in Batfieo ; and you muft take good heed, that you fait nitre or Aqua fortis, as hereafter fliall be
get the volatile fpirit pure by changing the receiver and firft in the preparing of gold.
in good time, fo that no flegme be mixed with the
i-ed fpirit, whereby it will be weakened and turn The Preparation of Awrtim Fulminans^ or Attrnm
white. The mark whereby you may perceive, whi- Tonitruans.
ther the fpirit or the flegme doth go forth is this :

when the volatile fpirit goeth, then the

lookcth of a deep red : and afterward when the
receiver TAke of granulated or laminated gold (whis
ther be refined by Antimony or Acina fonts )
flegme doth come, the receiver looks white again : as much as you pleafe put it in a little Glafs

and laftly, when

the heavy acid fpirit goeth, then body, and pour four or five times as much of Aqua
the receiver to be red again, but not fo as it was, regis upon it, fet it ftopt with a Paper in a
when the firft volatile fpirit came over. in warm fand \ and the Ac\ua regis within the fpace
This fpirit may alfo be made and diftilled after of one or two hours will diflblve the gold quite in-
another way, viz.. mixing the fait nitre with twice to a yellow water but if it have not done fo,

as much bole or brick dnft, and fo framed into little it is a fign that either the water was not ftrong
balls to prevent melting : but no way is fo good as
enough, or that there was too little of it for to
the firft ; efpecially when you will have the red vo- Then pour the folution from the gold,
diflblve it.
latile fpirit.
G i which
The Second Part of
feverally double together, and the dry
which is not diiTolved yet, into another ^.lafs, and paper lying
Regia upon the gold fet paper will attraft all the moiftnefs out ^of the gold
pour more of frelh ylf^a :

it again to dilfolve in warm land or allies,

and the calx, fo that the gold will be dryed the fooner-
remaining gold will likewife be diflblved by it, and
Which being dry, take it out of the filtering pa-
white per, and put it into another that is clean , and fo
then there will remain no more, but a little
calx, which is nothing elfe but filver ,
which could lay it afide, and keep it for uTe. The fait water
the Jiqu-i that came through by filtering, may be evaporated
not be dilToIved by the ^?^ l^cgiA Cfor
Regia, whether it be made after the common way in a little glafs body fftanding in fandj to thedry-
with common falt,doth nefs of the fait, which is to be kept from the air:
with fait Armoniack,or elfe
not diflblve filver; lb in like manner common A-
for it is likewife ufeful in Phyfick \ becaufe fome

qmfortis^ orfpirit of ftlt nitre dillolveth no gold , vertue of the nature of gold is yet hidden in it
though one would not think it, in regard that it is
bat all other metals are dilTolved as well by ftrong
Aqi'-i fortis as by y^qiu Regia. And therefore you fo fair, bright and clear , which for all that may

muft bz careful to take fuch gold as is not mixed be obferved by this, that when you mek it in a
clean covered crucible or pot, and pour it after-
with Copper, elfe your work would be fpoiled :

for if there were any Copper mixed with it, then ward into a clean Copper morter or bafon T being
and precipitated firft made warm) you get a purple-coloured fait,
that likewife would be dilTolved
together with the gold and
; it would be a hindrance whereof 6,9, 12, to 24. grains given inwardly, doth
kindling or fulminating thereof but if you cleanfe and purge the ftomach and bowels, and efpe-
to the :

cially it is ufeful in feavers and other difeafes of

ran get no gold, that is without Copper, then take
Ducats or Rofc-noblcs, which ought to have no Ad- the Itomach. Bat in the crucible , out of which
dition of Copper, but only of a little Silver, which the fait hath been poured , you will find an earthy

doth not hurt, becaufe that it cannot be dilTolved fubftance, which hath feparatedit felf from the fait,
the bottom in and looketh yellowifli , this being taken out and
by the yJqaa Rgt.i-, but rcmaineth in
Ducats Rofe-no-- melted in a little crucible by a ftrong fire, turnetli
a white povvdei" Make thofe or
to a yellow glafs, which is impregnated with the
blcs red hot, and afterward bend them and make
them up in Rolls, and throw them into the ^^'ta Tinifture of Gold, afld doth yield a grain of Sil-
Regia for to difTolve- All the gold being turned ver in every regard like unto common cupellated
wherein no gold is found, which is to be
into a yellow water, and poured off, pour intoit by
admired: becaufe that all Chymifts are of opinion,
drops a pure oyl made of the Salt of Tartar, per
diU^ititvn.^ and the gold will be precipitated by the that no Aqia regia can diffolve filver which is true.

contrary liquor of Salt of Tartar into a brown yel-

Thequeftion therefore is, from whence or how this
filver came into the faltjfince no -'4(j.?^efrf doth dif-
low powder, and the folution will be clear- But
lblve filver ? whereupon fome perchance may an-
you muft take heed, to pour no more oyl of Tar-
tar into it than is needful for the precipitation of fwer, that it muft have been in the oyl of Tartar,

the gold j elfe part of the precipitated gold would in regard that many do believe , that the falts like

be diilblved again, 'and fo caufe your lofs- The wife may be turned into metals , which I do not
gold being well precipitated, pour off the Clearwa- gainfay, but only deny that it could have been done

ter from the gold calx by inclination, and pour here ; for if that filver could have been exiftent
upon it warm rain or other fweet water , ftir it in the Aqua Regia, or fait of Tartar Twhereas Aqua

together with a clean flick of wood, and fet it in a Regia cannot bear any ) it would have been precipi-
warm place, until the gold is fettled, fo that the tated together with the gold- But that it was no
water ftar.deth clear upon it again ; then pour it common filver, but gold which turned to filver af-
off, and pour on other frelh water, and let it ex- ter it was deprived of its Tinfture, t Ihall briefly
tract the faltnefs out of the gold calx and this endeavour to prove. For that the fait waters ( of
pouring off, and then pouring on of frefh water yiqm Regia and fait of Tartar) out of which the
again, mnft be reiterdted fo often, until no Iharpnefs gold hath been precipitated, is of that nature , be-
or faltnefs more be perceived in the water that fore it be coagulated to fait , though it be quite
hath been poured off : Then fet the edulcorated clear and white, that if you put a feather in it , it
gold into the Sun or another warm place for to will be dyed purple within few days, which pur-
dry. But you muft take heed that it have no grea- ple colour comes from the gold, and not from i'lU
ter heat than the heat of the Sun is in ^ay or ver, in regard that filver doth dye red or black :
'ju.-.e^ elfe it would kindle or take fire, and (efpe= and hence it appeareth, that the fait water hath re-
cially if there be much of it) give fuch a thunder- tained fomething of gold.
clap, that the hearing of thofe that ftandby, would Now fome body peradventure may ask, if that
be much endangered thereby, and therefore I ad= the faid fait water hath retained fome gold, how is it
vice you to beware, and cautious in the handling then, that in the melting, no gold comes forth , but
of it, left you run the hazard both of your gold only filver ? To which I anfwer, that fome falts are
and of your health by your over-fight- of that nature, that in the melting, they take from
I'here is alfo another way for to edulcorate your colour and foul ; whereof if the gold be
gold its

precipitated gold, vt:^. thus , Take it together truly deprived, it is then no

more gold , nor can
neither it filver, but remaineth only a
with the fait liquor , and pour it into a funnel be fuch i is

black body, good for nothing, which alfo

lined with brown Paper laid double, and fo let the volatile
water run through into a glafs vcllel, whereupon proveth much more unfixt than common Lead, not
the funnel doth reft, and pour on other warm wa= able to endure any force of fire, much lefs the cu-

ter^ and let it run through likewife ; do this again pel But like Mercmyov Arfenick^ vanifheth (or flyeth

and again , until that the water come from it as away) by a fmall heat. Hence it may be gathered,
Tweet as it was poured on. Then take the Paper that the fixednefs for fixity; of gold doth confift
with the edulcorated gold calx, out of the funnel, in its foul or Tinfture, and not in its body , and
lay it, together with the paper, upon other brown therefore it is credible , that gold may be
Philofofbical Furmces, =5
mized , its belt or purer part feparated from the ble to the nature of man , it can do no miracle.
Tingent medi-
grolfer ( or courfer ) and fo that a And although it be ufed to be given pcrfe from 6, 8,
cine (or Tincture) may be made of it- But whe- 12. grains to 9 1- for to provoke fweating in the
ther this be the right way, whereby the univerfal Plague, and other malignant feavers, yet it would
medicine of the ancient Philofophers ( by whofc never fucceed fo well as was expcLted. Some have
means all metals can be changed or tranfmuted in- mixed it with the like weight of common fulphur,
to gold^ is to be attained unto> I will not difpute and made it red hot (or calcined it) whereby they,
yet 1 believe that peradventure there may be ano- deprived it of its fulminating vertue, fuppoling thus
ther fubjed , endued with a far higher Tinifture to get a better medicine, but all in vain, foV the
than gold is, which obtained no more from nature, gold calx would not be amended by fuch a grofs'
than it doth need it felf for its own fixednefs. preparation. But how to prepare a good medicine
However, we may fafely believe, that a true Ani- out of Atriun fidmi/iM!!^ fo that it may be evident-
ma or Tinfturc of gold > if it be well feparated ly feen, that the gold is no dead body, nor unlit
from its impure black body, may be exalted and im- for phyfick , but that it may be made quick and
proved in colour fo that afterwards of an imperfed fit for to put forth or fliew forth thofe vcrtucs

body a greater quantity, than that was from which which it pleafed God to treafure up in it, 1 fliall
it was abftradled , may be improved and brought here briefly difcover.
to the perfe(n;ion of gold. But waving all this, it
Firft, get fuch an inflrument fas above hath
is ^rue and certain, that if the gold be deprived
been taught ) made for you out of Copper but
of its Tindlure, the remaining body can no more ,

not too big, nor with a lid at the top, but only
be gold i as is demonltrated more at large in my
Treatife ( dc Ado fuabliU vero ) of the true po-
with a pipe, unto which a receiver may be apply-
table Gold And this I mentioned here onely
ed, which muft not be luted to it ; but it fufllcech,
that the pipe enter far into the belly of the re-
therefore, that in cafe the lover of this Art , in
ceiver ; and at the lower part it muft have a flat
his work fhould meet perchance with fiich a white
bottom that it may be able to ftand over the
grain , he may know , from whence it doth pro- :

bottom there mufl: be a little hole with a little

I could have forborn to fee down the prepara-

door, that clofeth very exadly and there muft :

gold, and fave be alfo two little plates or fcales of filver or cop-
tion of the fulminating fo paper
per, as big as the nail of ones finger , whereupon
and time , in regard that it is defcribed by o-
the AHYHin fulmiiians is to be fet into the Inftru-
thers but becaufe I promifed in the firfl part

to teach how to make the flores of gold, and that

ment i which is to ftand upon a Trevet , under
thofe are to be made out of fulminating ( or thun-
which you are to lay.^fon^ burning Coals for to
dring ) gold , I thought it not amifs to defcribe warm or heat the bott6m*ithal. The Inftrument
its preparation, that the lover of this Art need not
together with the glafs Receiver being fo ordered,
that it ftands faft, and alfo the bottom thereof be-
firfl have his recourfe to another book for to find

out the preparation, but by this my book may be ing warmed or heated, then with little pincers one
furniflied with a perfed inltrudion for the making
of the little fcales, containing 2, 3, or 4. grains of
of the flores of gold, and this is the common way
Anrum fidmmans muft be conveyed upon the Inftru
for to make Aurum fnlmituvn^ known unto moft ment upon the warm bottom, and then fliut the
little door, and when the gold doth feci the hear,
Chymifts ; but in regard that eafily an error may
it kindleth and giveth a clap, and there is caufed
be committed in it, either by pouring on too much
of the liquor of Tartar ( efpecially when it is not a feparation, and efpecial unlocking of the gold :,

pure enough, fo that not all the gold doth preci- for as foon as the clap is done, the gold doth go

pitate J but part of it remaineth in the folution, through the pipe like a purple coloured fmoak in-
whereby you would have lofs or elfe , the gold *,
to the receiver, and flicks on every where like a
falling or precipitating into a heavy calx , which purple coloured powder. When the fmoak is va-
doth not fulminate well, and is unfit for to be fubli- niflied, which is foon done , then take the empty

med into flores. fcale out of the Inftrument or Oven , and fet it

Therefore I will here fet down another and much with the gold , which will likewife fulminate and
better way, whereby the gold may be precipitated yield its flores. Then
the firft being cooled in the
quite and clean out of the A(]iM Ke^U vvithout the mean time, is again and put in, inflead
to be filled

leaft lofs, and fo that it cometh to be very light of that which is empty, and taken out, putting in
and yellow, and doth fulminate twice as ftrong as one fcale after another by turns , continue it fo
the former , and there is no other difference be- long till you have got flores enough : After the
tween this and the former preparation, but only fubliraation is performed , let the Copper Vcflcl
that inflead of the oyl of Tartar, you take the grow cool , and then fweep or brufli the gold
fpirit of urine, or of fait armoniack for to preci- powder which is not fublimed with a haires foot,
pitate the diflblvcd gold thereby \ and the gold (as or goofe feather out of the veflcl, which powder
b"-fore faid ) will be precipitated much purer, than ferves for nothing, but to be melted with a little
It is done by the liquor of the fait of Tartar, and borax, and it will be good gold again, but onely

being precipitated, it is to be edulcorated and dry- fomewhat paler than it was before it was made in-
ed , as above in the firft preparation hath been
to fulminating gold. But the flores in the recei-
taught. ver cannot be bruflicd out thus, efpecially when
they are caft in with an addition of fait Nitre, as by
Tht ufe of yinrhm fnlminans. the flores of filver hereafter fliall be taught, becaufe
they are fomething moifl, and therefore pour in aj
T^Here is little to write of the ufe of Jarum much ofdephlegraed Tar tar ifed fpirit of wine unto
*- fulmina/is in phyfick ; for becaufe it is not it, as you think to be enough, for to wafli off the
unlockt, but is only a grois calx and not accepta- flores with. Thisdone> pour out the fpirit of wine,
H together
26 The Second Part of
together with the burnt Phoenix into a clean glafs, fliraifting and you are to reiterate, un-

with a long neck, fet it (being well luted firlt) into til almofl: all turned to Cryflials ; which
the filver is

a gentle Balneum, or into warm allies for fome you mufl; take out and, lay upon filtring paper to
dayes, and the fpirit of wine in the mean time dry, and fo keep it for fuch further ufe, as hereaf-
will be coloured with a fair red, which you mulb ter fliall be taught. The remaining folution, which
pour off and then pour on other fredi fpirit and fet is not cryftallifed, you may in a copper veffel by add-

it in a warm place for to be diflblved, this being ing of fweet water thereto, precipitate over the fire
likewife coloured, put both the extracts together in into a calx, and then edulcorate and dry it, and keep
a little glafs body, and abftraiH; the fpirit of wine it for other ufe, or elfe melt it again into a body. Or

(in Balneo) from the Tindure, which will be a lit- elfe you may precipitate the fame vjith fait water,

tle mquantity, but of a high red colour and pleafant and fo edulcorate and dry it and you will have a ,

in tafte. The' remaining flores from which the Tin- calx, which doth melt by a gentle fire, and is of a
(fture is extvafted, may be with water walhed out fpecial nature, and in the fpirit of urin, of fait Ar-
of the glafs, and then dryed if they are to be mel- moniack, of Harts-horn, of Amber, of Soot, and of
ted ; and they will vield a little pale gold, and the hair it doth eafily diflblve ; and it may be prepared
molt part turneth into a brown glafs, out of which or turned into good medicines, as fliortly in our
perchance fomeching elfc that is good may be made, treating of the fpirit of urin (hafl be taught. Or
but unknown tome as yet. elfe, you may choofe not to precipitate the remain-
N- B. If you mix the Awum fulminans with ing folution of filver, but with the fpirit of uriu
fome before fulmination, then the (lores
flit nitre, toextradl an excellent Tindure, as hereafter fliall be
will be the more foluble, fo that they yield their taught*
Tindurefooner and more freely, than alone of them-
felves , and if you pleafe, you may adde thereto Of the life of the cryflals of filver.
thrice as much and fo fublime them in
fait nitre,
flores, in the fame manner, as fhall be taught for THefe cryftals may fafely be ufed in Phyfick a-
the making of the flores of iilver- lone by therafelvess, 6,9, 12- graines there-
of being mixed with a little fugar, or elfe made up
The life of the ThiClHre of Gold. into pills i they do purge very gently and without
danger i but by rcafon of their bitternefs they are
extrafted Tindure is one of the chiefeft of
THe thofe medicines, which comfort cheer up the &
fomewhat untoothfome to take-, alfo, if they be not
made up into piUs, they colour the lips, tongue and
heart of man, renew and reftore to youthfulnefs, and mouth quite black (but the reafon of that blacknefs
cleanfe the impure blocd^n the whole body, where- belongeth not to this place to treat of, but fliall by
by many horrible difeafes, as the leprofie, the pox, and by follow hereafter j Alfo if they touch metals,
and like may be rooted out. as Silver, Copper and Tin, they make them black
But whether this Tindture by the help of fire may and ugly, and therefore they are not much ufed.
be further advanced into a fixed fubftance I do not But if you put into the folution of filver fbefore
know : for I have not proceeded further in it, than it be reduced into Cryfl;als) half as much quickfilver
here is mentioned- as therewas of the filver, and fo diflx>lve them toge-
ther and afterwards let them fhoot together, there
Of the flores of fiver and of its medicine. willcome forth very fair little fquareftones like un-
to Allome, which do not melt in the air, as the for-
firfl: part of this book mer foliated ones ufe to do neither are fo bitter,
HAving promifed in the ;

(when I was defcribingthe preparation of flores and they purge alfo quicker and better, than thofe
oytof Metals) to teach in the fecond part to make that are made only of filver.
the flores of gold and filver, thofe of gold being
difpatcht there followeth now in order after the
-, How to fublime the Cryftals of filver into flores, and

gold, to fpeak alfo of filver and of its preparation, then to make a good Medicine of the flores.
which is to be thus performed.
Take of thin laminated or fmall granulated fine TAke of the foliated Cryfl:als of Silver as many as
filver as much as you pleafe, put it into a little fepa- you pleafe, and upon a grinding ftone made
rating glafs body, and pour upon it twice as much in warm firfl; , grind as much purified and well dryed
weight of reftified fpirit of fait nitre, and the fpirit fait nitre amongfl; it, then put into your Iron di-

of fait nitre will prefently begin to work upon the fl;illing veflel (to the pipe whereof there is to be

hlver and to difl'olve it. But when it will not dif- applyed and luted a great receiver) coles made into
folve any more in tlie cold, then you mufl: put the powder two inches high, and make a fire under it,
glafs body into warm fand or allies, and the water that the veflel every where together with the coles
will prefently begin to work again ,let the glafs Hand that are in it, become red hot. Then take off^ the
in the warm allies, until all the filver be diflblved- lid, and with a ladle throw in at once of your Cry-
Then put the folution out of the little glafs body, ftials of filver 3 i. more or lefs, according as you
into another fuch as is cut oft' at the top, and put on think that your receiver in regard of its bignefs is
a little head or Limbeck, and in fand abfliracT: the able to bear. This done, prefently put on the lid,
moity of the fpirit of fait nitre from the diflblved and the fait nitre together with the cryflals of filver
filver-,then let the glafs body remain in the fand till will be kindled by the coles that lye on the bottom
it be cool ; after take it out, and let it refl: for a of the veflel, and there will come forth a white fil-
day and a night, and the filver will turn into white fo- ver fume through the pipe into the receiver, and
liated cryftals, from which you mufl: pour off" the after a while when the cloud is vaniflied in the re-
the remaining folution which is not turned ; and ceiver, more, and continue this fo long, and
cafl: in

from thence abftraft again the moity of the fpirit, until all your prepared filver is cafl; in , then let it
and let it flioot or turn in a cold place and this ab- , cool , and take off the receiver, and pour into it
Philo/opbical Furnaces.
good Alcolized fpiiit of wine, and wafh the flores trencher-plates, falters, cups and other vefTels
with it out of the receiver, and proceed further of glafs , after the fame fafliion as thofe of
With them, as above you have been taught to proceed ufe to be made , you may very eafily and
with tlie gold, and you will get a greenifli liquor, any confiderable charge filver them over
which is very good for the brain. within and without , fb that by the eye they
Take the coles cut of the diftilling vedel, and not be difcerned from true filver place.
niai<e them into fine powder, and wafh them out Befides the above-related good Medicines, there
with water, to the end that the light coie-duft may may be made another ^'s.f}. efpccial good one out of
be got from it, and you will find much filver dult the cryftals offil/cr, viz.. di/lblving and digeftincr
(or a great many little Giver grainsj which the fait them ( for a fpace of time ) with the univer'fal wa-
nitre could not force overj which you may reduce, ter , which hath been diltilled by nature
ic felf ;
for it be good -lilver.
will and is known to every body and after its di^eftl

There may alfo be made a very good medicine out ing for a fliort time, and change into fevera" co-
of tliccryltals ot hlver, whicii will be little inferior lours there will be found a pleafancefrence, which

to the former, whereby the difeafes and infirmities IS not fo bitter as the above- dcfcribcd green li-
of the brain may be very well remedied, which is quor, which is not brought yet by heat to
done thus. nefs and maturation.
N. B- In this fweet univerfal Menftruum , may
Ho-x to make a green oyl out of Silver. alfo all other metals by a fmall heat and
the di-
geftion of a long time f)e ripened and fitted
POur upon Cryftals of filver twice or thrice as Medicines ( having firft been reduced into their
( in weight ) of the ftrongeft fpirit of
much trioisand falts) and then they are no more
Salt Armoniack, put it in a glafs with a long neck bodies, but by this preparation have recoveicd
well clofed, into a very gentle warmth for the new Life, and are no more the metals of the covetous
fpace of 8. or 14. days in digeftion, and the fpirit but may be called the metals of the Philofophers,
of fait Armoniack will be tinged with a very fair of the Phyficians.
blew colour from the lilver, then pour it off, and
filtre it through brown paper, and then put it in Befides Phyfitkjir phyfical ufe.
a little glafs retort or glafs body , and abftraft
in Balneo by 2. gentle fire, almolt ail the fpirit of LAftly, there may be m.any pretty things
fait Armoniack fwhich is ftill good for ufe) and effeded ( befides the medicinal ufe
) by means
there will remain in the bottom a grafs-green Li- of the Cryftals of filver, v,z.. when you
quor, which is to be kept for a Medicine- them in ordinary fweet rain water,
you may dye
But in cafe that you Ihould mifs, and abllradl too beards, hair, skin, and nails of men or beafts into
much of the fpirit from the Tindure of filver, fo carnation or pink red, brown and black, accon
that the Tinfture be quite dry and turned to a ding as you have put more or lefs thereof in
green Salt, 'then you muft pour upon it again as water ; or elfe, according as the hair was more
much of the fpirit of Salt Armoniack, as will dif- lefs times wetted therewith, whereby the
afped of
folve the green fait again to a green Liquor , bnt Man and Beaft ("which fometimes in feveral occaflons
if you defire to have the Tindure purer yet, then may not be contemned; is changed, fo that they
abitrad all raoiftnefs from it, to a ftony drynefs : not be known.
upon which you muft pour good fpirit of Wine, This colouring or dye may be alfo ])erformed
which will quickly difiblve the ftone, and then fil- with Lead or Mercury no lefs than with filver,
tre and there will remain feces, and the Tindure
it, but otherwife prepared , whereof in the fourth
will be fairer from which you muft abftrad moft
: part.
of the fpirit of wine, and the Tindure will be fo Now I have taught how to make flores and tin-
much the higher in vertue- But if you pleafe, you dures of gold and filver by help of the acid fpirit
may diftil that green fait or ftone (before it be of Nitre. There may be many other medicines
extraded again with that fpirit of wine) in a lit- taught to be made out of them, but in regard that
tle glafs retort, and you will get a fubtile fpirit they belong not to this place, they fiiall be'referved
and a fliarp oyl, and in the bottom of the retort for other places of this fecond , and alfo for the
there remaineth a very fulile filver which could not other following parts.
come over- As by the help of the fpirit of Nitre,good Medi-
It ib admired , that when you pour fpirit
to be cines may be made out of gold and filver, fo the
of fait Armoniack , or fpirit of wine upon that like may be done out of other infcriour mccals- But
ftone, for to dilfolve it, that the glafs comes to be in regard that their defcription is fitter for other
fo cold by it, that you hardly are able to endure places of this Book, 1 omit them here. Yet never-
it in your hand, which coldnefs in my opinion co- thelefs, I thought good to defcril^e one preparation
nieth from the filver fbeing fo well unlockt J which of every metal ; after Silver therefore foilowcth
naturally is cold.
now Copper.
The Vfe of the green Liquor in Akhymy-, andfor A medicine out of Copper externally to be fifed-
Mechanical Operations.

Dlflblie burnt plates of Copper ifi fpirit of fait,

THis green Liquor ferveth not only for a me- and abftrad thefpirit again from thence to a
dicine, but alio for other Chymical operati- drynefs, but not too hard, and there will a green
ons ( for both Copper and glafs may be eafily and
mafs remain behind, which you may caft in by lit-
very fairly filvered over therewith ; very ufeful
tle and little, and fo diftil it, as of filver hath been
for thofe that are curious and love to
make afhew taught. It doth yield a ftrong and powerful fpi-
With fair houOiold-ftulf for if you get difhes,
i rit, and flores alfo for outward ufe in putrid
H 2 wounds
28 The Second Part of
though you take ^ fs. of quick-filver and pour it down
wounds, to lay a good ground thereby for the hea-
into the ftomach, yet would run out again beneath,
as above it was poured in. But if it be prepared
A medicine out of Iron or Steel. with fpirits or falts, then but few grains of it
will workftrongly, and the more it is made foluble,
the ftronger it worketh ; as you may fee when it is
the fame manner you may proceed with iron
INand fteel, and there will remain behind a
good fublimedfrom fait and vitriol, that it groweth fo
efpe- ftrong thereby, that one grain doth work more than
crocus of a great fbipticity or aftringency ,
and may with good fuc- eight or ten grains of Turbith Mineral, and three or
cially out of iron or fteel,
oyntments and plaifters. four grains thereof would kill a man, by reafon of its
cefs be mixed with
mighty ftrength. Alfo it worketh extreamly, and
Of Tin and Lead. much more than the fublimate, when it is diilblved in
fpirit of Nitre and cryftalized, fo that you cannot

dilToIved therein, after the ab- well take it upon your tongue without danger. Which
Tin or Lead be
IF ftraaing of part of the fpirit, they will flioot fome perceiving, evaporate the Aquafortis by a gentle
into clear and fweet cryftals- But Tin is not fo heat from it, fo that the Mcrciirius remained yellow,
ealily dlflolved as Lead ; both may fafely be ufed which in a fnialler dole wrought more than the red,
for medicines- Alfo there may be (pirits and {lores from which the fpirits were quite evaporated- And
got out of them by diftilling. The rehearfing of they ufed it only externally, ftrewing it into im-
the Preparation is needlefs, for what for the pre-
pure fores , for to corrode or fret or away the proud
flelh, not without great pain to the patient but
paring of filver hath been taught, is to be under- :

alfo without diftindion of young or old gave it in-

ftood alfo of other metals.
wardly for to purge i which is one of the moft hurt-
ful Purges that can be ufed. For this evil gueft,how=
of the Cryftals of Lead and
The life
ever he be prepared, cannot leave his tricks, unlefs he
good to be
are admirably be reduced into fuch a fubftance, as that it never can
THE Cryftals of Lead
ufed in the plague for to provoke fweatmg be brought back to a running Mercury, for then much
and expel the venome out of the body they may -, good can be done in phyfick without any hurt or pre-
Ex- judice to the health of man, whereof perchance fome-
alfo with credit be ufed in the bloody flux.
ternally diilblved in water, and cloches dipt there-
thing more (liall be faid in another place.
I cannot omit for the benefit of yoim^; innocent
in and applied, they excellently cool and quench
all inflammations , in what part of the body foever Children, to difcover a great abufe. For it is grown
they do befal. Likewife the fpirit thereof ufed very common almoft among all that deal in phyfick,
do that as foon asis little child is not well before they
ferfe fand the flores mixed among oyntments j
their part fufficiently.
know whether it will be troubled with vvorms,or with
But the cryftals of Tin do not prove altogether any thing elfe, they prefently fall upon Mercury,
fuppofing that in regard it hath no tafte, it is fo much
fo quick in operation , though they do ad their
part alfo, and they are more pleafant than thofe the better for to get the Children to take it for to
that are made of Lead ; for in Tin there is found ^7/ the Worms.
a pure fulphur of gold \ but in Lead a white ful- But thofe men do not know the hurtful nature of it,
phur of filver, as is proved in my Treatife of the which it doth Ihew againft the (inews and Nerves
generation andnature of Metals. For fome are of opinion, that if they know to pre-
pare Mercury fo, that it can be given in a greater
Of Mercury. dofe ( as is to be feen in fublimed AIt:rcurins dulcis )
that then it is excellently prepared but they are in a

WHen you diflblve common Mercury in refti-

fied fpirit of Nitre, andabftrad the fpirit
great errour, and it were much better, it were not fo
well prepared, that the lefs hurt might be done to
from it agiin, then there will remain behind a fair Man,in regard that then they durft not giv^e it in fo
red gliftering precipitate but when the fpirit is not
great a dofe. Forif that which is prepared with v4<7;i
fortis or fpirit of fait nitre be ufed in the pox to men
reftified, it will not be fo fair, becaufe that the im-
purity of the fpirit remains with the Mercury and pol- that are advanced in years, it cannot do fo much hurt,
lutes it. This calcinated Mercury is called by fome becaufe it is given in a fmall dofe, and doth work
MtrcuriHS frCifitatns^zr\A by others Turbith minerale, with them, whereby nature gets help for to overcome
wherewith the Surgeons, and fometimes other unskil- and expel that hurtful venome, and its malignity is
ful Phyficiaus do cure the Pox they give at once
, abated by the ftrong falivation , which provi-
6, 8, 10. grains, (more or lefs) according to its pre- dent nature hath planted in it, fo that not fo much
paration and force in operation to the patient ; for mifchief can come by it,asby Mercurius dukis, where-
if the fpirit be not too much abftraded from it, it of is given to little weak Children from ten to thir-
woiketh much ftronger, than when by a ftrong ty grains at once, which commonly (unlefs they be
quite fcparated from it , for the fpirits that
fire it is of a ftrong nature, and do grow it out) doth caufe
remain with the Mercury make it quick and adtive, aweaknefsand lamenefs in their limbs, fo that (if
which elfc without the fpirits would not be fuch. they do not come to be quite lame at laft ) they
The other metals alfo, if they be not firft made fo- have a long time to ftruggle withal, till they over-
luble by falts or fpirits, can perform eith^ none or come it.

but very fmall operation, unlefs it be Zink or Iron, In like manner thofe alfo do err, which do fliake

which being eafily folublc, are able to work with- Mercury in water or beer fo long, until the water
out any foregoing diffolution, as hath been (liewn a- come to be gray- coloured, and fo give that water or
bove, when we treated oftheoyl of vitriol. But that beer to little children to drink for the Worms, pre-
the (harp fpirits are the caufe of that operation, may tending that they do not give the fubftance or body
hence be perceived, and made mapifeft , that al- of Mercury, but only its vertue- But this grofs
Pbilofofbical Furnaces, 29
Preparation is no better than if they had miniftred qua fortis are almoft all one, and have like opera-
the running Mercury it felf. Neither have I ever feen tions : for if the Aqua fortis be dcphlegmcd and rec-
that the ufe of Mercurius diUcis^ or of the gray co- tified, you may perform the fame operations vvith
loured water was feconded with good fuccefs in killing it, which poflibly may be performed with the fpirit

of the Worms. But it is credible, that it may be of fait nitre , and on the other fide the fpirit of fait
done by yellow or red precipitate, in regard of its nitre will do all that can be done with the Aqi^ii
ftrong operation- But who would be fuch an Ene- fortis^ whereof in the fourth Part fhall be fpoken
my to his Child, as to plague and torture it with fuch more at large.
a hurtful and murthering medicine , efpecially there Now 1 know well that ignorant laborators (which
beingother medicines to be had, which do no harm do all their work according to cuitome, without di-

to the children, as is to be found in iron or ftecl, and ving any further into the Nature of things , will
the fweet oyl of vitriol- count me an Heretick ( becaufe I teach , that the
And fo much of the abufe of Mercury I hope Aqihi fortis made of vitriol and fait nitre is of the

it be a good warning unto many, fo that they

will fame nature and condition with the fpirit of falc
will not fo ealily billet fuch a tyrannical gueft in nitre, which is made without vitriol ) faying that
any ones houfe, whereby the ruine thereof of ne- the Aqiui fortis doth partake likewife of the fpi-
cellity mult follow. And that cure deferveth no rit of vitriol , becaufe vitriol alfo is ufed in the
praife at all, whereby one member is cured with the preparation of it. To which I anfwer , that al-
hurt of two or three other members. As we fee by though vitriol be ufed in the preparation of ir, yet
the Pox, when one infeftcd member is cured by Mer- for all that in the diflrilling, nothing or but very
cury, and that but half, and not firm at all, that all little of its fpirit comes over with the fpirit of

the reft of the body is endangered thereby for the fait nitre , and that by fo fmall a heat it cannot
future. And therefore it would be much better rife fo high, as the fpirit of fait niire doth and :

that fuch crude horfe-phyfick might be fevered the vitriol is added onely therefore unto the fait nitre
frcn1*good medicaments, and fuch ufed inftead of that it may hinder its melting together , and fo
them, as may firmly, fafely, and without prejudice the more facilitate its going into a fpirit. And

to other parts perform the cure, of which kind fe- the more to be convinced of this truth, the unbe-
veia! are taught in this book. But in cafe that lieving may add to fuch fpirit of fait nitre, as is
you have patients, which have been fpoiled by made by it felf, a little of oyl of vitriol likewife
fuch an ill-prepared Mercury, then there is no better made by it felf, and try to difiblve filver guilded
remedy to reltore them, than by medicines made with it, and he will find that his fpirit of fait nitre by
of metals , wherewith Mercury hath great affinity, the fpirit of vitriol is made unfit to make a fepe-
as of gold and filver : for when they are often ration i for it preyeth notably upon the gold, which
ufed, they attracft the Mercury out of all the mem- is not done by Aquafortis.

