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TENTARA NASIONAL INDONESIA ANGKATAN LAUT


KOMANDO PENGEMBANGAN DAN PENDIDIKAN 01.03.01.02.10.51

PAKET INSTRUKSI
NAVIGATION FLIGHT PLANNING
(PEGANGAN TENAGA PENDIDIK)

PENDIDIKAN INSTRUKTUR PENERBANG


TNI ANGKATAN LAUT

SURABAYA, JULI 2016


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RENCANA PEMBELAJARAN

1. Judul : Navigation Flight Planning.

2. Tujuan Pelajaran : Membekali para siswa dengan mata pelajaran


Navigation Flight Planning agar memiliki pengetahuan dan keterampilan tentang
perencanaan bernavigasi udara sehingga dapat mengaplikasikannya dalam kedinasan
TNI Angkatan Laut sebagai Instruktur Penerbang TNI Angkatan Laut.

3. Sasaran Pelajaran : Selesai pelajaran ini para siswa diharapkan mampu :


a. memahami pengertian navigasi udara ;
b. memahami pengertian pre-flight briefings ;
c. memahami fundamentals of airborne instruction ;
d. memahami tentang debriefing and reports.

4. Lama Pelajaran :
a. Teori : 25 Jam Pelajaran
b. Praktek : - Jam Pelajaran.

5. Kepustakaan :
- Diktat Airborne Instructional Technique (Central Flying School Publication)
By RAAF
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DAFTAR PROGRAM PEMBELAJARAN

NO BAB POKOK AJARAN WAKTU TEMPAT METODE


1 2 3 4 5 6

1 Jampel
1 I Pendahuluan - Kelas - Ceramah.
10 Menit.
- Tanya jawab
a. Umum. 10 Menit.
10 Menit.
b. Maksud dan Tujuan.
15 Menit.
c. Ruang Lingkup.
d. Pengertian

4 Jampel
2 II Flying Instructions. - Kelas - Ceramah.
30 Menit.
- Tanya jawab
a. The Instructional process. 30 Menit.
30 Menit.
b. The Flying Instructor
45 Menit.
c. Building Raport 45 Menit.
d. Preparation
e. The Students

3 III Pre-Flight Briefings. 4 Jampel - Kelas - Ceramah.


10 Menit. - Tanya jawab
a. Introduction
45 Menit.
b. Briefing aids 50 Menit.
45 Menit.
c. Briefing contents
30 Menit.
d. Sequences 30 Menit.
e. Keywords
f. Teach How

4 IV Fundamentals of Airborne 14 Jampel - Kelas - Ceramah.


- Tanya jawab
Instruction.
60 Menit.
a. Introduction 90 Menit.
b. Demo 90 Menit.
c. Direct 90 Menit.
d. Monitor 90 Menit.
e. Instructor follow through 30 Menit.
f. Types of Demonstration 60 Menit.
f. Teaching cognitive skills
g. Airborne error analysis and 60 Menit.
correction 60 Menit.
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NO BAB POKOK AJARAN WAKTU TEMPAT METODE


1 2 3 4 5 6
h. Students psychology

5 V Debriefings and reports. 2 Jampel - Kelas - Ceramah.


30 Menit. - Tanya jawab
a. The Post flight Debrief.
30 Menit.
b. Assesment
30 Menit.
c. Training report

PROGRAM PEMBELAJARAN
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1. Bab : I (Pendahuluan).

2. Sasaran Pelajaran : Selesai pelajaran ini para siswa dapat mengerti dan
memahami tentang :
- pentingnya pengetahuan Airborne Instructional Technique.

3. Waktu Pembahasan ;
a. Teori : 1 Jam Pelajaran.
b. Praktek : - Jam Pelajaran.

4. Tempat Pelajaran : Kelas Pendidikan Instruktur Penerbang TNI AL

5. Penugasan Siswa : Merangkum dan mempelajari Materi Pelajaran Bab.I


Pendahuluan.

