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General Relativity

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Robert B. Scott,1,2

1

Institute for Geophysics, Jackson School of Geosciences, The University of Texas at Austin,

Austin, Texas, USA

2

Department of Physics, University of Brest,

Brest, France

2

Chapter 1

curvature

1.1 Curves

Exercises I-1

p

ds = (x0 dt)2 + (y 0 dt)2 + (z 0 dt)2

= a2 + b2 dt (1.1)

Thus the length of the helix is 2 a2 + b2 .

Velocity, 0 (t) = (1, t).

Acceleration, 00 (t) = (0, 1).

3. (a) Note the typo in this question. It should read . . . and verify that

3

4

||0 (0)|| = V0 .

0 (t) = (V0 cos , V0 sin 32t),

0 (0) = (V0 cos , V0 sin ),

||0 (0)|| = V0 . (1.2)

3. (b)

The acceleration is:

00 (t) = (0, 32). (1.3)

The direction is in the negative ydirection and the magnitude is 32 perhaps

in [ft s2 ].

(t) = (a cosh t, a sinh t).

with a > 0.

Double check claim:

x2 y 2 = (a cosh t)2 + (a sinh t)2

2 exp (2 t) + exp (2 t) + 2 exp (2 t) + exp (2 t) 2

=a

4 4

2

=a . (1.4)

Velocity:

0 (t) = (a sinh t, a cosh t).

Acceleration:

00 (t) = (a cosh t, a sinh t) = (t).

The force will be proportional to the acceleration by Newtons second

law. The acceleration vector is identical to the position vector, and hence

proportional to the distance from the origin.

ized in terms of arc length. Using the chain rule it was derived that

1

k(t) = .

(1 + t2 )3/2

Robs notes on Faber 5

The curvature k(t) is the inverse of the radius of the osculating circle, c.f.

p. 8. So the radius of the circle is

1

= (1)3/2 = 1.

k(0)

By symmetry the centre of the circle lies on the yaxis. The curve bends

upward (see Problem 2), so the centre is a y = 1. So the equation is

x2 + (y 1)2 = 1.

We must find the vector normal to the curve. The unit normal is N(s),

which is

1

N(s) = T0 (s)/k(s) = (t, 1).

1 + t2

We find the centre of the circle by moving a distance 1/k in the direction N

from (2), see formula on p. 8 which, when expressed in terms of t is:

1

c(t) = (t) + N(t)

k(t)

1

= (t, t2 /2) + (1 + t2 )3/2 (t, 1)

1 + t2

= (t3 , 1 + 3t2 /2). (1.5)

(x + 8)2 + (y 6)2 = 53 .

0

x (t) y 00 (t) x00 (t) y 0 (t)

k(t) =

(x0 (t)2 + y 0 (t)2 )3/2

Stuck! I confirmed that this expression is correct using Wikepedia, but I

cant derive it.

6. (b) Show that the graph y = f (x) has the given curvature.

6

Here

(x) = (x, f (x)).

The unit tangent vector is found from the chain rule:

d(s)

T=

ds

d(x)/dx

=

ds/dx

(1.6)

To find the relation between arc length and x we note that (Boas, 1983,

Chapter 9):

p

ds = (dx)2 + (f 0 dx)2 ,

p

= 1 + f 02 dx.

p

ds/dx = 1 + f 02 . (1.7)

So the unit tangent vector is given by:

d(x)/dx

T(x) = ,

ds/dx

(1, f 0 )

=p . (1.8)

1 + f 02

And we use the chain rule again to find the curvature:

dT(s)

k=
ds
,

dT(x)/dx

=
ds/dx
.

(1.9)

This gets a bit tedious, but is straightforward. Write T = (T x , T y ). The

x component is

dT x (1 + f 02 )1/2

= ,

dx dx

f 0 f 00

= . (1.10)

(1 + f 02 )3/2

Robs notes on Faber 7

dT y f 0 (1 + f 02 )1/2

= ,

dx dx

f 00

= . (1.11)

(1 + f 02 )3/2

So

x

dT dT y

dT(s) 1

= ,

ds ds/dx dx dx

f 0 f 00 f 00

1

=p , ,

1 + f 02 (1 + f 02 )3/2 (1 + f 02 )3/2

f 0 f 00 f 00

= , . (1.12)

(1 + f 02 )2 (1 + f 02 )2

And finally the curvature is the magnitude of this vector, which simplifies

to

dT(x)/dx

k=

,

ds/dx

f 00

=

02 3/2

. (1.13)

(1 + f )

y = a2 x 2 .