bers, and carry it along with them out of the bo-

dy , and fo do rid the body thereof. But exter- Of the fulphurifed fpirit of fait nitre.
nally tlie precipitated Mercury may more fafely be
ufed, than internally, in cafe there be nothing elfe THere may alfo be made a fpirit of fait nitre
to be had, vi::.. to corrode or eat away the proud with fulphur, which is ftill in ufe with many,
flelh out of a wound- But if inftead of it there "Viz.. they take a ftrong earthen retort, which hath
fhould be ufed the corrofive oyl of Antimony, Vi- a pipe at the top, and faften it into a furnace, and
triol, Allome or common fait it would be better, having put fait nitre into it, they let it melt, and
and the cure much the fpeedier ; and it would be then through the pipe they throw peeces of fulphur
better yet, that in the beginning good medicaments of the bignefs of a pea, one after another, which
were ufed to freth wounds, and not by carelefnefs being kindled , together with the nitre doth yield
to reduce them to that ill condition , that after- a fpirit called by fome fpirit of fait nitre, and by
wards by painful corrofives they muft be taken a- others oyl of fulphur , but falfelv ; for it is nei-
way. But fuch a Mercury would ferve beft of all ther of both, in regard that metals cannot be dif-
for fouldiers , beggers , and children that go to folvcd therewith as they are done with other Ipi-
fchool for if it bt ftrewed upon the head of rit of fait nitre or fulphur neither is there any great

children, or into their cloathes, no loufe will abide ufe for it in phyfick, and if it were good for any
there any longer. In which cafe Mercury muft Chymical operations, by the help of my diftilling
by his preparation not be made red , but onely inftrument might eafily be made and in great quan-
yellow , and it muft be ufed warily , and not be tity.
ftrewed on too thick, left the flelh be corroded, which N. B. But if fait nitre be mixed with fulphur in
would be the occafion of great mifchief. due proportion, and in the firft furnace be taft up-
on quick coles, then all will be burnt, and a ftrong
Of Ac^Hd fonts, fpirit Cometh over, whofe vertue is needlefs here to
defcribe ; but more fhall be mentioned of it in a-
OUt of Salt nitre and vitriol, taking of each a nother place-
like quantity (or if the water is to be not al-
together fo ftrong ) two parts of vitriol to one part Of the CUjfus.
of fait nitre, a water diftilled is good to dilTolve me-
tals therewith, and to feparate them from one ano-
AMong the Phyfitians of this latter age, there
ther; as gold from filver, and filver from gold, is mention made of another fpirit, which they
which in the fourth part pundually (hall be taught- make of Antimony, Sulphur, and fait nitre, a like
The Aqi'.a fortis ferveth alfo for many other quantity taken of each, which they call Chjfi'.s ^
Chymical operations to diflblve and fit metals there- and which they have in high efteem, and not with-
by, that they may be reduced the ealier into medi- out caufe, becaufe it can do much good, if it be
caments: but becaufe the fpirit of fait nitre and A- well prepared.
90 The Second Part of
The inventor, for themaking thereof ufed a re- Upon this lixivium if you pour Vinegar or any o-
tort with a pipe, as was mentioned by thefulphuri- ther acid fpirit, there will precipitate a red powder
ied fpiiit of Talc nitre, through which pipe he threw which if it be edulcorated and dryed may be ufed in
in his mixture. And it is a good way if no. bet- phyfick- It is called by forae fulphur aur.uion dia-

ter be known but if the Author had known my in-

phorcticim but it is no Diaphoretick, but maketh
vention and way of diftilling, 1 doubt not but he ftrong vomits, and foin cafe of necellity, when you
would have fet alide his, that hath a nofe or pipe have no better medicine at hand, it may be ufed for
retort, and made ufe of mine- a vomitory from 6, 7, p, 10, 15.
The materials indeed are good, but not the Alfo out of the ftoria there may be extrafted a fair
weight or proportion j for to what purpofe fo great Sulphur with the fpirit of urin and diftilled over the
a quantity of fulphur, it being not able to burn away Limbeck, which is very good for all difealesof the
all with fjfniail aquantity of fait nitre- And if it doth lungs-
not burn away, but only fubiimc & flop the neck of the
retort, whereby the diitillation is hindered, how Of Storje-coks.
can it then yield any vertue ? Therefore you ought
to take not fo much fulphur, but only fuch a quan- you mix ftone-coales with a like quantity of
tity as will ferve to kindle the fait nitre, vi:^. to ft
IFfait nitre, and diftill them, you will get an ad-

of fait nitre four drams of fulphur: but becaufe An- mirable fpirit and good to be ufed outwardly for it ;

timony alfo is one of the ingredients, which hath cleanfeth and confolidateth wounds exceedingly,
likewife much fulphur ffor there is no Antimony and there will alfo come over a metallical vertue in
fo pure, but it containeth much combuftible ful- the form of a red powder, which muft be fcpara-
phur, as in the fourth part of this book fhall be prov- ted from the fpirit, and kept for its ufe. But if
ed ) therefore it is needlefs to add fo much fulphur
: you caft in ftone-coles alone by themfelves, and diftilj
unto Antimony, to make it burn, becaufe it hath them, there will come over not only a fharp fpirit,
enough of it felf And therefore I will fet down my but alfo a hot and blood red oyl, which doth ptwer-
compofition, which found to be better than the firfl.
I fnlly dry and heal all running ulcers i efpecially it

Take Antimony ft i. fait nitre ft i j- fulphur ^ i j. i

will heal a fcald head better than any other medi-

the materials muft be made into fmall powder and cine, and it doth coufurae alfo all moift and fpongi-
well mixed, and at once call in^ij. thereof, and ous excrefcencies in the skin, where ever they be :
there will come over a fulphureous acid fpirit of but if you fublime ftone-coles in the furnace dcfcri'
Antimony, which will mix it felf with the water, bed in the firft part, there comes over an acid me:
which hath been put before in the receiver ^ which tallical fpirit, and a great deal of black light flores>

after the diflillation is finifhed mufl be taken out and which fuddenly ftanch bleeding, and ufed in plai-
kept clofe for its ufe. It is a very good diaphoretick fters, are as good as other metallical flores.

(or fweat provokingj medicine efpecially in feavers,

the plague, epilepfie, and all other difeafes, whofe Of the Sulphureous fpirit of fait nitre or Aqnafortis.

cure muft be performed by fweating. The Caput

MortHttm may be fublimed into flores in that fur- you take one part of fulphur, two p^rts of ni-
IFtre, and three parts of vitriol, and them,
race, which is defcribed in the firft part. diftill

you will get a graduating Aq'ta fortisy which fmel-

Of tie Tartarifed fpirit of nitre. leth ftrongly of fulphur ; for the fulphur is made
volatile by the fait nitre aud vitriol. It is better

manner there may alfo be di-

the very fame for feparating of metals, than the common Aqm
IN good fweat-provoking fpirit out of fait
ftilled a fortis.
nitre and Tartar, a like quantity taken of each, it groweth black, but not fi.xed
If filver be put in,
which is very good to be ufed in the plague and ma- fome of poured into a folution of filver a great

lignant feavers. deal of black calx will precipitate, but doth not a-
The C.'/v/f AhrtHum is a good melting powder for bide the tryal. You may alfo abftrad a ftrong ful-
to reduce the calxes of metals therewith \ or elfe you phureous volatile fpirit from it, which hath like ver-
may let it dilTolve in a moill place to oyl of Tartar. tue as well internally as externally for bathes, and
may be ufed like unto a volatile fpirit of Vitriol or
Of the Tartarifed fpirit of Antimony. Allome.

% Much may be made of Tartar,

better fpirit yet Of the Nitrous fpirit of Arfer.ickj,

jc\ Antimony a like quantity be-

fait nitre, and ,

ing taken of each and made into fine powder, and you take white Arfenick and pure fak nitre of
IFeach a like quantity ground into fine powder, and
mixed well together, which though it be not fo plea:
lant to take, is therefore not to be defpifed. For diftillthem, you will get a blew fpirit, which is ve-
not only in the plague and feavers, but alfo in all ry ftrong, but no water muft be put into the receiver,
obftructions and corruptions of blood it may be u- elfe it would turn white, for the Arfenick, from
fcd with admiration of its fpeedy help- which the blew cometh, is precipitated by the wa-
The Caput Ahnmin may
be taken out, and mel- ter. This fpirit diflblveth and graduateth copper as
ted in a crucible, and yield a Rcgulns^ the
it will white as filver, and maketh it malleable but not fix-
ufe whereof is defcribed in the fourth part. Out ed. The remaining Caput Mortuum maketh the cop-
of the fcoria or drofsared Tindluremay be extraft- per white, if it be cemented therewith-, but very
ed with fpirit of wine, which is very ufeful in many di- brittle and unmalleable, but how to get good filver
feafes. But before you exlrad with fpirit of wine, you out of Afenick and with profit, you Ihall find in the
may get a red lixivium out of it with fweet water, fourth part. In phyfick the blew fpirit ferveth for
which lixivium may beufedexternally for tomend the all corroding cancrous fores, which if they be anoin-

faults of the skin and to free it from fcabbinefs- ted therewith, will be killed thereby, and made fit
for healing. ?o
Philo/opbical Furnaces,

will find a fingular purified calx , which by


To m.iki a /first of Sulphur ,
crude Tartar and Salt nitre. bing colourcth other metals, as that of gold doth
guild filver, that of filver filvcreth over copper,
you grind together one part of Sulphur, two and copper calx makcth iron look like copper, &c.
IFparts of Crude Tartar, and four parts of fait ni- which colouring though it cannot bring any great
tre, diftiil it Philofophcr-like,
and you will get a prolit, yet at leaft for to (hew the poffibility, I
mod adciirable fpirit, which can play his part both thought it not amifs to defcribc it ^ and per-
in Phyfick and Alchymy. I will not advife any chance fomething more may be hid in it, which is
body to diftili it in a retort ; for this mixture, if it not given to every one to know.
growech warm from beneath, it fulminateth like
Gunpowder-, but if it be kindled from above, it Of Gun ' poivder
doth not fulminate, but onely burneth away like a
quick fire metals may be melted and reduced there-
OF this mifchievous compofition and diabolical
abufe of Gunportder much might be written :
but becaufe this prefent world taketh only delight
To m.iks a. [firit out of Salt of Tartar^ Sulphur, and in fhedding innocent blood, and cannot endure that
Salt ' nitre, unrighteous things (liould be reproved, &
good things
praifed, therefore it is beft to be filent, and to kt
you take one part of felt of Tartar, and one every one anfwer for himfelf, when the time com-
IF part and a half of Sulphur, with three parts of eth that we fiiall give an account of our ftcward-
fait nitre,and grind them together , you will have fijip, which perhaps is not far off-, and then there

a commpofition, which fulminateth like Jurum ful- will be made a feparation of good and bad, by him
minans, and the fame alfo (after the fame manner that tryeth the heart, even as gold is refind in the
as above hath been taught with gold) may be di- fire from its drofs. And then it will be feen whan
Hilled into flores and fpirits, which are not without Chriftians we have been- We
do all bear the name,
fpecial Vertue and Operation. For the corrupti- but do not approve our felves to be fuch by our
on of one thing is the generation of another- works ; every one thinketh himfelf better than o-
thers, and for a words fake which one underltand-
Ho:v to make a fpirit offaw-dufi, fulphur and fait nitre. eth otherwifc, or takes in another fenfe than the
other fand though it be no point, whereon falvati-
you make a mixture of one part of Sawduft on doth depend) one curfeth and condemneth ano-
IFmade and two parts of
of Tiliaor Linden- wood, ther and perfecuteth one another unto death, which
good fulphur, and nine parts of purified and welldryed Chrift never taught us to do, but rather did ear-
fait nitre, and call: it m by little aiid little, there will neftly command us that we fhould love one another,
come over an acid fpirit, which may be ufcd out- reward evil with good, and not good with evil, as
wardly? for to cleanfe wounds that are unclean- now a dayes every where they ufe to do; every one
But if you mix with this compofition raineraJs or ftandeth upon his reputation, but the honor of God
metals made into fine powder, and then call it in and his command are in no repute, but are tram-
and diftiil it, there will come not only a powerful pled under footj and Lucifers pride, vain ambiti-
metallical fpirit, but alfo a good quantity of flores, on, and Pharifaical hypocrifle or ihew of holinefs,
according to the nature of the mineral, which are hath fo far got the upper -hand with the learned,
of no fmall vertue for the minerals and metals
: that none will leave his contumacy or flubbornnefs,
are by this quick fire deftroyed and reduced to a or recede a little from his opinion, although the
better condition, whereof many things might be whole world fliould be turned upfide down thereby.
written but it is not good to reveal all things-
Are not thefc fine Chriftians ? By their fruit you
Con fider this fentence of the Philofopers- It tsim- fhall know them, and not by their words- Woolves
po(fibk to dejlroy xvithjin a flame The comhufiiblc Sul-.^
are now clothed with fheeps skins, fo that none of
fhiir Calxy which the digged Mine doth doe.
of the them almoll are to be found, and yet the deeds
Alfo fufible minerals and metals may not only and vvorks of Woolves are every where extant.
be melted, therewith, but alfo cupellated in a mo- All good manners are turned into bad, women
ment upon a Table in the hand or in a nut-Ihell ,
turn men, and men women in their fafljion and be-
whereby fingular proofs of oares and metals may be haviour, contrary to the inftitucition and ordinance
made, and much better, than upon a Cupel, where- of God and Nature. In brief, the world goeth on
of further in the fourth part of this book. Here crutches. If Hiraclitus and Demuiitus fhould now
is opened unto us agate to high things^ if entrance behold this prefent world, they would find exceed-
be granted unto us, we (hall need no more books to ing great caufe for their lamenting and laughing
look for the Art in them. at it. Aud therefore it is no marvel, that Gcd
fent fuch a terrible fcourge as gun-powder is up-
To make metallical fpirits and flores by the help of fait- on us ; and it is credible, do not
that if this
nitre and linnen cloth. caufe our amendment , worfe will follow
that a
"vtz.. thunder and lightning falling down from Hea-

metals be dilTolved in their appropriated Men- ven, whereby the world fliall be turned upfide doun
IFflruums, and in the folution (wherein a due pro- for to make an end of all pride, fclflove, ambiti-
portion of fait nitre mull be diffolved^ fine linnen on, deceit and vanity. For which the whole Cre-
rags be dipt and dryed, you have a prepared me- ation doth wait, fervently defiring to be delivered
tal, which may be kindled, and Cas it was men- from the bondage thereof.
tioned above concerning the faw-duft) through the Now this preparation, which is the mofl hurtful
burning away and confuming of their fuperftuous poyfon, a terror unto all the living, is nothing elfe
fulphur, the mercurial fubltance of the metal is but zfiilmen tcrrefire denouncing unto us the wrath and
maaifefted. And after the diftillation is ended, you coming of the Lord. For Chrift to judge the
I 2 woild
The Second Fart of
world is to come with thundering and lightning' mained in the diftilling veflTel, and looks
gray like

and this earthly thunder perchance is given us for to fait, calcine it in a covered crucible, turn that it

put us in mind and fear of that which is to come, white, but not that it melt; and upon this burnt or
but this is not fo much as thought on by men, who calcined fait, pour your flinking water, which came
prepare it only for to plague and deftroy mankind over through the limbeck, and diflblve the calcined
therewith in a raoft cruel and abominable manner, as white fait with it, and the feces which will not dif-
every one knoweth. folve cafl away. Filtre the folution, and pour ic

For none can deny but that there is no nimbler upon the white fait, which remained in the glafs
poyfon, than this gunpowder- It is written of the body, from which the fulphureous fpirit was ab-
Baliliske, that he killeth man only by his look, which ftraded before, and put the glafs body (with a lim-
a man may avoid, and there are but few (if any at beck luted upon it^ into fand, and abflradl the ful-
all) of them found but this poyfon is now prepared
phureous water from it, which will be yellowifh, and
and found every where. fmell more of fulphur than it did before. This
How often doth it fall out? that a place wherein i
water if it be abflradted from the fait feveral times,
this powder is kept is ftricken with thunder as with will turn white, almofl like unto milk, and tall no

its like, much that all things above it are in

in fo more of fulphur, but be pleafant and fweet. It is
a momentdeftroyed, and carryed up into the air ? very good for the difeafes of the lungs. Alfo it
Alfo in fieges, when an Ordnance is difcharged, or doth guild filver, being anointed therewith, although
Mines blown up, all whom it lays hold on, are fud- not firmly, and by digeflion it may be ripened and
denly killed, and mofl: miferably deftroyed. What reduced into a better medicine.
nimbler poyfon then could there be invented ? I be- The fait which remained in the glafs body, urge
lieve there is none, who will not acknowledge it to be with a ftrong fire, fuch as will make the fand, where-
fuch. in the glafs flandeth red hot, and there will fub-

Andfeeing that the ancient Philofophers and Chy- lime a white fait into the limbeck, in talle almofl
like unto fait Armoniack, but in the midfl of the
mifls were always of opinion, that the greater the poy-
fon is, the better'raedicine may be made of it, after it glafs body, you will find another, which is yellow-

freed from the poyfon, which with us their po- ifh, of a mineral tafle and very hot upon the
fterityis proved true by many experiences ; as we
fee by Antimony, Arfenick, Mercury, and the like The fublimed falts, as well the white which did
minerals, which without preparation are meer poy- afcend into the limbeck, as the yellow, which re-
fon, but by due preparation may be turned into the mained in the glafs body are good to be ufed in the
beft and moll effedual medicaments, which though plague, malignant feav^rs and other difeafes, where
not every one can comprehend or believe, yetChy- fweating is required for they do mightily provoke

mifts know it to be true, and the doing of it is no fweating, they comfort and do cleanfe the Itomach,
new thing to them. And bccaufe I treat in this fe- and caufe fometimes gentle ftools.
cond part of medicinal fpirits, and other good me- Eut what further may be done in Phyfick with it,
I do not know ytt.
dicaments, and finding that this which can be made
out cf gunpowder, is none of the leaft, I would In Alchymy it is alfo of ufe, which doth notbe:

not omit in fome meafurcj and as far as lawfully long to this place. Upon the remaining fait which
may be done, to fet down its preparation which :
did not fublime you may pour rain water, and dif-
is thus performed.
folve it there in the glafs body, (if it be whole
ftilljelfeifitbe broken, you may take out the fait
How to make a fplrit of Gunpowder dry, and diffolve and filtre and coagulate it again,
and there will be feparated a great deal of fxces.
This purified fait, which will look yellowifh, melt
YOur diftilling velTel being made warm, and a
in a covered crucible, and it will turn quite blood
great receiver with fweet water in it, being ap:
plyed to it without luting, put a diQi with gunpow- red, and as hot as fire upon the tongue, which with
der, containing about 12. or 15. grains apiece, one frelh water you muft dillblve again, and then hltre

after another into it in the fame manner as above

and coagulate by which operation it will be made

was taught to do with gold- For if you fliould put pure and clear, and the folution is quite green be-
in too much of it at once, it would caufe too much fore it be coagulated, and as fiery as the red falc
wind and break the receiver. was before its dilTolution.
As foonas you have conveighed it into the veffel, This grafs green folution being coagulated again
fhuc the door, and the gunpowder will kindle, and into a red fiery fait, may be melted again in a clean
give a blafl: that it maketh the receiver ftir, and a and ftrong crucible, and it will be much more red
white mill or fleam will come over into the receiver. and fiery.
As foon as the powder is burnt, you may cafl in N. B. And it is to be admired that in the melt-
more before the mift is fettled, becaufe elfe the di- ing of it many fire fparks do fly from it, which
of it would coft too much time, and fo
ftilling do not kindle or take fire, as other fparks of coals
you may continue to do until you have fpirit enough. or wood ufe to do. This well purified red fait be-
Then let the fire go out. and the furnace grow cool, ing laid in a cold and moift place , will dillblve
off" the receiver, pour the fpirit with
and then take into a blood red oyl, which in digeftion diflblveth
the water that was poured in before Cthe flores gold and leaveth the filver this folution may be

being firfl every where waflied off wich it) out of coagulated, and kept for ufe in Alchimy.
the receiver into a glafs body , and reiftifie it in There may alfo a pretious Tindlure be extraft-
a B. through a limbeck, and there will come over ed out of it with alcolized fpirit of wine, which
a muddy water, tailing and fmelling of fulphur Tindure guildeth filver, but not firmly.
which you mofl keep. In the glafs body you And as for ufe in Phyfick ,ought to be kept

will find a white fait, which you are to keep like- as a great Treafure. But if the red
fiery fait be
wife. Take out the Captit Mortunm^ which re- extraded with fpirit of wine before gold bedifFolv-
Philofopbical FurnaceT, 35
ed therewith, it will yield likewife a fair red Tin- by the piercing and vehement Hre of the fait nitre,
fture, but not Co efTedual in Phyfick as that unto and maketh a feparation, carrying over v\i:h it part
which gold is joyned. And this Tinfture can al- thereof, which it turneth into fpirits and flores,
fo further be ufed in Alchymy, which belongcth which muft be feparated by fiicring. The Ipirit talh
not hither> becaufe we only fpeak of medicaments. eth as if it had been made of fait of Tartar arid
flints, and is of the fame nature and condition j and

Of the ttfc of the Medicine or Tinfu>e made of GunfovDder the remaining Capiu Afurtimm alfo yieldeth fuch an
oyl or liquor in all like unto that, and therefore its
THis Tiniturc whether with or without gold ,
condition is not defcribed here, but you may find ic
made out of the red fait, is one of the chicfefl: where I fhall treat of the fpirit made of fait of
that I know to make, if you go but rightly to work, tartar by adding of flints.
and prepare it well and clean f-
; for it purifieth
eth the blood mightily, and provoketh alfo pow- 7(7 make ,t fpirit and oyl out cf Talik vcith ftlt nitre.
erfully fweat and urine fo that ic may fafely and

with great benefit be ufed in the Plague, Feavers TAke one part of Talck made into fine powder,
Epilepfy, Scurvy, in Melancholia HyfochondnacA , and three parts of Linden-coals, mixe thcni
in the Gour, Stone, and the feveral kinds of them ^ with five or fix parts of good fait nitre, call in of
as alio in all obftrutUons of the Spleen and Liver, that mixture one fpoonful after another, and there
and in all difeafes of the Lungs , and it is to be will come over a fpirit and a few flores, which mult
admire that of fuch a hurtful thing fuch a good be feparated as hath been taught above concerning
medicine can be prepared. Therefore it would flints.

be much better to prepare good medicaments of it, The fpirit is not unlike unto the fpirit of fand
to rcn"ore the poor difeafed to health therewith, the Cap.:t Mortiittm , which looks greyifh , mult
than to dcltroy with it thofe that arc whole and be well calcined in a crucible , fo that it melt,
found. and then pouV it out, and it will yield a white
know a Chymift, that fpent much time and
I tranfparent Mais, like as flints and cryftals do
cofl:to-fearch this poyfonous dragon, thinking to which in a cold moift turn to a thick
cellar will
make the univerfal medicine orflone of the ancient liquor, handling than the oyl of
fatter in the
Philofophers out of it. Efpecially becaufe he favv, fand. It is fomething Iharp like unto oyl of Tar-
that fo many ftrangc changes of colours appeared, tar ; it cleanfeth the Skin, Hair and Nails, and
whereof mention is made by the Philofophers when makes them white the fpirit may be ufed inward-

they difcribe their medicine and the preparation ly for to provoke fweat and urine externally ufed, :

thereof. it cleanfeth wounds, and healeth all manner of fcabs

The Dragons blood. Virgins milk. Green and Red in the body out of hand. What further may be
Lyon, Black blacker than Black, White whiter than done with do not know yet But how to bring
it, I :

White and the like, more needlefs here to relate Talck, and the like ftony things to that
which eafily may perfwade a credulous man as it pafs, that they may be diflblved with fpirit of wine
hapned alfo unto him. But afterward he found , and reduced into good medicaments fhall be taught
that this fubjedl in which he put fo much confi- in the fourth part.
denccj was leprous and not pure enough, and that
it is irapolTible to make that tingent ftone of it, To make a fpirit, flores^ and oyl out of Tin^
for to exalt men and metals, and fo was glad to
be contented with a good particular medicine and you mix two parts of the filings of Tin, with
to commit the reft unto God.
IFone part of good fait nitre, and caft it in, as
And fo much of that poyfonous dragon, gunpow- you were taught to do with other things, then the
der but that there is another and more purer dra-
: fulphurofTin will kindle the fait nitre, and make
gon, whereof the Philofophers fo often made men- a flame, as if it were done with common fulphiir,
tion, I do not deny \ for nature is mighty rich, and whereby a feparation is made, fo that one part of
could reveal to us many arcana by Gods permiffion : the Tin cometh over in flores and fpirit, and the
But becaufe we look only for great honor and riches, reft ftayeth behind, which if it be taken out, fome
and negleA the poor there is good reafon why
, of it in a moift place will turn into a liquor or
fuch things remain hidden from wicked and ungod- oyJ, which externally may be ufed with good fuccefs
ly men. in all ulcers for to deanfe them. It hath alfo the ver-
eue, if it be pertinently applyed to graduate and
To make ffirits and flares of Nitre and Coals. exalt w^onderfully all the colours of vegetables and
animals, which would be ufeful for dyers- The
you diftill Nitre (well from its fuper-
purified fpirit of it mightily provoketh fweating the flores
IFfluous fait) mixed with good coals, the Egyp- being edulcorated and ufed in plaifters, do dry and

tian Sun bird doth burn, away, and out of it doth heal very fpeedily.
fweat a lingular water, ufefiil for men and metals.
Its burnt afhes are like unto calcined Tartar, and To make a fpirit ^ flores and a liquor out of Zinck^,
for the purging of metals not to be defpifed.
like manner as hath been taught with Tin
To make flores and cf flints, cryftals or fand, hy
INyou may alfo proceed with Zinck and , ic
adding of coats anid/alt nitre to them. will yield agood quantity of flores, and alfo a fpri
rit and oyl, almofl of the fame venues with thofe

TAke one part of flints or fand, and three parts made of Tin: and thefe flores correfted v;ich falc
of Linden coalsj with fix parts of good fait nitre , are better than thofe which are taught to
nitre mixed well together, and caft of it in, and be made by themfeives in the firft part of the
the combuftibie fulpbur of the flints will be kindled book.
K Tc
The Second Tart of
Antimony, whofe preparation
is defcribed in the

To m.-ike a /p"'"^, /orey a^d oyl of Lapis Calat>nn.iris. fourth part and three parts of pure fait nitre,
mix and grind all together, and cafi: it in by lit-
tle and little to diftil , and there will come over
Mix two parts of fait nitre with one part of '.nLanmiaris and call it in, and it will yield a fph-it together with a white fublimate , which

a (liarp ipirit very ufeful for feparating of metals,

mult be feparated with water, as hath been taught
and there will come over alfo a few yellow floves. above with other flores, ai.d both the fpirit and the
The remaining behind is a dark green Mais
rell flores are good to provoke fweat- The remaining
very fitry rpon the tcnguc, WVt fait of Tnrti.r, and C'.pitt Mortmun , ( ss they ufually call it ) is not

if it be difioived with rain water, yieidetha grafs dead, but full of life and vertue , whereby much
green Iblution , which being not prefentlv coagu- good may be done both in Phylick and Alchymy,
lated into fak, the green fcparatsth it felf from as foiloweth. The remaining Mafs, which looks
the lixed falc nitre, and there falleth to the bot- white, and is very fharp and fiery ( if the Rcffiihis
tom a fine red powder , and if it be edulcorated have been pure, if not, then it will look yellowifli)
ai.d drycd, and given from one grain to ten or may be edulcorated with frefli water, and it will
twelve it caufcth gentle ftools and eafy vomits, yield a lixivium or lye in ali things like unto calcined

better than prepared Antimony; for tafts cdami- Tartar, but Iharper and purer, and may be ufed
iuiris and Zinck are of the nature of Gold, as in almoll in all operations inftead of fait of Tar-
white lixivium tar but firfl the Rcjulus Antnmnii muft be pre-
the fourth parr fhali be proved : the (

or lye, from which the green is precipitated, may cipitated from it by the help of water ) and af-
be coagulated into white fait , like unto fait of terward it may be coagulated into fait and krpn
Tartar i but if yon coagulate the green folution, for its ufe ; the edulcorated , as alfo that which
before the green be feparated from the fait nitre, was precipitated with water is a white and hnc
then you will get a very fair green fait, high in powder, ufefiil in the plague, feavers, and other
colour and much more fiery than fait of Tartar, difeafes to provoke fweating thereb/, and may ve-
whereby fpecial things may be done in Alchymy, ry fafely be ufed, and although if it be given in
which doth not belong hither- And if you defire a grearer quantity than ufual, it caufes fome vo-
to make fuch a green fait for to ufe it in Alchy- mits alfo, yet for all that it doth no hurt. It is

need not take fo much pains, as firlt to ealily taken becaufe it hath no tafte. It is given
my, you
dift'il a fpirit out of the mixture, but take three to children from 3,4, to 12. grains: to elder folks
or four parts of good fait nitre, and mix it with from 3 [s. to 3 fs. they work fuccefsfully in all dif-
one part of /?/'? cdamr/i.-iris^ and let this mixture cafes, where fweating is needful. This AntuKoni-
boyl together in a wind furnace, till the fait nitre
um Diapboriticum , may alfo be melted into glafs,
be coloured green by the l.^^fis
calaminans ,
then and fo extradled and dillblved with fpirit of fait,
green goldilh fait and it may be prepared into fevcral good medi-
pour it out and feparate the
trom it, and make fuch good ufe of it as you think fit. caments : and if all that which may be done with

But if you will extraft a good Tindure and medi- it, fliould be defcribed at large, it would require
cine, make it into powder, and extract it with fpi-
too much time- The lixivuim, if it be coagula-
rit of wine, and it will yield a blood red Tiniture, ted, hath wonderful vertues, fo that if one fhould

both in Phyfick and Alchymy of good ufe. defcribe them, he would hardly be credited by a-
Further you arc to take notice, that among all ny body, becaufe it is not made of coftly things ^
metals and minerals, which 1 know (except gold and truly the life of man is too fhort to find out
and iilver ) there is none found, out of which can by experience all that lies hid in it : and it would
be extratled agrecnnefs which is of fire-proof, but be but a laughing matter to a proud fool, if one

only out of l-ifis caLiminans^ which deferves to be fhould reveal it : therefore it is better to keep coun-
well conlidered and further thought upon. fel, than to fow ftrife. Bufdlns l^,i!outr:ns in his

Triumphant Chariot of Antimony, where he wri-

To make a fpirit of fait nitre, fulphur and common fait. tcth of the figned ftar, hinted it fufficiently, but
very few take notice of it- f.irixdfm alfo, here

TAke one part of ftit, two parts of fulphur, and and there in his books under an unknown name,
four parts of fait nitre, grind all together, and makes frequent mention of it \ but its true prepa-
caft in one fpoonful after another to diftil, and ration and ufe, by reafon of the unthankful was ne-

it will yield a flisrp yellow fpirit, which if it

be put ver defcribed by the Philofophers, which for in-
among common water, fo that the water be not flru;lion of Good Honell Men we do here men-
made too fliarp of it, it is a good bath, good for tion.

many difcafes-, efpecially it healeth all fcabs very Before you edulcorate the Regulns (made by ful-
faddenly- The C<-.[nt Airrtmtw mny alfo be difioi- mination) you may extraift of it a good medicinal
ved in water and uied among loathes, and it is good Tindurc with fpirit of wine, and if you dilTblve
penetrating, and doth op- it with fpirit of fait , there will flioot a white fo-
likewife, but the fpirit is

perate fuddenly in (lirinkings and other dcfefts of liated

Talck in all things like unto the Mineral
the nerves-, of fuch kind of bathes there fliall be Talck
whereof a liquor may be made, which colou-

Alfo the remain- reth the skin very white, but if this calx of Anti-
fpoken more in the third part.
mony, before it be cxtrafted with fpirit of wine or
ing fixed yellow fait is good to be ufed in Alchy-
diflblved with fpirit of fait be made into fine pow-
my for it graduateth filverby cementing.

der, and expofed to the moilt air, it will dillblve

To ir.f.he a fpirit^ fiorcs and oyl cut of fait nitre and into a fat liquor, which though it be fomething
Regidns Mortis. (harp, yet doth no hurt to the skin, if it be ufed
with difcretion, but rather cleanfeth it more then