BAB I
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PENDAHULUAN

1. Umum.

Airborne Instrutional Technique adalah salah satu mata pelajaran yang wajib
diberikan untuk calon instruktur penerbang. Mengapa hal ini dianggap penting ?
Mungkin ada yang mengenal salah satu pionir dalam dunia penerbangan, Wright
bersaudara. Sebelum Wright bersaudara, ada banyak eksperimen terbang yang
pernah dilakukan, dan tidak sedikit yang memakan korban. Mereka melakukan hal
tersebut untuk menjawab tantangan terbesar dalam hidupnya, yaitu dapat
melayang di angkasa. Sehingga rela melakukan berbagai usaha, trial and error.
Dalam dunia pengajaran secara umum, pengalaman adalah guru yang paling baik.
Namun dalam dunia pengajaran penerbangan, sebaiknya jangan hanya
mengandalkan pengalaman saja tanpa mengetahui teknik- teknik dalam instruksi,
atau dengan kata lain hindari trial and error karena akan berdampak buruk
terhadap kemajuan peserta didik.

Airborne Instructional Technique menjadi jawaban tentang teknik dalam


instruksi selama proses transfer ilmu dari instruktur kepada siswa tanpa harus
melakukan trial and error. Berkaca dari pengalaman pribadi saat menjadi
penerbang, menjadi seseorang yang expert di bidang terbang, menguasai ilmu
tentang penerbangan, mampu menjadi seorang guru dalam memberikan materi
terhadap siswa di kelas maupun di luar kelas. Mampu menjadi seorang psikolog
kepada siswa, sedikit banyak mengerti tentang situasi emosional seseorang dan
mengerti cara meringankan beban psikologis siswa. Untuk itulah buku paket
instruksi Airborne Instructional Technique dibuat.

Buku paket instruksi Airborne Instructional Technique (AIT) telah digunakan


bertahun-tahun oleh TNI AU dan RAAF, dan terbukti mampu mengeluarkan output-
output siswa yang berkualitas. Dalam penyajian materi AIT, paket instruksi ini tetap
menggunakan bahasa inggris, agar peserta didik kelak tidak asing dengan istiah-
istilah dalam dunia penerbangan, terbiasa dengan bahasa inggris yang menjadi
bahasa wajib dalam dunia penerbangan, serta tidak mengurangi maupun
menambahkan materi AIT dengan yang asli.
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2. Maksud dan tujuan.

a. Maksud. Disusun buku Paket Instruksi ini dimaksudkan sebagai


pedoman dalam mengajar siswa Pendidikan Instruktur Penerbang TNI Angkatan
Laut di lingkungan Pusdiksus Kobangdikal.

b. Tujuan. Paket Instruksi ini bertujuan agar didapat keseragaman dalam


prosedur serta langkah kesamaan dalam mengajar siswa di lingkungan Pusdiksus
Kobangdikal sehingga diperoleh hasil pendidikan yang optimal.

3. Ruang Lingkup.

Ruang Lingkup Paket Instruksi disusun dengan tata urut sebagai berikut :

a. Bab. I : Pendahuluan.
b. Bab. II : The Flying Instruction.
c. Bab. III : Pre-Flight Briefings.
d. Bab. IV : Fundamentals of Airborne Instruction
e. Bab. V : Debriefing and Reports.

4. Pengertian .

a. Bloggs adalah suatu terminologi dalam dunia pengajaran penerbangan yang


berarti siswa.

b. Bloggs On/ Bloggs Off : adalah suatu terminologi dalam dunia pengajaran
penerbangan dimana siswa menjadi seorang Instruktur (perumpamaan), saat
proses transfer ilmu berlangsung. Bloggs on, saat instruktur mengatakan bloggs
on, berarti siswa instruktur menjadi seorang instruktur (perumpamaan) dan
instruktur menjadi seorang siswa. Bloggs off, menandakan perumpamaan selesai.
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c. Subject matter expert : adalah seorang yang benar-benar telah menguasai


bidangnya/ expert di bidangnya, dalam hal ini, mahir dan cakap sebagai seorang
penerbang.

