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# 1. A transverse wave travels from left to right.

## The diagram below shows how, at a particular

instant of time, the displacement of particles in the medium varies with position. Which arrow
represents the direction of the velocity of the particle marked P?

(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Physics 1
2. The graph shows how the displacement varies with time for an object undergoing simple
harmonic motion.

Which graph shows how the objects acceleration a varies with time t?

(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Physics 2
3. Light travels from air into glass as shown below.

## What is the refractive index of glass?

sin P
A. sin S

sin Q
B. sin R

sin P
C. sin R

sin Q
D. sin S
(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Physics 3
4. Which of the following electromagnetic waves has a frequency greater than that of visible
light?

A. Ultraviolet

C. Microwaves

D. Infrared
(Total 1 mark)

## A longitudinal wave travels through a medium from left to right.

Graph 1 shows the variation with time t of the displacement x of a particle P in the medium.

Graph 1

## (a) For particle P,

(i) state how graph 1 shows that its oscillations are not damped.

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(1)

IB Questionbank Physics 4
(ii) calculate the magnitude of its maximum acceleration.

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(2)

## (iii) calculate its speed at t = 0.12 s.

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(2)

## (iv) state its direction of motion at t = 0.12 s.

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(1)

IB Questionbank Physics 5
(b) Graph 2 shows the variation with position d of the displacement x of particles in the
medium at a particular instant of time.

Graph 2

## (i) the frequency.

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(2)

## (ii) the speed.

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(2)

IB Questionbank Physics 6
Graph 2 reproduced to assist with answering (c)(i).

(c) The diagram shows the equilibrium positions of six particles in the medium.

(i) On the diagram above, draw crosses to indicate the positions of these six particles
at the instant of time when the displacement is given by graph 2.
(3)

IB Questionbank Physics 7
(ii) On the diagram above, label with the letter C a particle that is at the centre of a
compression.
(1)
(Total 14 marks)

## The refractive index of the glass is

sin 30
A. sin 80

sin 80
B. sin 30

sin 60
C. sin 10

sin 10
D. sin 60
(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Physics 8
7. This question is about simple harmonic oscillations.

## A longitudinal wave travels through a medium from left to right.

Graph 1 shows the variation with time t of the displacement x of a particle P in the medium.

Graph 1

## (a) For particle P,

(i) state how graph 1 shows that its oscillations are not damped.

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(1)

## (ii) calculate the magnitude of its maximum acceleration.

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(2)

IB Questionbank Physics 9
(iii) calculate its speed at t = 0.12 s.

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(2)

## (iv) state its direction of motion at t = 0.12 s.

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(1)

(b) Graph 2 shows the variation with position d of the displacement x of particles in the
medium at a particular instant of time.

Graph 2

## (i) the frequency.

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(2)

IB Questionbank Physics 10
(ii) the speed.

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(2)

## Graph 2 reproduced to assist with answering (c)(i).

(c) The diagram shows the equilibrium positions of six particles in the medium.

(i) On the diagram above, draw crosses to indicate the positions of these six particles
at the instant of time when the displacement is given by graph 2.
(3)

IB Questionbank Physics 11
(ii) On the diagram above, label with the letter C a particle that is at the centre of a
compression.
(1)
(Total 14 marks)

## 8. A particle oscillates with simple harmonic motion with period T.

At time t = 0, the particle has its maximum displacement. Which graph shows the variation with
time t of the kinetic energy Ek of the particle?

(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Physics 12
9. An object is undergoing simple harmonic motion with light damping. The natural frequency of
oscillation of the object is f0. A periodic force of frequency f is applied to the object. Which of
the following graphs best shows how the amplitude a of oscillation of the object varies with f?

(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Physics 13
10. The graph shows measurements of the height h of sea level at different times t in the Bay of
Fundy.

Which of the following gives the approximate amplitude and period of the tides?

Amplitude Period
A. 6.5 m 6 hours
B. 13 m 12 hours
C. 6.5 m 12 hours
D. 13 m 6 hours
(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Physics 14

11. Two waves meet at a point. The waves have a path difference of 4 . The phase difference
between the waves is

(Total 1 mark)

12. This question is about simple harmonic motion (SHM) and a wave in a string.

## (a) By reference to simple harmonic motion, state what is meant by amplitude.

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(1)

## (b) A liquid is contained in a U-tube.

Diagram 1 Diagram 2

The pressure on the liquid in one side of the tube is increased so that the liquid is
displaced as shown in diagram 2. When the pressure is suddenly released the liquid
oscillates.
The damping of the oscillations is small.

IB Questionbank Physics 15
(i) Describe what is meant by damping.

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(2)

(ii) The displacement of the liquid surface from its equilibrium position is x. The
acceleration a of the liquid in the tube is given by the expression

2g
x
a= l

where g is the acceleration of free fall and l is the total length of the liquid column.
The total length of the liquid column in the tube is 0.32 m. Determine the period of
oscillation.