TAke one part of Regnhts Martis flclUtus ( made any other thing, and fo it doth likewife to the hair
of one part of Iron or Steel, and three parts of and nailes ; but as foon as the liquor hath been
Philo/ophical Furnaces,
_._} 5
plyed for that piirpofe, it muft be wafhed off again chance fomc- where elfe more fiiall befi)okeJi of it-
with water, lelt it do not onely take away the grofs
and unclean skin, but alfo work upon the tender To diftiU Bnryntm out of Jf.tiinory^Salt and vitriol^likp
white skin and do hurt, and therefore I give warn- Unto that ^ whuh is m.ide oiu oj Antmony and Mir-
ing, that you ufeit difcreetly for according to the
cury fublimate.
old proverb, you may mifufe even that which clfe
is good in it fclf. If you put fomc of it into warm TAkc one part of crude Antimony, two parts of
water and bath your felf in it, the grofs skin will common and four parts of vitriol calcf-
peal off all the body, fo that you will almoft feem ned white, beat all to powder and mix them well,
to be another body. And this bath alfo is good for and fo caft it in as you were taught to do with o-
many difcafcs for it openeth the pores mightily,
: ther materials, and there will come over a thick
and cleanfcch all the blood in the body, by draw- oyl of Antimony like butter, which may be reOiI-
ing many ill lunnors out of it, which maketh a man fied like any other oyl, that is made after the com-

light and ftrong-, efpecially if he be purged rfl, be- I. mon way with Mercury fublimarc, and is alfo the
fore he uleth the bath. It is alfo good for Melan- fame with it in, which nfe you may fee in the
choly, fcurvy and leprofie, efpecially when the red firft part: the fame alfo may be made better and
Tincture drawn out of it with fpirit of wine, l)c in a greater quantity in the furnace defcribcd in the
ufed befides. It is alfo good to be ufed in a foot hril part,and alfo with Icfs coals and time [)y the
bath for thofe that are troubled with corns and o help of the open fire, becaufe it endurcth greater
tber excrefcencies upon their feet, or with nailes heat than in the fecond furnace-
that cut the llelh \ for it fofteneth them and makes
them tit for cutting, and as tradable as wax- For To difiil Bntyriirn of Arfenich and Oipimoit.
there is nothing known under the Sun, which foft-
neth more a hard skin, hair, nailes and ether excre- A
Fter the fame manner as was taught with
fcencies, than this oyb And this I did fct down -i A. Antimony, there may alfo out of Arfenick
therefore, bccaufe know, that many are fo tor-
I and Auripigment together with fak and vitriol a
mented therewith, that they cannot well endure thick oyl bedifliHed, which not only outwardly but
their fhoes ujDOn their feet. But if you coagulate alfo inwardly is fafe to be ufed, and may be fo
tliis oyl into fait, and melt it in a crucible, and correded, that it Ihall be nothing at all inferior in
powre it out into a flat brafs bafon, that it flow at vertue unto the hittyrnm Aitimomi, but rather go
large and may be broken, then you have the bell beyond it which perchance will feem impoflible to

Caufticum, to open the skin withal where is need. If many. But he that knows the nature and condi-
you diOTolvc crude Tartar with it and coagulate it tion of minerals, will not be aflonilhedat my words,
again, you will geta fait which is ufed in manyChy- but they will be to him as a light in a dark place.'
mical operations and there may be extraded out

of it a blood red Tindure with fpirit of wine, To make a rare fpirit of vitriol.
which proveth very effectual againft all obftrudi-
ons. common vitriol be diifolved in water, and
Alfo every combuflible fulphur may be eafily dif-
IFyou boyle granulated Zinck in it, all the metal
folved with it, and ufed among bathes, it adlethhis and fulphur contained in the vitriol will precipitate
p.irt admirably. If auv oyl of fpices be boyled there- on the Zinck, and the folution will turn white',
with, then the oyl will cliOolve in it, and they turn the precipitated matter is nothing elfe, but iron,
together to a balfome, which doth mingle it felf copper, and fulphur, which the fait of vitriol did
with water, and is good to be taken inwardly for contain, and now is drawn from it by the Zinck.
fome infirmities: but women with child muft not The reafon why the metal precipitateth out of the
meddle with it, bccaufe it makes them mifcarry. faitupon the Zinck, belongeth to the fourth part,
But after their delivery, it is good to expel after where you will find it fufliciently explained The ;

burthen and other reliques. But if you boyl 0/aw/ white folution, from which the metallical matter
licni Rh'jdii with this liquor and rofe water fo long is feparated, muft be coagulated to the dryncfs of
till do incorporate with the liquor and wa:
the oyl fait, and fo by it felf a fpirit diftillcd of it, which
ters and then feparate the wateryfubftance from it, rifeth eafily, and
is in talle and vertue not unlike
you will get a fope as white as fnow, which may be unto commonoyl of vitriol, but only that this is
ufed for to waOi the hands with it, and it dothfmell a little purer than the common-
rery well. You may alfo wafli the head with it ; Here perchance many may objed you take the :

for it ftrengtheneth and cleanfeth the

the brain green from the vitriol, which Paracdfus doth not
head and hair. This fope may be diftilled, and it teach , but bids us to keep it. To which I an-
will yield a penetrating oyl, very good for the fi- fwer, that I do not teach here to make the fwcet
news and nerves. red oyl of vitriol, whereof Ptiraal^us hath written,
Now as this liquor of /^c^a'/w ^fitimonii [bhntth but the white acicl oyl which is as good , or ra-

the skin, nailes, hair, feathers, horns, and the like, ther much better than the common, which is made
and dilTolveth them more than any thing in the of the common impure vitriol. To what purpofe
world In the like manner alfo it hath power to
: is it, that you take green vitriol to diftil, whereas
difiblve not only metals, but alfo the hardeft ftones, the green doth not come over, and although that
but not in that manner which is done by boyling, green fliould come over, why iliould that oyl be
as was mentioned of fulphur, but after another way, better than the white for the green in the com:

which is not proper for this place- It fufficeth that mon vitriol 15 nothing clfe but copper and iron,
1 hinted it. The fiery fixed fait nitre may be dif- which the fait water running through the paffages
folved with fpirit of fait or vinegar, and fublimed of Metals did diffolve and take into it felf, and
into a Ter/A foltata. What further can be effeded as foon as fuch a green vitriol feeleth the fire, the
with it, doth not belong to this place, and per- green turneth into red, which is nothing elfe but
K 2 a cal-
The Second Part of
ther ufe is not known to me yet, I will not write
a calcined iron or copper, which in the reducing
of but leave the further tryal to others.
by a llrong fire and by. melting is made
manifelt. it,

Par Ml' Ifus hath not taught us , that we fhould

of the fire into To difltll a fpirit a>id oyl out of Lead.
tlrive over the gveen by the force
hathlliewed us an other
a red and iweetoyl, but he the fame manner as was taught of Zinck,
way, which is found out by few men, whereof
in INthere may be out of lead alfo diftilled a fub-
the beginning of the fecoud part aheady hath tle and a fweet oyl , and it is done thus
made mention- Pour ftrong vinegar upon Minium , or any other
This fpirit or acid oyl diftilled out of tlie pu- calx of lead, which is made per fe^ and not with
rified vitriol, is of a pleafant fowrenefs,
and ferv-
fulphur, let it digeft anddiflblve in fand or warm
eth for all thofe ufes, which above by the
afhes, fo long till the vinegar be coloured yellow
were defcribcd. And this procefs is fet down
by the lead, and turned quite fweet. Then pour
onely for that end, that we may fee, that when the
off the clear folution, and pour on other vinegar,
vitriol is purifyed, that then it is eafier diftilled,
and let this likevvife dilTolve, and this repeat fo of=
than 'be yet
yieldcth a more pleafant fpirit, if it
ten, till the vinegar will difTolve no more, nor grow
crude and impure. fweet ; then take all thefe folutions, and evaporate
And that fuch a purifying of the vitriol is no- all the moifture, and thcie will remain a thick fweet
thing clfe but a precipitating of the metal, which yellow liquor, like unto honey, if the vinegar was
the water ( as before faid ) running through
not diftilled, but if it was diftilled and made clear,
veins thereof hath alfumed, is thus to be proved ;
then no liquor remaineth, but only a white fweec
dillolvc any metal in its appropriate Menftruura,
fait. This liquor or fait may be diftilled after the
whether it be done with diftilled acid fpirits or
fame manner as was taught with the Zinck, and
{harp falts, adding common water to them, or elfe
there will come over not only a penetrating fubtle
dry by the fire m a crucibh, according as you
fpirit, but alfo a yellow oyl , which will not be
pleafe, then put into that folution another
and much, but very efFe(;T:ual, in all the fame ufes, as
metal, fuch as the diflblvent doth fooner feize on, of the fpirit, and oyl of the Zinck was taught.
then upon that which it hath afliimed , and then N. B. This is to be obferved, that for to niake
you will find, that the diflblvent doth let fall the this fpirit and oyl, you need no diftilled fpirit, but
alfumed metal or mineral, and falls upon the o- that it may be done as well with undiftilled vine-
ther, which it doth fooner feize on, and
gar, and the undiftilled yields more fpirit than the di-
veth being more friendly to it ;
it as of which
ftilled. But if you look for a white and clear lalt, then
precipitation in the fourth Part fliall be fpokenmore
the vineger muft be diftilled, elfe it doth not (lioot into
cryftals, but remaineth ayellow liquor like unto honey,
This one thing more is worthy your obfervation, and it is alfo needlefs to make the folution in glalTcs,
that among metals there is none more foluble
and by digeftion continued for a long time, but it may
than Zinck, and therefore that all the other i as as well be done in a glazed pot, 'via. pouring the
well in the dry as in the wet way) may be preci- vinegar upon the Mineum in the pot, and boyling
pitated thereby and reduced into light calxes,_ in it on a coal fire ^ for you need not fear that any thing
fo much that the calx of gold or filver precipita- of the vinegar will evaporate, in regard that the
ted in this manner ( if fo be you proceed well lead keeps all the fpirits, and lets only go an un-
retaineth its fplendor or glofs , and is like a fine favory phlegm. You muft alfo continually ftir the
powder wherewith you may write out of a pen. lead about with a wooden fpatulla, elfe it would
turn to a hard ftone, and would not diflblve the :

To mAe a fitbtk /pint af/dpleafaut 0)l of Ziml^ fame muft be done alfo when the folution is done
in glafl"es and the folution after this way may be

done in three or four hours: and when both kind

BEcaufe made mention here of Zinck, 1 thought
of folutions are done, there will be no difference
good not to omit, that there may be made a betwixt them, and 1 think it providently done not
penetrating fpirit and wholefome oyl out of it by to fpcnd a whole day about that which may be done
the help of vinegar, which is thus to be done. an hour.
Take of the flores (which were taught to be made if you will have this fpirit and oyl better
in the fuft part) one part, put them into
a glafs
and more eff^eftual, you may mix % I of crude Tar-
(fit for digeftion) and pour upon them 8, or lo.
tar made into powder with It j. of diffolved and
parts of good Iharp vinegar made of honey ; or in and fo diftil after the fame man-
purified lead, it
want thereof take wine vinegar , and fet the glafs ner as you do diftil it by it felf, and you will get
with the {lores and vinegar in a warm place to
a much fubtler fpirit and a better oyl than if it were
dillolvc, and the folution being performed,
look yellow and af- made alone by it felf
pour off the clear, which will

ter you have filtred it abftrad the phlegm , and

To difiii nfubtik fpirit and oyl out of crude Tartar.
there will remain a red liquor or balfome, to which
you muft add pure fand, well calcined, and diftill MAny think it to be but a fmall matter to
Tartar^ for they fuppofe, that if
thefpirit of
it and firlt there will come over an unfavory

l)h'legmc, afterward a fubtle fpirit,

and at jaft a they do but only put Tartar into a retort, and ap-
a yellow and red oyl which arc to be kept by them- ply a receiver, and by a ftrong fire force over a wa-
feives feparated from the fpirit, as a treafure for ter, they have obtained their defire: and they do not

to heal all wounds very fpecdily- The fpirit is not obferve, that in ftead of a pleafant fubtle fpirit,
inferior unto the oyl, no: only for inward ufe to pro- they get but a ftinking vinegar or phlegm ; the
voke fweat thereby ,but alfo externally for the quench- pleafant fpirit being gone. Which fome careful o-
ing of allinlbmations, and doubtlefs this fpirit and perators perceiving, they caufed great receivers to
o' 1 is good for more difeafes, but becaufc its fur- be made, fuppofing by that means to get the fpirit.
Part I. Pbilofofhical Ftirnacef. 37
Now when they after the diflillation was done, cable oyl there lyes hid a vciatile fait v;h;ch is of
weighed their I'pirits together with the remainder, great vertue. But if you dcfirc experimentally to
they found, that they hadfuffered great lofs, where- know whether it be fo, then pour upon this blaci;
fore they fuppofed it to be an impoflible thing, to ftinking oyl an acid fpirit, as the fpirit of com-
get all the fpirit?, and to lofe none, and indeed it mon fait, or of vitriol or I'alt nitre, or onlydiiiili-
is hardly poiiible to be done otherwife by a retort : cd vinegar, and the oyl will grow warm and make
for aIthoua,h you apply a great receiver to a fmall a noyfe and rife, as if ^cjua fvrtis had been powi
retort, and that there be nlfo but a little Tartar in red upon fdt of Tartar, and the acid fpirit v\i!i
it, a!;d the jovnts being well luted, fo tii;;t nothing
be mortified thereby, and turn to fait- And this
can pafs through, and tiiough you make alio the well pnri-ied oyJ doth dillblve and cxtrad the Tar-

fire never fo gentle, hoping to get the fpiritby that tar out of the joynrs Oinlcrs it b: to a hard '

way, ycc for all that you cannot avoid danger and fiony fubftancc.) even as fope fiowres the unclean-
Jofs- For at laft the retort beginning to be red ners out of cloths, or to compare it better, even as

hot, and the black oyl going, then and but then like receivcrh its like, and is ealily mixed with it,

the fubilcit fpirits will come

which either
forth, and doth love it but on the contrary, nothing will

fteal through the joyiits, or elfe do break the re- mix it felf with that wherewith it hath no affinity
tort or receiver, bccaufe they come in abundance at all. As if you would take pitch out of cloth by
and with great force, ?,nd do not fettle ealily waihing it with water, which never will be done by

wherefore 1 will fct down my way of making this icaibn of the contrary nature for common water ;

moft profitable, and excellent fpiric. hath no affinity with pitch or other fat things, nor
will it ever be taken out therewith withonta media-

Tkc frcfnr.itio'i a>:d nfc if the f^irh of Tartar. tor, partaking of both natures, ^.~. of the nature
of pitch and that of the water, and fuch are fid-

TAke good and pure crude Tartar, whether it phureous falts, and nitrous faits, whether they be
be red or white, it matters not, make it in- fixed or volatile- As you may fee at the foap boy-
to fine powder, and when the dillilling veJlcl is red lers, who incorporate common water by the he]p
hot, then call in with a ladle half an ounce and no of fulphureous falts with fat things, as tallow and
more at once, and fo loon as the fpirits are gone oyl. But if you take warm oyl or any thin fat fub-
forth and fetled, call in another ^ fs. and this con- ftance, and put it upon the pitch orrozin, then the
tinue, till vou have fpirit enough, then take out oyl eafily accepteth of and lays hold on its like, and
the remainder, which will look black, and calcine fo the pitch is dillblved and got out of the cloth,
it well in a crucible, and put it in a glafs retort, and and the remaining fatnefs of the oyl may be fetchc
poor the fpirit that came over together with the out of the cloth with lye or fope and common water,
black oyl, upon it, drive it in fand at firil gently, and fo the cloth recovereth its former beauty and
and the fubtlefl: fpirits will come over,, and after purenefs. And as it falleth out with fulphureous
them phlegme, at laft a fowre vinegar* toge- things, fo it doth likewile with Mercurial- For ex-
ther with the oyl, vdiereof you mufi: get each by ample, if you would take the fait outof powdered
it felf But if you defire to have the fubtle fpi- flefh or pickled fifh with a lixivium it would not fuc-
rit which came over firft, more penetrating yet, ceed, becaufe that the nitrous and acid falts are of
then you mufl: take the Capit Mcrttmm that ftaid contrary natures.
in the retort, and make it red hot in a crucible, But if upon the powdered flefli or pickled fifli you
and abflracl the fpirit once more from it, and the pour on water wherein fome of the fame falc
calcined Tartar will keep the remaining moiflnefs (wherewithal! the flefh was powdered) is dillblved,
or phlegm, and only the fubtleft fpirit will come o- that fait water will extradl the fait out of thefledi,
ver, which is of a raofl penetrating quality, where- as being its like, much more than common fweec
of from half a dram to an ounce taken in wine or water, wherein there is no fait.
any other liquor provoketh a quick and ftrong In this manner the hardeft things alfo, as ilones
fweat, and it is a powerful medicine in all obftru and metals, may be joyned or united with water,
clions, and moft approved and often tryed in the whereof more in my other books are extant ; it is
plague, malignant feavers> fcurvy, AieUticolia Hy~ needlefs here therefore to relate- I gave a hint of

p-clm'dri.:c.i, collick, contratfture, epilepfy and the it, only for to Ihcw, that always like with like mu/l

like difeafes. And not only thcfe mentioned dif- be extraded. True it is that one Contrary can
eafes, but alfo many others more, which proceed mortifie another, and take the corrofivenefs from it,
from corrupt blood under God may fuccefsfully be whereby the pains for atime areaffwaged, but whe-
cured with it. ther the caufe of the difeafe it felf be eradicated
The phlegm is to be caft away, as unprofitable thereby, is a queftion-
the vinegar cleanfeth wounds : the oyl allayeth fwel- Here may be objefted, that I make a difference be-
ling and pains, and doth cure fcabs, anddifperfeth tween the fulphureous and Mercurial falts, whereas
knobs that are rifen upon the skin, as alfo other neither Mercury nor fulphur apparently is to be
exxrefcencies of the fame, if it be ufed timely, and feen in either. It is true, he that doth not undcr-
the ufe thereof be continued. ftand nor know the nature of falts, is not able to
N- B. If the black ftinking oyl be retflified from apprehend it. And I have not time now to de-
the calcined Caput Alortunm^ it will be clear and monftrate it, but the fame is fhewcd at large in my
fubtle, and it not only affwage very fpeedily
will book dc NMura falmm^ that fome of them are ful-
all pains of the gout, but alfo dilfolve
and expel the phureous, and fome Mercurial : but he that looks
conglobated gravel in the reines, applyed as a plai- for a further direction yet, let him read my book
fter or unguent. In like manner it will diflblve and de Sympathia & ylfitipatliia nriitn^ wherein he fl.all

extraft the coagulated Tartar in the hands, knees find it demonftrated that from the Creation of tha
and feet, fo that the place afFefted will be freed World to the time prefent, there were always two
and made whole thereby becaufe in fucli a defpi-
: contrary natures fighting one againlt the other,
L which
Tke Second Part of Parr. 1.
continue fo long till the Mediator will flioot no more, but there remaineth a thick
which fight will
Man, the Lord Jefus Chrift fhall liquor like unto honey , out of which with fpirit
betwixt God and
put an end unto this ftrife, when he (hall come to of wine there may be extracted a good tincture
againft obftrudions. This liquor taken from 3 i.
leparate the good from the bad, by whofe light-
to 5i- doth purge very gently, and fometimcs it
ning and lire flame the proud and hurtful fuperflu-
caufeth a vomit, efpecially if the vitriol was not
ous Iblphur fliall be kindled and confumed : the pure
pure and good and it may be alfo diftilled into
Mercurial being left in the center. :

a fpirit not inferiour unto the former in vertue.

How to make prctious fpirits and oyls out of Tartar Befides the way above taught, there is yet T for
joiied with minerals and metals. to diftil a metallized fpirit of Tartar ) another
way , whereby feveral metals and minerals may
any metal or mineral, dilTolve it in a fit be reduced into pleafant fpirits and oyls and of
TAkc more vertue, and it is done in this

menlhuum, mix it with a due proportion of
crude Tartar, fo that the crude Tartar being made Take of the Tartar of white Rhenifii wine made
into powder together with the folution make up a into powder, pour upon it fweet rain or runniitg
then once call one fpoonful water, fo that to ft j- of tartar there be lb x. or
pap a it were :,
at in
a fpirit and oyl, which after ft xij. of water, or fo much that the tartar may
of it, and diftil it into
mud be feparated by redification, be dilTolved by it in the boyling , and then boyl
the dillillation
keep each by its felf for its proper ufe- the mixture with the water in a tinned kettle, or
for to
which is better, in a glazed pot, until it be quite
Tht iffe of the metalliz.ed fpirit and oyl of Tartar diflblved, and in the mean wliile take off the skum
(with a wooden skimmer) ftill as it rifeth in the
Tartarized fpirit of metals is of fuch a boyling! and when no more skum rifeth, and all
THis performe^h ope- the tartar is dilTolved, then pour the folution thus
condition, that it readily its

the ftrength of the fpirit, and hot through a linnen cloth , tyed ftraigiit on an
ration according to
of the metal or mineral, whereof it is earthen glazed velTel, that the remaining (liminefs
the nature
made. For the fpirit and oyl of Gold and Tar- may be
feparated. The tartar water being ftrain-
ed, ftand for 24- or 30. hours without ftir-
tar is good for to corroborate the heart, and to
let it

keep out its enemies : the fpirit of fdver and tar-

ing , and there will ftick a cryftallized tartar to

that of Mercury and the fides of the veftel which after the water is
tar doth ferve for the brain ;

Tartar , for the liver : of lead and tin for the poured off may be taken out, and waflied with cold
of iron and copper for the reins water, and then dryed. 1 his purified tartar keep,
fpleen and lungs :

and feminary veilels : that of Antimony and Tar- until I (liall teach you, what further is to be done
accidents and infirmities of the whole with it ; and this tartar is pure enoi^gh for the
tar for all
above faid purpofe, vtz.. to reduce metals into oyl
body and thefe metallical fpirits made with Tar-

with as fliall follow anon. It is alfo good ta-

tar, provoke fweat exceedingly, whereby many

malignities are expelled out of the body. Like- ken of it felf for an abfterfive to make the body

wife alfo the oyl hath its operation, though this

foluble- But if you defire to have it yet whiter

Mercury and Copper, is and fairer and in great Cryftals you rauft pro-
of feveral metals, as of ,

not well to be ufed inwardly , becaufe it caufeth ceed thus.

falivations and ftrong vomits. But externally they You muft know this that all falts, if they Ihall ftioot
putrid ulcers, and into great cryftals, there muft be a great quantity
are very good for to clean fe all

a good and firm ground for healing them. of them, for of little there comes but little. And
to lay
The remainder, whereof the fpirit and oyl isdi- if you will make great and fair white cryftals of
tartar, which will be no better than the former,
ililled, you may take out, and reduce it in a cruci-
but only pleafant to the eye, then you rauft pro-
ble into a metal, fothat what is not come over, may
not be loft, but made to ferve again. ceed in this manner-
And as you were taught to diftil fpirits and oyls Take of white tartar made into powder about
Tartar you ten or thirty ft. pour fo much water upon it, as
cut of dillolved metals and crude ; fo
common and is needful for to diilblve it, and boyl it by a ftrong
may get them likewife out of vitriol
in a tinned kettle, until all the tartar be dif-
Tartar, 'vi^- thus, take one part of Tartar made fire

into powder, two parts of good pure vitriol, mix folved, which you may know by ftirring in it with

them well together , and diftil a fpirit of them, a wooden ladle, and skim off" diligently all the
filth rifing on the water , and you muft take heed,
which though it be unpleafant to take, for all that
in allobftrudionsand corruption of blood whatfoever that you take neither too much nor too little wa-

it Kot to bedefpifed, but very fuccefsfully perform-

ter to it ; for if you take too little, part of the

eth its operation ^ cfpecially when it is rcdified from tartar will remain undilTolved, and fo will be caft

its CafKt Alortftiiw^ and fo freed from its phlegm ; away and loft among the (lime but if you take

and its beft vertue, which conllfteth in the vola- too much of it, then the tartar is too much dif-
tility, be not loft in the diftilling. fperfed in the water , and cannot flioot well, and
B- But if you will have this fpirit more ef-
hi. fo will likewife be loll, being caftaway afterwards
fedual, then you may join 1 artar and vitriol by with the water. have heard many a one com-
For I

boyling them together in common water, and cry- plain, that they could get but little of a pound,

ftallizing and then caft it in, and diftil it , and

and therefore fuppofed the tartar to have been
there will come over a much purer and more pe- naught, whereas the fault was not in the tartar, buc
netrating fpirit ; becaufe that in the folution and in the workman, that managed not well his work,

coagulation of both, many faeces were feparated : pouring away one half which did not fhoot with the
but^ if to one part of vitriol you take two parts water but if you proceed well, then four pound of

of Tartar, and dilTolVe it together, and fo filter common tartar will yield ft iijof pure white cryftals.
and coagulate it, then the Tartar with the vitriol The folution being well made, and no skim more
Part. I. Philo/opbical Furnaces.
riling at the top, coyer the kettle, and let it cool ther, left the Tartar come to be too dry and burni
without removing from the warm place it ftands and this folution may be done beft of all in a me-
in, which will be done within three or four dayes, tallical velTcl as when you will make the folution

if the kettle be bigg. Kut the fire mufl: be taken of iron , you may do it in an iron pot and ;

away from under the kettle, and fo let it ftand for copper you may take a copper kettle, and fo forth
for the time mentioned- In the mean while the Tar- for other metals, a velTel made of the fame is to
tar will cryftallife to the fides of the kettle, which' be taken. But you muft know that gold, filvcr
cryftals after the time is expired , and the water and crude Mercury, unlefs they be firft prepared
poured off", are to be taken out and wafhed and cannot be diJiblved like iron and copper, but when
boyled again with frefh water, and fo skimmed and they are prepared firft for the purpofe, then they
cryftallifed ;and this proceeding mufl; be Itill rei- will alfo be dillblved. In like manner fome mine-
terated, untill (which is done the third or fourth rals alfo muft be firft prepared, before they can be
time) the cryftpls are white enough : then take them dilFolved with Tartar and water. But if you can
out, dry and keep them for ufe whereof from 3 j.
; have good glades or glazed vefl'cls of earth, you
to 5 made into powder, and taken in wine, beer,
may ufe them for all metals and minerals for to
warm broth or other liquor , will give fome gen- diftblve them therein, and the folution you may not
tle ftooles, and ferveth for thofe, which cannot only ufe of it felf for a medicine, but alfo diftill it,
endure ftrong phylick- This tartar may be (harp- and make a very eSedual fpirit and oyl of it as
ned with Diagridium or any other purging drug, followeth.
that fo you need not take it in fo great a quanti-
ty at once, but a Icfler dofe may ferve turn. But To dijlill the fpirit and oyl of Lead ami Tin.
if you do not look for great cryftals , but on-
ly for Tartar well purified, then you may ufe this TAkethe filings of Lead and Tin, and boyl them
following manual, and you will get exceeding fair with the water or folution of Tartar in a lea-
and glillering little cryftals, which need no beating den or tin veflel, untill the Tartar be fweetned by
into powder, but by the working come to be fo the water fo that it will diflblve no more , to

pure and tine, as if they had been ground upon a which pafs it will be brought within twenty four
llone, and looking not like a dead powder, but hours, for both thefe metals will be diflblved but
having a glofs, like unto Imall gliftiering fnow that flowly, but if you would perform this folution foo-
fell in very cold weather, and it is done thus: when ner, then you muft reduce the metals firft into a
the cryftals are come to be pure enough by often foluble calx, and then they may be diflblved in lefs
diilolving and coagulating, then diiTolve them once time than an hour. The folution being done, you
again in pure water, and pour the folution into muft filtre it, and in B- abftraft all the moi-
a clean vellel of wood, copper, or earth being glaf- fture to the thicknefs or confiftency of honey, and
ed i and let it not ftand ftill (as above taught with there will remain a pleafant fweet liquor, which of
the cryftals) but as foon as it is powred in, with it felf with out any further preparation may fafe-
a clean wooden about continually with-
ftick ftirr ly be ufed inwardly for fuch difeafes, for which

out ceafing, till all be cold, which will be done in other medicaments, made of thefe metals are ufe-
half an houre. In this ftirring the Tartar hath no ful- Efpecially the fweet liquor of lead and tin do-
time to fhoot into cryftals, but doth coagulate into eth much good in the Plague, not only by driving
the fmalleft gliftering powder, pleafant to behold, the poyfon from the heart by fweating, but alfo by
and like unto frozen ihow fettleth at the bottom breaking or allaying the intolerable heat, fo that a
of the veflel then pour ofTthe water, and dry the
, happy cure doth follow upon it : but externally the
powder, and keep it for ufe- The waters which liquor of lead may be ufed fuccesfully in all inflamma-
you poured off, in regard that they contain yet tions, and it healeth very fuddenly, not only frefli
ibme Tartar, ought not to be caft away (as others wounds, but alfo old ulcers turned to fiftulaes j for
do) but evaporated, and the Tartar contained in the Tartar deanfeth, and lead confolidates.
them will be faved, and fo nothing will be loft, The liquor of tin is better for inward ufe than for
and in this manner not only white Tartar may be outward whofe operation is not fo fully known yet,
reduced into clear cryftals, but alfo the red being as that of lead But if you will diftil a fpirit there-
feveral times diflblved and cryftallized, lofeth its of, then caft it in with a ladle by little and little,
rednefs, and turneth white and clear. Befides the as above other diftillations oftentimes was men-
abovefaid, there is another way to reduce the Tar- tioned, and there will come over a fubtle fpirit of
tar into great white cryftals at once by precipita- tartar, carrying along the vertue and beft eflence of
tion , but thefe being good enough for our pur- the metal , and therefore doth alfo prove much more
pofe, -VIZ.. to make good medicines out of me- etl'eftual than the common fpirit of tartar, which
tals, I hold it needlefs to loofe more time by the is made alone by it felf, and this fpirit as well
relation of it, and fo I will acquiefce. that which is made of tin, as that of lead, if it be well
dephlegmed may be ufed and held
firft, for a great
Another way to make a metallifcd fpirit of Taratr. treafurein all obftruiflions, efpecially of the Spleen ;
and few other medicines will go beyond them but ;

TTAke of purified Tartar diftolved and coagulated befides there muft not be negleded the ufe of good
but once, as much as you pleafe, pour fo much purging medicines need require them.
, if With
rain or other fweet water to it as will ferve to dif- the fpirit there cometh over alfo an oyl, which is
folve it; in which folution you muft boyl plates of a quick operation, efpecially in wounds and fores
of metals, until the Tartar have diffolved enough of the eye, where other oyntments and plaifters may
of it, fo that it will diflblve no more , the fign not fo fitly be ufed, for it doth not only allay the
whereof is, when the folution is deep coloured of heat and inflammation, a common fymptome of the
the metal, and during your boyling you muft often eye wounds, but alfo doth hinder and keep back all o-
fupply the evaporated water with pouring on of o- ther fymptomes which few other medica<ments, are a-
L 2 b}^
The Second Tart of Part L
be driven further by heal old corrupt exulcerated fores, turned to fiftu-
bl^o ; and for the vendue, if it
laes; but the liquor of copper is not fo fate for to be
the ftroni^ell lire, tlien there will come over a fubli-
which isallo ufed inwardly, lor it is not only very unpleafant in
mate, which the airdillblvech into oyl,
tafte, but alfocauieth vehement vomits: and there-
of a jrawcrful operation , not only in phyfick, but
fore would not advife any one to be forward to

alfoin Alchymy. p.
ufe it, unlefs it be for ftrong folks and for to kill
And the Lead runcth together into a fair white worms in them, for which purpofc it is excellent
fairer than
all's which is much whiter, purer and
retaines the black- good and furpafleth all other medicines whatfoe-
other common lead: bat the tartar
little children it ought not to be given
a fufible drofs, ver but to
refs, and raifeth it fclf to the top as i

of lead, where- at all, regard that it is of far too ftrong an o-

which is impregnated with the fulphur
and the peration for them-
with you may colour hair, bones, feathers
remain brown and N- B. And if you will ufe it to ftrong bodies a-
like, and make them to be, and
gainft the worms or ftomach-agues, you muft ob-
black. ,..,, .

dillillation in an ferve that the patient ( in cafe that he cannot get

1 nuC:c trval once of fuch a
finger into the throat to further
the iniide was fo it up ) thruft his
iron vdlcl, whereby the fame in
unto the vomiting, that it may not ftay behind , but
whitened bv the purified lead, that it was like
come forth again out of the body which done
.which afterwards trymg
fine filvcr in brightnefs :

fair as at firll where- health followeth upon it , but if it remain in the

acrain, it would not fall fo ;

could write fome- body, itcaufeth a loathfomenefs to ufe it any more.

at none ou"ht ro wonder, for 1 muft
knowing well And therefore you take heed to ufe it warily:
thin" more''(ifit wete fit) of tartar,
and in regard that this liquor is very bitter, you
whn may be efiefted with it, if 1 did not ftand may mix it with fome fugar, to facilitate the ta-
which vilify all what they do
in fear of fcoffers,
to call tartar the king thereof-, but that of iron needeth no fuch
not underltand. I durft prefume being fweet enough of it felf , and
for m the cleanling of correction

Sone of the Philofophers ,

commend and prefer it before the o-

tound it of ad- therefore I
feme metals, by long experience

not be underftood ther but if you will needs have that of copper (be-
mirable vertue; though I would

be the true w^w^fe /- caufe it worketh fo ftrongly ) then the Patient

thus, as if I did count it to
^erfulis Phllojopbo-awiy whereby
they wain their La- muft keep in from the cold aire, and not prefenc-
that is of particu- ly after the operation load the ftomach with ftrong
ton- but I cannot deny, but

lar ufe for the walliing

and cleanfing of feveral me- drink and fuiieilluity of meat, contenting himlelf
for it is indued with
admirable vertues for with fome warm broth and a little cup of wine or
other places more Ihall beer , and the next day his meat and drink will
the ufe of metals, whereof in
tafte the better with him , and do him fo much
be faid hereafter.
tiie more good.