d. QFI adalah singkatan dari Qualified Flying Instructor. Output yang


diharapkan setelah lulus dari pendidikan instruktur penerbang.

e. DDM singkatan dari demo, direct and monitor.

f. PT51 adalah suatu terminologi yang berarti The Students Flight Assessment
Reports atau file penilaian siswa.
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PROGRAM PEMBELAJARAN

1. Bab : II (Flying Instruction).

2. Sasaran Pelajaran : Selesai pelajran ini para siswa diharapkan mampu :


a memahami tentang proses instruksi,
b. memahami tentang kualitas flying instructor,
c. memahami tentang building raport,
d. memahami tentang type siswa.

3. Waktu Pembahasan ;
a. Teori : 4 Jam Pelajaran.
b. Praktek : - Jam Pelajaran.

4. Tempat Pelajaran : Kelas Pendidikan Instruktur Penerbang TNI AL

5. Penugasan Siswa : Merangkum dan mempelajari Materi Pelajaran Bab.II


Flying Instruction.
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BAB II
FLYING INSTRUCTION

1. The Instructional Process

Flying instruction can be considered as an interpersonal skill. The aim of


which is for the instructor to change the knowledge, skills or attitude of the students.
It can be assumed that the student could possibly learn all the required knowledge,
skills and attitudes without intervention by trial and error (Orville and Wilbur did just
that). This process would be lengthy and not without risk. Therefore the role of the
flying instructor is to achieve a change in behaviour as safely and efficiently as
possible.

A fliyng isntruction that is highly proficient will ussually refer to their works as
an art form the basis is ussually founded in science. The flying instrution you will
learn on flying instructor course (FIC) will form the technical foundation on which
you develop your own art form well beyond graduation.

The ways in which we can instruct are endless. The IDN could legislate only
one method right down to the words to be used. This would be good for
standardisation but reduce the flexibility to tailor instruction to the individual needs
of the student. Conversely an open approach would see minimal standardisation
and less competent instructor compromising student learning potential. The flying
instructional process used throughout the IDN is based around the Demo-Direct-
Monitor (DDM) model. This model and its associated tools allow for structure with a
significant degree of freedom.

2. The Instructional Qualities

Instructor Qualities. The task of functioning as an effective Flying Instructor


requires more than the basic process of teaching a student how to fly. In general
terms we can define traits and qualities that would be conducive or
counterproductive to good instruction. The Instructor who wishes to achieve the
best results should aspire to the following qualities :
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a. Subject expect matters : As a pilot, they will operate the aircraft in a


profesional and confident manner. This will be achieved through application of
correct techniques and a through of imposed limits (orders and instructions),
aircraft limits and their own personal limits.

b. Teacher : The teacher will determine the best method of presenting the
information to be learnt. Adjusting it to suit the temperamentand ability of the
student involved.

c. Psychologist : The psychologist will be constantly aware of the


students emotional situation, varying the presentation of criticism accodingly.
He/ She will have empathy, and be able to nticipate a students reaction,
therefore preventing situations that may disturb the student and reduce the
students ability to learn.

d. Counsellor : The counselor will act to counsol the students who may
be ill at ease due being placed in an entirely unfamiliar environment.

What is not always obvious are the personality traits that may over ride the best
intentions of an instructor. See if you can identity any instructor personalities you
have experienced in the past :

a. The Screamer. Always out of control.

b. The Chipper. Constantly critiquing the student.

c. The Sphinx. No feedback

d. The Rider. Ghosting the controls or briefly taking control of the aircraft
unannounced to help student out.

e. The Slapper. Prone to acts of violence in the cockpit.

f. The Singer/ Whistler. So relaxed that is annoying.

g. The Giggler. Snickers at mistakes. (What do you think youre doing?)


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h. The SA Sponge. Sucks out what little SA a student has. Asks questions
like are you sure? or So Bloggs where do you think you really are?