From the part (b) above,

f 00

k=

02 3/2

. (1.14)

(1 + f )

Here f (x) = y = a2 x2 so

x

f0 = , (1.15)

a2 x 2

and

a2

f 000 = , (1.16)

(a2 x2 )3/2

8

f 00

k=

02 3/2

,

(1 + f )

2

a 1

= 2 ,

2

(a x2 )3/2 ( a2ax 2)

3/2

1

= , (1.17)

a

as it should since a was the radius of the semicircle.

7. Let

(t) = (a cos t, b sin t),

for 0 t 2, which defines an ellipse

x2 y 2

+ 2 = 1.

a2 b

Compute the curvature k(t) at t = 0 and t = /2 using the formula from

Exercise 6(a). Well need:

x(t) = a cos t,

x0 = a sin t,

x00 = a cos t.

and

y(t) = b sin t,

y 0 = b cos t,

y 00 = b sin t.

So

a

k(0) = , (1.18)

b2

b

k(/2) = 2 . (1.19)

a

Well need these later for solving Exercise I-2 problem 3.

Robs notes on Faber 9

The sign of the curvature is determined by the directions of the unit normal

to the curve U and the principal normal vector of the curve v known as

the normal section. But what is the principal normal vector.

Exercises I-2

1.3 Surfaces in E 3

Definition of surface involved a vector-valued function of two variables, X :

D E 3 , defined on an open subset D of <2 . Note that D is an open subset

of <2 . (D will be referred to in later sections without definition.)

Definition of regular on p. 22. In my words, amounts to being able to move

in 2 independent directions on the surface by changing the two parameters

(u, v). In Fabers words, p. 24, the regularity ensures that for each point of

D <2 there is an open neighbourhood about this point X is one-to-one

and there is a continuous inverse function X() . So each point on

X() M has a unique set of coordinates (u, v).

Defines a tangent vector and tangent plane, denoted Tp M , on p. 26.

Exercises I-3

The tangent vectors are

X

X1 = = (f 0 (u) cos v, f 0 (u) sin v, g 0 (u))

u

X

X2 = = (f (u) sin v, f (u) cos v, 0) (1.20)

v

10

X1 X2 = (g 0 f cos v, g 0 f sin v, f 0 f )

(1.21)

is nonzero then have nonzero orthogonal components,

|X1 X2 |2 = (g 02 + f 02 )f 2 = 02 f 2

where

0 (u) = (f 0 , 0, g 0 )

Hold v = v0 fixed.

X(u, v0 ) = (f (u) cos v0 , f (u) sin v0 , g(u))

In the x z plane we see the original curve,

(u) = (f (u), 0, g(u))

but squished in the xdirection by cos v0 . In the y z plane its the same

curve but squished by sin v0 . In short, its like the curve (u) has been

rotated by v0 from the x z plane. The coordinates in the x z plane are

those of the shadow one would see if a light were shown through the curve

toward the x z plane. To obtain the y coordinates one shines the light

through the curve toward the y z plane.

X(u0 , v) = (f (u0 ) cos v, f (u0 ) sin v, g(u0 ))

This is a circle at height x = g(u0 ) with radius f (u0 ).

The tangent vectors

X

X1 = = (f 0 (u) cos v, f 0 (u) sin v, g 0 (u))

u

X

X2 = = (f (u) sin v, f (u) cos v, 0) (1.22)

v

Robs notes on Faber 11

are orthogonal because

X1 X 2 = 0

2 (a). Sketch profile curve in x z plane and surface in 3D, show X, and

give equation for the surface in the form g(x, y, z) = 0.

In the x z plane the curve is a straight line with slope one. The curves

form a cone with apex at the origin.

The tangent vectors are

X

X1 = = (cos v, sin v, a)

u

X

X2 = = (u sin v, u cos v, 0) (1.23)

v

Their cross-product

(1.24)

has magnitude

|X1 X2 |2 = u2 (1 + a2 )

so for u 6= 0, X is regular.

We can express the surface in the form g(x, y, z) = 0 by

a2 (x2 + y 2 ) z 2 = 0

Helicoid

X = (u cos v, u sin v, bv)

12

By inspection,

(v) = (cos v, sin v, 0)

so then

u(v) = (u cos v, u sin v, 0)

and we require

(v) = (0, 0, bv)

And thus we have expressed the helicoid surface in the form of a ruled surface:

X = (v) + u(v)

surface.

Hyperbolic parabola:

X(u, v) = (u v, u + v, 2uv)

By inspection,

(u) = (1, +1, 2u)

so then

v(u) = (v, +v, 2uv)

and we require

(u) = (u, u, 0)

And thus we have expressed the helicoid surface in the form of a ruled surface:

X = (u) + v(u)

repeat the above argument to obtain:

X = (v) + u(v)

Robs notes on Faber 13

X1 = (1, 1, 2v)

X2 = (1, 1, 2u) (1.25)

We should also confirm that these equations are indeed the hyperbolic parabola

of Example 5, which was expressed as

1

z = (y 2 x2 )

2

Substituting from X we find z = 2uv and

1 2 1

(y x2 ) = [(u + v)2 (u v)2 ] = 2uv = z,

2 2

confirming it is the hyperbolic parabola.

constant coefficients, then the ruled surface X(u, v) = (u) + v is called

a cylinder. (The special case of a right circular cylinder results when is a

circle and is perpendicular to the plane of .)

and v parameter curves.