But externally, this iiquor is of the fame ufe

Hi;w to rnM^i a Tartan fed fpirit arid oyU
out of
with that of iron or fteel, yea, proveth more ef-
Iron or Steel and Coffer.
feftual and fpeedier in healing. It would be good

good medicine out of that Surgeons knew how to prepare it, and would
T F you intend to make a
with tartar, then ufe it inftead of their falves, wherewith many frefh
iron or fteel or copper joyned
X iron pot , and for wounds are fpoyled and turned into horrid ulcers,
for the iron or fteel take an
very clean efpecially it requiring fo little coft and pains to
copper a kettel of copper, make them
or cop- make it. And if you would have thefe liquors pu-
and put in it the filings of iron, or fteel,
much of pure rer yet, you muft pour on fpirit of wine, and ex--
per, which you pleafe, and twice as
tradl them, and they will eafily yield their tin-
tartar made into powder, and fo much
water, that
the boyl- ture, and leave many fsces behind which are good
the tartar may be diflblved well by it
tartar-water fo for nothing: but the tinifture will be fo much the
in<^, and fo boyl the
metal with the
by the metal, as red better, purer, and more effedtual, fo that you need
long, till it be deeply coloured
green by the copper and ufe but four or five drops for purging , whereas
by "the iron, and deep ^
of the grofs liquor you muft have from 4, 6, 8.
when the water in the boyling doth wafte, you mull
that the tartar may not to 12- or
16. drops: and this e.vtracted tinfture
ftill fupply it with other,
worketh alfo much better externally, and keepeth
burn ; for there muft be alwayes fo much water ,

longer than the balfome or liquor, which in time

tliat no skin of the tartar
may rife at the top
corrupted , but the extraftion is never fpoilcd.
hut that it remain always open , and there

be too fweet, But if you will diftil the liquor or balfome, it is

iiot be too much water
neither, left it
needlefs that it be extraded firft, but may be di-
and not able to dillblve the metal. The folution of

iron or fteel being come to be red

and fweet, and ftilled fo as the boyling made it , after the fame
in talle like unto 'vitvio',
but green and bitter of manner, as above was taught for Lead, and there
will come over a yellow fpirit and oyl from iron or
copper, pour it off w.uni by ii.clination into an
ftand fo long again in fteel, and from copper a greenilh fpirit and oyl.
other' clean veftel, and let it
till almoft all the wa- The fpirit and oyl of iron may fafely be ufed
a very gentle heat of coals,
in the plague, feavers, obftrudions, and corruption
ter be evaporated,
and the diilblved metal with the
of honey. of blood, from 3 i. to 5 i. It is much better to
tartar remain in the conllftency
may be ufed inwardly provoke fweat, than that which is made of crude
Which mctallical liquor
that of iron) which doth Tartar, without addition of a metal the like doth

and outwardly (efpecially

obftruelions of the that alfo which is made of copper and more ef-
puree gently, and opencth the
iver and Spleen: cleanfeth the
Stomach, and kil- fectually yet, and fometimes caufeth a vomit, if it
greater quantity, than is fitting.
eth Worms :externally ufed it is a good wound be ufed in a
;alfonie, and goes far beyond
all fuch as are made NB. Although the Chymifts do prefer copper

It is a fingular treafure, not only for before iron, as a more firm and ripe metal, never-
of vegetables-
alfo for to cleanfe and thelefs it is found by experience, that iron or
to cure new wounds , but
Part I. Philofofbical Furnaces. 41
fteel by reafon of its fweetnefs is better to be balfame , like other metals, but is not to be ufed
ufed for an inward medicine than copper. But inwardly, unlefs it be digefted a fulTicicnt time,
for external ufe, copper ( if it be well prepared ) fo that its fiercenefs be allayed Externally it may :

hath the preheminence, being an appropriate me- fafely be ufed in all defperate, efpecially venereal
dicine for all ulcers and open fores, in all the parts fores, and it is a very efTeftual and profitable me-
of the body, if the fame inwardly be kept clean dicine for them. But moft of all it doth ferve
by fitting purges. For not only the now defcri- for Alchymy , although few do know this gueft,
bed medicine , but alfo many more bcfides , are becaufe he will not be feen by every one. The
taught to be made out of copper in other places fpirit which comes over from it by diftillation, is
of my books. an admirable thing not only in phyfick, but alfo
A Country - phyfick and purge I will teach for in Alchymy yet you muft take heed, that inftead

thofe , which either live far from Apothecary- of a friend , you do not harbor a great enemy :
fliops, or have no money to fpare for phyfick ^ for its force and vertue is very great and powerful.
and it is to be made out of iron and copper,
whereby they may cleanfe their flimy ftomachs, How to make a Tartarifed fpirit of Gold and Silver.
fpoyled by a diforderly dyet, whence head-aches,
worms, agues, and other difeafes are occafioned, Gold and can by no means be dif-
filver alfo
warning withal thofe that are either too old or too way
folved with tartar in a wet but in a :

young, or elfe decayed and weak, and fo not ftrong dry way adding its helper to it, it will eafily dif-
enough for fuch powerful phyfick, that they will folve, which doth not belong hither-, but if you
forbear to ufe it, left befides the worms, they kill will draw a fpirit of it, then the gold and filver

and expel life it felf alfo \ but thofe that are of muft firft by dilTolving and coagulating be reduced
a ftrong conftitution, and a middle age, and of a to cryftals, and. then diflblved with purifyed tar-
found heart, may fafely ufe this purge , whereby tar and water, and of Gold you will get a yel-
ftomach- agues, belly-worms, and may other occult low folution, and of filver a white inclining unto
difeafes may be cured with good fuccefs- The pre- green, which being reduced to the confiftency of
paration is done thus Take 5 Is. of pure tartar
: honey, may be ufed faibly and without fear. The
made into powder, & %fs- or 5 j. of fugar or honey, folution of Gold doth loofen and keep the body
and 5 V. or ^vj. of fpring or rain water, put all open j it effecftually ftrengtheneth the ftomach,
into a clean copper velTel which is not greafy, and heart, lungs, and liver, and other principal mem-
boy] it upon a coal fire as long or fomewhat long- bers : and that of filver purgeth very forcibly,
er than you ufe to boyl an egg, or at the furthcft according to the quantity given, like another purge,
half a quarter of an hour , take off the skum in but without harm or danger, fo that in all difeafes
boy ling, let it ftand till it be milk- warm, fo that where purging is neceflary, it may be ufed fafely
it may be drunk. This potion tafting almoft like from 3 i. to 5 f- but that of gold is ufed in a
warm wine fweetned with fugar , give unto the fmaller quantity: and both the liquor of gold
patient to drink , and let him faft upon it , and and of filver may very fuccefsfully be ufed exter-
within half an hour it will begin to work upwards nally: but becaufe for external ufes inferiour me
and downwards ; whereat you need not be amazed, tals will ferve the turn, it is needlefs to ufe coft-
but only keep the body warm, and within an hour ly things thereto.
it will have done working. But if you will drive The which is forced from it by diftilla-
out worms from little children by purging, then tion, is endued with great vertue for the vola- :

inftead of the copper-veflbl, take a clean iron-vef- tile part of the metal cometh over - joyned with
fel, and put in a lefs quantity of tartar, fugar and the fpirit of tartar, the remainder may be redu-
water, and boyl it as abovefaid, and give it to them, ced , fo as it was taught of other metals. This
and it will purge only downward, but fometimes it fpirit, efpecially that of Gold, is exceeding good
will alfo give a gentle vomit, which will do them in the plague and other difeafes , where fweating
no hurt, but rather will cleanfe the ftomach the is neceflary : for it driveth not only by fweating,
better- But if the drink be too weak, fo that it all Malignities from the Heart, but alfo doth
doth not work, it may be ufed again the next day ftrengthen the fame, and preferveth it from all
( but you muft take more of the ingredients , or hurtful fymptomes. Likewife alfo that of filver is
elfe let them boyl longer) there is no danger in very commendable, efpecially if it be firft dephleg-
it at all, if you proceed aright, and it is much med from its C^ff Alortnumy as above was taught
pleafanter to take, than the bitter worm-feed, where- in the preparation of the common fpirit of tartar.
with they ufually torment children. For any Phyfitian expert in Chymiftry rnay eafily
The reafon why this decodlion works in this guefs what the fpirit of tartar well retlifyed and im-
manner is, that the tartar and fugar being boyled pregnated with the vertues of gold may efFert, and
in metallical velTels with water, work upon the me= therefore it is needlefs to make any further men-
tal , and extraft vertue out of it , which caufeth tion of it, but it (hall be left to the tryal thereof.
vomiting and purging fthe Tartar alfo being help-
fol to it. ) To make a Tartarifed fpirit of Antimony^

How to make a Tartarifed fpirit of Mercury. CRude Antimony cannot be diflblved in fuch a
manner as above hath been taught but if it :

Vulgar Mercury cannot be dilTolved like the be firft prepared into or a vitrum, it yield-
former metals with tartar and water, with- eth eafily its vertue in boyling, and it is done
out any foregoing preparation ; but muft be fubli- thus: Take to one patt of the flores or of fmall
med with fait and vitriol, or cryftallifed with
firft ground vitrum jintimonii made fer fe , three parts
^qna fortts^ and then it may be diflblved by boyl- of pure tartar, and 12. or 15. parts of clean wa-
ing with tartar and water , and reduced into a ter, boyl the Antimony with the tartar and wa-
M ter
42 The Second Part of Part I

ter in a glazed pot for three or four hoursj and tar ; and this oyl may with
credit be ufed not on-

the evaporated water muft be ftill fupplycd with ly for all podagricaltumors to allay them very rea-
dily, but alfo by reafon of its drynefs it doth con-
other that the tartar may not burn for want of
water, and the litmm muft be fometimes ftirred fume all other tumors in the whole body, whether
about with a wooden fpatula (which the flores they be caufed by wind or water for the vola-

tile fait by reafon of its fubtl.ny, conveyeth the

being light do not need ): This done , the tartar
water will be deep red coloured by the Antimony, vertue of Antimony into the iir.ermoft parts of the
and leave the remaining Antimony fettled in the body in a marvellous and incredible way, whereby
bottom, from which pour off the folution, and af- much good can be performed in Cbyrurgery.
ter having filtred it, evaporate the water from it, As for the Ipirit, you may not only ufe it very
and then cxtraft it once more with fpiric of wine, fuccefsfuUy, in tLe Plsgue, Pcx, Scurvy, Mdancho-
hyfochoridiinca^ Feavers, and other obllruftions
and you will get a blood red Extratlum^ whereof lia

2,3. to lo- or 12. drops given at once, caufeth and corruptions of blood, but alfo if you put fome
gentle vomits and ftools, which may be fafely ufed of it into new wine or beer, and let it work with it,
by old and young in all dileafes that have need the wine or beer comes to be fo vertuous there-
of purging, and you need not tear any danger at by , that if it be daily ufed, it doth ftay and keep
all: For I know no vomit, which purgeth more off all difeafes proceeding from fuperfluous humors
gently than this, and if you pleafe, you may make and corrupted blood, fo that neither Plague, Scur-
wLrk only downward, fo that it vy, Melancholia HyfOihondriaCa ^ or any Other di-
it ( per tnfenora )
and you need do nothing feafe of that kind can take root in thole that dai-
fhallcaufe no vomits at all :

brown bread , and hold ly ufe it, wherein no metal or mineral (except gold)
elfe but make a toaft of
it hot to your nofe and mouth, and when this is can be parallel'd with it but in cafe you have no

almoll cold , have another hot in readinefs , and conveniency to make that fpirit, and yet you
fo ufe one after another by turns, till you feel no
would wiUingly have fuch a medicinal drink made
of Antimony, then take but of the folution made
more loathing, and that the vertue of Antimony
with tartar, before it be dillilled, and put tt> j. or
hath begun to work downward: This is a good
fs. of it into 18. or 20. gallons of new wine or
fecret for thofe that would ufe Antimonial phy- tt> j

but that they are affraid of vomiting, which beer, and let it work together, and the vertue of
they are not able to endure. But if you will the Antimony by the fermentation of the wine will

not fpend fo much pains, as to make fuch an Ex- grow the more volatile and effic?.'cious to work. And
then do as you was taught above to do if you cannot have new wine (in regard that it doth
traft ,

with the copper , and take ten or twelve grains not grow every where) you may make an artifici-
al wine of Honey, Sugar, Pears, Figs, Cherries or
of prepared Antimony for an old body , but for
the like fruit, as in the following third part fliall
a young one 5, 6. grains or more or lefs according
be taught , which may ftand in Head of natural
to the condition of the perfon, and Ifs. or o vj. of
pure tartar, and together with ^ iiij. or 5 v. of wa- Wine.
ter put it in a little pipkin, and boyl it a quarter
Thefe medicinal wines fer-ve for a fure and fafe
prefervativc, not only to prevent many difeafes, but
of an hour, then pour the folution only into a cup,
and difolve a little fugar in it, whereby the acidity body already, effedu-
alfo if they have poffeffed the

of the Tartar will be fomewhat qualified. The de- ally and expel them.
to oppofe Alfo all external
corum drink warm, and keep your felf asit is fit, open fores (which by daubing and plaiftering could
and it will work much better, than it if had been not be remedied j by daily drinking thereof may
fteeped over night in wine , which not every one
be perfecftly cured. For not only Baftlim ralchu-
but this decoClum^ be- nus^ and Theophrafius Paracdfus^ but many more be-
can abide to take fafting ',

caufe it talleth like warm and fweet wine, is much fore and after them knew it very well, and have

pleafanter to take. written many good things of it, which few did en-
tertain, and Cbecaufe their defciription was fome-
N- B- It is to be admired, that well prepared An-
timony is never taken in vain: for although it be what darkj moft defpifed and defamed thera for
given in a very fmall quantity, fo that it cannot
caufe either ftool? or vomits, yet it worketh infen- In like manner, and much more may this my jvri-
ting be lightly efteemcd of, becaufe I do not fet down
fibly, t'Jz.. it cleanfeth the blood, and expelleth ma-
lignities by fwear, fo that mighty difeafes may be
long and coftly proceffes, but only according to
rooted out thereby without any great fenfible ope- truth, and in fiaiplicity do labour to ferve my neigh-
ration. Which many times hapned unto me, and bour, which doth not found well in the ears of the
gave occafion to think further of it ; and there-
me proud world, which rather tickle and load them-
how to prepare Antimony fo, that it
fought felves with vain and unprofitable proceffes, than
fore I

might be ufed daily without cauling of vomits or ftools, harken unto the truth ; and it is no wonder, that
which I i)ut in execution accordingly, and found it God fuffereth fuch men, which only look after high
good, as afterward (hall follow- things, and defpife fmall things, to be held in Er-
Of the folution above defcribedjWx.. of the flores
of Antimony with tartar make a good quantity, Why do we look to get our Medicines by trou-
and after the evaporation of the water diltill a fpi- bling our brains, & by fubtle and tedious works,wheres
ric of it, and there will alfo come over a black oyl,
as God through Iimple nature doth teach us other-
wife- Were it not better to let fimple nature inftruft
which muft be feparated from the fpirit, and redi-
and externally applyed it will not only do us ? furely if we would be in love with fmall things, we
fied fcr fe ;

fhould find great ones. But becaufe all men do ftrive

the fame wonderful operations, which above have
been afcribed to the iimple oyl of tartar, but it only for great and high things, therefore the fmall al-
goeth alfo far beyond it, for thebeft ellencc of An- fo are kept from them ; and therefore it would be

timony hath joyned it felf thereunto in the diftil- well, that we could fancy this maxim , that alfo

ling and fo doubled the vertue of the 6yl of Tar- things of fmall account can do fomething, as we
Part I Philojofbical Furnaces.
_ ._ 43
may fee by Tartar and defpicable Antimony, and and what they know not, they may
forbear to de-
not only fo many coals, glafles, materials, and the and fcofF at.
like, but alfo the precious time would not be waft- J muftconfefs, that (f Antimony be not well
ed fo much in preparing of medicaments for all :
pared, and befides, be indifcreetly ufed by
the un-
is not gold that gliftereth, but oftentimes under a skilful, that it may prejudice a man in his heakhi
homely coat fome glorious thing is hid i which which even the vegetables alfo may do. Buttore-
ought to be taken notice of. jed It by reafon of the abufe, would be
a very un-
Some may objed why do I teach to joyn the An- wife ad perchance a child lliould get into his
: If

timony firlt with the Tartar by the help of com- hand a fharp-edged knife,
and hurt himfclf or o-
mon water before its fermentation with the wine: thers, becaufe it doth not underftand how
to ufe a
whether it would not be as good to put it in of it knite, fhould therefore the ufe of a knife
be rejed-
felf in powder, or to difTolve it with fpiritoffalt ed and forbidden to thofe that are grown up and
f which would be ealier to do than with Tartar)
know how to ufe it? Good fharp tools make a good
and fo let it work ? To which I anfwer, that the workman fo good quick working and powerful me-

working wine or drink, receiveth no metallical calx dicines make a good phyfitian and the fharpcr the ;

or folution, unlefs it be firfl; prepared with tartar or tool the fooner a ftone- carver or other crafts-

fpirit of wine. For although you dillblve Antimonyj man my fpoyl his work by one cut which he doth
or any other metal or mineral in fpirit of fait, or amiis: winch alfo muft be underftood of powerful
of vitriol, or of fait nitre, or any other acid fpi- medicines, for if they be ufed pertinently, in a fhort
rit, and then think to let it work with wine or time more good may be done with them, than with
any other drink, you will find that it doth not weak medicaments in a long time. Now as a fharp
fucceed for the acid fpirit will hinder the fermen-
tool is not to be handled but by a good workman,
tation , and let fall the dillbived metals, and fo fo likewife a powerful medicine ought
to be man-
fpoyl the work ; and befidcsj Tartar may be ufcd aged by an underftanding and confcienrious phyfiti-
among all drinks, and doth more agree with ones an, who according to the condition of the perfon,
tafte and Itomach, than any corrofive fpirit. and the difeafe, knows to increafe or abate
ftrength of the medicine, and not by
In the fame manner as was taught of Antimony , fuch a one
as doth minifter it ignorantly
other minerals and metals alfo may be fitly joyned without making any
difference at '
with wine or other drink, and the ufe of fuch An-
Let no man marvail, that afcribe fuch great
timonial wine is this, viz.. that it be drank at meals I
vertices unto Antimony, it being abundantly enrich-
and betwixt meals like other ordinary drink to
ed with the prumimens of gold. If I fhould
quench thirft, but for all that, it muft not be drank fay ten
times as much more of it, I fhould not
in a greater quantity, than that Nature be able to lye. Its
praife is not to be expreffed by any
bear it. For if you would drink of it immoderate- mans tongue

for purifying of the blood, there is no

ly, it would excite vomits, which ought not to be, mineral like
unto iti for k cleanfeth and purifieth the
for it is but only to work in an infenfible way , whole
man in the highcft degree, if
it be well prepared
iwhich if it be done> it preferveth not only the bo-
firft,and then difcreetly ufed- It is the beft and
iy from all difeafes proceeding from corrupted im--
next friend to gold, which by the fame alfo
pure blood, as the Plague, Leprofy, Pox, Scurvy, is freed
and purified from all addition and filth, as
and the like , but by reafon of its hidden heat, we faid
even now, of man. Every Antimony for
whereby it doth coniume and expel all evil and falc the moft
part agreeth with gold and its medicine;
humors ( as the Sun dryeth up a pool ) by fweat for out
of Antimony, by the cleanfing Art may be
and urine, and fo doth unbunhen the blood from made
firm gold, as in the fourth part
all fuch fharp and hurtful humors, &c. It doth fliall be taught, and
which is more, by a longdigeftion a good
not only cure the abovefaid difeafes, but alfo all part of
the fame is changed into gold. Whereby it is evi-
open fores, ulcers, fiftulaes, which by reafon of the
dent, that it hath the nature and property
fuperfluity of fait humors can admit of no healing, of gold,
and it is better to be ufed for a medicine than gold
and it doth difpatch them in a fhort time in a
it felf, becaufe the golden vertue is as yet volatile
wonderful manner, and fo firmly that there is no
in this, but in the other is grown fixed and compac-
relapfe to be feared.
ted, and may be compared to a young
child in re-
This drink not only good for the fick, but
fpedofanold man. Therefore it is my advice, that
alfo for the whole Tthough in a (mailer quantity ) in Antimony medicine fhould be fought, and
not to
becaufe that it wonderfully cleanfeth the whole bo- trifle away time and coft in vain and ufelefs
dy, and you need not fear the leaft hurt either in things.
young or old, fick or healthy. And let no man Further note. That if you defire to contrad near-
ftumble at it, that many ignorant men do defame er together the vertue of Antimony or any
Antimony and hold it to be poyfon, and forbid it mineral or metal, as above was taught to be done with
to be ufed , for if they knew it well, they would the Tartar, you muft by exhalanon of the fuper-
not do fo but becaufe fuch men know no more,
fluous moifture in Balneo, reduce the folucion to a
than what they get by reading, or by hear - fay honey thick liquor, and pour fpirit of wine upon it
tTiey pronounce a falfe fentence-, and it might be for to extrad, and within few days it will be very
replyed unto them, as Apdks did to the Shooe- ma- redi then pour it off and pour on other, and let
ker Ne fntor ultra crrpidam: but what what fhall
this likewife extrad continue this proceeding with

we fay? Non omnts fert omnia telhis. When an A fs fhifting the fpirit of wine, till the fpirit of
after his death doth rot, out of the carcafs grow- can get no more Tindure i then put all the coloured
eth Beetles , which caii fly higher than the Afs fpirit of wine together into a glafs with a long neck,
from whence they came^ In the like manner we and digeft it fo long in a warm Balneum, till the
wifh it may fare with the haters of royal Antimo- colour or beftelfence of Antimony be feparated from
ny, -VIZ.. that their pofterity may get feeing eyes, the fpirit of wine, and fettled to the bottom like a
2 M
The Second Part of 1.

fpirit of wine
The dofe from 3 i- to 5 i. in waters fit for your
blood red thick fat oyl, fo that the purpofe. This fait difiblved with water purifieth
be feparatea
is turned white again ; which is to metals (if they be boy led therein) and maketh them
Antimony, which
from the fair and pleafant oyl of as fairer then common Tartar doeth-
is made without any
corrofive, and is to be kept
The fpirit of wme re-
a ereat treafure in phyfick- How to get a powerful fpirit cut of the fait of Tartar^ by
tains fomewhat of the vertue
of Antimony, and
theTielp of pure fund or peble-fiones.
felf both inwardly
raav be ufed with fiiccefs of it all
But the Tindure as a Panacea in
and outwardly. the part of this book I taught how to make
difeafes adeth its part with admiration,
and as nere
INfuch a becaufe the materials, which
fpirit, but
the lame manner an
mentioned of Antimony, fo in
are to be diftilled in that furnace muft be caft upon
metals by the help of Tartar and fpirit
of wine may
and iweet quick coals, whereby the remainder is loft, and that
without diftilling be reduced into pleafant alfo not every one hath the conveniency to fet up
mPhylick: tor
oyles, which are noncof the meanelt a furnace that requireth more room than this here
every knowing and skilful Chymift will eafily
corrohves doth : therefore I will fet down how it may be got
that fuch a metallical oyl, as without all
with eafe in this our prefent furnace, without the
a plealant
out of the grofs" metals is reduced into of the remainder, which, is not inferior to the
great and fingular vertue-
elTence, cannot be without And it is done thus:
fpirit it felf
Make a fair white fait of calcined Tartar by dif-
How to makrfoodjpmt and oyles out of Pearls, Corals folution, filtration aud coagulation, pulverife that
Crabs-eyes, and other light [olnhk Jiones of beafis
fait in a warmed morcer, and add to it a fourth
fiPs. part of fmall pulverifed cryftal or flints or only of
(made into fine fand, waflied clean, mix it well, and caft
TAke to one part of pearls or corals
parts of pure Tar-
fpoonful thereof at once into your red-hot velfel
fine powder three or four (which muft be made of earth) and fo cover ir,
water dillolve the Tartar I

tar, and fo much as will

and the mixture as foon as it is red hot, will
water toge-
by boyling^ put the corals, Tartar and rife and boyl (as common Allomedoth, when it com-
in fand,
ther into a glafs body, which muft ftand heat) and yield a thick white heavy
water boyl in eth to a fudden
and give it fo ftrong a fire, that the fpirit i and when it ceafeth to come forth, then call
the glafs body with the Tartar, and
may dilTolve
in another fpoonful, and ftay out the time of its fet-
may be done alfo in a
the corals- (This folution another part again, till all your mix-
evaporated tling, and then
clean earthen pot that is glafed, and the ture be caft in. When no more fpirit goeth forth,
above was
water mult be fupplyed with other, as then take off the lid from the diftilling velTel, and
taught to be done with the metals.) The
corals be-
with an iron ladle take out that which flayed be-
lee them cool, filtrate the
ing diffolved, red-hot and foft, and it will
and hind, whileftit is yet
and abftrad all the moifture from it in Balneo, look like unto atranfparentclear white fufible glafs,
there will remain a pleafant
honey-thick liquor,
which you muft keep from the air, for it will dif-
which may be ufed in Phyfick either of it felf, or folve in it, till I teach you what you are to da
elfeonce more extracted with fpirit of wine
and pu-
with it.
rified, orelfediftilled, as you pleafe-
The fpirit which came over, may either be kcpc
Theextrador Tindure is better than the liquor, as it is, or elfe redified p.r arenam in a glafs retort,
and the fpirit is better than the extrad or tindure

in Phyfick it is clean of another tafte than

they and ufed
and all three may well and fafely be ufed i

thofe the fpirit

of common fait or vitriol, for it is not
ftrcngthen tne heart and brain ; efpecially fmelleth of the flints after a fulphn-
fo ftiarp it ,

which -^-.e made of pnrls and corals, they expel the reous manner, and tafteth urin- like, and it is very
uriii and kee-. ihs bo^: v foluble.
Thofe of crabseyes
thofe that are troubled with the gout, ftone
cleanfe the good for
and of pearches snd other filhes open and for it provoketh urin and fweat mighti-
and and Tifick :

panares of the u! in from all flime and impurity, and (becaufe it cleanfeth and ftrengthneth the
in the ly,
they 'powerfully expel the ftone and gravel
ftomach; it alfo maketh one have a good appetite
reins and bladder , ,
to his Viduals What it can do elfe is unknown
N. B. The di Hilled fpirit of corals being well is credible that it may ad its
and to me as yet, but it
redified, is good for the Epilepfy, Melancholy, which is left free for e-
poyfon part in many
other difeafes,
Apoplexy. It expellsth and driveth out all to In my opinion (fince the fpirit
nature and very one
by fweating, becaufe it is of a golden of Tartar is good to be ufed of it felf
be faid. of the fait
quality, whereof in another place more fhall and that here it is ftrengthned by the
for the ftone,

Tartar and crude Tartar. fand, which have the fignaiure of the ftone of the
To dip II a fpirit out of fait of
Microcofme) there is hardly any particular medi-
and of cine, which can go
beyond it, but I leave every one
you take a like quantity of crude Tartar and experience- Externally ufed,
IF fait of Tartar, and difiblve it with clean water, to his own opinion
it quencheth inflammations and maketh a pure skin,
and then evaporate the water ftill skimming it,
which I bid you keep, and looks
cool, there (5"c. The remainder,
no skin more do rife, and then let it atranfparentclear glafs, is nothing elfe but the
will Ihoot white cryftals.
which being dijtilled as like
moft fixed part of the fait of Tartar and flints,
common Tartar, they will yield a purer fubtler and joyned themfelves thus in the heat, and turn-
Tartar doth, in all which
pleafanter fpirit, than the crude wherein lyes hid a great heat
above hath been taught of the fimple ed to a foluble glafs,
to be ufed as
is needlefs here to de-
and fire. As long at it is kept dry from the air,
fpirit of Tartar: therefore it
cannot be perceived in it: but if you pour water
fcribe its ufe- Before you diftill a fpint thereof, it vyill difcover it felf.
Tartarns vnrtolatus upon it, then its fecret heat
you may ufe them in ftead of make to fine powder in a warm rnorter*
(tools, and drive If you it
for purging, they will caufe gentle air, will diflblve and melt
unpleafant to take- and lay it in a raoift it
alfo the urin and ftone, and are not into
Part I. Philojofbical Furnaces.
into a thick and fat oyl, and leave forae faeces behind. or whether it hold fixed or volatile gold, and

This fat liquor or oyl of flints, fand or cryftal may firftwith fait of tartar diftill the fpirit thereof
not only be ufed inwardly and outwardly of it felf, or if you do not care for the fpirir, then melt
but alfo ferveth to prepare minerals and metals in- mixture in a covered crucible into a tranfparcnt,fo-
to good medicines, or to change them into better luble and fufible glafs, and in a warm morter make
by Chymical art. For many great fecrets are hid it into fine powder ; put this powder
in a long neck-
in the contemptible pebie or fand which an ig- , ed glafs, and pour upon it reftified fpirit of wine (it
norant and unexpert man (if they were difclofed to needeth not to be dephlegmed, it matters not if ic
hm) would hardly believe : for this prefent world be but pure) let it remain upon it in a gentle warmth,
is by the divels craft fo farpofleded with curfed filthy till it be turned red (the glafs with
the prepared pe-
avarice, that they feek for nothing but money, but ble or flints muft be often ftirred about, that
the pe-
honcfl: and ingenious fciencesare not regarded at all \ ble be divided, and the fpirit of wine may be
able to
and therefore God doth dofe our eyes that we can: work upon it; then pour oftthe coloured fpirit of
not fee what lycth befofe them, and we trample up- wine, and pour on other, and let this likewife
on with our feet. That worthy man Parcelfus hath red :this pouring off" and on muft be iterated fo
given it us fufficiently to underftand, when he faith en, tillthe fpirit of wine get no more colour out of
in his book (containijig the vexations of Alchymifts) it. All
the rinifturcd fpirit of wine put together,
that many times a delpicable flint cafl: at a Cow is & abftrad in a Balneum through a Limbeck from the
more worth than the Cow ^ not only becaufe that Tinrture which will remain in the bottom of the
gold may be melted out of it, but alio that other in- glafs body like a red juyce, which you muft take out
ferior metals may be purified thereby, fo that they and keep for its ufe.
are like unto the belt gold and lilver in all tryalsi^
and although I never got any great profit by thedo^ The life of the Tindnre of f dies or flints in Phyfick^
ing of it, yet it doth fufRce me that I have feen fe-
veral times the poflibility and truth thereof, which THis Tincfture if it be made of gold, pebles or
in its proper place likewife fliall be taught. fand, IS to be held for none of the leaft
This liquor of flints is of that nature toward the cines, for it doth powerfully refift all
folnble Tarta-
metals, that it maketh them exceeding fair, but not reous coagulations, in the hands, knees,
feet, reins
lb, as women do fcowre their vell'elsof tin, copper, and bladder; and although in want of
thofe that
iron, C/~c. with ly and fmall fand, till all filth be fcou- hold gold, It be extradted but only out
of common
red off, and that they get a bright and fair glofs white peble, it doth ad its part however,
but the metals mult be didolved therein by Chymi- not altogether fo well as the firft. Let no man mar-
cal art, and then either after the wet or dry way di- vel, that fand or pebles made potable,
have fo great
gefted in it for its due fpace of time ; which Paracd- vertue ; for not all things are known to all
; and

fus callethto go into the mothers womb, and be born this Tindlure is more powerful yet, if firft
again : if this be done rightly, then the mother will have been diflblved with the liquor of pebles
bring forth a pure child- All metals are engendred the extraction. And
no man imagine that this
in fand or Itone, and therefore they may well be Tindure comes from the fait of Tartar ("which
called the mother of metals, and the purer the mo- taken to the preparing of the oyl of fand)
ther is, the purer and founder child Ihe will bear, that of it felf alfo doth colour the fpirit of
wine, for
and among all ftones there is none found purer than there a great difference betwixt this Tinaiure'and

the peble, cryftal or fand, which are of one nature that, which is extrafted out of the fait of Tartar
(if they be fimple and not impregnated with metals ) : for if you diftill that of the fait of tartar
in a little
And therefore the peble or fand is found to be the glafs body or retort, there will come firft a
clear fpi-
fitteft bath to wafh the metal withall. But he that rit of wine, then an unfavory phlegm,
and a fait will
would take this bath to be the Philofophers fecret remain behind, in all like unto common fait of tar-
Menftruum, whereby they exalt the King unto the tar, wherein after its calcining not the leaft
higheft purity, would bemiftaken; for their Balne- appeareth, and becaufe none came over neither,
um is more friendly to gold by reafon of its affini- might be queftioned where it remained then ?
ty with it than with other metals, but this doth ea- To which I anfwer, that it was not a true tinfture,
fier diflblve other metals than gold. Whereby it is but only that the fulphur in the fpirit of wine
evident, that it cannot be Benard his fountain (^Bem. exalted or graduated by the corporeal fait of tar-
hardi fom'wa) but muft be held only to be a particu- tar, and fo got a red colour, which it lofeth as
lar deanfer of metals. But omitting this, and leav- as the fait of tartar is taken from it, and realfumeth
ing to the further pradtife and tryal of thofe that
it its former white colour even as it hapncth alfo,

want no time nor conveniency for to fearch what when the fait of nrin, or of harts-horn or foot, or
may be done with it, let us take notice of the ufe any other like urinous fait is digefted with fpirit of
of this liquor in phyfick, for which ufes fake this wine, that the fpirit turneth red of it, but not laft-
book is written. That which hath been faid, was ingly, but juft fo as it falls out with the fait of tar-
only done to that end, that we may obferve, that we tar, for if by rcdification it be feparated again from
muft not always look upon dear and coftly things, the fpirit of wine, each (viz.. both the fait and alfo
but that many times even in mean and contemptible the fpirit of wine) doth recover again its former co -
things (as fand &
pebles) much good is to be found. lour, whereby it appeareth, that (as above faid) it
was not a true tindiure. He that will not believe
Hovp to extraQ a blood-red TinRttre with fpirit of wine it, let him diffolve but 5 of common white fait

out of the liquor of fehle-fiones. of tartar in ft i- of fpirit of wine, and the fpirit
will turn as red of it, as if it had ftood a long time
you will extract a tinfture out of peble-ftones, upon feveral pounds of blew or green calcined fait
IFfor ufe in Phyfick or in Alchyray, then ftead in of tartar ; and if I had not tryed it my felf feve-
of the white take a fair yellow, green or blew peble ral times, I ftiould have alfo been of that opinion
N but'
46 The Second Tart of Part I.