As a flying instructor you need to be aware of your short falls and


compensate accordingly. Remember the only reason you are going flying is to
benefit the student. Instruction is not a place for egos or time wasters.

3. Building Rapport

Effective communication is an important part of succesful instruction.


Maintaining an empathy with the student will allow you to tailor your instruction/
communication in the best manner to benefit the student. Maintaining emphaty with
the student requires the instructor to be cognisant of the position the student is in.
This ranges from an understanding of their current knowledge level to
understanding that they may be apprehensive about the sequence to be flown or
even intimidated by being briefed by Military Flying Instructor.

The real or imagined pressures the students place on themselves are many
and varied and must be taken into account when instructing them. For example,
early in the course students may get anxious about seemingly unimportant details.
No matter how insignificant these details may seem to an experienced operator
they need to be thoroughly resolved to avoid confusion during the sortie. A good
way to help you to view the course from the students perspective is to remember
back to your own experiences on pilots course and even review your own PT51s.

4. Preparation.

A good flight starts with solid instructor preparation. You must know your
subjects and know your student. In your first months as a new instructor you will be
exposed to many aspects of the Pilots Course syllabus which will require quite a bit
of preparation prior to each sortie. It is important to be aware of what the student
has covered in the syllabus up to this point and what the training outcomes of this
sortie will be. When considering technique, it is essential that you are thoroughly
conversant with the SATG/Mass briefed procedure as this is what the student will
have used to preapare for the sortie.
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Standardistation is a critical element of the training system and is achieved


by all instructors knowing and employing the standardised techniques (whether you
agree with them or not). Prior to the sortie you must review the entire profile and be
aware of all orders and background information that may be pertinent to that sortie
(ie Flying Order Book, Flight Manual, Systen consideratiins etc).

Having reviewed the sequences and relevant backround information for the
sortie you must now concentrate on how you are going to teach the student these
sequeces. Time allocation, training aid usage, keywords etc, will require a great
deal of practice to develop and maintain proficiency. Finally, you must review the
sequences that you will be demonstrating airborne and prepare yourself on the
yawke and rudder requirements of each manouvre (fly your desk if necessary
whilst practising use of the key words).

5. The students

What Bloggs Know (WBK). Before commencing any instrcutional exercise it


is essential that we know our starting point. Teaching a loop to an ab-initio student
is considerably different from teaching it to a qualified but not converted pilot. The
level of knowledge of the student will determine how we eill present the information.
The ability to assume knowledge and move from the known to the unknown is
based on a thorough understanding of What Bloggs Know (WBK). The sbaseline for
WBK can be obtained from the syllabus, however, complications can occur in
individual student performace.

Performace History. In addition to maintaining an understanding of and


emphaty with the student, an instructor must have a detailed knowledge of the
students past and current performance on course. This knowledge is obtained
primarily through a PT51 review. Discussing the student with other instructors will
assist you in developing a feel for their personalities, as well as other character
traits/ idiosyncrasies that may not be documented in the PT51. Armed with this
knowledge an inctructor can tailor the brief and sortie profile to bet suit the
particular student.

Additionally. It is important that you check the daily flying program and note
the students schedule for that day. Especially note if there is a tight turnaround
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between events. If there is an unrealistically short trunaround time then should be


raised with the Programmer/ Flight Commander.

PROGRAM PEMBELAJARAN

1. Bab : III (PRE-FLIGHT BRIEFING).

2. Sasaran Pelajaran : Selesai pelajran ini para siswa diharapkan mampu :


a. memahami tentang pre-flight briefing,
b. memahami tentang briefing aids,
c. memahami tentang briefing contents,
d. memahami tentang sequences pre-flight briefing,
e. memahami tentang keywords.