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(3)

IB Questionbank Physics 16
(c) A wave is travelling along a string. The string can be modelled as a single line of particles
and each particle executes simple harmonic motion. The period of oscillation of the
particles is 0.80 s.

The graph shows the displacement y of part of the string at time t = 0. The distance along
the string is d.

(i) On the graph, draw an arrow to show the direction of motion of particle P at the
point marked on the string.
(1)

## (ii) Determine the magnitude of the velocity of particle P.

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(4)

IB Questionbank Physics 17
1
(iii) Show that the speed of the wave is 5.0 m s .

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(3)

(iv) On the graph above, label with the letter X the position of particle P at t = 0.40 s.
(1)
(Total 15 marks)

13. A string vibrates with fundamental frequency f. The wavelength of the sound produced in air is
. Which of the following correctly gives the frequency of vibration of the fourth harmonic of
the string and the wavelength of the sound in air?

Frequency Wavelength
f
A.
2 4

B. 4f 4

f
C. 4
2

D. 4f
4
(Total 1 mark)

14. This question is about simple harmonic motion (SHM), wave motion and polarization.

## (a) By reference to simple harmonic motion, state what is meant by amplitude.

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(1)

IB Questionbank Physics 18
(b) A liquid is contained in a U-tube.

Diagram 1 Diagram 2

The pressure on the liquid in one side of the tube is increased so that the liquid is
displaced as shown in diagram 2. When the pressure is suddenly released the liquid
oscillates.
The damping of the oscillations is small.

## (i) Describe what is meant by damping.

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(2)

(ii) The displacement of the liquid surface from its equilibrium position is x. The
acceleration a of the liquid in the tube is given by the expression

2g
x
a= l

where g is the acceleration of free fall and l is the total length of the liquid column.
Explain, with reference to the motion of the liquid, the significance of the minus
sign.

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(2)

IB Questionbank Physics 19
(iii) The total length of the liquid column in the tube is 0.32 m. Determine the period of
oscillation.

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(3)

(c) A wave is travelling along a string. The string can be modelled as a single line of particles
and each particle executes simple harmonic motion. The period of oscillation of the
particles is 0.80 s.

The graph shows the displacement y of part of the string at time t = 0. The distance along
the string is d.

(i) On the graph, draw an arrow to show the direction of motion of particle P at the
point marked on the string.
(1)

IB Questionbank Physics 20
(ii) Determine the magnitude of the velocity of particle P.

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(4)

1
(iii) Show that the speed of the wave is 5.0 m s .

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(3)

(iv) On the graph above, label with the letter X the position of particle P at t = 0.40 s.
(1)

IB Questionbank Physics 21
(d) The string in (c) is fixed at both ends and is made to vibrate in a vertical plane in its first
harmonic.

(i) Describe how the standing wave in the string gives rise to the first harmonic.

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(3)

(ii) Outline how a travelling wave in a string can be used to describe the nature of
polarized light.

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(3)

IB Questionbank Physics 22
(e) James is wearing polarized sunglasses and views the sunlight reflected from the smooth
surface of a lake.

The angle is the angle between the surface of the lake and Jamess line of sight.
Calculate the value of at which the reflected sunlight from the surface is minimized.
The refractive index of the water is 1.3.

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(2)
(Total 25 marks)

IB Questionbank Physics 23
15. The graph shows how the velocity v of an object undergoing simple harmonic motion varies
with time t for one complete period of oscillation.

Which of the following sketch graphs best shows how the total energy E of the object varies
with t?

(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Physics 24
16. A force that varies sinusoidally is applied to a system that is lightly damped. Which of the
following must be true of the force for resonance to occur?

## A. It must always be in anti-phase with the oscillations of the system.

B. Its direction must always be in the direction of motion of the oscillations of the system.

## D. Its amplitude must be equal to the amplitude of oscillation of the system.

(Total 1 mark)

17. Which of the following is a value of wavelength that is found in the visible region of the
electromagnetic spectrum?

5
A. 4 10 m

7
B. 4 10 m

9
C. 4 10 m

11
D. 4 10 m
(Total 1 mark)

18. Two waves meet at a point in space. Which of the following properties always add together?

A. Displacement

B. Amplitude

C. Speed

D. Frequency
(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Physics 25
19. This question is about water wave motion.

A small sphere, mounted at the end of a vertical rod, dips below the surface of shallow water in
a tray. The sphere is driven vertically up and down by a motor attached to the rod.
The oscillations of the sphere produce travelling waves on the surface of the water.

(a) The diagram shows how the displacement of the water surface at a particular instant in
time varies with distance from the sphere. The period of oscillation of the sphere is
0.027 s.

## (i) the amplitude.

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(1)

IB Questionbank Physics 26
(ii) the wavelength.