but becaufe I found it to be otherwife, therefore I by the vertue of the peble it expelleth the ftone
would not omit to fet down my opinion : though I in the reins and bladder ( if it be not grown to
know I fliall dclerve fmall thanks of fome, efpecial- the height of hardnefs) like fand together with
ly of thofe which rather will err with the greater the urine: fo that it may be fafely ufed as well
rumber, than to know and confefs the truth with to prevent, as to cure the plague, gout and ftone-
thelcfs number- However, I do not fay, that the How to make further out of this purple colou-
fuppofed tindlure of the fait of Tartar is of no ver- red gold a foluble Ruby for medicinal ufe , fliall
tue or ufelefs ; for 1 know well enough that it is be taught in the fourth part for in regard that :

foimd very effedual in many difeafes: forthepurefl it muft be done by a ftrong fire in a crucible, it

part of the fait of Tartar hath been diHoived by the doth not belong hither , but to its proper place,
fpiiit of wine, it being thus coloured thereby, and where other like Medicaments are taught to be
therefore that tindured fpirit of wine may very fit- made.
ly be ufed. Rut as for the Tinfture, which is ex- If you will extraft the colour out of this preci-
tradted out of the prepared pebles, it is clean of a- pitated gold, then pour upon it ( before it be put
nother condition : for if you abftrad the fpirit of into the fire for to caicin ) of the ftrongeft fpirit of
wine from it, though it alfo cometh over white, yet fait, and in a gentle heat the fpirit will diflblve
there remainetha deep tinc'lured fait, whofe colour part of the gold, which will be much fairer and
is lafting in the Itrongelt hrc> and therefore may be deeper in colour , than if it had been done with
counted a true Tindure. Aqua Rtgia : upon this folution pour five or fix
times as much of dephlegmed fpirit of wine, and
HoVD by the help of this liquor out of Gold its red colour digeft both together its due time, then by the di-
may be extrriSied fo that it remains white. geftion of a long time, part of the Gold will fall
out of the folution to the bottom like a fair white
THis oyl or liquor of peblesof fuch a condi-
is ponder, which may be reduced with Borax or fait
tion? that it doth precipitate
all metals which nitre and Tartar ; it is white like filver , and as
are diflblved by corrofives, but not after that man- heavy as other gold, and may eafily get its colour
ner as the fait of Tartar doth ^ for the calx of me- again by the help of Antimony- The refidue out
tals which is precipitated by this liquor; (becaufe of which the white gold is fain, viz.. the fpirit of
that the pebles do mingle themfelves therewith) is fait mingled with the fpirit of wine, muft be ab-
grown much heavier thereby, than if it had been ftrafted from the Tin(!l;ure, and there will remain
only precipitated with fait of Tartar. a pleafant fowre liquor coloured by the gold, up-
For example, dillblve in Aqua Regia as much Gold on the bottom of the glafs body, which is almoft
as you pleafe, ?nd pour of this liquor upon it, till of the fame vertue, which above hath been afcri-
all the Gold fall to the bottom like a yellow powder, bed to other tindlures of gold- Efpecially this li-
and the folution turn white and clear, which you quor of gold ftrengthneth the heart , brain , and
mull pour off, and edulcorate the precipitated Gold Itomach.
with fweet water, and then dry it (as you was taught N- B. Sometimes there comes over with the fpi-
to do with the Atrum fnlminans) and you need not rit of wine a little red oyl, which the ftrong fpi-
fear that it will kindle and fulminate in the drying, rit of fait hath feparated from the fpirit of wine,
as it ufeth to do, when it is precipitated with fait and it is impregnated with the Tindure of Gold.
of Tartar or fpirit of urin, but you may boldly dry It is an excellent cordial, few are found like unto
it by the fire, and it will look like yellow earth, and it , whereby weak people decayed by ficknefs or
will weigh as heavy again as the Gold did weigh age, may be kept alive a long time, they taking
before the folution the caufe of which weight is,
, daily fome drops of it, who elfe for want of the
the peble ftones, which did precipitate themfelves hnmidum radicale , would be forced to exchange
together with the Gold. For the Aqua. Regia by their life for death.
its acidity hath mortified the fait of Tartar, and rob- Here fome body may ask, whether this Tindure
bed it of its vertues fo, that it could not choofe but isto be counted or taken for a true Tinfture of
let fall the alTumed pebles or fand ; on the other Gold ; or whether there be another better to be
lide, the fait of Tartar which was in the liquor of found ?

pebles, hath annihilated the fharpnefs of the Aqua To which I anfwer, that though many may hold
Rtgia^ fo that it could not keep the diflblved gold it to be fuch, and I my
fo here, yet
felf do call it

any longer, whereby both the gold and the pebles that after due examination it will not prove to be
are freed from their didblver. fuch : for although fome vertue is taken from the
This edulcorated and dryed yellow powder put gold by this way , yet it doth ftill keep its life,
into a clean crucible, and fet ic between live coals, though it be grown weak and pale, becaufe it can
that it begin to be red hot, but not long, and the fo eafily recover its former found colour by a con-
yellow will be changed into the faireft purple co- temptible mineral if its true Tindure or_ foul

lour, which is pleafant to behold, but if you let it were gone from it, furely an inferibur mineral
ftand longer, then the purple colour vanilheth, and could not reftore it to life, but of neceflity there
it turns to a brown and brick colour and therefore: would be required fuch a thing for to do it, which
if you defire to have a fair purple coloured gold, hath not only fo much, as it hath need of for it
you muft take it off from the fire, as foon as it is felf, but hath a tranfcendent power to give life unto
come to that colour, and let it not ftand any longer, dead things. As we may fee by a man or any fen-
elfe it lofeth that colour again. fible bcaft , that if they have loft their vigor by
This fair gold-powder may be ufed by the rich adverfities , in that no life more is perceived in
( which are able to pay for it ) from ^i. to 5//. them, yet by medicines fitfor the purpofe , they
ia convenient vehicles ; and in all difeales, where may be refreflied , and former
brought to their
fweating is needful: for befides the provoking of health, fo that their former difeafe appeareth no
fweat, it comforteth not only the heart, but alfo more in them : but if their foul be once gone, the
Part I. Philosophical Furnaces.
dead body can by no medicines be reftored unto moft worldly learned men fpenc
e.vpcrience, that the
life again, but muft remain dead fo long , till he many years, and have been at vaft charges, and ta-
in wliofe power it is to give and to take life, have ken great pains, and ftudied in their books day and
mercy upon it. So likewife it is to be underftood night, and found not the leaft thing in them.
of gold , when its colour is taken from it , and Now if fuchPhilofophers were to be underftood
yetits life is left, which by the help of Antimo- would not be fo many poor
literally, doubtlefs there

ny, being its medicine, as alio by the help of iron decay'd Alchymifts- Therefore the writings of
or copper can be reftored unto it , fo that it re- fuch worthies are not to be underftood according to
covereth its former fair colours, fo that you can- the letter, but according to the myftital fenfe hid
not fee at all, that it ailed any thing before- But under the letter.
jf its life be gone from the body, it is impolTible But becaufe the truth is eclipfed in their books
for any ordinary metal or mineral to reftore it to by fo many fediicing and fophiftical procefles, there
life, but it muft be done by fuch a thing , which will hardly any man be able to pick it out from fo
is more than Gold it felf hath been for even as many feducements, unlefs a light from God be given

a living man cannot give life unto a dead man, to him firft, whereby he may be able fo to perufe
but GOD muft do it who hath created man fo the dark writings of thofe men, that he know how

Gold cannot reftore to dead Gold , the life which to feparate the parabolical fpccches, from thofe that
hath been taken from it, and how could it then be are true in the letter it felf: or if an honeft God-
done by an unhxt mineral ? But there is required ly Chymift by the grace of God in his labours do
a true Philofopher for to do it, fuch a one as hit upon the right fteps, and yet do doubt, whe-
hath good knowledge of gold and its compofition. ther he be in the right way or no, then by read-
Now as we heard that like cannot help its like, ing of good and true Philofophers books, he may
but he That fhall help, muft be more, than he that at laft learn out of them the firm and conftant truth
looks for help from him Hence it is evident
: elfe hardly any ones defire may be obtained out of
that the Tincture , whofe remaining body ( from their books, but rather after the pretious time fpcnt,
which it is taken ) is ftill gold , can be no true means and health wafted, a man ftiall be forced to
tincture for if it fliall be a true cindure, it muft fall a begging at laft.

confift in its three principles, and how can it con- In like manner, if the true tindure be taken from
lift therein, the body from whence it came being Copper, the reft is no more a metal, nor by any
yec alive , and pofTelling invilibly all its three Art or force of fire can be reduced to a metallical
principles? How can a mans foul be taken from fubftance.
him, and yet the body live ftill ? Some will fay, N. B. But if you leave fome tindure in it, then
that for all that , this may be counted a true tin- it may be reduced into a brittle gray body, like un-
fture , although the body ftill remain gold , and to iron, but brittle-
have kept its life even as man may fpare feme

blood cut of his body, '.'.hi.n though it will make Another way to extr.iSl a good TinElHre out of gold by
hip- fomewhat pale , yet he livcth ftill , and the the help of the liquor of [and cr fehks.
lolt blood may be fupplyed again by good meat
and drink.
ons are thefe
But what lame and fenfelefs objefti-
Who would be fo (imple as to
TAke of that gold calx fwhich wa:s precipitated
with the oyl of fand) one part, and three or
think, that a handful of blood may be compared four parts of the liquor of cryftals or of fand, mix
to a mans life ? I believe no wife man will do it. the gold calx in a good crucible with the liquor
Although goeth forth with the blood, yet the
life and fet this mixture into a gentle heat, fo that the
blood is not the life it felf ; elfe the dead could moyftnefs may evaporate from the oyl of fand which
be raifed thereby, if a cup full of it were poured is not eafily done ; for the peble or fand, by reafon
into a dead body, but where was fuch a thing of their drynefs keep and hold the moyftnefs, and
ever heard or feen ? With fuch groundlefs opi- will not let it go eafily it rifeth in the pot or cru-

nions foms did prefume to cenfure the truth , fet cible, as borax or AUome doth when you calcine
down in my treatife de ^uro potabili vero, faying, them ; therefore the crucible, muft not be filled a-
Ccber and LuIUhs were alfo of opinion, that a true bove half, that the liquor together with the gold
tinfture can be extraded out of gold, the fame ne- may have room enough, and do not run over the
rerthelefs remaining good gold : but it may be asked, pot : and when it rifeth no more, then ftrengthen
what it hath loft tlien for to yield a true
Tin- the fire, till the pot be red-hot. The mixture ftand-
(flure, remained good gold ? Here no bo-
fince it ing faft, put a lid upon it, which may clofe well
dy will be at home for to anfwer I doubt. What that no coals, afties, or other impurity may fall in-
are the Writings of Geber or Lully to me? What to it, and give it fo ftrong fire in a winde furnace,
they have written I do not defpife, they were high- that the liquor together with the gold calx may
ly enlightned and experienced Philofophers , and melt like water keep it melting fo long, till the

would defend their writings fufficiently, if they liquor and gold together be like unto a tranfparent
were alive and what I write , I am alfo able to
: fair ruby, which will be done in an hours time or
maintain. thereabouts ; then pour it forth into a clean cop-
Do thofemen thinki that the writings of Geber per morter, let it cool, and then make it into pow-
and are to be underftood according unto the
der , and pour fpirit of wine upon it for to ex-
bare letter ? (hew me a tindure of gold which was trad, which will look like unto thin blood : and will
made by the writings of Geber or Lully ? if it were prove more efFedual in ufe, than the above defcribed
fo, then every idiot or novice, that could but read
Latine, would not only by their writings be able to The refidue from which the Tindure is extrad-
make the Tinfture of gold, but alfo the Philofo- ed, muft be boyled with lead, and precipitated and
phers ftone it felf, whereof they have written at large driven off as you do oares,and you will get the
which doth not follow, becaufe it is feen by daily I remaining gold > which went not into the fpirit of
Nz wine
48 Tke Second Part of Part I.

wine but it is very pale and turned like unto fil-

tar, ftlakeboth well together, fo that the thick li-
ver in colour, which if it be melted by Antimony, quor may not be perceived in the lixivium, but be
it recovereth its former colour without any confi-
throughly incorporated therewith, both being turn-
derablc lofs in the weight. How the melting in ed to a thin folution, and then your water is pre-
crucibles, and boyling of the remaining gold is to pared, wherein the metals do grow.
be done, fliall be more pundlually fet down in the The metals mult be firft diflblved in their proper
fourth part ; I know feveral other fine procefles > corrofive Maiftrmms^ and the Menflrimm mull be

for to extraft the colour eafily out of gold ; but quite abftraded from thence again but not too

becaule the gold mud be firft made fit for it by melt- near, that the calx of the metal may not grow
ing in a crucible, and that it is not pertinent to red-hot, whereby its growing vertue would be taken
fpeak of that operation here in this fecond part, from it. Then take it out of the little glafs-body,
therefore it Hiali be referved for the fourth, where and break it in pieces about the bignefs of a pulfe ,
you fliall be informed at large, not oncly how to and put them) in the above defcribed liquor in a
prepare Gold, Antimony and other minerals, and cleer bright glafs, that the growing of the metals
make them fit for extraftion, but alfo how to re- may be difcerned through it} and as foon as the pre-
duce them into a tranfparent, foluble and fire-proof pared metals are taken out of the glafs body, they
Ruby ( which are none of the meanefl: medicines ) muft be kept from the aire, elfe they lofe their
and as it was done here with the gold, fo you may growing vertue. Therefore thus dry they muft be
proceed likewife with other metals and minerals for broken in pieces, and laid in the bottom of the glafs
ro extract their colours- And therefore being need- (wherein the liquor is) a fingers breadth one from
lefs to defcribe each metals tinfture by it felf, all another afunder, and muft not be laid together on a
the procefles of them fliall be difclofed in one heap. The glafs muft ftand ftill in a quiet place,
viz.. in that of gold. The book would grow too and the metal will prefently fwell in it, and thruft
big, if I fliould defcribe them feverally, which 1 forth fome bulks, out of which branches and twigs
count needlefs to do. Let tliis fuffice for this Se- do grow, fo finely, that one fliall admire at it and

let none think that this growing ferveth only for to

cond part, that we have taught, how to extraft out
of the gold its colour after a common way- Which pleafe the eye, for fome fpecial thing is hid in it

indeed are good medicines, but for ought 1 know for all fand or pebles, although they be white, invi-
fibly containeth a hidden tindureorr^olden fulphur,
of no ufe in Alchymy- But he that feeketh to have
a true Tincture out of gold, let him endeavour which none without experience will be able to be-
firft to deftroy the gold by the univerfal Mercury
lieve ; for if for a time yon digeft the pure filings

and to turn the infide outward, and the outfide in- of lead in it, there will gold come to Itick to the

ward, and proceed further according unto art, then outfide thereof fwhich gold may be waflied off with
the foul of gold will c Illy joyn it felf with the water j and the lead will look as if it were gilded.
fpirit of wine, and come to be a good medicine Which gold came from no where elfe but from
whereof more in my treatife de auro potabiii is hand- the fand or pebles, although they were white and

led- If one know the Chalybs o( Sandivogius^ which clear, fo that it could not be perceived in them.

is well to be had, he might with little labour quick: It fheweth alfo its meliorating vertue, when the
ly get a good medicine : but becaufe we fliew our
metals do grow therein, and for a certain fpace of
felves flili ungrateful children unto God, therefore time are digefted therewith. For it may be feen
it is no marvel, that he withdrawcth his hand from
apparently, that the metals in the growing do in-
us, and leaveth us in errors. creafe from this liquor, and attraft what is for
their turn \ which hence alfo may be perceived
what further may be done with the liquor of febles. that when but as much as the bignefs of a pea grow-
eth therein, it will grow twice or thrice as big,
which is worthy to be confidered of Alfo the pe-
more profitable things, as well in Alchy-
may be compafled by the
as in medicine, bles orTand-ftones are the natural matrixes of metals,

oyl of fand as for example, to make fair paint-

and there appeareth a great fympathy between them,
ing colours out of metals, which abide in all efpecially between the unripe metals and them ; as if

elements : Alfo to frame all forts of tranfparent hard nature fliould fay to fuch raw or unripe metals, return
ftones out of cryftal, which in beauty are like un- into your mothers womb, and ftay there the due time,
till you have attained there to perfeft ripenefs, for
to the natural, yea fairer fometimes ; alfo how to
make many fair Amaufes or Enamels and the like you were taken thence too foon againft my will.
profitable arts but they belonging not to this fecond
Further, out of this liquor there may be made a good
part, fliall be referved for the fourth, where all borras to reduce the metals thereby. There may
fuch (hall be taught very punctually with all the cir- be made alfo with this liqour fair glafed and firm
cumflances thereunto relating. colours upon earthen velfels like unto Porcellan or
China. Alfo by boyling it with water, a tender
How by the help of this liquor to make impalpable fnow-white earth may he precipitated
out of it, whereof there may be made veflels like
trees to grow out of metals, with their
unto Porcellan.
Many other ufeful things may be brought to pafs
thereby in mechanical bufinefles,needlefs here to relate.
Mthough this procefs in Phyfick may be of no great ufe :
Alfo the unripe and volatile minerals may be fix-
yet in regard that to a Chymical Phyfitian it gives ^ood
ed and ripened thereby, fo that not only they may
information of the condition of natural things., and their
be the fitter to be ufed in Phyfick, but alfo the
change. I thought it not amifs toftt it down here.
volatile gold and filver contained in them may be
ibed oylmadcof fand, pe: faved thereby, whereof more in the fourth part.
TAke of the above defer
as much as you pleafe, mix N- B. Hither belongs alfo the procefs of the
bles or cryfl;als
therewith a like quantity of the lixivium of Tar- fpirit of lead. Virgins-milk and Dragons blood-
Part 1. Philofofhical Furnaces. 4^
a pap, and caft in one fpoonful thereof at once'
into the diftilling veflcl , then caft in more till yoii
the [fir it of urine and of the volatile fpirit offait
[ Of have enough.
N.B- The fait of tartar may alfo be mixed dry
with the fait Armoniack without any lye or wa-
a powerful
Outandof penetrating
or urine falc ,

be made feveral
fpirit may
ter, and fo diftilled but it is ilot fo good, as

phifick for
when the mixture is tempered with lye or water
wayes, which not only is to be ufed in for if it be caft in dry, the fpirit will come over
but alfo found very ufeful in me-
many difeafes, is
in the form of a volatile fait but if the mixture

chanical and chymical operations, as followeth.

have been moiftened, then moft part thereof will
Take of the urine of found men living chaft, ga- come over like a fiery burning fpirit: In like man-
ther a good quantity together in a wooden
a ner alfb the mixtufe of Lyme and fait Armoniack
let it ftand for its time to putrefy, and diftil
a great glafs
may be tempered moift, and it will yield more fpi-
fpirit thereof, which afterward in
rit than if it be diftilled dry.
retort with a wide neck muft be rediiied from cal-
It may' be asked;: wJiy //'/; caLnmnaris , Zinck
ftill that which cometh over
and firft,
cined tartar,
and and uuqueficht lyixle, calcined tartar, fait of pot-
may be faved by it felf , and fo the fecond
alhes, fixed fait nitte or the like things prepared
third alfo, the ftrongeft may be ufed for the
bythe'fire, muft b& added unto fait Armoniack, and
paring of metallical medicines, and the weaker for
whether it be not as good to add fome bolus , or
a medicine alone by its felf, or elfe mingled with
other earth ( as tifually is done td other falts )
fit vehicles : The fait which in the redificaticn and fo to diftil a fpirit of it ? To which 1 an-
Cometh over with the ftrongeft fpirit; may be fwer, that there are two forts of fait in fait Ar-
put to the weakeft , to make it the ftronger , or
moniack, viz.. a common acid fait, and a volatile
elfe it may be faved by it felf in a good ftrong
fait of urine, which without mortifying of one of
tedious to
them, cannot be fcparated: for as foon as they
But becaufe the fpirit of urine is
feel the heat, the volatile fait of urine carricth the
make , therefore I will (hew, how to get it eafier
acid fait upwards, and they both together yield a
out of Armoniack. The preparation is thus.
fublimate, of the fame nature and cfTence with com-
Take of fait armoniack , and l^fis calaimnaris^ mon fait armoniack which is not fublimed, onely
and make each by it felf into powder , and then it is purer than, the common. And no fpirit
mix them together, and caft of it into the red hot
vclTel at once no more than 1 A
or i- Unto the
would come
led with bole
(hould be ming-
it, if it
or any other
, , fand
velfel there muft be appiyed a great receiver : for ,

ftrengthlefs earth, and ib diftilled , but the whole

this fpirit goeth with fuch a force and power,
fait as it is of it felf Cleaving its earthy fubftance
that it were impoffible to diftil it in a retort with-
behind ) would fublime thus dry : bat that it fall-
out danger or lofs, for I broke more than one re-
eth out otherwife with the Lipis calaminaris (which
ceiver with it, before I did invent this inftrument.
is alfo like an earth ) fo that a feparation of the
The fpirits being well fetled in the receiver , caft
falts is wrought thereby, and a volatile fpirit com-
in more of your mixture ; this continue fo long till
eth over the reafon is, that the Upts calamifuiis
all your matter is caft in ; then take off the re-
and Zinck are of fuch a nature , that they have a
ceiver > and pour the fpirit into a ftrong glafs,
great affinity with all acid things, and do love
which muft be well clofed at the top, but not with
them , and are loved by them likew.lfe ( whereof
wax and a bladder, becaufe ic fofteneth the wax?
fome mention hath been mad6 in the firft part ) fo
and doth penetrate through the bladder ; but firft
that the acid fait fticks to it in the warmth, and u-
ftop it with paper, then meltLaccaor fulphur, and
niteth it felf with it, and the volatile fait is fee
pour it upon it , fo that it come to be very well
free, and diftilled into a fubtle fpirit i which could
clofed, and then it will not be able to exhale, or
not have been done, if the acid fait had not been
thou mayft get fuch glalTes made , as in the fifth
kept back , by the lapis calaminaris or Zink. But
part fhall be tanght, for to keep all the fubtle fpirits
that a fpirit is diftilled off by addition of fi.xcd
in them, for more fecurity fake. And this fpirit, if
falts-, the reafon is that fixed falts are contrary
no water have been mixt with it in the receiver,
unto acid falts , and ( if they get the uperhand )
needeth no redifying but he that will have it

do kill the fame, and rob them of their ftrength,

ftronger yet, may redify it by a glafs retort, and
whereby thofe things which are mi.xed with them
fo keep it for ufe.
are freed from their bond: and fo it falls out
And this is the beft way to make a ftrong fpi-
here with fait armoniack, that when by addition
rit out of fait armoniack : the fame may be done
alfo, by taking of filed Zinck , inftead of Ufis ca-
of a vegetable fixed fait , the acidity of the fait
lamtnaris : alfo by adding of fait of tartar , fait arraoniack is killed ; the fait of urine, which for-
made of the Lee of wood allies , unquencht lime, merly was bound therewith, gets its former free-
and the like : but the fpirit is nothing near fo ftrong dome and ftrength, and being fublimed turns into a
fpirit. Which could not have been done, if common
C although all thofe things may be done with it,
that are done with the former ) as that which is
faithad been added to the fait armoniack inftead of
made with lafis calaminaris or Zinck- faitof tartar for the fait of urine would thereby

( as by a far greater enemy be killed and kept

back, fo that it could yield no fpirit. I thought .

71be procefs or the mxnner of mAing it, is this :

fit to give notice hereof to the ignorant ( not for
thofe, who knew it before) and to the unknowing
TAke ft i. of fait armoniack made into powder, it will do much good, and that they may have a
and as much of fait of tartar, mix both to- light for other labours: for I have many times
gether by the help of a lye made of tartar, or on- feen,and fee it ftill by daily e.xperience, that the
ly with common water, fo that all come to be like moft part of vulgar Chyraifts, whatfoever they do'
O (having'
5 The Second Part of Part I,

( having got it either by reading, feeing, or hear- a glifter, killeth the wormesin the body, and allay-
ing ) they hurlc it over like botchers, and are not eth the colick.
'cibie to give any folid reafon , why this or that This fpirit may alfo further be ufed to many o-
muft fall out in fuch or another manner, not la- ther things, efpecially by means thereof many pre-
bouring to find out the natures and conditions of tious and effeftual medicaments may be made out of
falts, minerals, and other materials, but contenting metals and minerals, whereof fome fliali be defcri-
themfelves onely with the Receipt, faying this or bed as followeth. oJ ei J

that Author hath written fo, and therefore it raufl N. B. There is yet another matter, which is found
be fo, whereas many times fuch books are patcht every where and at all times,and is to be got by every
lip out of all forts of authors- And thofe that one without diftillation and charges, and is as good
Itick to fo many books, will hardly ever come to for the abovefaid difeafes, as the diftilled fpirit,
get any good , but are led out of one Labyrinth and if all men knew it, there would not be found e-
into another, fpending their life miferably in watch= very where fo many fick people, nor fo many Doc-
ing and cares : but if they would firft ferioufly con- tors and Apothecaries.
lider things, and learn to know nature > and then
take their work in hand, then they would fooner To diftill a klood red oyl of vitriol by the help of the
attain unto true knowledge ; and fo much of this fpirit of Hrin.
matter by the way. I hope that he that hath been ir>;w 3ri;
in error will be pleafed with it, and the knowing Dtflblve' Hungarian or other good vitriol in com-
will not grudge to have it imputed to the igno- mon water, and let it run through a filtring
f2nc. ,.,^,^ ^ ,
j^^,j ^^.
. paper, pour of this fpirit upon it fo much, till all
That which remains after' tne diftillatioA is done, the green be vanifht, and the water be made clear,
is alfo good for ufe if the addition have been of
; and a yellow fulphur be fettled : then pour off the
fait of tartar, a melting powder may be made of clear, and the reft which is muddy, pour together in
it,to reduce metals. Of lapis calamlnaris or Zinck, zjiltrmn, that the moifture may run
and the off,
yields fif dtliquium a clear , white , and heavy earth of the vitriol remain in the paper, which you
fiiarp oyl, for the fliarper part of fait armoniack, muft dry, and diftil to a blood-red oyl, which will
which did rot turn to fpirit, hath diflblved the U- open the obftruftions of the whole body, and per-
pis calami?iaris^ and is almoft of the fame vertues fedly cure the epilepfie. The clear water muft be
for external ufe in Chyrurgery with that, which evaporated dry, and there will remain a fait, which
above in the firft part which was taught to be made being diftilled, yields a wonderful fpirit. Before it
out of L'fis calaminaris^ and fpirit of fait, fave on- be diftilled, it is a fpecificum pnrgans^ whereof 8. id.
ly that this in the diftilling doth not yield fo ftrong 12. to 24. grains taken, may fafely be ufed in all
a i'pirit as the other, but onely yields a fharp fub- difeafes.
The Tin^Hre of Femables.
Of the life Mid venue of the fpirit of fait jirmoniack^.
Pices, feedsor flowers being extradted therewith
THis of a (harp penetrating eflence^ and
"fpirit is S and digefted and diftilled, the eflence of them
of an airy , moift , and warm nature i and will come over with it, in the form of a red oyl.
therefore may with credit beufed in many difeafes,
8, lo, 12. (more or lefs ) drops thereof ufed in Vitriol of copper.
a convenient vehicle, do immediately penetrate all
pour upon calx of copper, made by oft-
the body over, caufing fudden fweating, opening
the obftrudions of the fpleen, and difperfing and
IFenyou it
heating the Copper red hot and quenching it
expelling many malignities by fweat and urine, it again, it will extraft w ithin an hours time a fair blew
cureth the quartane, collick, the fufFocation of colour, and having diflblved as much thereof as it
the Matrix, and many more difeafes. can pour it ofi^ and cold place, and
let it ftioot in a

In brief, this fpirit is a fafe, fure, and ready you will get a fair sky coloured vitriol, a fmall
medicine for to difperfe and expel all tough, grofs quantity whereof will caufe ftrong vomits ; the reft
and venemous humors. Alfo, this fpirit afteth his of the vitriol remaineth a blew oyl, good to be u-
part externally, quenching all inflammations, curing fed in ulcers-
the Eryfipelas and Grangrene it allayeth the pains

of the gout, clothes being dipt in it and applyed The Tit?lttre of crude Tartar.
and alchough it draw blifters, it matters not ; laid
to the pulfe, it is good in ardent feavers , it af- you take common crude tartar, and pour of this
fwageth fwellings and pains \ difFculTeth congealed
IFfpirit upon it, and fet it in digeftion, the fpirit

blood, helpcch {trained limbs, and benummed nerves : blood-red tindure, and if the fpirit be
will cxtraft a
onely fmelled unto, it cureth the megrim, and other abftraded from it, there will remain a pleafant red
Chronical difeafes of the head : for it diflblveth oyl, of no fmall vertue and power-
the peccant matter, and evacuateth it through the
noflriisi it reftoreth the loft hearing, being exter= To make the oyl J or liquors of fait r^

nally laid on with a little inftrument fit for the

purpofe. Alfo in the obftrudions of woniens cour- THis fpirit alfo difl!blveth cryftals and otherand
ftones> ^

fes applyed by a fit inftrument in a fpiritual way, they being firft diflblved, precipitated re-

openeth prefently, and cleanfeth the womb, and duced to impalpable powders, turning them into
maketh women fruitful , c^^f. IVIingled with com- oyles and liquors, good to be ufed in Alchymyand
mon water, and held in the mouth, affwageth the Phyfick.
tooth-ach, proceeding from Iharp humors which
are falln in the teeth. A
little of it applyed in
Part I. Philofofbical Furnacer. 5^
notably by the fire increafed in pleafantnefs of fmel
To precipitate all metals with it. and tafte, but alfo in vertue for fo many and vari-

ous fweet fmels are perceived in it, that it is to be

metal being diflblved in an acid fpirit may admired, which variety and exaltation proccedetti
ANy be precipitated better and purer therewith, only from the pure and ripening fpirit of iirin, for
than with the liquor of the fait of tartar ; for An- there is hid in it a fire, which doth not deftroy but
rnm fnlmr.^ans which is precipitated with it fulmi- preferve and graduate all colour's, whereof in ano-
nateth far ftronger than if it were done with oyl ther place more fhall be faid.
of tartar. N. B. Betwixt the fpirit of urin and the animal
R. Some juyce of Lemon and mix it with the fo- and mineral Copper their appearcth a great fym-.
iution of gold, before it be precipitated^ and then pathy ; for it doth not ouly love copper above all
not all the gold will precipitate, but fonie ofic will j
other metals, and mingleth eafily with it, and mak-
remain in the folution, and in time many fmall green j
cch it extraordinary fait-, arid of good ufe in Phy=
ftones (not unlike unto common vitriol) will ap- '
fick, but it prepareth it alfo to fuch a medicine,

pear which in a fmall dofe

, will purge all noxious whereby all venerous fores (both by inward and out:
humors. ward ufe) how deep fo ever they took root in the
blood, without the ufe of any other medicaments
The oyl af:d vitriol of filver, are perfedly cured ; it maketh fruitful and barren,

according as it is ufed i it deanfeth the matrix,

you diflblve filver in .Aqua fortif, and pour fo hindreth the rifing thereof, and miraculoufly fur-
IFmuch of ceafeth to make
this fpirit into it till it thereth womens courfes that have been ftayed, above
a noife, fome of the filver will precipitate in the all other medicaments of what name foever.
form of a black powder, the reft of the filver re- If this fpirit be mingled with the volatile (but not
maineth in the liquor : the phlegm abftrafted from corrofivej fpirit of vitriol or common fait there will
it in Balneo, get a skin at the top, and then
till it come a fait out of it, which is inferior to none in
fet into a cool place, there will grow white cryftals fufiblenefs, and ufeful both in Alchymy and Phyfick.
in it, which being taken outanddryed are a good N. B- The liquor of the fait of tartar, and the
purge in madnefs, dropfie, feavers and other difea- fpirit of wine do not mix without water, this being
fes, fafely and without danger to be ufed to young the mean partaking of both of their natures, and if
and old. The reft of the liquor which did not cry- you add unto it fpirit of urin it will not mingle but
ftallife may be e.xtrafted with fpirit of wine, and the keep its own place: fo that thefe three forts of li-
fajces being caft away the extradtion will bepleafan- quors, being put in the fame glafs, and though they
ter. The fpirit of wine abftrailtcd from it, there be ftiaked never fo much will not incorporate for all
will remain a medicine of no fmall value in all dif- that: the liquor of the fait of tartar keepeth to the bot-
eafes of the brain. tom, next to it will be the fpirit of urin, and on the
top of that is the fpirit of wine : and if you pour a
To extra^ a red Tin^iire out of Antimony or common diftilled oyl upon it, that v/ill keep uppermoft of all,
fulfhur, fo that you may keep four forts of liquors in one
glafs, whereof none is mingled with the other,
fulphur or Antimony made into powder in Although this be of no great profit, yet it ferv-
a Lixivium of fait of tartar, and eth for to learn thereby the difference of fpirits.
till it turn red,
pour this fpirit upon it, and diftill gently in a BaU
Tjeum, and there will come over a fair tinfture with Of the fpirit and oyl of Harts-horn.
the Tolaiile fpirit, filver anointed therewith will be
guilt, though not laftingly. It ferveth for all dif- TAke Harts-horn, cut it with afaw into pieces, of
eafes of the lungs. the bignefs of a finger, and caft in one at a
time into the aforefaid diftilling velTel, and when the
Hove to ripen Ahtimony and common fnlphur, fo that fe- fpirits are fettled, then another, and continne this
veral forts of fhch fmels, as vegetables have^ arife until you have fpirits enough : and the veflel being
from thence, with the pieces that were caft in, take them
out with the tongs, and caft in others, and do this
DlfTolve Antimony or fulphur in the liquor of as often as is needful. The diftilling being finifliedj
pebles or fandj coagulate the folution to a red take off the receiver, and pour into it dephlegmed
mafs upon this mafs pour fpirit of urin, and let
fpirit of wine, which will cleanfe the volatile fait
it extraft in a gentle warmth. The fpirit being co: pour the oyl with the fpirit and volatile falc
loured red, pour and pour on other fpirit,
it off, through a filtring paper made wee firft and lying in
let it extraft likewife, and this you muft iterate fo a glafs funnel, and the fpirit of wine together with
often, till the fpirit will extraft no more tinfture ; the fpirit of Harts-horn and the volatile fait will run
then pour all the extrads together and abftrad the through the paper, and the blackilh oyl will ftay
fpirit of urin from it in Balneum through a lim- behind, but it muft quickly be poured out, elfe it
Ijeck, and there will remain a blood red liquor, and will pafs through after them- The fpirit toge-
if you pour upon this fpirit of wine it will extrad ther with the volatile fait redifie through a re-
a fairer tindure then the former was, leaving the tort, and the beft part of the fpiric will come o=
fasces behind, and this tinfture fmelleth likegarlick: ver together with the fpirit of wine and volatile
and if it be diverted three or four weeks in a gentle falti and when the phlcgme is coming, take of the
warmth, it will get a very pleafant fmel, like unto fpirit, which is come over, that the naughty phlegm
the yellow prunes or plums and if it remain long-
not come amongft it
may keep it well, for it is

er yet in digeftion, it will get a fmel not inferior to very volatile, the oyl may be mingled with fait of
musk and ambar ; This tindure having been digeft: tartar , and redtified by a glafs retort, and fo ii;
d a long time, and got feveral fraels, is not only will be clear ; if you will have it fairer, you muft
redify it with fpirit of fait. a O
52 The Second Pan of Part I.

