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Electrostatic Precipitator

Training Seminar
Concept for Precipitation



ESP Process
Precipitation Concept Industrial
1. ESP Fundamental
1. ESP Fundamental

Baghouse filter Cyclone / Scrubber ESP

Mechanic force Mechanic force Electrical force
P = 130 to 200 mm.H2O P = 25 to 250 mm.H2O P = 10 to 20 mm.H2O
Efficiency = >99% Efficiency = 50-70% Efficiency = 95-99 %

Bag filter afraid moisture

Cloth bag life 18 to 36 months, filter material above 200C is expensive
Periodically cleaned by shaking/back flushing with air (5 to 10 hrs at 1000 CFM)
High temperature and periodic cinder from boiler can cause fire problem
2. ESP Operating Range
Operating condition ESP design
Parameter Design Unit Parameter Design Unit
Gas velocity 0.5 - 1.5 m/s SCA 40-150 m2/m3/s
Migration velocity 2-15 cm/s Current density 0.1-1.0 mA/m2
Pressure drop 10 - 20 mbar Aspect ratio 1-2 m/m
Gas treatment time 10 - 30 Seconds Others
C Rapping system Tumbling or MIGI
Temperature 50-350
Gas distribution screen Inlet / Outlet
Dust loading
Parameter Design Unit
Inlet dust 0.5-20 g/m3
Particle size > 0.1 m
Outlet dust < 30-100 mg/m3
2. ESP Operating Range
Power consumption by major electrical supply
Corona power
Estimated power consumption
acfm kW Hourly operating cost
Collection efficiency, %

(2000 IDR/kW-h)
530 W/1000 acfm
20,000 11 22.000 IDR
50,000 21 42.000 IDR
120,000 62 124.000 IDR

Collection To secure high collecting efficiency

Large discharge current
Low gas flow
Discharged current depressed by
Corona power ratio, W/1000 acfm
Space charge effect
Poor alignment
Corona power: 470-530 W/100 acfm
2. ESP Operating Range
Tumbling hammer
MIGI (Magnetic Impulse Gravity Impact)
- Rotate continuously or time control

Time to rapping: t
Flow rate: Q 1 hr
Dust concentration: W
Collecting are: A 80 mg
Dust thickness: h
Dust density:

t (sec) = Deposited dust [kg] / Dust rate [kg/s]

(Ah ) / (QW)
Spike of emissions during rapping at outlet field
2. ESP Operating Range
Migration velocity for various application Electrostatic field
Application (cm/s)

Determined sizing of the ESP

Predicted collecting efficiency
Varied with kV, temperature, moisture,
and etc.

@ Collection efficiency at 90 - 95%

2. ESP Operating range
Even flow distribution secured the design collecting efficiency

All CP are utilized

Reduce effect of space charge
Reduce dust build up problem
Reduce re-entrainment problem
Extend the life of precipitator
Reduce actual flow rate

Cause of poor gas flow

3. Effect of Dust Characteristic
Migration velocity is a parameter to determined collecting efficiency

Resistivity : 109 1011 .cm is good for the precipitator

Particle size : large particle has more surface area and easy to charge
Moisture : water content in both particle and gas media improve conductivity of dust
Chemical component : affect resistivity of particle

Gas conditioning is required in some application

Water spray: reduce temperature and improve conductivity and agglomeration

NH3: improve conductivity and agglomeration
SO3: improve conductivity

Remark: Gas cooled below 150C cannot be used for further heat recovery
3. Effect of Dust Characteristic
Fly ash resistivity

Qi, L., and Yuan,. Y., 2011

When dust analysis is given, resistivity trend can be understood

Different kind of fuel / raw material affects chemical composition
Dust collected from different location/field shows varied in chemical composition
4. ESP Process for Industrial
ESP Applications on different Industry

Industrial &
Cement plants
utility boilers

Petroleum Municipal waste Kraft pulp and

refineries incinerators paper mills

Lead, zinc,
Steel mills
copper smelters

4. ESP Process for Industrial Plants

Capacity: 1500 6000 tons/day

Cooler ESP Coal mill

Raw mill

Clinker Pre de-dust


plant Cement
mill ESP, 14 Feb2014

4. ESP Process for Industrial Plants

Application Characteristic Remarkable SCA

Raw mill Dust is raw material before cooking Main ESP for clinker plant, during raw 90-110
mill off, temperature go high and not
good for ESP

Coal mill Positive pressure, low grade coal Equipped with prevent explosion facility 60-80
causes high moisture content (1000 mmWG)

Cooler 300-400 C, dust loading up to 50 Excessive temperature can damage 70-80

mg/m3, and high resistivity internal part of ESP

Pre-dedust High temperature and dust loading 60-80

Cement mill Low temperature @ 50-80 C, High chloride content makes the dust 80-100

SCA: Specific collecting area = Collecting area / Gas flow


4. ESP Process for Industrial Plants

Sand container on ESP roof Explosive door on ESP roof


4. ESP Process for Industrial Plants

Electrical resistivity changed by particle type and temperature

Raw mill

Dry process cement dust

(Parker k.r., 2007)

[Ahn Y.C., 2006]

4. ESP Process for Industrial Plant

Application Characteristic Remarkable SCA

Coal fired Industrial to utility scale 4 to 6 fields in series to captured fine 100-120
Oil fired High LOI ash particles (overdesign)
Pneumatic ash transmitter

Biomass Rice husk, bagasse, agricultural High LOI and moisture in fuel depress 40-70
residue ESP efficiency (economic)

600 MW 8.5 MW
4. ESP Process for Industrial Plant

Coal fired boiler Water content

Unburnt carbon and low sulfur ash are difficult
to be captured in the precipitator

Unburned carbon (Ex. from low NOx burner)

- Low electrical resistivity
- high particles re-entrainment
Low sulfur ash
- high electrical resistivity
- difficult to charge

Fly ash electrical resistivity

(Parker k.r., 2007)
4. ESP Process for Industrial Plant

Electrical resistivity changed by Sulfur content and Temperature

# % Coal sulfur # Temperature # SO3 conditioning

Coal sulfur (%) Temperature (F) Injected SO3, ppm by volume

Pulp &

4. ESP Process for Industrial Paper

Application Characteristic Remarkable SCA

Power T = 150 200 C Steam for turbine and cooking pulp 50-70
Dust loading ~ 5-8 g/m3
Recovery boiler High dust high spark rate More than two chamber of ESP to 100-180
and difficult to rapping, compromised rapping problem
Sticky dust Flat hopper, Cement casing
Back corona
Lime kiln Sticky dust Flat hopper, or skew conveyor 50-70
Dust loading ~ 50 g/m3 Pulse mode energize
T = 150 200 C


ESP for RB boiler

Pulp &

4. ESP Process for Industrial Paper


Sodium chloride, a significant component of recovery boiler ash, tends to increase resistivity
Charred black liquor particles slightly decrease the resistivity
Increased moisture and SO2 content can reduce resistivity