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(1)

## (iii) the frequency.

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(1)

## (iv) the speed.

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(1)

(b) The wave moves from region A into a region B of shallower water. The waves move more
slowly in region B. The diagram (not to scale) shows some of the wavefronts in region A.

IB Questionbank Physics 27
(i) With reference to a wave, distinguish between a ray and a wavefront.

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(2)

(ii) The angle between the wavefronts and the interface in region A is 60. The
refractive index AnB is 1.4.

Determine the angle between the wavefronts and the interface in region B.

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(2)

(iii) On the diagram above, construct three lines to show the position of three
wavefronts in region B.
(2)

IB Questionbank Physics 28
(c) Another sphere is dipped into the water. The spheres oscillate in phase. The diagram
shows some lines in region A along which the disturbance of the water surface is a
minimum.

(i) Outline how the regions of minimum disturbance occur on the surface.

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(3)

IB Questionbank Physics 29
(ii) The frequency of oscillation of the spheres is increased.

State and explain how this will affect the positions of minimum disturbance.

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(2)
(Total 15 marks)

## 20. This question is about water waves.

A small sphere, mounted at the end of a vertical rod, dips below the surface of shallow water in
a tray. The sphere is driven vertically up and down by a motor attached to the rod. The
oscillations of the sphere produce travelling waves on the surface of the water.

## (a) State what is meant by a travelling (progressive) wave.

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(1)

IB Questionbank Physics 30
(b) The diagram shows how the displacement of the water surface at a particular instant in
time varies with distance from the sphere. The period of oscillation of the sphere is
0.027 s.

## (i) the amplitude.

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(1)

## (ii) the wavelength.

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(1)

## (iii) the frequency.

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(1)

IB Questionbank Physics 31
(iv) the speed.

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(1)

(c) The wave moves from region A into a region B of shallower water. The waves move more
slowly in region B. The diagram (not to scale) shows some of the wavefronts in region A.

(i) On the diagram, draw three lines to complete the wavefronts in region B.
(2)

IB Questionbank Physics 32
(ii) Theory suggests that the wave speed c is related to the water depth d by

gd
c=

where g is a constant.

The refractive index for waves travelling from region A to region B is 1.4.

## Determine the following ratio.

water depth in A
water depth in B

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(3)

(d) Another sphere is dipped into the water. The spheres oscillate in phase. The diagram
shows some lines in region A along which the disturbance of the water surface is a
minimum.

IB Questionbank Physics 33
(i) Outline how the regions of minimum disturbance occur on the surface.

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(3)

## (ii) The frequency of oscillation of the spheres is increased.

State and explain how this will affect the positions of minimum disturbance.

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(2)
(Total 15 marks)

IB Questionbank Physics 34
21. The shock absorbers of a car, in good working condition, ensure that the vertical oscillations of
the car are

A. undamped.

B. lightly damped.

C. moderately damped.

D. critically damped.
(Total 1 mark)

22. The graphs show how the acceleration a of four different particles varies with their
displacement x.
Which of the particles is executing simple harmonic motion?

(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Physics 35
23. The diagram below is a snapshot of wave fronts of circular waves emitted by a point source S at
the surface of water. The source vibrates at a frequency f = 10.0 Hz.

## The speed of the wave front is

1
A. 0.15 cm s .
1
B. 1.5 cm s .
1
C. 15 cm s .
1
D. 30 cm s .
(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Physics 36
24. Two coherent point sources S1 and S2 emit spherical waves.

Which of the following best describes the intensity of the waves at P and Q?

P Q
A. maximum minimum
B. minimum maximum
C. maximum maximum
D. minimum minimum
(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Physics 37
25. This question is about oscillations and waves.

(a) A rectangular piece of wood of length l floats in water with its axis vertical as shown in
diagram 1.

The length of wood below the surface is d. The wood is pushed vertically downwards a
distance A such that a length of wood is still above the water surface as shown in diagram
2. The wood is then released and oscillates vertically. At the instant shown in diagram 3,
the wood is moving downwards and the length of wood beneath the surface is d + x.

(i) On diagram 3, draw an arrow to show the direction of the acceleration of the wood.
(1)

2
(ii) The acceleration a of the wood (in m s ) is related to x (in m) by the following
equation.

14
x
a= l

Explain why this equation shows that the wood is executing simple harmonic
motion.

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(2)

IB Questionbank Physics 38
(iii) The period of oscillation of the wood is 1.4 s. Show that the length l of the wood is
0.70 m.

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(3)

(b) The wood in (a), as shown in diagram 2, is released at time t = 0. On the axes below,
sketch a graph to show how the velocity v of the wood varies with time over one period
of oscillation.

(1)

(c) The distance A that the wood is initially pushed down is 0.12 m.