The firftj which is done with fait of Tartar, is rofive water, fo that turneth thick, like unto ma-
of more vertue it ; the Quartancj and pro-
ciireth flich, which is foft, and may be hand-
in the warmth
voketh fweat extremly, cureth all internal wounds led with owns fingers like wax, but in the could
and pains, which were caufed by falls, blows, or it is fo hard, that it may be broken and made in-
other wayes: 6, or 8. lo, to 20. drops of it taken to powder, and gliftereth like gold.
in wine and fweated upon it in the bed. The fpi-
rit is very good for all obftrudioHs of the whole Of the oyl of foot.
body, from "^fs. to 3 fs. therefore taken in a fit
vehicle, provoketh urine, and forceth down wo-
inens courfes, it cleanfeth the blood and maketh
OF the foot , which is taken from Chimneys,
where nothing is burnt but wood, there may
fweat mightily. In the Plague, Pox, Leprofie, Scur- be diftijled a fharp volatile fait and a hot oyl. The
Vy, MeLwcholia Hypochondriacal malignant Feavers, fait is in vertue not unlike unto that which is made
and the like where fweating is necelTary, it prov- of hart-fhorn or ambar, and it quencheth inflamma-
eth a rare medicine. tion, from what caufe fo ever it do proceed: The
i.- -: ... J,
oyl may without reftification externally be ufed ve-
[ To maks ^^f /pHif of mans fiair an excellent medicine. ry fuccelTfuIly for all loathfome fcabs, and for a
fcald head, &c. But if it be redlified, as hath been
AFter the fame manner you may make fpirits out taught to be done with the oyl of Tartar, of Am-
of kind of of horns and claws of beafts
all bar, and of Hartlhorn ^ then it may fafely be ufed
but lince by reafon of their ill fmel the ufe of them inwardly, as the the above written oyls are ufed^
is not liked of (though in feveral heavy difeafes, as for it doth as well as thefe, yea better in fome fpe-
in the fits of the mother and Epilepfie, they do ad- cial cafes.
mirably well:) therefore I will acquiefce. Howe-
ver it is worth obferving, that the fpirit made of How to make a good t>yl out of foot without diftilling.
rnans hair is not to be rejefted in metallical opera-
tions, for it diflblveth common fulphur, and redu- the foot in common watter, till the water
ccth it into a milk, which by further ripening may turn blood red (urin is better than water) and
be turned into blood, the like whereunto no fpirit fet this fdlution (being in an earthen pot) in winter
is able to do. The fame fpirit may alfo of it felf, time into the greateft froft fo long till all in the pot
without addition of fulphur be fixed into a ruby ^ be frozen into one peice and turned white: then
but that which is ripened with fulphur is the bet- break the pot and the ice,and in the raidft thereof you
ter ; and if it be brought fo far by the fire, that will find the hot oyl unfrozen and liquid in colour
it have loft its (link, and be made fixed than it like blood which is not much inferior in vertue

will be able fufficiently to pay for the pains and unto that which is diftilled, yet afterward it may
coals beftowed upon it. be reftified, and fo exalted in its vertue, when you
N. B. Hither belongeth the Procefs to pour dif- pleafe, and it is to be noted, that this feparation do-
folvcd metals upon filed hartfhorn, and fo to diftil eth only fucceed in the greateft froft and cold, and
them. not elfe.

Of the cyl of u4>nhar. Of the fpirit and oyl of honey^

A Mbar
yeildcth a very pleafant oyl and of great
OF honey there may be made a fubtle fpirit and
X\. vertue efpecially the white Ambar the yel- : a fowre vinegar, if it be mingled with twice
low is not fo good, and the black is inferior to this ^ as much of pure calcined fand and fo diftilled ^ and
for by reafon of its impurity it cannot be well u- it falleth much better yet if it be made with the
fed inwardly; and there cometh over alfo along with flores of Antimony, which were taught to be made
it a volatile fait and an acid water, which mufl: be in the firft part, whereby the fpirit is increafed in
fcpcrated the water (for ought that I knowj is
its vertue, and its running over hindred thereby
of little vertue , the fait if it be fublimed from the and fo diftilling it, there will come over a pleafant
fait of Tartar and purified, is a good diuretick, fpirit, a fharp vinegar and fome red oyl alfo, which
and Stone and the Gout, may fuccefsfully be u-
in the muft be feperated the fpirit after the reftificati-

fed both inwardly and outwardly. The oyl if it on inwardly ufed is good in all difeafes of the lungs.
be redified, efpecially that which comes over firft, It openeth and inlargeth the Breaft, ftrengthneth
is an e.\'cellent medicine againfl: the Plague, Epi- the Heart, takes away all obftrudions of the Liver
Icpfy, rifing of the Mother and Megrim, 6, 8, 10, and Spleen it diflblveth and expellcth the Stone

to 20. drops being taken thereof at once, and the refifteth all putrefaftion of the Blood \ preferveth
noftrils alfo being anoyntcd therewith for to fmell from, and cureth the Plague i all Agues, Dropfies,
to it i and it is to be obfcrvcd, that when it is recti- and many other difeafes, daily ufed from 9 j. to
fied with fpirit of fait, it proveth much clearer, 3 ) taken with diftilled water proper for the difea-
than done by it felf without addition: but if it be fes :the lower vinegar coloureth hair and nails as
recftified with fait of tartar, it is of much more ver- yellow as gold : it cureth the itch and fcabs of the
tue, though it fall not fo clear, as that which is skin; it cleanfeth and healeth old and new wounds,
done by fpirit of fait. they being bathed and waflied therewith.
N. B- If it be rectified from a ftrong J<]na Pe- The red oyl is too ftrong to be ufed of it felf,
^ia having before once already been redified with it may be mingled with the fubtle fpirit which
fpirit of fait, it will turn fo fubtle, that it is able came over firft and fo ufed, and the fpirit will be
to dillblvc iron or copper in feme fort and , exalted thereby in its vertue.
to reduce them into good medicines .and in this fe- ,

cond rectification by Aqi'.t Rigta all will not come

over, but part of it will be coagulated by the cor-
Part I. Philofofbical Furnaces, 5?
to a natural fowre tartar and it is utterly falfe, that

Of the oyl M'd fpirit of fi^gnr. (as fome do fuppofej only wine yields tartar, whicli
hath been taught of ho-
by daily ufe made of it by thofe that have very hun-
the fame manner as
INney, there is alfo made a fpirit and oyl of fu-
gry ftomachs ( like Woolves ) indiftindly toL'.cihcr
with the nourifhmcnt went into the limbs, and iliere
gar, ^^|^ adding pure fand to if, or fwhich is bet-
turned to a ftony matter. If this were true, than
ter) of the flores of Antimony, and then according
in cold Countries, where no wine groweth , men
to the rules of Art one fpoonful after the other of
would not be troubled vvith the Gout or Stone ;'
this mixture call in, it will yeild a yellow fpirit,
the Contrary whereof is feen daily though I mult
and a little red oyl, which after the diftillation

confefs , that among all ve^crablcs none yeildetli

mult be digcfted in Balneo fo long together , till
more than the vine, the concurrent acidity being the
the fpirit have allumed the oyl and be turned
caufe thereof for it turncth the fweetnefs into tar-
thereby very red in colour ; it needeth not to be

tar ; for the fowrer the wine is, the more tartar it
redified, but may daily be ufed either by it felf
yieldeth and fo much the fweeter, fo much the Icfs
or with fuch vehicles as are proper for your pur- ;

pofe ; in all it is like in virtue unto that which was

tartar. By this difcourfe an indullrious Chymift
made of honey yet this of fugar is more pleafant may eafily come to know the original nature and

properties of tartar, and in default of wine, how

than the other ; it reneweth and reftoreth all the
to make it out of other vegetables common fait or
blood in man, in regard that it received great ver-
the fait of tartar may be diltilled with honey, fugar ,
tue from the diaphoretical flores of Antimony i and
or fodden wine (fap't') and it will yield fuch ftrong
this fpirit may fitly be ufed in all difeafes, it can
fpirits, that metals mav be dilfolved with them, and
do no hurt , neither in cold nor hot difeafes it ;

they are not to be dcfpifcd in Phyfick and Alchymy.

doth help nature mightily, and doth fo much good,
that it almoft beyond belief.
is Efpecially if for
a time be ufed daily from 9 j. to 3 j. The rclidue
Of oyl Olrje.

of it is black, and may be kept for the fame ufe a-

of oyls made by expreffion Tas oyl olire,
gain, I'iz.. for an addition to other honey or fugar,
rape oyl, wallnut oyl, hempfeed oyl, linfeed
or elfe you may fublime it again into flores in the
oyl, and the like) there may be dillilkd a penetra-
furnace defcribed in the firft part, or in the furnace
ting oyl, ufeful both out ward^y and inwardly, which
defcribed in the fourth part of this book, with an addi-
is done thus Fake commofi potters clay not min-
tion of iron or tartar, or fait nitre, reduces it into a

gled with fand, frame little bals of it, as big as a

Re^itlas^ &c-
pigeons or hens-egg, burn them Tbut not too ftrong)'
an excellent and a blood red tihBure to a hard ftone, fo that they may attrad the oyl ,
To diflil fpirit of
corals and jugar. and when they are no more quite red-hot, but pret-
ty hot, then throw them into oyl olive which is the
you mix fugar with red corals made into pow- beft ; let them lye in it, till they be quite full and
IF der and diftil it , there will befides the fpirit drunk of the oyl , which will be done in two or
come over a blood -red tindure like a heavy oyl, three hours (fome caft them red hot into the oyl,
which is to be joyned with the fpirit by digeftion but amifs, becaufe the oyl contrads thence an Em-
in Balneo, and it will be as vertuous as that which pyreuma) then take them out, and caft in one or two
was made with Antimony diaphoreticum- It doth of them at once into your diftlling^veflel made red=hot,
perfedly and laftingly cure the epilepfie in young and and let it go and within a while after caft in one or

oldi it cleanfeth the blood from all filth, fo that two more, and continue this till yon have oyl e-
the Leprofie together with its feveral fpecies may nough. If the veflcl be full of the bals, take thein'
be cured thereby, o-c. Its ufe is the fame as was out with the tongs or ladle, that you may pro-
taught above of the Antimonized fpirit of fugar. ceed without let in your diftillation, and in this man-
ner you need not fear the breaking of your retort
Of the fpirit of Ahfieor new Wine. or receiver, or the burning of your oyle. The di-
TAke fweet Mufl: or juice of grapes, as foon as it ftillation being performed take oti' your receiver,
is fqueezed out, boyl it to the confiftency of pour the oyl that came over into a glafs retort,
honey- and then mix it with fand, corals, or (which and from calcined Allome or V^itriol, ancl
reflify it
is better ) with flores of Antimony, and fo diltill the Allome will keep back the blacknefs and ftink,
it, and it will yield fuch another fpirit as that which and fo the oyl will come over clear, which muft be
is made of honey or fugar, only that this is fomewhat yet re-lified once or twice more with frelh calcined
tarter than that of honey. With honey, fugar and the Allome, according to the intenfnefs of penetrating
juice of grapes, feveral metals may be dilfolved in which yon look for that which cometh over firft,

boyling and fo prepared and made up into divers ought ftill to be caught by it felf, and you will
medicaments, both with and without diftillation, get a very fair, bright and ckar oyl, which is ve-
after the fame manner as was taught above with tar- ry fubtlc j but that which cometh after is fome-
tar : for honey, fugar, and the juice of grapes, are what yellow, and not fo penetrating neither as the
nothing elfe but a fweet fait, which by fermentation firft i and therefore it is but for external ufe to

and addition of fome fower thing, may be changed extrad and herbs therewith, and to make pre-
into a fower Tartar, in all like unto that which is tious balfams for cold and moyft fores. Alfo you
gathered in the wine veHels. There may be made may diflblve with it Amber, Maftick, Myrrh, and
alfo a tartar out of cherries, pears, apples, figs, and the like attradive things, and with Wax and Colo-
all other fruit, yielding a fweet juice; as alfo of rye, phony reduce it to a plafter,, which will be very
wheat, oats, barley and the like, whereof in the good in venemous fores and boy Is, for to attrad
third part more fhall be faid. the poyfon, and to heal them out of hand- If youi
For every fweet liquor of vegetables, if it be diflblve in it common yellow fulphur made into pow-
turned infide out, by fermentation may be changed der, you will get a blood red balfom, healing alj
P marine*'
54 The Second Part of Pare 1.

manner of and other like defcftscf the skin j

fcabs, fowre tafte, but in efficacy alfo much exceeds the

efpecially when you add to it pnriiied verdegreafe, other. And therefore being of fo great ufe both
and in hot fores SMchnrum Satwni^ which in a gen- in Phyfick and Akhymy, as in all hot difeafes,

tle heat and by continual ftirring about do eafily mingling the patients drink therewith, till it get
melt and mingle therewith. It needeth not to be a plcafant fowre taft, for to quench the intolera-
done in glalTes , but may be done in an ordinary ble drowth, to ftrengthen the llomach, to refrelh
earthen pot or pipkin. the lungs and the liver Alfo externally for to cur?

the gangreen Alio for to Chryftallife fome me-


The life of the blcffcd oyl. tals thereby, and to reduce them into plcafant vi-
triols , ufeful as well in Akhymy as Phyfick : I

THc ture

and clear is of a very penetrating na-
fome drops thereof given in fome ^-
thought good to fet down the preparation, though
it be not done in this qur dJIliliing furnace, but
(]tia vit.c prefcntly flaysthe collick , proceeding in another way by kindling and burning it as fol-

from winds that could not be vented-, as alfo the loweth.

riling of the mother , the navil being anointed Make a little furnace with a grate, upon which
tliercwiih and a : coM humour Ijcing fain upon the a ftrong crucible mult be faftned refting on two
ncrvs, whereby they are lamed if ; you do but a- iron bars> and it is to be ordered fo that thefraoak
noint them wich this oyl, and rub it in with warm be conveighed ( not above by the crucible, but )
hands, it will quickly reftore them, and therefore through a pipe at the fide of the furnace the :

in regard of its prcfcnt help , may well be called crucible mult be filled with fulphur even to the
0/ciim ftr.Qitm. If you extradl plates of iron or top; and by a coal-fire without flame be brought
copper with this oyl, it will turn deep red or green, to burn and kept burning. Over the burning ful-
and is a foveraign remedy for to warm and dry phur , a velTel is to be applyed of good flony
up all cold and watery fores. It confumeth allfo earth like unto a flat dilh wich an high brim-,
all fuperfluons moifture in Wounds and ulcerous wherein is alwayes cold water to be kept , and
Sores , as alfo all other excrefcencies of the skin whereunto the burning fulphur doth flame which :

it healeth tettars and fcald-heads, and other like thus burning, its fatnefs confumeth , and the acid
dcfefts proceeding from fupertluous cold and moi- ialt is freed and fublimed to the cold veflel, where

You may alfo dilTolvc in it Euphorbium and it is difiblved by the air, and in the form of a
other hot gums, and ufe them againit great froft, fliarp oyl runs from the hollow vefi'el into the re-

for what limb foever is anointed therewith, nofroft ceiver , which mull be taken off fometime , and
how great foever can do it any hurt. The bal- more fulphur fupplyed inflieaci of that which hath
fames made with gum or fulphur may be alfo di- been confumed, to the end that the fulphur may
flilled by a retort , and in fome cafes they are ftill burn in the crucible and beat with the flame

ipore ufeful than the undiftilled balfamc. to the cold head and within few dayes you will

get a great quantity of oyl , which elfe by the

Of the oyl of W^x. (campana) glafs-bcll in many weeks could not have
been done.
manner may be diftilled alfo the N. B. Such a fowre fpirit or oyl may alfo be
INoyltheof fame
wax, the ufe whereof is in all like un- got by diftillation together with the flores, viz..
to the former; and for all cold infirmities of the thus : If you take pieces of fulphur as big as hens
nerves, this is found more efFc(flual yet than the eggs, and cafl: them one after another into the hoc
foroiGr) diftiiling veflel, a fowre oyl together with flores,
will come over into the receiver, which muft with

A Spirit good fur the Stone. water be feparated out of the flores, and the water
abftratfled from it again in a cucurbit, and in the

Outmayof be ftones which are found in grapes, there

diftilled a fowre fpirit , which is a
bottome of your glafs body you will find the oyU
which in vertue and tafte is equal to the former,
certain and fpccifical remedy for the ftone in the but you get nothing near fo much in quantity by
kidneys and bladder, and alfo for all pains of the this way, and if you do not look for the oyl, you

oout. it is not onely to be ufed internally, but may leave it with the Hores , which by reafon of
alio externally, wetting clothes in it, and apply- their pleafant acid tafte are much toothfomer to
ing them to the places afteded, and it will aflwage take than the ordinary ones.
and drive away the pains.

Of the fpirit or acid oyl of Sulphur.

To the Courteous Reader.
TO reduce fulphur into a fowre fpirit or oyl
hath bcgn fought hitherto by many, but found
THhs I conclude this fecond fart ; 1 could have fet
by few. Molt of them made it in glafs-bells, l)ut down more medicinal procejfes in this Treatife : hut
got very little that way for the glafles being
having as many as will he a fujfcient gu,ide for the di-
quickly hot , could not hold the oyl , fo that it ftiiling of other things alfo, J thought it
good here tQ
went avfay in a fmoak. Some thought to get it acqutefce \ and whatfoever hath been htrs omitted, fljall
by diftiiling, others by diffolving, but none of all be fupplyed in the following parts.
thefe would do the feat. Which is the reafon
why now - adayes it is found almoft no where
and the Drugfters and Apothecaries (hops
right, in
of Vitriol infliead of it, which
tliey ufually fell oyl
by far is not to be compared in vertue to the oyl
of fulphur. For this is not onely of a far pleafanter
Place this, Part I. Before Tage 5^.
part I. 5S


^l)ilofopl)ital jfurnaceg:

In Tnhich is defcr'thed the KiUure of the Third Furnace ; hy the help whereof^ mid that ivlth

out Stills J and Caldrons , and other Copper ^ Iron, Jin, and Leaden Injlnments, various Ve-

getable burning Spirits, ExtraEls, Oyls, Salts, &cc. by the help of a certain little Copper Ins

firument, and Wooden Veffels are made for Chyinical and Medicinal U/es.

A Preface of the Copper Inftrumcnt and Furnace.

No W this Infirument is made of ftroag Coffer plates after the following manner. Ton mtifi mahe trro
firong hemifpheares of Copper or Latten of the btgwfs of a mans head ( or thereabout ) and join them,
together wtth a mofi Brcng fodtr, and that without tin^ whereof the one mitji have a pipe : A^ow the
pipe miifi be of a ffiofi exaii roundr.efs, that tt may moft accurately
fit the hole that is made with an
. auger or wimble to keep the water from flowing cut like to a tap^ of the length
of one fpan at le^ifh,
1fii4er on the hinder part towards tbe globe, than m the forepart^ which alfo muft be according to the bignefs
of the
lobe greater or lejfer , and be exa^ly joined with the beft fader to its , aad the diameter
, of the
forepart being very round like a tap, and mofi exactly filling the rcund hole muft be of two fingers breath. Now
there is required to the forefaid inftrument or globe, a c-ertain peculiar little furnace made of iron or copper
VJT. moit prong copper plates, covered within wtth ftones or the beft lute, into which ts put that globe like a re-
tort, fo that it may ly upon two iron bars of the diftance of a fpan , or fpan and half frbm tbe grate ; the
necli whereof (that pip:) goeth forth of the furnace one fpan at leaft. The furnace alfo muft have below a place for
the ajhes, and above a cov:r with its hole for the letting forth of the fmoke, and for reguLitinr the
fire, as
yon jnay fee by the annexed figure. It muft alfo below have a treefoot, on which the furnace muft be fet, and
on the fides two handles by tf}e help whereof it may be removed from place to place the which is very nccef-
f:ry for it is not only ufed fcr the dtfttlling of burning fpirits hy wooden Fcjfds tnflead of coppor, but
for fuch dift illation^ and digefiicn that is performed in gourds, bolt-heads, and other inftruments of flafs, (lone,
copper^ tin, &C. which are to be fet i-2 Baineo : alfo in the boy ling of beer, methegUn, nine, and other d'ir.ks,
which are to be performed by the help of wooden Vefttls.

Of JVoodet^nftruments that are to be ufed infiead of Stills, (Baths, and Qauldrons,

In the frft Figure, A reprefcnts the Furnace with

a Copper Globe- B. The Copper Globe. The di- C
ftiUing Vedel. -D. The Refrigeratory with
. The Receiver-
;i Worm.
F. Stools on which the VelTels
ftand. The Second, A
Balneum with a Cover having Holes in it for the GlalFes, fet upon a Tree-foot.
The Third, A
Wooden VefTel for the making of Beer. The Fourth, Tub for a moift Bath, which is A
to ()e warmed by the Copper Globe. The Fifth, A wooden Box for a dry Bath to provoke iweat with
Volatile Spirits.

the firft place I fhall fpeak of wooden Vef- big will make the codlion flow, and tedious. A
IN fels that are to be ufed inftead of Copper
ftills, in the diftilling of burning fpirits out
greater globe may be fitted to a ledcr barrel, but
not on the contrary, a great barrel to a little globs :
of wine, beer, lees, malt, wheat, meal, roots, For by how much the bigger the globe is, and the
hearbs, flowers, feeds, and other vegetables, lefs the barrel , fo much the fooner is the work
as alfo oyls of vegetables. haftncd. Now this Art was invented
feeing that
See that thou haft an oken barrel, like to thofe for the faving of colts, which otherwife would
wherein wine and beer are kept, of a juft bignefs, have been expended in providing of Itils, caul-
Viz.- anfwerable to the bignefs of the globe, as is drons, furnaces, C^c it is belt not to have too
fgfScient for the codion : for a barrel that is too great a globe, which requires a greater furcace, and
P 2 15
The Third Part of Part L
is mdre hardly to be carryed, becaufe i^
is w be not build. Choofe therefore which way thou wilt,
it is luttici- for thefe things which I have wrote, I have wrote
covered within with lute, or a wall ^ for
ent if it be big enough for the coaion.
Where- for the poors fake rather than for the rich. Cer-
proportion of both, tainly rich men
that have fpacious Elaboratories
fore I will give you a juft and due
which in diftiliations need not to be afliamed to follow this way, for it is
-VIZ.. of the globe, and velfel,
free for every man to go a fliortcr way, unlefs they
and other operations, the curteous reader may imi-
had rather prefer the old way before a new and
tate- .

contain- compendious, whom I cannot help, being contented


A globe of the bigncfs of a mans head,

contain- with a publication which is made for the lake of
ing three or four cannes, whereof each
ech four pints, is fuOicient for the
heatingof a bar- my neighbour, whether it be taken well or ill, with
gallons, which by a good minde, certainly knowing that more profit
rel of 30, 40, 50, 60. and 100
and nearer to then difprofit may be obtained by the help thereof-
how much the more remote from 100
and thecofti- It fliall not therefore repent him of his labor, who
30, fo much the fooner is it heated,
contrary, by how much knows rightly to prepare and ufe this copper, and
on furthered ; and on the
the nearer it is to 00 and more remote
from 30, wooden veflxls.
fo mueh the flower is the codlion- I do not there-
barrel be chofen for a fmall There follows now the preparatm of the vcjfcl.
fore advife that a huge
globe, by reafon of a long and tedious operation :

And if all and every thing be not fo accurately ob-

fervcd to a hair, yet it marters not much, becaufe
E veflel being made is to be placed with one
uponaftool that is fitted for it, which
thing by the help of being done, make a hole with a wimble neer the bot-
it fufficeth to do the fame
divers forms. For tom, for the receiving of the neck of the copper
one fmall copper inftrument of
wooden veflels that are globe, which is to be covered over with a linnen
in this way of diftilling,
of fpirits, and boylingof cloth make alfo about the lower bottom another
rcquilite to the diftilling
hole for a tap, by the help whereof the remainder
Kear, and for baths arc more eafily provided, then
in the common way. For of the diftillation is drawn forth: alfo you muft
fo many copper vellels
make a large hole in the upper bottom, the diame-
by this means not only cofts are fpared, but alfoit
becaufe when a- ter whereof muft be one fpan for to pour in the wa-
is infteadof building of furnaces,
ter to bediftilled, with a funnel. Alfo there muft
ny barrel hath beenufed, you may remove it, and
another operati- be made a hole near the upper bottom of two or
fet another in the place of it for
on, the which cannot be done with ftills and caul- three fingers breadth, into which is to be put a cop-
furnace. And this invention per pipe of a fpan long, which is to be faftened
drons fattened into a
want Artificers, as Copperfmiths, clofely therein and to this pipe another oaken vef-
is for thofe that
&c. becaufe wooden inftruments are more eafily lel with a copper worm and cold water }ike to o-
ther refrigeratories, muft be applycd.
provided : alfo by the help of this globe may moft Alfo the
be performed. joints of the aforefaid fliort pipe, viz.. of the firft
lecret operations
barrel, and of the fecond barrel, viz.. the refrigera-
For ti;c furnace with the copper globe may be
Balneum-, tory muft be ftraightly, and clofely united toge-
built in one place, and in another place the
viz.. the places divided wir.h a wall, fo that he that ther, which afterward may be the better joy ned to-

looks to the fire may not know what is done in the gether with a fit lute for the diftilling. And this is
for oftentimes the care of the fire is the form and fafliion of the wooden veflel, that is
Elaboratory ;

committed to heedlefs fervants, that break glafs to be ufed in the place of copper veflels, in the di-
ftilling of burning fpirits and oyls- But thou wilt
inftruments by their carelelleriefs, by which means
pretious medicine loft which objeift that thefe kind of wooden veflels are porous,
oftentimes a moft is ,

danger this invention is without- and drink up great part of the fpirit and oyls.
I anfwer-, none of the fpirits feeketh a violent
Wherefore this copper globe with its wooden vef-
convenient then thofe copper ftills and
more pafl'age out, in cafe the ways be open There is no
cauldrons. But this I would have thee know that danger therefore, when there is paifage enough giv-
this new invented diftillation is flower, then the en them by a pipe that is wide enough. Neither
common way which is performed by ftills, and con: doth oyl ftick to them in diftillation, for whatfo-
fequently requires a long fire. I defire therefore the ever is by force of the boyling water to be fepara-
rich that dwell in large and fpacious houfes, that ted from the fpices, and feeds ^hat alfo is fublima:
they would ufe the old way oi" diftilling but the poor, , ble by the force of the feething water, fo as to di=
ftillin, fo that in the refrigeratory no more is loft
who have but little houlhold conveniences, and the
than in the ftills. Diftillation being made, the a-
covetous, that they would ufe this little copper globe
with irs wooden velTels for although there be a
: forefaid fpirits may be rectified in thefe wooden

longer fire required, yet thefe are not to be compa- veflels, (being firft wafliedj as vvefl as in copper

redto thofe cofts which are otherwife expended up- ftills.

on fo many copper vellels of fo many divers forms-

Let him therefore keep to his copper veflels, who The m.ikinf^ of a wooden vejfelfor a BahieuMi., which is to
in fiead of copper and leaden Cauldrons for
cannot undcrftand me, for it concernes not me. le tifed
and dijhllutkn by
Without doubt there are fome whom this my new digefiion.^ iLifs vejfcls.

invented way of diftilling will pleafe, before other,

being communicated for the fake of the poor labou- MAke an oaken vcfl^el as big or as little

pleafe, according to the greatnefs. or little-

as you
ring' houfe- keepers, that cannot boyl Beer, and di-
ftili burning fpirits for lack of
veflels: for a globe nefs, multitude, or fewnefs of the velfels, cf two

of five or four pound is more eafily provided, then or three Ipans high, a little narrower above then
other copper velTcls of 60, 80, 100 pound: alfo below, and fo fafliioned above, that a cover of wood,
thofe wooden more eafily provided then
vellels are copper, or lead, may moft clofely be joyned to it
furnaces, which fome for want of place only can- the cover muft have holes greater or Iclfer, accord-
Part I. Fhilojofbical Furnaces.
ing to the glafles, as wont to be in the making of
is ing preparation. You muft therefore firft prepare
a B.ilmiffij as you may fee by the the annexed them, as followeth.
figure. This vellel alfo mufl; be placed upon a ftool
of the height of an ell,or fuch height as is required for Of the preparation of all kind of corn, as
Wheat Oats^ .^

the joyningof the copper globe with the B.dneum^ Barly, &c. which mufl .go before the difiilling
which muft have a hole' near the lower bottom, for the jpirtt.

the receiving of the neck of the aforefaid globe. In

defed of fuch a veflel) which yet you may provide ea-
fily enough? take a wine or bear veflel divided in the
ANd as
all a malt muft be made of the corn,

wont to be in the making of bear!

it is

middle, and make a hole near the bottom for the Now the manner of making of malt is known al-
neck of the globe, make alfo a wooden cover with moft to all, wherefore I need not fpeak much of
holes, &c. He that will be curious may provide all that, becaufe in all places that have no wine, there

things according to the belt Art. is fcarce any houfe found in which Malt and Bear
is not made, as well in the country as cities-
j1 wooden veffel ferving for boylin^ of bear^ tnetheglin-, however, there is a great deal of difl~erence of mak-
vinegar., &C- i-f n"'/' as copper^ noy and tin vejfds. ing of it, for a long knife doth not make a good
Cook, nor all drinkers of wine are good planters.
MAke wooden
than broad, a
a which fhall be more high

wider above than below,

For many have perfwaded themfelves, that, if they
follow the footftcps of their fathers, they have done
as you pleafe: or take a wine or bear barrel divi- well (although they have been in an crrour) and be-
ded in the middle, and near the bottom make a ing fcornful, refufe inftruClion. Wherefore fome-
hole for the neck of the globe, which is to be thing is to be faid of the difference of malting.
covered with boards? which ferves as well for the Although I never exercifcd the Art of making Beer,
boy ling of bear, &c. as thofe of copper- yet I am certain I do in that excel all other Diftil-
lers, and Brewers. For I often faw, and indeed
j4 wooden vejfel for a bath for fweet., or mineral water ^ with admiration, the fimplicity of many in their o--
which may he according as you pleafe^ k^pt war my for perations, although common, and dayly, to whom
the preferving of health. though an age fliould be granted, yet they would
never be more thrifty, being content with their an-
MAke a long wooden tub convenient to
which be upon is to
of a fet a ftool

juft height,
in, cient cuftomes. Good God How perverfe is the

world, where nobody labours to find out any good,

viz.. that the bottom of the veflel may anfwer the neither is there any one that thinks of perfedingl
reck of the globe which is put into the furnace : and amending things already found out: Where
you may alfo have a cover, that may cover the all things run to ruin, and all manner of vice in-
whole tub, which may be divided and united in that creafe : for now almoft every one feeks only after
place where the head goes forth, as appears by the riches by right or wrong ; for it IS all one with them,
annexed figure, or you may cover it with a cloth, if they have them, not thinking that things ill got-
laying it upon fmall crooked fticks faftned to the ten and that the third heir fl:all not
ftiall perifli,
tub, yet fo that the head may have its liberty, e- injoy them, and that unjuft riches fliall devour thofe
fpecially in a vaporous bath of common fweet, or that have been honeftly gotten, with danger alfo
medicinal water ; or make a high wooden cover of eternal damnation. I pray you, if our Anceftors
Jhutting very clofe, for a dry fweat, where it is had been fo negligent, and had left nothing to us
no matter whether the head be^fhut in or no. I pray you, I fay, what Arts and Sciences ftiould
we have had now ? It is come to this pafs now,
Of the ufe of wooden veffels in difiillingy boyling^ bath' that vertucs decreafe, and vices increafe.
thing., &C. Andfrft of the difiilling vejjcl.