3. Waktu Pembahasan;
a. Teori : 4 Jam Pelajaran.
b. Praktek : - Jam Pelajaran.

4. Tempat Pelajaran : Kelas Pendidikan Instruktur Penerbang TNI AL.

5. Penugasan Siswa : Merangkum dan mempelajari Materi Pelajaran Bab.III


Pre-flight Briefing.
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BAB III
PRE-FLIGHT BRIEFING

1. Introduction.

a. The student should come to the pre-flight briefing knowing all they need to
know for that sortie. If we consider this our role is to check and clarify prior to
commencing the actual flight. This process is primarily done through asking
questions. These questions should not be focused on number recall but on
reasoning and application. If you structure your pre-flight briefs this way the student
will soon learn preparation for sorties consists SATG nd attending the mass brief.

b. The pre-flight briefing should be concise. The interaction should be two way
the student contributing to the process through instructor elicitation. At the end of
the brief of the students should be aware of what is to be done, when it is to be
done and most importantly how it is to be done. Where possible anticipations,
timings, visual cues, contro inputs, workcycles, control techniques would have been
examined as much as possible prior to flying the actual sequence.

c. Teach to the new material not the old. Do not waste time filing in the gaos
with information the student already knows. Use WBK and move from the known to
unknown. When deciding whether to brief a specific point it may be helpful to
consider the following:
1) Was mass brief coverage adequate ? ;
2) Is it simple enough to assume without review ? ;
3) Will there be sufficient time airborne to cover it satisfactoriliy without
unnecessarily using flying time to talk without an associated demonstration?;
4) Has it been detailed/ learnt before in previous sequences or may be
more realistically covered at a later date after the student has learnt the
basics from the sequence under consideration ?
5) Does it have practical application to the intended sequences ?
6) It may need to be done in the ground because it cant be done
airborne. Specific details such as pointing out the location if instruments,
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how to move trim button etc. This is applicable to tandem seat isntructor who
are unable to point to such things in the cockpit.

2. Briefing Aids.

a. A picture is always worth a thousand words and thus the effective use of
training aids will greatly improve the students ability to grasp the concept that you
are trying to explain. Ensure that you have appropriate training aids set up prior to
commencing the brief and ensure you practice how and when you are going to use
each of these aids.

b. The white board. An occasionally used technique (but inadvisable due to


student distraction) is to blank out sections of the board not being briefed at the
time. Point to the section of board about to be discussed so the student knows what
you are considering at the moment.

c. To be used effectively as a briefing aid, the board should be established


neatly, with uncluttered words and diagrams. If there is too little information on the
board you will spend too much time with your back to the student whilst writing. If
there is too much information the student may read ahead and get distracted from
what you are saying. The usual method is to set the board out of under the
headings of AIM, AIRMANSHIP and CONSIDERATION. The AIREX is included at the
end of the brief to outline sortie profile.

d. When preparing the board brief, various factors should be taken into
consideration. These includes:
1) Writing techniques. Writing in bold capitals is recommended as it is
easier to read from a distance and reduces the tendency towars cluttering
and excessive information presentation. Writing on top of a straight edge will
help keep the writing horizontal. A length of magnetic dymo strip is effective
for this purpose on the whiteboards.
2) Colour. Different colours allow emphasis to be given in different areas,
and coding if similiar ideas. Use of a single different colour for each of the
headings andthe associated details is a commonly utilised standard, with red
being the colour to highlight Airmanship. Do not go to extremes incolour
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usage. For example, subtle variations in colour may be difficult to distiguish


from a distance.
3) Lines. When underlining or drawing borders or divisions free hand,
utilisation of a wriggly line is recommended. The fact that it may not be
consistently vertical or horizontal is thereby disguised. Bordering should be
in an unobstrusive colour with the lines incomplete, ie. not joining.

e. Aircraft models. Aircraft models should, where possible, be orientated to the


student can see the manouvres from their perspective. If a particular point needs to
be stressed, the model should be kept in suspended animation and not waved
about.

f. Cockpit photography. A cockpit photograph should be used to show the


location of an item in the cockpit and how to interpret or use of that item. It can be
invaluable in helping the student establish correct work cycles. One of the most
difficult aspects of learning to fly is knowing where to look and when.

g. Cockpit template. This is colooquially referred to as the attitude scumer.