## (i) Calculate the magnitude of the maximum acceleration of the wood.

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(2)

(ii) On your sketch graph in (b) label with the letter P one point where the magnitude
of the acceleration is a maximum.
(1)

IB Questionbank Physics 39
(d) The oscillations of the wood generate waves in the water of wavelength 0.45 m.
The graph shows how the displacement D, of the water surface at a particular distance
from the wood varies with time t.

## (i) speed of the waves.

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(2)

## (ii) ratio of the displacement at t = 1.75 s to the displacement at t = 0.35 s.

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(2)

IB Questionbank Physics 40
(iii) ratio of the energy of the wave at t = 1.75 s to the energy at t = 0.35 s

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(1)
(Total 15 marks)

26. The shock absorbers of a car, in good working condition, ensure that the vertical oscillations of
the car are

A. undamped.

B. lightly damped.

C. moderately damped.

D. critically damped.
(Total 1 mark)

## 27. This question is about oscillations and waves.

(a) A rectangular piece of wood of length l floats in water with its axis vertical as shown in
diagram 1.

The length of wood below the surface is d. The wood is pushed vertically downwards a
distance A such that a length of wood is still above the water surface as shown in diagram
2. The wood is then released and oscillates vertically. At the instant shown in diagram 3,
the wood is moving downwards and the length of wood beneath the surface is d + x.

IB Questionbank Physics 41
(i) On diagram 3, draw an arrow to show the direction of the acceleration of the wood.
(1)

2
(ii) The acceleration a of the wood (in m s ) is related to x (in m) by the following
equation.

14
x
a= l

Explain why this equation shows that the wood is executing simple harmonic
motion.

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(2)

(iii) The period of oscillation of the wood is 1.4 s. Show that the length l of the wood is
0.70 m.

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(3)

IB Questionbank Physics 42
(b) The wood in (a), as shown in diagram 2, is released at time t = 0. On the axes below,
sketch a graph to show how the velocity v of the wood varies with time over one period
of oscillation.

(1)

(c) The distance A that the wood is initially pushed down is 0.12 m.

## (i) Calculate the magnitude of the maximum acceleration of the wood.

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(2)

(ii) On your sketch graph in (b) label with the letter P one point where the magnitude of the
acceleration is a maximum.
(1)

IB Questionbank Physics 43
(d) The oscillations of the wood generate waves in the water of wavelength 0.45 m.
The graph shows how the displacement D, of the water surface at a particular distance
from the wood varies with time t.

## (i) speed of the waves.

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(2)

## (ii) ratio of the displacement at t = 1.75 s to the displacement at t = 0.35 s.

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(2)

IB Questionbank Physics 44
(iii) ratio of the energy of the wave at t = 1.75 s to the energy at t = 0.35 s

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(1)
(Total 15 marks)

28. An object at the end of a spring oscillates vertically with simple harmonic motion. The graph
shows the variation with time t of the displacement x. The amplitude is x0 and the period of
oscillation is T.

## Which of the following is the correct expression for the displacement x?

2
x 0 cos t
A. T

2
x 0 cos t
B. T

2
x 0 sin t
C. T

2
x 0 sin t
D. T
(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Physics 45
29. An object at the end of a spring oscillates vertically with simple harmonic motion. The graph
shows the variation with time t of the displacement x. The amplitude is x0 and the period of
oscillation is T.

Which of the following is the correct expression for the maximum acceleration of the object?

2
x0
A. T

2
x0
B. T2

4 2
x0
C. T2

4 2
x0
D. T
(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Physics 46
30. One end of a horizontal string is fixed to a wall. A transverse pulse moves along the string as
shown.

Which of the following statements are correct for the reflected pulse compared to the forward
pulse?

## II. It has less energy.

III. It is inverted.

A. I and II only

## C. II and III only

D. I, II and III
(Total 1 mark)

31. Monochromatic light travels from air into water. Which of the following describes the changes
in wavelength and speed?

Wavelength Speed
A. increases decreases
B. increases increases
C. decreases increases
D. decreases decreases
(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Physics 47
32. This question is about a simple pendulum.

(a) A pendulum consists of a bob suspended by a light inextensible string from a rigid
support. The pendulum bob is moved to one side and then released. The sketch graph
shows how the displacement of the pendulum bob undergoing simple harmonic motion
varies with time over one time period.

## On the sketch graph above,

(i) label with the letter A a point at which the acceleration of the pendulum bob is a
maximum.
(1)

(ii) label with the letter V a point at which the speed of the pendulum bob is a
maximum.
(1)

(b) Explain why the magnitude of the tension in the string at the midpoint of the oscillation is
greater than the weight of the pendulum bob.

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(3)

IB Questionbank Physics 48
(c) The pendulum bob is moved to one side until its centre is 25 mm above its rest position
and then released.

(i) Show that the speed of the pendulum bob at the midpoint of the oscillation is
1
0.70 m s .