X 1 X2 = 0

The surface will be regular when the tangent vectors are not parallel, which

means that X1 X2 6= 0.

The uparameter curves are given by (u), a general smooth function of

u producing a curve in E 3 .

The vparameter curves are given by (u0 )+v. These are straight lines

in the direction of the vector that pass through (u0 ).

14

apex of the parabolae falls on the y z plane along the line z = 2y. The

vparameter curves are straight lines passing through the parabolae and are

parallel to z = 2y in the y z plane. The surface looks a bit like the hull

of a ship but it extends forever downward and upward.

7. Let (u) = (cos(u), sin(u), 0). Through each point of (u), pass a unit

line segment with midpoint (u) and direction vector

u u

(u) = sin (u) + cos (0, 0, 1)

2 2

The resulting surface,

1 1

X(u, v) = (u) + v(u), v

2 2

is called a Mobis strip!

u

x(u, v) = cos u + v sin cos u

2

u

y(u, v) = sin u + v sin sin u

2

u

z(u, v) = v cos (1.26)

2

p. 34. Middle of page, unfortunate notation: Any open subset of R2 may

serve as the domain of X. Here, R is not the larger radius of the torus, it

means R from Rn , the product space of ordered ntuplets of real numbers.

In fact, R2 was used on p. 22.

p. 35 Middle of page, typo: In the new rotation should be notation

not rotation.

Robs notes on Faber 15

Exercises I-4

1. Derive the formula ds2 + dr2 + r2 d2 for the differential of arc length

in polar coordinates by substituting

x = r cos y = r sin

into the formula ds2 = dx2 + dy 2 for the differential of arc length in Cartesian

coordinates.

x(r, ) x(r, )

dx = dr + d = cos dr r sin d

r

y(r, ) y(r, )

dy = dr + d = sin dr + r cos d (1.27)

r

Squaring and adding we find the cross terms cancel, leaving the desired result

ds2 + dr2 + r2 d2 .

2(a). L = 2(exp() exp())

2(b). L = 8a

3(a). Find (gij ), (g ij ), det (gij ), U, where U is the unit normal, for the

sphere of Example 7, see also Fig. I-16.

The tangent vectors are:

X2 = (R cos u sin v, R sin u sin v, R cos v) (1.28)

16

g11 = X1 X1 = R2 cos2 v

g12 = X 1 X2 = 0

g21 = g12 = 0

g22 = X 2 X2 = R 2 (1.29)

metric tensor are simply the inverse of the diagonal coefficients of the metric

tensor (and zero in the off diagonal components):

g ij = 1/gij

The determinant is

det(gij ) = R4 cos2 v

The unit normal vector U is

X1 X 2

U=

||X1 X2 ||

R2 (cos u cos2 v, sin u cos2 v, cos v sin v)

=

||R2 (cos u cos2 v, sin u cos2 v, cos v sin v)||

= (cos u cos v, sin u cos v, sin v) (1.30)

5. Compute the metric form (or first fundamental form) and the unit

normal vector U for the general surface of revolution (Exercise 1, Section 3).

X

X1 = = (f 0 (u) cos v, f 0 (u) sin v, g 0 (u))

u

X

X2 = = (f (u) sin v, f (u) cos v, 0) (1.31)

v

Robs notes on Faber 17

The metric form (or first fundamental form) (see Eqs. 6 & 4 and p. 35) can

be written:

ds2 = g11 du2 + 2g12 du dv + g22 dv 2

with

g11 = X1 X1 = f 02 + g 02

g12 = X1 X2 = 0

g22 = X2 X2 = f 2 (1.32)

X 1 X2 X1 X2

U= =p

||X1 X2 || det(gij )

(g f cos v, g f sin v, f 0 f )

0 0

= p

f f 02 + g 02

(g 0 cos v, g 0 sin v, f 0 )

= p (1.33)

f 02 + g 02

6(a). Show that the area A of the general surface of revolution (Exer-

cise 1, Section 3) between a u b and 0 v 2 is

Z b p

A = 2 f (u) f 0 (u)2 + g 0 (u)2 du

a

dA = g du dv

2 Z b

Z

A= g du dv

0 a

Z 2 Z b p

= f f 02 + g 02 du dv

0 a

Z b p

= 2 f f 02 + g 02 du (1.34)

a

18

Eq. (13) was claimed to be valid for X(u, v) : E 3 with a closed subsets

of <2 , (c.f. top of p. 38), with X(u, v) being regular and one-to-one only on

the interior of .