HE that will any burning fpirit by help of

the diftilling vefl"el, out of wine, metheglin,
Of the difference of malting,

bear, barley, wheat, meal, apples, pears, cherries,

figs, ^c. alio out of flowers, feeds, and other ve-
difference of malt, by reafon whereof it
yields better or worfe beer, and fpirit, confifts
getables, hath need fo to prepare his materials, that for the moft part in the preparation thereof: for
they may yield their fpirit. Where 1 thought it being made after the vulgar way it retains its taft,
convenient, and indeed neceflary to fay fomething wherefore it cannot yield good fpirit, nor good
of the preparation of each vegetable, for better in- beer, which is obferved of very few, wherefore they
formation fake, or elfe a profitable diftillation is not could not draw forth good fpirit out of corn, but
to be expeded, but labour in vain to be feared. fuch as favours of the taft and fmell of the malt..
Which is not the fault of the corn, but of the ar=
Aid firjt of the preparation of the lees of wine, beoTj tificer not operating aright in the preparation of his
hydromel, and other drinks. malt, in diftilling and redtifying- For if it werfe
prepared a right in all things, corn yields a ve'ry
THeneed of wine, bear, hydromel, &c. have no
to be prepared, becaufe they do eafily e-
good fpirit, not unlike to that which is made out of
the lees of wine, in taft, odour, and other vertues.
nough of themfelves yield their fpirit, unlefs haply Which Art, although it be not known to all, yet
havingloft all their humidity they be dryed, which it doth not follow that it is impoflible Now I did :

you may make moift again by the admixionof com= not fay that it is that common way, whereby thar.
mon water, lefl: they be burnt in diftilling & ftick to fpirit, which is like to the fpirit of wine, is di-
the vefl"el ; of which thing more in the diftillation ftilled, but another which is more fubtil, and witty.
it felf. Now flowers, roots, hearbs, feeds, fruits, Out of all vegetables is drawn a burning fpirit, yet
apples, pears, cannot be diftilled without a forego- fuch as is perceived by forae difference of the taft,
Q, and
The Third Pan of Part I.

aud odour, but that is not the fpirits faults, but of

the vegetable, as of hearbs, feeds, corn, crc. com- Qf the fermenttition of Honey.
municating their vertues, taft , and odour to the
fpirit : whence that fpirit deferves to be called not
fimple, but
com pounded,/or elfe all the burning fpi-
(being rightly redified from its flegm) is m^ide
Either hath honey any need of a fingular Art
in its fermentation , becaufe being mixed
<5, 7^ 8, or lo. par's of warm water, ic
out of any thing, having the fame vertues with is dilTblved, and unto the folution is added fer-
the fpirit of wine, although it feem improbable to ment, as has been fpoken concerning malt, which
Ibme- ,1 do not deny that one fimple may yield afterward is left covered in fome 'i cat for to be fer-
more or fweet fpirit than another. For fwee-
Icfs mented, being fit for diftillation when it becomes
ter wines yields fweeter fpirits Alfo clear wine
to wax hot. Now know that too great a quanti-
yields a fweeter fpirit than the lees of wine, al- ty of honey makes a very How fermentation, viz..
though they come forth out of one and the fame of fome weeks and months wherefore joi accele-

veflcl For clarilied wine, and that which is fepa-

ration fake, I advife that a greater quantity of wa-
rated from the fauces yields a fweeter fpirit than ter be added j although otherwife it yields plenty
the Lees, and impure and heterogeneal fediment, of fpirits, but ungrateful, which therefore
I advife

which corrupts the fimple, and fvveet fpirit, with a i!o body to being unprofitable, unlefs any one
diftil as

Ilrong tail and fmell fo that that may defervedly,

know how to take away the * ungratefnlnefs there-
being as it were fimple, be preferred before this of. \_
* $ie the ConfoUc of Naii^ators. ]
which is accidentally corrupted- And this is to be
underftood of all other fpirits- What hath hither Of the preparation of Fruits, Seeds^ F lowers.,
to been faid, hath been fpoken for the fakes of them, Herhy -RootSj Scc.
who have perfwaded themfelves that they could not
perform chymical operations fo well by the fpirit
of corn as with the fpirit of wine, for I never
THePears, fruits of
trees, as Cherries, Plumbs, Apples,
, Juniper-berries, Elderberries,
found any difference of them in the extraftion of Dwarf-elder, and Mulberries, &t. are bruifed in
minerals or vegetables. Let him therefore that can, wooden vefiels, with wooden peftils ^ and upon them
receive my opinion, and experience, feeing I will being bruifed, is poured warm water, and ferment
have nothing to do with contradicting Carpers added to quicken it, as hath been above faid of
Without hurt to others I dare not reveal the Art malt. Seeds are broken in a milli flowers, hearbs and
of diftilliog a fweet fpirit with great profit out of roots, are cut fmall, and are ftirred up to fermen-
corn, in all things like to that which is made of the tation by mixing of warm water, and barm or yeft.
f^ces of wine, -f'^- without the preparation or
grinding of the malt, which Ihall haply be C * -Sef ^n jin?:otation.
Explkat. Mtrac vW;W] communicated elfewhere at
fome time or other. For this Book is not written BEfore thou diftil the aforefaid vegetables prepa-
for the publidiing of fecrets, but of a new invented red by thehelpof fermentation,diligently weigh,
diftillation- But thou that wilt make a fweet burn- and accurately obferve whether the mixture be fuf-
ing fpirit out of malt or honey ; know this, that ficiently fermented, for fometimes there is too much
the corn mult be brought after a certain peculiar cold, or hot water put to it ; fometimes the velfel is
manner into malt, and lofe its ungrateful favour be- not well covered, by which means the cold air is
fore its dillilling, and fermentiug, or elfe after the let in, whence the fermentation is hindred, and con-
wonted manner a certain ungrateful fpirit will be quendy the diftillation of the fpirit: For by the
drawn from thence, that cannot be compared to the help of fermentation the burning fpirit of the vege-
fpirit of wine. The whole Art thereof confifts in tables is fet at liberty, without which it cannot be

a true preparation ; for ungrateful things are by done i alfo the diftillation is hindred by too much
Art brought into gratefulnefs, and on the contra- haft, as well as by too much delay ; for if you be-
ry grateful things are made ungrateful by negli- gin to diftill before the time, -viz.. fermentation not
gence. And thus much for information fake. being lyet perfecfled, thou ftialt have but few fpi-
rits ; wherefore alfo the better part is, by many that
Of the fermentation of Malt. are unskilful, caft to the fwine, but without any
great lofs, if the matter were malt, becaufe that
TAke of Malt ground in a Mill as much as you fwine are fed therewith but not fo if other vege-

pleafe, upon which in a wooden vellel fet up tables were the matter of the diftillation. Alfo too
right, pour cold water, as much as will moyften much flownefs where the matter begins to be fowre
it, and ferve for mixtion and comminution ; then before it be diftilled, yields very h^
fpirits, that
alfo pour as much warm water as will fuffice for which often happens, whilft hearbs, and flowers,
the making the mixture moift and thin, and alfo O-c. are out of ignorance left in fermentation 3,4,
warm for it muft be neither hot nor cold : which
5. and more weeks, before they be diftilled, for the
being done mix with it fome new barm, and cover greateft part of the fpirit is then turned to vinegar,
it with a cloth, and in a fhort fpace, being expofed which would not be fo very ill done, if fo be thefe
to heat, it will begin to ferment ( wherefore the men knew how to clarifie the remainders, and turn it
yefiel is not tobefilkd to the top j and leave it fo long into vinegar, that nothing thereof might be loft
in fermentation , until the mixture defcends, which for the vinegars of hearbs, flowers, feeds, and roots
for the molt part is wont to be done the third day, are not to be contemned. And fo often times (z
and the malt will be ready for diftillation. thing to be lamented) the better part, if they be
fpices, and pretious things, is loft.
The matter of the diftillation, and other choice
things, as feeds and hearbs are caft away with lofs \
wherefore for admonition fake I was willing to add
Of fuch
Part I. Philofofhical FnYtiaceL
fuch things that the operators may have an oppor= water muft come. Alfo the upper hole muft be
tunity to conflder the matter a little more profound- clofe flopped with a fitting ftop|.;e wrapt about
ly with themfelves, or at leaft of learning the art with linncn Clouts, {viz,, that hole by which the
'of diftilling from countrymen , who do not fufier matter to be diflillcd is pht in) like to veflels of
their malt to putrefy, grow fower or mouldy, be- wine that are ftopped. Which being well done,
fore they fall upon their diltillations, but prefent= you muft kindle the fire in the furnace under the
iy fermentation being made (the third or the fourth globe, until all the matter in the whole velicl boyl
day) begin their dillillation. well, and that burning fpirit rife, and go out, through
But fome one will objeft, that my vegetable fpi- the refrigeratory ( where it is condenfed ) into the
fits are not pure by reafon of the ferment that is glafs receiver that is fet under ir, no lefs than that
mixed, having in it felf a fpirit. I anfwer, there diftiiled out of a ftill and you muft continue the fire till

is not fo great a portion of the ferment mixed which all the fpirit be conic forth, which you may
can corrupt the vegetable fpirit- For although fome by the taftc. Which being done, and all things be-
fpoonfuls of ferment yielding but a few drops of ing cold, let the remainders be taken out by the
fpirits be added to a great quantity of the vegeta- lower large tap-^iole, for meat for fwine, or other
bles , yet there can come no hurt or detriment to ufes. The fpirit that is drawn olTmay be exalted,
fo many quarts of the vegetable fpirit. I have feen and redliiied at your plcafnre in the fame velfel
fome fupercilious men that would not add ferment being firft made clean together with the refrigera-
;o the matter of their fpirit, but fugar or honey, tory. Note well, that fometimesthcie is left a fac
ty which they would promote fermentation, and
fo oyl with the flegm in reftifying of the fpirit, pro-
jiave thought to get a pure fpiriti not confidering ceeding from that hearb of wiiich that was the fpi-
that honey and fugar, after fermentation are made rit, which did diftiloffwith the fpirit from the mat-

to yield their fpirit alfo, whereof one fpoonful ter with a ftrong fire in the firft diftiliation, but in
yields more than ten or twenty of Barm : But ho- the redtifying could not afcend with the fpirit in
oy and fugar fermenting not without difficulty them- a gentle fire, but is conftrained to remain with the
iclveS) how can they promote the fermentation of infipid flegm. And this oyl alfo hath its vertues,
other things? Who alfo have had experience, that efpecially that which is re^ftified by a glafs gourd iu
the addition of their ferment hath been fupertluous, Balneo, with the fpirit of fait, and clarified. N'ovO
whilfl their flowers and hearbs have flood fome weeks the like oyl is got almoft from all hearbs, roots,
in maceration, before they begun to ferment, and fteds, flowers, and fruits, but out of one fubjed mere
that often times they have contrafled an acidity than another, according to the hot and cold temper
muftinefs and ftink, the reafon of which was an un- thereof. Efpecialiy thefediment of wines yields a good
futable ferment- There are indeed the fi'uits of quantity of fuch oyl, which being reiftified is a me-
fome trees that have a fweet and full juice, as grapes, dicinal true oyl of wine, but not before endued with
cherries, apples, pears, figs, G'c which need not a fweet favour, and it is an excellent cordial, al-
the addition of any ferment, having a natural fer- though I know no body that knew this before.
ment of their own, but other vegetables not fo, be- And thus I have ftiewed the general way of di-
ing lean, as hearbs, flowers and roots- It is necef- ftilling, burning fpiritsj by help of the aforefaid
fary there to promote the fermentation of them by wooden diftillatory. Now alfo follows,
the addition of a futable ferment, left in length of
tinae thefe hearbs and feeds lofe their fpirit exha- The manner of diftilling Spices^ Seeds, Flowers^

ling in maceration. And thus much I was willing to Hearbs, Roots, H''oods, &c.
fay for information fake, and indeed for the fake
ef them who feek after the bell and choiceft me- Firft, the feeds muft be broken in a mill, flowers,
dicines, wanting a good burning fpirit as a compa- hearbs, and roots cut fmall, the woods broken
nion applicable to them. For this Ipirit came not or rafped, upon which afterwards a good quantity^'
only by it felf, as j4^iia vtt<e, into a medicinal ufe of water (in which they may fwimj muft be pour-
as well internal as external, efpecially that which is ed for the maceration of them, fo that when the
prepared of cordial, and cephalick hearbs ; but al- diftiliation is ended there may remain fome water,
fo being united with the proper oyls ofthofe hearbs left for want of water they be burnt in the diftil-

in many defperate difeafes, where it could put forth ling, and yield an oyl favouring of an onpyrcuma ^
its vertues eminently- and not fweet- Neither is too great a quantity to
And thus much fufficeth concerning the prepara- be poured upon them, but as much as fliall ferve to
tici of vegetables that goes before the diltillation prevent the burning of the aforefaid vegetables in
of burning fpirits. the diftilling of the oyl thereof. And indeed frelh
vegetables may prefently witlioot any foregoing ma-
The manner of difiiUing in gtr.trd fdlowcth. ceration, being put with their proper waters into the
diftilling veflel be diftiiled. But they that be dry
TTE that is going to diftilj hath need to ftir his may for the fpace of fome dayes be macerated be-
Jl J. fermented matter very well with a ftick, that fore they be diftiiled. Alfo the water appointed
the thicker parts may be well mixed with the thin- for maceration muft be faked, for the better mol-
ner- and then he muft fill therewith his diftilling lifing,and opening the aVorefaid materials, that they
veifcl fet upon a treefoot, and joyned to the copper may fooner yield their oyl. Now green and frefh
globe in the furnace on one fide, and to the refrigera- need not any fait water, yet it will not be hurt-
tory on the other, the joints in all places being ful to mix fome therewith, kcaufe fait helps the
well clofed either with Oxe-bladdersiorwith ftarch boyling water, fo Wi to make the oyl more eafily
and paper. Alfo the interiour part of the globe in to afcend. It alfo helps and furthers diftiliation as
the diftilling vellel muft be fenced with a copper doth Tartar and Aliome, if they be rightly mix-
or wooden basket, that the herbs, feeds, and other ed and ordered. Which being all rightly done,
things enter not into the globe , into which only the materials t/iat are macerated rauft be put by a
Q. 2 funnel
6o The Third Pan of Partjt
funnel into the diftilling vellcl, and fire muft be giv- yet in length of time fo tenacious, that being fraea-
en as hath been fpoken concerning the burning fpi- red or rubbed upon the skin, they ftick faft by
rit, and the oyl of the feed, or wood macerated reafon of the wax that is mixed with them : at laft
in the water will come forth in the diftillation to- others have found out a better way of coagulating
j^ether with the water. And although by this way aromatical oyls, and other things, vit.. by the ad-
more oyl comes forth, viz.. Maceration being made dition of the oyl of Nutmeg made by exprefllon,

by the addition of fait, than without fait, by the having loft odour and colour by fpirit of wine ;

help of the fweet water alone, as is the fafhion in which they Mother of B.tlj.imet And this
called the

all places almofl: to diftill oyls of fpices -, yet much way hath been a long time concealed by Apo-
rcmaines infeparable by the water, and confequent- thecaries as a great lecret , until at length it is

ly not to be fublimed with the water. Therefore become common , fo that balfames prepared af-
the better wiy is that which I (liewed in the firft ter this manner are fold almoft in all ftiops But :

part to be performed with the fpirit of fait, which although that be the beft way, yet they are not
if you pleafe you may follow. All the oyl being durable balfames that are made that way, becaufe
come forth (which is perceived by the changing of they lack fait. 1 do not contemn and difapprove
the receivers) the fire is to be extinguifhed, and of Balfames made after this way , for if a better
the remainder is to be taken out, which if it be of way had been known, better had been made , for
feeds, hcarbs, or fruits,' may, being yet warm, be no man is obliged beyond his power. Wherefore
fermented by the addition of ferment for the diftill- they are not only to be excufed, that have ufed
ing of the fpirit, of which there cannot be fo great Lambs fat, Wax, and the oyl of Nutmegs in the
a quantity by reafon of taking away of the oyl, as making of their Balfames, but alfo to be honoured
otherwife is drawn out of things that have not loft: for their communication. Now feeing the afore-
their oyl : For all burning fpirit partakes of niuch faid Balfames cannot be taken inwardly, nor be
oyl, of theedence, and nature whereof more a little fo well outwardly adminiftred by reafon of their
after. Now fpirits muft be made without the ad-- unftuofity , others have confulted to congeal the
dition of any fait, for fait hinders the fermentati- Oyls by the admixtion of their own proper fix-
on, without which the burning fpirit cannot be had. falts : And Balfames prepared after this manner
But the water that is diftilled together with the are made free from clamminefs,or tenacioufnefs, and
oyl, is to be fet in a certain temperate place, un: may be dilTolved in wine, beer, or any liquor-
til the oyl afcend, and fwim upon the water, from Wherefore they may be not only conveniently
whence it is to be feparated with a Tunnel (of taken inward, but alfo more fitly than thofeold, be
which in the fifth part,) alfo there are fome oyls tubed outwardly for the odours fake, becaufe they
which do not afcend, but fall to the bottom, which are eafily wafhed off again with water. They do
are alfo to be feparated with a Tunnel, and kept not only give a moft fweet odour being rubbed>
for their ufes. Now how thefe oyls may be kept but alfo by reafon of the admixtion of the fixed
clear long, and not contradt any claraminefs, fhall' fait, having the nature of fait of Tartar, do beau-

be taucht in the fifth part: but how they may after tify the skin. Wherefore they are to be com-
they have loft their clearnefs by long ftanding, and mended, being diflblved in fair warm water for a
are become tenacious, be reftored and clarified a- lotion for the head, and face not only becaufe

gain, is taught in the firft part, wherefore 1 need they beautify, but corroborate with their excellent
rot here repeat it. odour i which thofe fat Balfames cannot do. Where-
fore this way is to be preferred far before the
How Oyls are to be coagulated mo Balfames. other.
Let him therefore that will, receive what I have
hath been the cuftom a long time to turn aroma- faid, for rare and new things are not alwayes accen-
IT tical oyls into Balfams, where always one hath ted , efpecially being obfcure : but I hope for the
been willing to e.xcel another in this Art, which ne- approbation of the age to come.
verthelefs was nothing hitherto, but for a wafhing
and cleanfing for they could not be ufed inward=
The manner of preparing follows.

ly, but only outwardly for their odour to comfort

the heart and brain. Now the aforefaid oyls are TAke the remains of the burning fpirit, and be-
coagulated many ways, and are made portable in ing put into a fack , prcfs it hard : reduce
Tin, Silver, and ivory boxes. the water prefled out into vinegar , and of rofes
Some have mixed the fatof a Iamb with them by thou flialt have a rofe vinegar, and of other things
help of heat, and have turned them into a liniment, another, being the beft in a Family for to feafon
which they have coloured with divers colours ; as meats :then take the remains out of the fack,
for example, they have corrupted the oyls of green and reduce it to white afties in a potters furnace,
hearbs ; as rofemary, marjoram, lavender, rue, fage, upon which pour the flegm of its own burning fpi-
with a green colour, by the adraixtion of verdi- rit ( being feparated ) to extraft the fait , from

greafe (which is noxious to the head and heart) which evaporate again all the humidity in a gla-
where one corroborates and refrelheth, another de- zed earthen pot : calcine the coagulated fait gent-
ftroys. They have tinged the Balfam of Cinnamon, ly in a clean crucible , and it will be white and

and lignnm Rhodium with a red colour by the help be like to fait of tartar in taft ; from which ab-
of a poyfonous Cinnabar. Others that are more in- ftraft, fometimes its own proper burning fpirit,

duftrious, have tinged their Oyls with extraded co- calcining the fait firft every time-, and the Ipirit
lours of vegetables, which balfams are more fafely will be fo exalted by its proper fait, that it will

taken inward But they are not durable, acquiring

prefently aftumeits proper oyl, and will, being pour-

a fliminefs and ftink wherefore

, they have mixed ed upon it, allociate it to it felf fo as to be per-
white wax to coagulate them : By which means ceived no more in the fpirit, which will remain ve-
they are become more durable without ftiriking ; but ry clear Which being done, calcine the fait yet

Part I. Philofo^bjcal Furnaces, 6i
once more very well in a crucible , and diflblve fel, there a copper, leaden, or iron, &c. In this
fo much oficin its proper flcgm. as fufficcth for the operation alfo is ufed the fame furnace with the
coagulation of the oyl, then mix this folution with fame globe, which was ufed above in the diftillauon,
the burning fpirit, mixed with its oyl, and fet it wherefore you need add nothing clfe befide, for
in a vial of a long neck well Itopt, in Balneo, that nothing is more common than a Balneum in diflil
the fpirit mny not exhale , in the codlion of it, lacion ; let the demonftration therefore of the ufe
and in the fpacc of a few hours there will be an of the copper globe fuffice. Now I thought it
union of the mixture which will be as white as worth while to fet down fome Chymical medici-
milk. Which
being done, let the glafs cool, for I
nal extracfts , not common , which may be made
there is of the fpirit, oyl, and ^^lt, fo
a conjuntftion by the help of this BaLicum , which being rightly '

that neither can be difcerned from another, which prepared do many things in many diftafes. '

is to be poured into a velFel of a wide mouth, and

it will be congealed in the cold like a white oint-

ment, not only to be anointed withal, l)ut alfo to

ji'id firft of a vomitive Extra^.

be diUblved in any liquor, being of an excellent

odour, which may alfo be given inwardly very con- TAke an ounce of the flowers of Antimony, of
veniently, and being ufed outwardly it makes the purifyed Tartar 5 ij. of fugar-candy ^ vj. of
skin beautiful and fvveeti wherefore this is that rain water two pints, being mixed together, fet
mod dclircd balfime of Princes and Ladies- And them in a Itrong vial in B.ibieo for to be coded,
by this way the three principles of vegetables, be- and make them to boyl ftrongly the fpace of ten
ing fcparated, and purified, are again reunited, in or twelve hours. Then the Balneum being cold,
wiiich union there is found the whole vertue, tail, take out the glafs, and pour forth the deco^^ion,
and odour of the vegetable. and filter it thi"ougha brown paper put into a tun-
Note well That he that will colour balfames,
-, nel ; rlie filtred water will be reddifli betwixt fweet
mufl: draw the colour ovx of vegetables with fpi- and fowre, which take (the fsces in the filtre being
rit of wine, which he muft make to be coagulaced call away ) and in a fmall gourd glafs draw off"
together with it. After this aforcfaid manner, all the moifture with a gentle fire in B-tlneo unto
therefore you may draw out of any vegetable that the confiftency of honey of a brownifh colour, up-
hath in it fait , fpirit and oyl , foluble and well on which again pour a pint of fpirit of wine,
fmelling balfomes without the addition of any o- poured forth into a vial with a long neck ; and
ther ftrange thing, which are not to be contemned. let it -in Bal'ieo with a moderate heat the fpace of
And becaufe here alfo is taught that molt odo- eight or fixteen hours, and then the fpirit of wine
riferous balfame of rofes, for rofes yield but a lit- will feparate, and extract the eflence , which wilt
tle oyl, without which that cannot be done, know be more pure and noble , being left
the fxces
that not only rofes or rofe leaves alfo are to be in the bottom ; which after all things are cold
taken for the making the aforefaid balfome , but are to be feparated by the Help of Filtration
alfo together with the leaves thofe whole knots through a double brown paper. Then take the
for that yellow that is in them yields that oyl, red tindure that is filtred, and in a gourd glafs
not the rofe leaves, &c. And let what hath been in a gentle Balneo draw off almoll all the fpi-
faid fuffice concerning our preparation of balfames, rit of wine until there remain a matter like a very
which if they be rightly made, are not I fuppofe, fweet fyrup, which being taken out keep as a molt
to be contemned, neither do I rcjedl thofe that are excellent vomitive , moll profitable in many di-
made without fait : Let him that hath better com- feafes where other Catharticks can do nothing.

municate them,and not carp at ours- And fo I would For this medicine works mofl gently , wherefore
that all and each procefs fhould be comprehended it may be given to children of a year and half
under fome one general , vtz.. of diftilling bnrning old without danger, and alfo to old men. This
fpirits, and oyls, by the help of a wooden diftill- medicine purgeth and attracfts all humors from the
ing veflel , and their conjnndlion by the help of nerves, and veins, opens all obltrudlions of the
their proper fixed fait, I could here add more things liver, fpleen, lungs, and kidneys, by which means
concerning the ufe, and vertues of fpirits of wine, many mofl grievousdifeafes are cured.
and of thofe moffc fweet vegetable oyls but be-
; never found a vomitive comparable to this, which

caufe they are clearly enough fpoken of by others, works quickly and fafely. The dofe of it is from
I account it a fuperfluous thing to repeat the fay- grain 1, 2, 3,4. to 10. and 30. according to the
ings of others, being contented with the defcrip- age and ficknefs. It may be taken by it felf, or
tion of one only general procefs, which you may in wine, beer, o-c. and it will within a quarter
imitate in other particulars. of an hour begin to work, and ceafeth within two
hours. Sometimes it doth not provoke vomit at all,
Ihere follows mrv the ufe of the fecond wooden vcjfel but only flools, where a glyfter is very helpful if
which is to he ufed ivfiead of thofe cf coffer or lead-, it be given a little before the adminiftring of the
ferving for diflillattons., dmjlms-, extrailions^ and aforfaid medicine , being made of two or three
fixations. fpoonfal of oyl Olive , and fait water for the ,

glyfter prepares the way below, fo that it feldome

velTel made ready according to the
down before, there is nothing
then works by way of vomit : when alfo the pa-
fet tient may prefently after the taking of the medi-
elfe to do, than to fit the furnace with the globe"!^ cine hold hot tofted bread to his mouth and nofe,
and atyour pleafure to heat water in it, with a which hinders vomiting and promotes the opera-
government of the fire in the furnace. Now all tion by ftool. But in my judgment it is better
things may here be done, which otherwife are done not to hinder the medicine feeking a fpontaneous
in a common Bahieo ^ where there is no other dif-
way of operation, and not forced For vomiting :

ference but of velTels ; here is ufed a wooden vef- is more convenient for fome, than purging by ftool.

R Now
The Third Part of Part I.
extrad put down for the fakes of thbfe that
have fpokcn for the fake of
Now thefe things I
fear Minerals, and abhor Vomits, which in my
thofe, who although they
abhor vomiting, yet dc-
by the enfence of Antimony, judgment is the belt of all vegetable Catharticks.
fire to be purged
which is of all that I know the moll fafe , and
the whole bo- A Diaphorctical Extra^.
fweet Cathartick. For it fearcheth
frees it trom
dy far better than all others, and
many occult difeafcs, the other vegeta.
which all TAke the wood Saffafras, Sarffapnrilla, of each fix
hath alfo this ounces; Ginger, Galengal, Zedoary, of each
ble Catharticks could not do.
by littlenefs of the three ounces ; long Pepper, Cardamoms, Cubebs, of
commodity in it, that although Cinnamon, Mace, of each half an
patient it doth each an ounce -,

dofe, or the ftrong nature of the

not work by vomit or

other medicines hurt
the body

not like
ounce; Englifh Saffron, Nutmeg, Cloves, of each a
dram Let the woods be rafped, the roots and fpi-
being right- ces poudered, pour upon them, being mixed, the
by fvveat or urine, fo that Antimony fpirit of wine, and let the tinfture be drawn forth
feldome adminiftred without proht-
ly prepared is
in Balneo, as hath been abovefaid of the purging
When on the contrary, vegetable Catharticks
reafon of fome o- Extraft, evaporate away the fpirit to the conliltency
being given in lefs dofe or by
they do not of honey, which keep for your ufe. It is good in
ther caufes do not work , although
mamfelt difeales, the Plague, Feavers, Scorbute, Leprofie, Frenchpox,
make the body fwell, and produce and other difeafes proceeding, from the impurity of
yet they threaten to the body occult ficknelTes.
the blood, curing them by fweat. The Dofe of this
Now the Arcanum of Antimony doth not onely Extrad is from a fcruple to a dram with proper
if it do not fcniibly operate ,
but by
not do hurt,
vehicles: itprovoketh fweat prefently, driveth away
infenfible working doth much good to the body ot
all venenofities from the heart, and mundifies the
man. Wherefore there is a great difference be-
vegetables. For mi= blood.
twixt purging minerals, and And although it be a moft elfeJlual vegetable Di-
dofe without naufeouf-
nerals are given in a lefs aphorerick yet it may not be compared toL.>icfub-
but vegetables with a great deal of naufeouf-
tile fpirits of minerals, of which in the '<xol^ part-
nefs, and fometimes
with danger to the lick in a
naufeoufnefs alfo proceed- Alfo animal diapnoreti'.ks have their couimciiJati-
greater dofe- Now that
dofe of the ungrate- ons, as the flclh of vipers, tiie ^xcd fait );' fpiders
ing oftentimes from the
and toads, in their peculiar operations, whcio each
docs more hurt than the potion
ful bitter potions alone without the mixture of any other thing puts
wilh that fuch kind of grofs medicines
it felf I
forth and fheweth its operations-, neiuier are ^mi-
were and the fweet E.xtradts of Vegeta=
were fubftituted in mal and vegetable diaphoreticks to be compared to
bles and Eflences of Minerals
the mineral, as Ihz.oarticitm miner ale, AntimonMin dt-
their place. aphonticu>ny and Aitriim diaphoreticuni.

A pi^gi^i ExtraH-
A Diiiretical Extratt.

roots of black Hellebore gatherd

TAke of theand dryed in the air one pound, TAke ,
the feeds of Saxifrage, Carraway, Fennel,
four ounces ; of each 3. ounces, the root of
Parfly, Netles,
the roots of Mechoacan, Jallap, of each
one liquorifh, the greater burr, of each an ounce, the
Cinnamon, Anniffeed, and Fennelfeed, of each
powder of woodlice half an ounce. Let thefe being
of Englifh Saffron a dram, powder
all thele
ounce -,

resided mixed and powdered be extradled with fpirit of

Ingredients, then pour upon them the
Juniper according to art then mix thefe follow-
glafs gourd, and upon

fpirit of Wine, in a high

fet it in digeftion
ing things with the extraded matter: Take the
this put a blind Alembick, and

be tinged red, fait of Ambar, Soot, Netles, of each half a dram

in Balneo until the fpirit of wine
on frelh, and purified Nitre a dram Let thefe be powdered ,
which then decant otF: and pour :

until the fpint be red, and mixed with the extrad and this mixture
fet again in
it digeftion ,

again, and do this fo often be kept for ufe. The dofe is from a fcruble to
then pour on frelh
a dram, in the water of parfly fennel, &c. This
until the fpirit will no' more be tinged red, which
Mix theie extrad forceth urin, opens the ureters, purgcth the
commonly is done at three Times.
Balneo by a glafs reines, and blndder from all vifcous Cegme (the mo-
tinged fpirits, filter them, and in
oti from
draw them ther of all tartareous coagulation) I'tz.. if it be u-
Alembick, with a gentle heat commended
will remain at the fcd timely : In this cafe is alfo the fo-
the Tincture, and a thick juice and cryftals, made with fpirit of
which you muft take lution of flints,
bottom of a brownifli colour,
hot, and keep it in a clean fait. A greater commendation have falts of nephri-
out whilft it is yet
rick hearbs made by expreffion, and cryftaDifation,
silafs for its ufes. The Spirit of Wine drawn off
without calcination, the preparation whereof fhall
from extraft
the may be refcrved for the fame ufe.
given from grains 3,6,9,12. not here, but elfewhere be taught,
Now this extraft is

according to the age, and ftrength, being

to 31.
ungrateful taft, A fomniferoiis ExtraH-.
mixed with Sugar, it hath not an
fafely if it be not gi-
and it works gently, and
ven in too great a dofe. And if thou wilt have TAke of Thebaic opium four ounces, of Spirit of
mix with it being yet two ounces, purified Tartar one ounce ,
it in the form of a Pill .
and half an ounce fet them being mixed in maceration in Balneo in a
hot, an ounce of clear Aloes,
mixed bring it in= glafs veffcl for a day and night, and the fpirit of
of Diagridium powdered, being
it for your ufe. The
fait with Tartar will open the body of the opimi,^
to a mafs for Pills, and keep
It evacuates and prepare it for extradion, upon which pour half
dofe is from grain i- to a fcruple.
it is not to be compa- a pint of the beft fpirit of wine, fet it ih a gen-
all fuperfluous humors, but
And this tle Babco to be extraded- Decant off the fpirit
red with the medicine of Antimony. that
tart I. Pbilofofhical Furnaces, 6j
that is tinged, and pour on fielh, fet it in digeftion rous oyl go from the extrad not only more effica-
tillthe fpirit be coloured. Then mix the axtrafti- cious, but more excellent than that common diltil-
ons together, and put to them in a glafs gourd two led oyl by reafon of the admixtion of the fpiritu-
drams of the bcft Saflron, of oylof Cloves a dram, al mctallick vertue, efpecially of gold and filver,
and draw off the fpirit of wine in Balnco, and folved in the add A'^o/JhrntM communicating its vcv
there will remain a thick black juice, which is to Cues to the Aromatical oyl. Moreover any vegetable
be taken out, and kept in a clean glafs velFcl. The oyl may be exalted in vcrtues and odour by the
dole thereof is from one grain, to five or fix, for help of fpirit of urine, or fait Armoniack, b/ the
thofe of a mans age, but to children the fixth or help whereof not only odoriferous oy is are exalted,
eighth part of a grain- It may be ufed in all hot but alfo the inodorous oyls of vegetables arc made'
dillempers without danger. It provokcth quiet llccp, odoriferous, if they be a while digelted in fpirit
mitigates pains as well outward as inward, it cauf- of urine: and not this only l)ut every mineral, and
eth frtcat but efpecially it is a fure remedy for the metallick fulphur, altiiough the odour thereof be

epilcplle in children that are new-born; for as foon bound up v.ith mofl flrong bonds, is opened by the
as it is given to them to tlie quantify of the eighth benefit thereof, and is reduced by digellion in a very
part of a grain in wine, or womans milk, there little timeinto a molt fvveet and odoriferous ef-
prefently follows reft, and fweat with fleep, by fencc. Lixivial fpirits cxalc the odours, and colours
whis means the malignity is expelled, the childien of fulphurs atici purge fulphurs, but change their ;

are refrelhed, and delire vicTtuals, and the fit returns colours and odours. Musk and Civet get the fweet-
no more afterwards. Although haply the like fym])- nefsi and excellency of their odour from the fub-
tomes may be preceivcd again, yet if the aforcfaid tile urinous fpirit of a certain Cat, digefting fomc
dofe be adminiltred again, the children are refrelh- certain fat and converting it into fuel; a kind of
ed, and cured wholly, whereas ocherwife they would moll odoriferous matter.
have dyed, C-c.. whereof 1 have not rcftored few And let this that hath been fiiid fuffice concern-'
with this medicine. Moreover alfo there are very ing Extracfts, which might have been omitted, be-
e{fe..T:uaI anodinc medicines, as thofe volatile fpirits caufe many of thefc kind of Extrafts are found in
of vitriol, allome, Antimony, and other minerals ihc writings of other authors in many languages:
with which, as alfo with that narcotick fulphur pre- but I was willing to fet down thefe, left this book
cipitated from the volatile fpirit of vitriol, nothing might fcem to contain in it nothing clfe belides the
may be compared. new way of diflilling, being furnilhed alio with good
A Cordial Extra^.
Of Baths
TAke red rofcs four ounces, of the lilly of the
valley two ounce?, the flowers of borage, rofe-
mary, fage, of each an ounce cinnamon, lignum
aloes, of each two drams ; cloves, mace, nutmeg ,