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(2)

(ii) The mass of the pendulum bob is 0.057 kg. The centre of the pendulum bob is 0.80
m below the support. Calculate the magnitude of the tension in the string when the
pendulum bob is vertically below the point of suspension.

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(3)

IB Questionbank Physics 49
(d) The point of suspension of the pendulum bob is moved from side to side with a small
amplitude and at a variable driving frequency f.

For each value of the driving frequency a steady constant amplitude A is reached. The
oscillations of the pendulum bob are lightly damped.

(i) On the axes below, sketch a graph to show the variation of A with f.

(2)

(ii) Explain, with reference to the graph in (d)(i), what is meant by resonance.

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IB Questionbank Physics 50
(e) The pendulum bob is now immersed in water and the variable frequency driving force in
(d) is again applied. Suggest the effect this immersion of the pendulum bob will have on
the shape of your graph in (d)(i).

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(2)
(Total 16 marks)

33. Which of the following graphs shows the variation with displacement x of the speed v of a
particle performing simple harmonic motion.

(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Physics 51
34. A particle performs simple harmonic oscillations. Which of the following quantities will be
unaffected by a reduction in the amplitude of oscillations?

## C. The maximum acceleration

D. The period
(Total 1 mark)

35. Monochromatic light travels from air into water. Which of the following describes the changes
in wavelength and speed?

Wavelength Speed
A. increases decreases
B. increases increases
C. decreases increases
D. decreases decreases
(Total 1 mark)

## 36. This question is about the simple pendulum.

(a) A pendulum consists of a bob suspended by a light inextensible string from a rigid
support. The pendulum bob is moved to one side and then released. The sketch graph
shows how the displacement of the pendulum bob undergoing simple harmonic motion
varies with time over one time period.

IB Questionbank Physics 52
On the sketch graph above,

(i) label with the letter A a point at which the acceleration of the pendulum bob is a
maximum.
(1)

(ii) label with the letter V a point at which the speed of the pendulum bob is a
maximum.
(1)

(b) Explain why the magnitude of the tension in the string at the midpoint of the oscillation is
greater than the weight of the pendulum bob.

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................
(3)

(c) The pendulum bob is moved to one side until its centre is 25 mm above its rest position
and then released.

IB Questionbank Physics 53
(i) Show that the speed of the pendulum bob at the midpoint of the oscillation is
1
0.70 m s .

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) The mass of the pendulum bob is 0.057 kg. The centre of the pendulum bob is 0.80
m below the support. Calculate the magnitude of the tension in the string when the
pendulum bob is vertically below the point of suspension.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(d) The point of suspension of the pendulum bob is moved from side to side with a small
amplitude and at a variable driving frequency f.

For each value of the driving frequency a steady constant amplitude A is reached. The
oscillations of the pendulum bob are lightly damped.

IB Questionbank Physics 54
(i) On the axes below, sketch a graph to show the variation of A with f.

(2)

(ii) Explain, with reference to the graph in (d)(i), what is meant by resonance.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(e) The pendulum bob is now immersed in water and the variable frequency driving force in
(d) is again applied. Suggest the effect this immersion of the pendulum bob will have on
the shape of your graph in (d)(i).

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 16 marks)

IB Questionbank Physics 55
37. Which graph correctly shows how the acceleration, a of a particle undergoing SHM varies with
its displacement, x from its equilibrium position?

(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Physics 56
38. A mass on the end of a horizontal spring is displaced from its equilibrium position by a distance
A and released. Its subsequent oscillations have total energy E and time period T.

## An identical mass is attached to an identical spring. The maximum displacement is 2A.

Assuming this spring obeys Hookes law, which of the following gives the correct time period
and total energy?

## New time period New energy

A. T 4E
B. T 2E
C. 2T 4E
D. 2T 2E

(Total 1 mark)

39. In which of the following regions of the electromagnetic spectrum is radiation of wavelength
600 nm located?

A. microwaves

C. visible light

D. X-rays
(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Physics 57
40. What is the best estimate for the refractive index of a medium in which light travels at a speed
8 1
of 2.7 10 m s ?

A. 0.9

B. 1.0

C. 1.1

D. 2.7
(Total 1 mark)

## 41. This question is about simple harmonic motion and waves.

(a) A particle of mass m that is attached to a light spring is executing simple harmonic
motion in a horizontal direction.

State the condition relating to the net force acting on the particle that is necessary for it to
execute simple harmonic motion.

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................
(2)

IB Questionbank Physics 58
(b) The graph shows how the kinetic energy EK of the particle in (a) varies with the
displacement x of the particle from equilibrium.

(i) Using the axes above, sketch a graph to show how the potential energy of the
particle varies with the displacement x.
(2)

(ii) The mass of the particle is 0.30 kg. Use data from the graph to show that the
frequency f of oscillation of the particle is 2.0 Hz.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(4)

IB Questionbank Physics 59
(c) The particles of a medium M1 through which a transverse wave is travelling, oscillate
with the same frequency and amplitude as that of the particle in (b).