6(b). Show that the area A of the surface obtained by revolving the

graph y = f (x), a x b about the xaxis is

Z b p

A = 2 f (x) 1 + f 0 (x)2 dx

a

the xaxis with radius f (x) and centred at x. Its area will be 2f (x)dl, where

p

thus dl = 1 + f 02 dx and

Z b Z b p

A = 2 f (x)dl = 2 f (x) 1 + f 0 (x)2 dx

a a

A strange and subtle thing happens after Faber introduced The Second Fun-

damental Form

0 0

Lij ui uj

on p. 44. He first tells us how to computer the coefficients, Lij in Eq. (20),

0 0

but then says nothing about ui uj . In principles, these should be familiar

0 dui

ui

ds

But their computation deserves at least a sentence or two. Then he works

through two examples, Example 13 and 14 on pp. 4446 and doesnt say

0 0

anything about ui uj . Heres my two cents on their computation. Lets go

back to the first fundamental form:

Robs notes on Faber 19

dui 1

=

ds gii

In the next section (I-6 on Gauss curvature) Faber will speak of the second

fundamental form as being just Lij . It will be explained in that section that

one can compute the Gauss curvature K using just the gij and Lij , see

Theorem I-5.

Exercises I-5

Most of these are straightforward computations. Exceptions are 1, 6, and

8. The first is quite easy. Here are my solutions for 6 and 8.

If one jumps in and starts computing the curvature of the surface etc.

without thinking through whats going on, one can quickly get lost in com-

plicated computations. (I know from personal experience!) On the other

hand if one understands Eqs. (16, 17, 18), then the answer if very obvious.

00 (s)

is the vector proportional to the curvature of the curve at point (s). It

00

can be projected onto the tangent plane of the surface giving tan and the

00

remainder projects onto the normal to the surface U giving nor , Eq. (14).

The curvature of the surface in the direction of the curve T(s) = 0 (s) is the

magnitude

00 0 0

||nor || = Lij ui uj

So Meusniers Theorem is essentially contained in Eq. (22)

0 0

kn (v) = Lij ui uj = 00 U = ||00 || cos

where v = 0 (s) is the direction of the curve at point s and is the angle

between 00 (s) and U, noting of course that U is a unit vector.

20

x y z

1 1

U = X1 X2 = det x1 y1 z1

g g

x2 y2 z2

where we have used Eq. (10) on p. 35 relating the determinant of the matrix

g to the magnitude squared of X1 X2 . Here x is the unit vector in the

xdirection, and similarly for the other 2 directions in Euclidean space. Now

since Lij = Xij U (see Eq. (20) p. 44), its the xcomponent of Xij that

multiplies the x component of U. So we can simply replace the unit vectors

above with the corresponding components of Xij , giving the desired relation

xij yij yij

1

Lij = det x1 y1 z1

g

x2 y2 z2

Chapter 6

Extended Indices

A smooth curve, see p. 1.

d(t)

0 (t)

dt

The derivative vector or velocity of the smooth curve parameterized

by t, see p. 2.

00 d2 (t)

(t)

dt2

The acceleration vector of the smooth curve parameterized by t, see

p. 4.

D

Open subset of R2 , see p. 22.

E3

Three dimensional Euclidean space, see p. 1.

21

22

k(s) = ||T0 (s)||

Curvature of a smooth curve at point (s).

T0 (s)

N(s) =

||T0 (s)||

Principal Normal vector, see p. 6.

s

Arc length of a smooth curve, see pp. 2, 3. Use as a parameter of the

curve, see p. 5.

t

Often used as a real parameter for the curve (t), not necessarily time

but clearly meant to imply that in some contexts.

T(s) = 0 (s)

Unit tangent vector, see p. 5.

T0 (s) = 00 (s)

Curvature vector, see p. 5.

Tp M

Tangent plane at point P of surface M. See pp. 26, 47.

U

Unit normal vector, p. 33,

Robs notes on Faber 23

Catenoid: p. 48, see also Exercise 2(f) of section I-3 on p. 28, and

Exercise 9(e) of Section I-6.

24

mas

1. Definition I-1: Curvature (of a curve in E3 ), pp. 5-6.

a vector), p. 46.

(of the corresponding curves), and Gauss curvature (of corresponding

surface) p. 49.

K(P) = L/g. p.50

U1 U2 = K(X1 X2 )

p. 58.

surface M, where s is arc length. If is the shortest possible curve on

M connecting its two end points, then is a geodesic.

10. Theorem I-10: p. 68. Given a point P of M and a unit tangent vector

v at P, there exists a unique geodesic (s) such that (0) = P and

0 (0) = v.

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