A Little^ before
a Tub
hath been given a defcription of
for a Bath in which any one may fie
with his whole body except his head, not only to
galangal, cardamoms the lelTer, of each half an be wadied in fweet warm water, whether medicii:al
ounce J the Ihavings of ivory, hartdiorn, of each an and mineral, but alfo to fweat in without water,
ounce ; of E>.glijh fafFron a dram, of nnxvomica a where the velFel is heated by warm vapours, either
dram : Mix them and reduce, them to a fine pow- of Fvveet waters, or minerals. And every one may
der, and let the tindure be extra<fled with fpirit of provide fuch Baths for himfelf according to his ne-
wine in Balneo, which is to be drawn cfFagain, un- ceflity at home, whereby the fame difeafes are cu-
to a juft confiftence. Let the extraifl be kept for red as thofe that are cured by the help of natural
ufe. It may be ufed in almoft all faintings, and Baths, Fo that he need not for the baths Fake go a
other afFefts that are not joyned with a preterna- great journey, but may ftay at home with his family
tural heat- The dofe thereof is from grains 3, 6, and follow his Calling without trouble, when he hath
9- to a fcruple with proper vehicles; being often occafion and need to ufed them.
adminiftred it refrefheth the fpirit, corroborates the And whereas it cannot be denycd, that by the
brain, and other parts of the body. It is made ufe oF the Baths moft grievous diieaFes which can-
more efficacious by the adding of the ellences of not be cured by Phyfitians, are happily cured ; I
minerals, efpecially of gold, of which thing fee the was willing For the Fake of my neighbour to publilh
firft part concerning the fweet oyl of gold. this inftrumcnt together with the preparation of
mineral waters j which publilhing will not without
Of an odoriferous Extract. doubt be without profit, and advantage- Wherefore
I will in brief fhew you the preparation of mineral,

Need not teach the making of any odoriferous and Fweet waters, and their uFe, and iirll,
I vegetable extraft, becaufe the manner of draw-
ing forth, or diftilling oyls of vegetables that have Of a B.jth of fweet or common water.
fweet odores, hath been fhewed a little before, as
of hearbs, flowers, and feeds, which are the moft
THere is no art to make a Bath of Fvveet water,
noble, and fweet eflences of vegetables, by the o- for you have nothing elfc to do, then to fill
dour whereof the heart and brain are corroborated, your velFel with river or vain water, and to make a
which being reduced into balfams are made tranf- fire, which by the help oF the copper globe will heat
pcrtable. Better extrafts therefore, and more excel- the water, which being Fufficiently heated, you may
lent cannot in my judgment be made out of vege- fit in it, and cover the Tub, that the hot vapors e-
tables, then thofe aforefaid oyls, unlefs any one vaporate not, nor the cold air enter in, and cool the
would mix aromatical exirads made with fpirit of exteriour parts oF the body : Wherefore alFo you
wine with mctallick folutions, and being mixed di- muft apply a clean linnen cloth about your neck,
geft them, then there will a certain moft odorife- left the warm vapors evaporate there which being:

R2 lightely
The Third Pan of Part I
cid fpirit of fait, as are divers kindc of marcafitcs
rif^btly obferved, you may fit the fpace of i- 2. 3.
your ficknefs re- containing copper and iron, and fomctimes gold and
hours, or as long as you pleafe or
filver ; alfo kinds of vitriol and Allome cplled by the
quire. You mult keep a continual heat as much as
may be done by the help of that ancients Mifh A'.i?//, cbdatis, A'lclamcrl.i^ and Py-
is neceflary, which
fome are found white
in the mean time you may
rttis^ vvlicreof like metals, but
plobe- If you be thirlty
others difperfed in a fat earth, of a round figure in
drink fomc proper diailled drink according to the
nothing now, greater or leifer pieces which fulphureous fait

nature of yourdifeafc, of which thing

I'ooli^de BJ- mines whilell the water run through, and humctlatcs,
becaufe I am rcfolved to write a pccwlhr
that copper that fpirit of fait
is ftirred up, having got a v.kicnlum;
,jr,s, and here only to (hew the ufe of
And although there and falls upon the mines by diilblving them, in
elobe in heating of Baths-
yet of ibmc Baths,which folution the water waxeth warm, as if it had
not a perfecl inftrudion of all,
be given been poured on quick lime, or like fpirit of vitriol,
and their ufes there (hall a fliort inftruaion
or fait mixed with water, and poured on iron, and
in this place.
other metals j where continually and daily that wa-
ter running through the mines whofe nature and
Of the Jhitinr, and property of Baths. properties it imitates, carrys fomething with it :
medicinal wa- wherefore there are fo many, and fuch various kinds
that the greatefl: part of
KNOW ters in GeniU!>;y, and other countries
as well of Baths as are the mines by which the water is heat-
earth a cer- ed. Let him that will not believe take any mine-
hot as cold carry with them from the
which a- ral of the aforefdid quality, and wrap it up in a
tain fulphureous acidity more or lefs in:

cloth for a little while, and he will fee

cidity conhfts that medicinal faculty and vertue ot wet linen
thofe waters lofe their it experimentally that the mineral flone will be heat-
this or that water. And if
exhaling of their fubtile ipirits, ed by the water, and fo heated, asif it were in the
odour and tad by the
although alio fire, fo as thou canft fcarce hold it ir^thy hand, which
then aUb they loofe their vertues ,

have not only a at length alfo by a longer adion will cleave in fun-
there be found fome waters, which
impregnated with a der and be confumed like quick lime-
fpiritual fulphur, but alfo are
fome time or other (God willing^
mineral, or metaliick body mixed with M-
1 will publilh
elfewhere then more and clearly in a peculiar treatife this my
lome, or Vitriol, which comes not have now delivered in very few
running through the mines. opinion, which I
from'the common water
power and words. Although to the fick it be all one, and it
There are found alfo other baths, the
matters not them, from what cauie the batiis come,
vertue whereof not in any fpiritual fulphur,
body mixed with fair, but on- and whence they borrow their vertues, if fo be they
nor in any metaliick
fpiritual "fait mixed with a certain
may ufe them , this controverfie being left to na-
ly in a certain
do not run through tural Philofophcrs that will controvert it, which
fubtil fixed earth, which waters
ftones of none of them can better decide than a skilful Chy-
metaliick mines as others do, but rather
fubtcnaneal inifl, that hath the knowledg of minerals, metals,
the mountaines calcined with a
and falts.
whence alfo they borrow their fubtil acidity with
their infipid earth. Andthis no man will deny that
Andfift of fulphureous Baths that have afultil acidity,
hath the knowledge of volatile and fixed falts of
metals: the which I am able to de-
minerals, and
the fecond Treatife have demonftrated the
monftrate with very many, and mofl: evident 'rca- INmanner I

of diflilling fubtil, volatile, fulphureous

fons, if time and occafion would permit ^ but it

fometime or other as hath been faid fpirits, wz,. of common fait, vitriol, allomc, nitre,
Ihall be done
fulphur, antimony, and other falts of minerals, and
in a peculiar treatife. Now therefore I will only
metals, and their vertues, and intrinfecal properties,
teach how by falts, minerals, and metals, artificial
now alfo I will (hew their extrinfecal ufe, as they
Baths may be made, which arc not only not inferi-
are to be mixed with waters for Baths. The ver-
our to the natural in vertue, but alfo oftentimes far
labour, which tues therefore of Baths proceed not from inlipid w a-
better, and that without much coft or
the natural ter, but from thofe moft fubtile, volatile, fulphure-
any one may ufe at home in ftead of
and recovering of ous, and fait fpirits ; but thefe being of themfelves
for the expelling of difeafes,
not mixed with water unfit for Baths, to be ufed
And although I am refolved to fet forth a
for recovering of health, by reafon of their too great
book that (hall treat largely of the nature, and o-- heat, and fubtilty ; the mofl high God hath reveal-
rit^inal of Baths, and of their ufe-, yet 1
am willing
ed to us unworthy and ungrateful men his fatherly
now alfo to fay fomething in brief concerning it, providence fliewing to us by nature the ufe of them,
and that from the foundation, feeing that there are
fo many different opinions of learned
men, and thofe and the manner of ufing of them for the takin?:; a-
way of difeafes ; which (nature) being never idle,
for the mofl part uncertain.
works uncelfantly, and like a handmaid executes the
As concerning therefore the original of the aci- us the various kinds of
dity as well volatile , as
corporeal , as alfo the will of God, by (hewing to
and the famej diftillations, tranfmutations, and generations. From
heat of Baths, know that is not one,
fame properties, but which teacher we mufl learn all arts and fciences,
for clfe each would have the
experience tellifies the contrary.: For it is feeking a certain, and infallible information, as it
fome difeafes, and o- were out of a book writ with a divine hand, and filled
manifcft that fome Baths help
ther-; are hurtful for them,
which comes from no- with innumerable wonders, and fecrets. And this
of the proper- is a far certainer knowledg then that eminy, and
thing elfe but from the difference difputing Phi-
tics of the mineral waters
proceeding from a diver- imaginary Philofophy of thofe vulgar
lofophcrs. Dofl thou think that that true Philo-
fity of mines impre[',nating
thofe waters. In a word,
vertues in fophy can be fold for a hundred Royals ? How can
fwcet waters attraft their powers, and in the earth, who is
metal and mi- any one judge of things hid
the caverns of mountains from fome things expofed to the light of
divers kinds, that have naturally a raoft a- willfully blind in
nerals of
Part I. Philofophical Furnaces, ?5
the Sun, hating knowledge ? 1 wifh knowledge were
futable to the name how can any one that is igno-
Of Siilfhnr Baths.
rant of the nature of fire, know how to work by
fire ? fire difcovers many things, in which you may A Ppiy the furnace with the Copper Globe tc the
as inaglafs Teethings that arc hid j The fire fhews -^ J^ fub after the manner aforefaid, and pour in
to us how every thing, waters, fait, minerals, and a fufficient quantity of fweet water, whi(h rr.?kz
metals, together with other iunumerable things are hot with the lire kindled in the furnace by the help
generated in tiie bowels of the earth by the reflexi- of the globe: which being fufficienrly warmed make
on of that; central, and allral fire for without the
: the patient ^\t in it, and pour into it fo much of
knowledge of fire all nature remains vailed, and oc- the fulphureous fpiric as is fufficient
i vv'ii.i: being

cult. FireTalways had in greatefteem by Philofo- done canfe that the tub be covered all ever, that the
phers) isthe key for the unlocking of the greatcft volatile fpirit vanilh not, and as neceiiiiy requires,
fecrets, and to fpeak in a word, he that is ignorant continue the heat till the patient come foriii. know
of fire is ignorant of nature with her fruits, and he alfo that the water is to be changed every time,
hath nothing, but what he hath read, or heard, and frelh fpirits to be mixed. And this is the ufe
which oftentimes is falfe, according to that ; ^e of the Copper globe, in heating baths of fweet or
eafUy fpeakj tmtrnths that Jpe^ks wh^it he hnth medicinal water, and that either of vegetables, or
heard. mineral, aud this made fulphureous by art or na-
He that is ignorant knows not liow to difcern be- ture i whereby moft grievous, and otherwife incura-
twixt the truth and fallhood, but takes the one for t"he ble difcafes are happily cured Of which enough

other. 1 pray thee, thou that arc fo :redulous, doft now in this Treatife.
thou think that thy teacher wi it his books from ex-
perience, or from reading other Authors ? May they The ufe if tht, Copper Globe in dry Buths^ which ^re
not be corrupted and fophifticated by antiquity, more excellent than the moift in many cafes.
and frequent defcription ? Alfo doft thou under-
ftand the true, and genuine fenfe of them ? It is Might have put off this matter unto its proper
better to know, than to think ; for many are feduced
1 Treatife, where all things ihallte handled more
by opinions, and many are deceived by faith that largely, and clearly yet by reafon of fome un-

is without knowledge- thought of impediments for a while procraftinat-

And thus much for youths fake I was willing to ing the edition of the promifed Treatife, I am
fay, that they would not fpend their tender years folved to fay fomething of their ufe, after I
in vanities, but rather would make tryal in the fire, made mention of the humid, and indeed not only of
without which no man obtains a true knowledge of the ufe of thofe fubtile, fulphureous, and dry
natural things ; which although it feem hard in the rits, but alfo of the ufe of fubtile,
vegetable and
beginning, yet it is pleafant in old age. animal fpiritswhich are medicinal, becaufe in fome
difeafes dry baths are more commodioufly ufed,
Nov follows the mixture of thofe fubtile mimral^ fid- than moift. He therefore that will provoke fweac
fhnreoMS^ and fait [pints with water. by a dry bath without water, let him provide
wooden box, or wooden inftrument convenient to
AS concerning the weight of the aforefaid fpirits
fi;at are to be mixed with fweet water, giving
fit ftanding upon a ftool boared through that
you may raife it up more or lefs according as you
it Lhe nature, and property of natural baths* I would pleafe, and having boards appointed foi- the
have thee know, that of thofe, which in the fecond and feet to reft upon. This box alfo belides the
part I fhewed to be various, and divers, being, -viz.. great dore muft have alfo a little dore ferving
not equal in vertue, the fame weight cannot ah the p!itting 'in of a burning lamp with fpirit of
ways be accurately obferted : feeing alfo there
fo or of any earthen veilel with coals for to neat it. [_Sec
is a confideration to be had of their ftrength, and the fixtb figure.'} The box being well
warmed, let the
of the ftreneth of the patient. patient go in, and fit upon a ftool, let the box be very
Now yon may at the beginning
mix one or two dofe fliut all about, and the furnace with the Cop-
pound of the with a fufficient quantity of
fpirits per Globe be fitted thereunto, under which let
the water, and then by fitting in it make tryal of there be a fmall fire kindled, by help whereof the
the ftrength of the artificial Bath, which if it be growing warm, goeth forth into the
volatile fpirit
too weak is to be increafed by adding a greater box
moft fubtile vapour, penetrating all a-
like a
quantity of the fpincs, but if too ftrong, then it is to
bout the patient. But when this fpirit is not fuf-
be diminifhed by abfti adion ; of which more at large ficient to -heat the box, fet in it a burning lamp
ix\ yirtenojtra BJi:eatoria- Now this obferve that with fpirit of wine, or fome earthen pot with
it is befl: to make Baths in the beginning weak,
coals ("the beft whereof are made of Juniper or
then ftrongei- by little and little by degrees, as the vine, efpecially
of the roots as being fuch that
the nature of the fick is accultomed to them, that will endure long, and cannot eafily be extinguiih-
it be not overcome by the unaccuftomed ufe of
them ed by the vapours of thofe fpirits) that the pati-
being too flrong. Wherefore Baths are to be ufed ent take not
cold, and the vapours of the fpirits
with difcretion, and caucioufly, for which matter 1 may the
better penetrate the body of the patient-
refer the reader to my Artem Buhieatortam in which Let the wick for the fpirit of wine in the burn-
he (hall find plain, and perfect inftrudion let it ing lamp be incombuftible made of the fubtle

fuffice therefore that 1 have fhewed

the ufe of the threads of gold, of which thing more in Arte Bal-
Copper Globe, in heating Baths, which let the fick neatoria.
In the mean time that volatile fpirit pe-
take in good part, untill more come.
Now fol- netrates, and heats the whole body, and performs
lows the ufe.
its office, being this way ufed better than by be-
ing mixed with water. When the patient hath
fate there long enough let him come forth, and
S go
6S The Third Tart of Part I.

go into a warm bed to fweat- Now

before he attennuate, cut , expel , and mundify , wherefore
go into the box let liini take a dofe of that vo- they are good in Contradures, Palfies, Epilepfy,
latile fpirit, inwardly which is ufed outwardly to Scurvy, Hypochondriacal Melancholy, Morbus Gal-
Iprovoke fweat, and accelerate the action- And by licus, Itch , and other corrofive ulcers, and Fiftu-

tin's means not only thofe volatile fulphureous fpi- laes,&c.

rits of falts, minerals and metals, are ufed out- But the fpirits of another kind , as of Tartar,

wardly without water to procure fweat, but alfo Harts-horn, fait Armoniack, Urine, o-c. are hoc
the fpirits of vegetable?, as of muftard feed,
many alfo, but not fo dry, and befidcs the heating ver-

garden crude tartar, alfo of animals, as

ci:effes, tue , have alfo a penetrating, cutting, mollifying,
harts-horn, iirin, fak Armoniack, (^c for theex= attenuating, abfterging, and expelling power ; where-
pelling of molt grievous, and defperate difeafes, fore alfo they work wonderfully in obftrudions

Now the aforefaid fpirits have divers properties, of the inward and outward parts for they do

the volatile fpirits of fait, minerals, and metals better than all others, open the pores of the skin,
have fome, thofe of vegetables and animals have and provoke fweat, mollify, and open the hemor-
others ; thofe have a fulphureous and fiery effence rhoides ; provoke the zfienfes of young and elder
thefe a mercurial, and aerial , wherefore they ferve women, purge and heat the womb, and therefore
for different ufes. In fome difeafes thofe fulphu- caufe fruitfulnefs ; they heat and purge a cold and
reous are preferred , but in others vegetable and moift brain, acuate the intelled, and memory, let
animal, where alfo aconfideration istobe had of the they that be great with child take heed of thera,
ficknefs, and bath it felf, that one be not ufed and alfo they that have a Porous open skin. Such
for the other, to the great dammage of the fick. and other more properties, and that defervedly are
For almolt all natural baths , and volatile fpirits afcribed to thefe fpirits Now thofe two afore-
of falts, minerals , and metals , partake of fome faid baths (in one whereof thofe fpirits are uled
moll fubtle, penetrating, heating, and drying ful- in a humid way, being mixed with warm water,

phureous fait fpirit but the fpirits of vegetables,

for the whole body to be bathed , and fweat in,
and animals partake of a certain volatility that is but in the other in a dry way where the vapours
molt fubtle, penetrating, heating, opening, cutting are by force of the fire m?de under the Globe,
and attenuating, both urinous and nitrous, wz.. con- forced up into the fweating box towards the pa-
trary to the former ; as appears by the pouring on tient , which being ufed after this manner do of-

of any volatile fulphureous fpirit as of common

, tentimes penetrate , and operate more efficacioufly
fait, vitriol, allome , minerals, and metals, upon than that humid way ) are not to be flighted for
the reftified fpirit of Urin , or fait Armoniack : the recovery of health, as doing things incredible.
where prefently the one mortifies the other , and Now thofe fpirits not being found in fhops , nor
takes away its volatility, and fubtilty fo that of
being made by any according to the manner
both fubtle fpirits of divers natures there cometh that I have fhewed in the fecond Part , I would
a certain fait of no odour and efficacy. Whence have thee know that there is yet another matter,
it is manifeft that all fpirits partaking of divers which needs not to be diftilled, and it is mineral
natures, and eflences have not the fame faculties- which being put into the Copper Inftruraent, doth
Therefore be thou cautious in giving moft potent of its own accord without fire yield fuch a fulphu=
fpirits, left thou give an enemy inflead of a friend, reous fpirit, which penetrates very much, and go-
and learn their natures , vertues, and effences, be- eth into the fweating box , like in all things to
fore thou ufeft them in medicine. But thou dofl that which is made out of falts, minerals, and me-
ask , whether is that great force of thofe fpirits tals. Nature alfo hath provided us another mat-
gone as it were in a moment Did it evapo-
.' ter that is to be found every where , which be-
rate in that duel ? No
I fay, but tranfmuted in- ing in like manner put into the Inftrumenc doth
to a corporeal fubltance, for of a moft pure, mi- by it felf, and of its own accord without fire yield a
neral, fubtle, and moft volatile fulphur, and a moft fpirit, in vertue not unlike to that which is made
penetrating animal Mercury is made a certain out of crude Tartar, or fait Amoniack, Soot, U-
corporeal fait, which is wonderful, and deferves to rine, &c. Of which in the fecond Part, doing, wz..
be called jIcjhiU Philojopborufn, becaufe it is eafily the fame things with that which is made with
fublimed with a gentle heat, in which many things cofts and labours. Thofe forefaid two matters
lye : for it doth not only conduce to the folution therefore can do the fame things, which are re-
of metals , efpecially of gold , but alfo of it felf quired for a bath and fweating, which thofe two
by the power of maturation doth become a moft forefaid kinds of fpirits, viz.. mineral and fulphu-
efficacious medicine: Of which no more at this reous, vegetable and animal can do, &c. Now
time, becaufe I will only advife the reader, that he what thofe two matters which are eafily every
be diligent in fearching out the nature of fpirits, where to be found are > thou defireft to know ;
which although they change their bodies, yet are but I dare not if I would, for the fake of the pi-
not therefore to be called dead, but rather re- ous to reveal them becaufe of the ungrateful, and
duced to a better perfedion. And let this fufSce unworthy. For it is an offence to caft pearl be-
concerning the dry ufe of baths in provoking fweat fore fwine, which yet the pious may, by the blef-
for the expelling of difeafes now for what di-
: fing of God find out by the reading of the reft of
feafes this or that fpirit ferves, thou fhalt find in my Writings.
its proper Treatife, of which there hath been
mention above , but in a word , know that thofe Noxp follows a wooden veffel which is to be ufed >-
volatile fulphureous fpirits of falts, minerals, and fiead of a Cauldron in boyling of Beer^ Metheglin^
metals, are good in all obftrudions of the in- (Vinegary &C.
ward of the fpleen, lungs, and liver,
parts, VIZ..
but efpecially are moft excellent in heating the
cold nerves, becaufe they do moft efficacioufly heat, M Any things
matter ,
might be faid
for although
concerning this
men may be found in
ftace this fart 1. iefore ftge 6?',

Part I. Pbilo/opbical Furnaces. 67
any part of the world , who know how to make wine in goodnefs, colour, tail, and vertue, like to
malt of corn, and of this beer and vinegar ; yet the natural, may be made alfo how out of un-

many things may be faid of this matter for the ripe grapes, that are not maturated either by the
correding of it ; but becaufe it is not my purpofe inclemency of the country , or air, their acidity
to fhew fuch things now, yet I fliall fay fomething being changed into fweetnefs , very good Wines
of the ufe of the copper globe which any one like to the Rhenidi may be made: alfo how out
may provide inftead of Caldrons, and which is of forrel, and other vegetables, a very good Tar-
to be ufed with a certain wooden veflel in the tar may be made , and that in a great quantity
boyling of Beer, which by this way he may, as without much colls, refembling the Khenifh in co-
bath been fpoken above concerning the operations, lour, taft, and other vertues : Alfo how out of
make as well as by the help of Caldrons- Moreover Corn, ( whether malteii , or ground in a Mill )
I could here alfo teach fome other moll profitable a very good fpirit is to be made, and alfo a very
fecrets, "vtz.. {_fce Confolat.of Seamen'^ how honey good vinegar like to the Rhenifli alfo how out ;

may be freed from its ungrateful odour , and taft of Corn, (ground in a millj or Meal, a very good
by the help of precipitation ; and how afterwards fpirit is to be diftilled without any lofs of the

a molt fweet fpirit is to be drawn out of it very Meal, continuing yet fit to make bread- Such
like in all things to the fpirit of wine alfo how
: and more of this fort might be taught in this
the belt and fweeteft wine clear, and durable like place, but becaufe it is not good to divulge all
to Mallago, may be made thence alfo how after things together, and at once, and this book would

purging it is to be cryftallifed , fo as to referable by this means grow bigger than I am willing it

Sugar-cand'y in goodnefs and talt : alfo how the fhould, if fuch things Ihould be here
taught , 1
fweetnefs thereof may be converted into Tartar, fhall make an end of this Book
omitting other (
very like to the natural : C See Exflicat. Mirac. excellent poflible fecrets of nature) which although
Mundi. 3 Alfo how out of fruits of trees, as cher- it be but little, yet will without doubt be profita-
ries, apples, pears, o-c. a very goodj and durable ble to many. And fo Reader farewel-


Jn ttfhich is Nature of the Fourth Furnace ^ hy the help whereof^ Minerals and
defcribed the
Metals are tryed^ and examined after a more compendious TV^jy, than hitherto after the
common manner ^ alfo the feparation of Metals by ti^e force of Fufon, and other nccef*
fary things that are done by the power of Fufion or Melting. Moji profitable for Chy
miftsy TryerSj and Diggers of x^inerals.

Of making the Furnace.

In tlie firft: Figure, A. reprefents the Ajh-hole with its ftoor. B. The Regifter appointed for
governing the Tire. C, The Hole with its door affignd to receive the Crucihles and Cods. D.
The Hole with the door of the Firfi Story. E. The long Pipe of Iron in the top of the Furnace.
The fecond Figure, A Cone or Cafting Veffel belonging to this Furnace.

THis Furnace
fmaller, as
may be made greater,
you pleafe, according to the
or fuch as may be cleared from the drofs mixed with coals,
or fuch as was the grate of the lirft furnace, confifting
matter to be tryed and if the Diame-
: of too ftrong crofs iron bars faftned in the furnace
ter thereof within, be but of one foot, with certain diftances for the receiving of 5, 6, or
you may fet in it a crucible containing which are to be movea-
7. other lefler iron bars
two or three pound , but greater crucibles require a ble, fo thatwhen they are obllrufted they may be
freater furnace. Now mull be qua-
this furnace removed, and cleared from the drofs the lower part ,

rangular, and be built of flones, and lute, fuch of the furnace mull have near the bottom a hole
which abide the fire, of the height of one or two (in the forepart) of the heighth, and breadth of
foot from the bottom to the grate, which muft be a little fpan, with an iron or copper door, fliut-
S 2 ting
68 The Fourth Tan of Part

ting clofe the lower part alfo mull have another

it were helped with bellows, fo that even the fur-
hole near the grace on the other iide with its re- nace, unlefs it were built of very good and fixed

gifter for the government of the fire, and for the earth, would by too great a heat be deltroyed

attrading of wind. Above the grate> and a hand for oftentimes the ftrongefl crucibles melt with too

breadth from the grate muft be another hole for much heat , wherefore a regiller is made for the
putting in of coals, and crucibles, fatabletothe pro- governing of the fire.
portion of the furnace, and the height thereof mull And by the help of this furnace, with Gods blef-
fing, 1 found out my choifeft fecrets. For before,
be of one foot? and the latitude of half a foot, if
the inward Diameter of the furnace be of one foot, and indeed from my youth I underwent the trouble
whereby the crucibles may be the more convenient- of thofe vulgar labours performed by bellows, and
ly handled, and the coals be caft in with a fire-pan : common vents, not without lofs of my iiealth, by
Let this hole alfo have a very ftrong door of llone reafon of the unavoidable malignant and poylbnous
covered over with Iute,either of which may endure the fumes, which danger this furnace was wicnout^ not
fire, and ihuc very clofe, that the fire may there-
only of poyfonous and malignant fumes , but alfo
by (when the crucible is placed in the fire) attrail of all excefiive heat : For our furnace fends forth
air, but only from the collateral hole under the grate. no fume Tbut above, fo drawing, that the door be-
Let the height of the furnace (being coated above) ing opened for the putting in of coals, it attrads
from the hole appointed for the putting in of coals by the vehemency of the fire, another fume, that
and crucibles, be of one great fpan Let : there alfo is remote by the diflance of half an ell. And be-
be a round hole in the furnace, having the third caufe the fire doth fb vehemently attrad, it keeps
its heat within it felf, fo that there is no fear of
part of the intrinfecal diameter of the furnace, ap:
pointed for the flame and fmoke; to v\hich if you burning , yet you mufl cover your hand that holds
will ufe, a very violent fire, put to it a llrong iron the tongs with a linnen glove twice double, and wet
in water, and with the other hand a wooden fence that
pipe of the height of 5, 6, 8, or 12. foot, for by
is perfpedibh to preferve your eyes otherwife it
how much the higher you fet your pipe, the ftron- ;

ger may you give, and if you will you may e-

wants all danger of vapours, or fumes, as hath been
rtCi.above the furnace 1, 2, or 3. partitions with faid, and all exceflive heat the which is a great benefit

their doors ferving to divers ufes according to the in Art. I do ingenuoufly confefs, if 1 had not found this

flame that is gathered into them, by reafon of divers a few years fince, I had not without lofs left off all
degrees of fire, which is in them, for the lowefl is fo Alchymy together with its tedious labours- For I
hot, that it can eafily contain in flux fufible metals, had fpent many years of my life in great mifery
minerals, and falts ; and ferve for cementation of labours, in fuperfluous cares, and watchings, as
calcinations, and reverberations ; alfo for burning alfo in flinks, fo that going into my Elaboratory

of crucibles, and other earthen veflels , made of with loathing, 1 fhould behold fo many materials in
the beft earth (of which in the Fifth part) and for fo many, aud fuch various pots, boxes, and other

vitrifications, and foraetimes for trials and burnings, vefTels, and alfo as many broken as whole inftru-

o-c. The fecond divifion of heat, which is more ments of earth, glafs, iron, and copper, and did judg
remifs, ferves for the burnings of minerals and me- my felffo unhappy that I
had made my feif aflave
tals as of lead, tin, iron and copper, that are ne- to this Art, and
efpecially becaufe fcarce one of 1 00,

ceOary for calcinations ^ alfo for the neceffary calci- whereof I was one, did get his viduals and cloths
nation of Tartar, and the fixed fait of other vege- thereby. For thefe reafons 1 was determined to bid
tables, that is required in chymical operation, as farewelto Chymillry, and to apply my felf toPhy-
alfo the calcining of bones, and horns for cuples fick, and Chirurgery, in which I was always hap-

and the afnes of wood. The third divifion or cham- py. But what ? Whilefl I thought to do as I re-

ber is yet more remifs, S!\i ferves for the drying folved, and to call forth of the doors all and each
of crucibles, and other velleh tliat are made of the veflel of divers kinds, I found fome crucibles brok-
befl earth, and afterwards to be burnt in the firll en, and in them many grains of gold and filver,
partition. There may alio other things be done formerly melted in them, which together with o-
by the help of thefe partitions, fo that thou needeft thcrs gathered together, I thought to melt ; but
not for their fakes kindle a peculiar fire. But if feeing 1 could not melt fuch things being very hard
thou wilt give a melting fire the ftrongefl of all to be melted, without the help of bellows (which
put a long pipe to the lower hole appointed for draw- I had fold) I began to confider the matter with my
ing wind, and having a regilter \ for by how much felf more feriouily, andfo I found out this furnace,
the fire attrads the air mora remotely and another and being invented, I prefently built and proved
flame is forced to beat upon the metals, fo much it, which in tryings I found fo good, that I did a-
the greater power of the heat is there in the fuii- gain take hope of ray labours, and would no more
on of them. For which bulinefs fake thou hafl need defpair-
to have as that inferiour pipe, fo alfo that fuperi- Seeing therefore an eafie, and compendious way
our pipe in the top of the furnace. And if thou of melting metals, I began to work, and to begin
hall a fit chamber, in which another may go up a new fearch, and every day I found more and
from below by the proper chimney, thou mayell more in nature, 'viz.. the greatell and mofl pleafant
build another furnace in the fupcriour chimney fecrets of nature wherefore I did without ceafing

and perforate the wall with the applying of a regi- feek, until God had opened mine eyes to fee that
ftcr, that the fire may be forced to attraft the air which I fought a long time for in vajn. Where zl-
from below through the collateral chimney, where fo I obferved, that although 1 had before had more
you need not that long pipe but only may open a knowledge of nature, yec without this furnace I
door, or window of the lower chamber , that the could fcarce have done any thing that had been lin-
air may come into the chimney , and the fire at- gular. And fo God willing, by the help of this
traft the wind out of the collateral chimney, which furnace, I found out more and more dayly, for
vehemently, yea and ftronger, than if which bleffing 1 give to the immortal God immor-
it doth very
. tal
Part Philo/opbical Furnaces,
tal thanks, refolving to communicate this new in- them abundance of gold, and filver. But how me-
vention candidly, and faithfully for the fake of tals are to be purged, and feparated he doth not
my neighbour. Judge therefore Chymifl: whe- ! teach, but only commends lead to be the Author ,

ther this, or that which is made by the help of which made the Alchymift believe that it was com-
bdlows and common vents, be the beft ? For how long mon lead, not knowingthatthe water thereof (lead)
doth he that will melt a hard metal in a wind fur- did not only purge other metals, but alfo lead it
race give fire to it before it will flow, and with felf; fuppofing alfo that the trial of tin, copper,
what lofs of time, and coals ? He that doth melt and iron, made in a cuple with lead to be that true
by the help of bellows hath need of a companion genuine bath thereof; not obfcrving that lead hath
to blow, with great danger of breaking the cruci- no afiiiiicy with iron, and tin in a ftrongerfire, but
ble with the winde, and of making it fall when the to rejed what is black, and unclean, without any
coals are abated, or of impurities falling into the perfeaion. Now this lead can do, if i/z.- it be
crucible in cafe the cover thereof fliould fall off, mixed with a mineral that hath gold or filver in it,
although there can be no detriment by impurities and be melted in the fire being incorporated with it,
falling in. if the matter be metallick, but not fo if it may together with their impurities enter into the

it be a fait or mineral, fwichout which that can- Cuple, the good gold and filver being left in the
not be perfeded in the firej not induring the im- Cuple, which is the proof of minerals that are dig-
purities of the coals, but boyling over by reafon ged, and ufcd ; and it is done upon this account,
of them. Now our furnace is free from this dan= "^iz.. gold and lilvcr may be naturally purged cf
ger, becaufe the wind comes from beneath and cru- their iuperfluous fulphur, fo as never to be any more
cibles come always into fight, not being fo over- radically united, and mixed with thofe that be im-
whelmed with coals as in the common way, &c. perfed, as being polluted with abundance of crude>
For by this means the matter to be melted is flow- impure fulphur, although they may be melted to-
ed, although the crucibles be not covered over with gether in the fire yet that mixture being reta