(i) Describe, with reference to the propagation of energy through the medium, what is
meant by a transverse wave.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

1
(ii) The speed of the wave is 0.80 m s . Calculate the wavelength of the wave.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(d) The diagram shows wavefronts of the waves in (c) incident on a boundary XY between
medium M1 and another medium M2.

The angle between the normal, and the direction of travel of the wavefronts is 30.

IB Questionbank Physics 60
1
(i) The speed of the wave in M1 is 0.80 m s . The speed of the waves in M2 is
1
1.2 m s .
Calculate the angle between the direction of travel of the wavefronts in M 2 and the
normal.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(3)

## (ii) On the diagram, sketch the wavefronts in M2.

(1)
(Total 15 marks)

IB Questionbank Physics 61
42. The graph below represents the variation with time of the displacement of an oscillating
particle.

## The motion of the object is

A. over damped.

B. critically damped.

C. lightly damped.

D. not damped.
(Total 1 mark)

## 43. This question is about simple harmonic motion and waves.

(a) A particle of mass m that is attached to a light spring is executing simple harmonic
motion in a horizontal direction.

State the condition relating to the net force acting on the particle that is necessary for it to
execute simple harmonic motion.

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................
(2)

IB Questionbank Physics 62
(b) The graph shows how the kinetic energy EK of the particle in (a) varies with the
displacement x of the particle from equilibrium.

(i) Using the axes above, sketch a graph to show how the potential energy of the
particle varies with the displacement x.
(2)

(ii) The mass of the particle is 0.30 kg. Use data from the graph to show that the
frequency f of oscillation of the particle is 2.0 Hz.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(4)

IB Questionbank Physics 63
(c) The particles of a medium M1 through which a transverse wave is travelling, oscillate
with the same frequency and amplitude as that of the particle in (b).

(i) Describe, with reference to the propagation of energy through the medium, what is
meant by a transverse wave.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

1
(ii) The speed of the wave is 0.80 m s . Calculate the wavelength of the wave.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(d) The diagram shows wavefronts of the waves in (c) incident on a boundary XY between
medium M1 and another medium M2.

The angle between the normal, and the direction of travel of the wavefronts is 30.

IB Questionbank Physics 64
1
(i) The speed of the wave in M1 is 0.80 m s . The speed of the waves in M2 is
1
1.2 m s .
Calculate the angle between the direction of travel of the wavefronts in M 2 and the
normal.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(3)

## (ii) On the diagram, sketch the wavefronts in M2.

(1)
(Total 15 marks)

44. For a system executing simple harmonic motion, the restoring force acting on the system is
proportional to the

## A. displacement of the system from equilibrium.

B. amplitude of oscillation.

## C. elastic potential energy.

D. frequency of oscillation.
(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Physics 65
45. A cart, connected to two identical springs, is oscillating with simple harmonic motion between
two points X and Y that are equidistant from point O.

B. point O only.

## D. points O, X and Y only.

(Total 1 mark)

46. During one complete oscillation, the amplitude of a damped harmonic motion changes from
1.5 cm to 0.30 cm. The total energy at the end of the oscillation is E2 and the total energy at the
E2
beginning of the oscillation is E . The ratio E1 is
1

1
A. 5.

1
B. 25 .

C. 5.

D. 25.
(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Physics 66
47. Plane wavefronts are incident on a boundary between two media labelled 1 and 2 in the
diagram.
The diagram of the wavefronts is drawn to scale.

## The ratio of the refractive index of medium 2 to that of medium 1 is

A. 0.50.

B. 0.67.

C. 1.5.

D. 2.0.
(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Physics 67
48. A wave pulse is travelling to the right along a string.

Which of the following best represents the direction of the velocity of the point P?

A.

B.

C.

D.
(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Physics 68
49. This question is about simple harmonic motion and waves.

An object is vibrating in air. The variation with displacement x of the acceleration a of the
object is shown below.

IB Questionbank Physics 69
(a) State and explain two reasons why the graph opposite indicates that the object is
executing simple harmonic motion.

1. ..................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

2. ..................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................
(4)

(b) Use data from the graph to show that the frequency of oscillation is 350 Hz.

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................
(4)

## (c) State the amplitude of the vibrations.

......................................................................................................................................
(1)

(d) The motion of the object gives rise to a longitudinal progressive (travelling) sound wave.

## (i) State what is meant by a longitudinal progressive wave.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

IB Questionbank Physics 70
1
(ii) The speed of the wave is 330 m s . Using the answer in (b), calculate the
wavelength of the wave.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 13 marks)

50. For a system executing simple harmonic motion, the restoring force acting on the system is
proportional to the

## A. displacement of the system from equilibrium.

B. amplitude of oscillation.

## C. elastic potential energy.

D. frequency of oscillation.
(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Physics 71
51. This question is about simple harmonic motion and waves.

An object is vibrating in air. The variation with displacement x of the acceleration a of the
object is shown below.

IB Questionbank Physics 72
(a) State and explain two reasons why the graph opposite indicates that the object is
executing simple harmonic motion.

1. ..................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

2. ..................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................
(4)

(b) Use data from the graph to show that the frequency of oscillation is 350 Hz.

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................
(4)

(c) The motion of the object gives rise to a longitudinal progressive (travelling) sound wave.

## (i) State what is meant by a longitudinal progressive wave.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

IB Questionbank Physics 73
1
(ii) The speed of the wave is 330 m s . Using the answer in (b), calculate the
wavelength of the wave.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 12 marks)

## Which of the following is the refractive index of glass?

sin 1
A. sin 3

sin 1
B. sin 4

sin 3
C. sin 2

sin 4
D. sin 1
(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Physics 74
53. The graph below shows how the displacement x of a particle undergoing simple harmonic
motion varies with time t. The motion is undamped.

Which of the following graphs correctly shows how the velocity v of the particle varies with t?

(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Physics 75
54. The graph below shows how the displacement x of a particle undergoing simple harmonic
motion varies with time t. The motion is undamped.

Which of the following graphs shows how the total energy E of the particle varies with time t?

(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Physics 76
55. An orchestra playing on boat X can be heard by tourists on boat Y, which is situated out of sight
of boat X around a headland.

A. refraction.

B. reflection.

C. diffraction.

D. transmission.
(Total 1 mark)

## 56. This question is about simple harmonic motion.

(a) In terms of the acceleration, state two conditions necessary for a system to perform
simple harmonic motion.

1. ..................................................................................................................................

2. ..................................................................................................................................
(2)

IB Questionbank Physics 77
(b) A tuning fork is sounded and it is assumed that each tip vibrates with simple harmonic
motion.

The extreme positions of the oscillating tip of one fork are separated by a distance d.

## (i) State, in terms of d, the amplitude of vibration.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) On the axes below, sketch a graph to show how the displacement of one tip of the
tuning fork varies with time.

(1)

(iii) On your graph, label the time period T and the amplitude a.
(2)

IB Questionbank Physics 78
(c) The frequency of oscillation of the tips is 440 Hz and the amplitude of oscillation of each
tip is 1.2 mm. Determine the maximum

## (i) linear speed of a tip.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

## (ii) acceleration of a tip.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 10 marks)

IB Questionbank Physics 79
57. Diagram 1 represents equally spaced beads on a spring. The beads are 1 cm apart.

Diagram 1

A longitudinal wave propagates along the spring. Diagram 2 shows the position of the beads at a
particular instant.

Diagram 2

## Which of the following is the best estimate of the wavelength?

A. 2 cm

B. 4 cm

C. 8 cm

D. 16 cm
(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Physics 80
58. Diagram 1 represents equally spaced beads on a spring. The beads are 1 cm apart.

Diagram 1

A longitudinal wave propagates along the spring. Diagram 2 shows the position of the beads at a
particular instant.

Diagram 2

A. 0.4 cm

B. 0.8 cm

C. 1.6 cm

D. 3.2 cm
(Total 1 mark)

## 59. This question is about simple harmonic motion.

(a) In terms of the acceleration, state two conditions necessary for a system to perform
simple harmonic motion.

1. ..................................................................................................................................

2. ..................................................................................................................................
(2)

IB Questionbank Physics 81
(b) A tuning fork is sounded and it is assumed that each tip vibrates with simple harmonic
motion.

The extreme positions of the oscillating tip of one fork are separated by a distance d.

## (i) State, in terms of d, the amplitude of vibration.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) On the axes below, sketch a graph to show how the displacement of one tip of the
tuning fork varies with time.

(1)

(iii) On your graph, label the time period T and the amplitude a.
(2)

IB Questionbank Physics 82
(c) The frequency of oscillation of the tips is 440 Hz and the amplitude of oscillation of each
tip is 1.2 mm. Determine the maximum

## (i) linear speed of a tip.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

## (ii) acceleration of a tip.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(d) The sketch graph below shows how the velocity of a tip varies with time.

On the axes, sketch a graph to show how the acceleration of the tip varies with time.
(2)

(e) In practice, the motion of the tips of the tuning fork is damped.

## (i) Describe what is meant by damped motion.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

IB Questionbank Physics 83
(ii) Suggest one reason why the motion of the tips is damped.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 14 marks)

60. The graph below shows the variation with time t of the displacement x of a particle undergoing
simple harmonic motion.

Which graph correctly shows the variation with time t of the acceleration a of the particle?

(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Physics 84
61. A wooden block is at rest on a horizontal frictionless surface. A horizontal spring is attached
between the block and a rigid support.

The block is displaced to the right by an amount X and is then released. The period of
oscillations is T and the total energy of the system is E.

X
For an initial displacement of 2 which of the following shows the best estimate for the period
of oscillations and the total energy of the system?

## Period Total energy

E
A. T
2
E
B. T
4
T E
C.
2 2
T E
D.
2 4
(Total 1 mark)

62. Which of the following correctly describes the change, if any, in the speed, wavelength and
frequency of a light wave as it passes from air into glass?

## D. increases increases unchanged

(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Physics 85
63. The diagram below shows a pulse travelling along a rope from X to Y. The end Y of the rope is
tied to a fixed support.

A. disappear.

(Total 1 mark)

## 64. Simple harmonic motion and the greenhouse effect

(a) A body is displaced from equilibrium. State the two conditions necessary for the body to
execute simple harmonic motion.

1. .........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

2. .........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)

IB Questionbank Physics 86
(b) In a simple model of a methane molecule, a hydrogen atom and the carbon atom can be
regarded as two masses attached by a spring. A hydrogen atom is much less massive than
the carbon atom such that any displacement of the carbon atom may be ignored.

The graph below shows the variation with time t of the displacement x from its
equilibrium position of a hydrogen atom in a molecule of methane.

27
The mass of hydrogen atom is 1.7 10 kg. Use data from the graph above

## (i) to determine its amplitude of oscillation.

.........................................................................................................................
(1)

13
(ii) to show that the frequency of its oscillation is 9.1 10 Hz.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)

IB Questionbank Physics 87
18
(iii) to show that the maximum kinetic energy of the hydrogen atom is 6.2 10 J.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(c) On the grid below, sketch a graph to show the variation with time t of the velocity v of the
hydrogen atom for one period of oscillation starting at t = 0. (There is no need to add
values to the velocity axis.)

(3)

(d) Assuming that the motion of the hydrogen atom is simple harmonic, its frequency of
oscillation f is given by the expression

1 k
f ,
2 mp

where k is the force per unit displacement between a hydrogen atom and the carbon atom
and mp is the mass of a proton.

1
(i) Show that the value of k is approximately 560 N m .

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(1)

IB Questionbank Physics 88
(ii) Estimate, using your answer to (d)(i), the maximum acceleration of the hydrogen
atom.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)

## (i) Describe what is meant by a greenhouse gas.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)

13
(ii) Electromagnetic radiation of frequency 9.1 10 Hz is in the infrared region of
the electromagnetic spectrum. Suggest, based on the information given in (b)(ii),
why methane is classified as a greenhouse gas.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 17 marks)

IB Questionbank Physics 89
65. The graph below shows the variation with time t of the displacement x of a particle undergoing
simple harmonic motion.

Which graph correctly shows the variation with time t of the acceleration a of the particle?

(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Physics 90
66. The two graphs show the variation with time of the individual displacements of two waves as
they pass through the same point.

A. x1 + x2.

B. x1 x2 .

C. A1 + A2.

D. A1 A2.
(Total 1 mark)

## 67. Simple harmonic motion and the greenhouse effect

(a) A body is displaced from equilibrium. State the two conditions necessary for the body to
execute simple harmonic motion.

1. .........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

2. .........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)

IB Questionbank Physics 91
(b) In a simple model of a methane molecule, a hydrogen atom and the carbon atom can be
regarded as two masses attached by a spring. A hydrogen atom is much less massive than
the carbon atom such that any displacement of the carbon atom may be ignored.

The graph below shows the variation with time t of the displacement x from its
equilibrium position of a hydrogen atom in a molecule of methane.

27
The mass of hydrogen atom is 1.7 10 kg. Use data from the graph above

## (i) to determine its amplitude of oscillation.

.........................................................................................................................
(1)

13
(ii) to show that the frequency of its oscillation is 9.1 10 Hz.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)

18
(iii) to show that the maximum kinetic energy of the hydrogen atom is 6.2 10 J.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)

IB Questionbank Physics 92
(c) Assuming that the motion of the hydrogen atom is simple harmonic, its frequency of
oscillation f is given by the expression

1 k
f ,
2 mp

where k is the force per unit displacement between a hydrogen atom and the carbon atom
and mp is the mass of a proton.

1
(i) Show that the value of k is approximately 560 N m .

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Estimate, using your answer to (c)(i), the maximum acceleration of the hydrogen
atom.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)

IB Questionbank Physics 93
(d) Methane is classified as a greenhouse gas.

## (i) Describe what is meant by a greenhouse gas.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)

13
(ii) Electromagnetic radiation of frequency 9.1 10 Hz is in the infrared region of
the electromagnetic spectrum. Suggest, based on the information given in (b)(ii),
why methane is classified as a greenhouse gas.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 14 marks)

IB Questionbank Physics 94