The best cockpit template is one incorporating a cockpit photo to increase the
realism. The template is used to demonstrate attitudes and show where the student
should be directing their attention, eg. Outside attitude, inside performance etc.
Point to these locations as your refer to them, so the students eyes can follow your
finger enabling them to understand the sequence required.

h. Animation. Animation can be employed to show how to hold the controls,


how to sit, control movements etc. The instructor should be oriented to the student
so that he is facing the same direction as the student, positioned preferably
alongside of him so he can view the instructors action. This technique has limited
application. Holding a duster and ruler may be fine for visualisation and preparation
by the student for previously learnt sequences, but in the pre-flight brief the lack of
realism may be counter productive. Use it carefully.

3. Briefing contents.

When preparing the content of the briefing, the instructor hould study the
AIM of the sortie in depth and keep it in mind thoroughout the briefing. The actual
aim may be more than that which is established in the syllabus. effects of
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Controls, for example, involves more than the simply observing and operating the
primary flight controls to select, hold and trim an attitude.

The pre-flight brief should not contain any major revelations. It serves to
snap in all players to the sortie content/ game plan. It also provides an opprtunity
for the instructor to confirm the student is prepared and ready to go and to ensure
the key how to points are covered.

Style, Tone and Level. It is important to be professional and motivated. This


will rub off on the student, and highlight that the instructor is personally interested in
their progress and undertanding. Your tone of voice should be clear, confident and
affable.

4. Pre-flight brief sequences.

When delivering a pre-flight brief the usual sequence of events is as follows :

a. Relax the student. Talk for a moent about matters not necessarily
with the trip, eg how was your weekend? ; did you enjoy your first flight
yesterday?; etc. Another method is to inroduce thesubject matter in a very
general manner, eg Hi, Bloggs, yesterday you saw how we flew a circuit out
in the area. Today were going to put that practice into action by flying
circuits here at the airfield.

b. Introduction. Use the aim to fully introduce the sequence involved.


Spend time if necessary to ensure the student understand the purpose of the
trip, and what skills are expected of him by the end of the sortie. The aim
should reflect the training outcomes of the sortie. Give the aim meaning in
the overall context of becoming a military pilot, eg, why do we need to know
how to manouvre on the buffet?

c. Airmanship. Relate airmanship points directly to the sequences to be


covered.

d. Considerations. Be brief when discussing the considerations, ie


pertinent points only. Ask if the student has any questions after presenting
each sequence.
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e. The Air Exercise Profile. The Airex should detail the profile and
duration of the sortie and allocate responsibilities in regard to who will be
flying what and when.

5. Keywords.

The human brain uses significant amounts of capacity in order to process


verbal speech. When time is not critical or when mental capacity is not being taxed,
verbal communication is very effective at conveying meaning and concepts. As time
becomes more critical and demands on capacity increase. Verbal conversation can
overload what little capacity was remaining. This may mean that talking to a student
when flying will sufficiently overload the student to the point where they are
incapable of performing the task asked of them. This is the imperative for the use of
key words.

During the pre-flight brief, time is not critical nor the student overly taxed,
however, now is the opportunity to establish key words for the subsequent airborne
exercise. Establishment of key words in the pre-flight brief allows for meaning and
context to be associated to a word which in isolation may be ambiguous eg.
Attitude could mean many things such as; hold it, raise it, set something new,
wing tip picture, Al etc. The purpose of establishing key word in the pre-flht brief is
to ensure that within a particular context there is only one meaning.

Known to the Unknown. Always endeavour to take the student from a


known skill set and extrapolate to the new required skill set. This will provide the
student wiith the confidence that this new task is just an extension of something
that they have already experienced or can already do. We can refer to known
experiences eg. the onset of light buffet can be likened to driving a car from a
bitumen road onto a gravel road. We can refer to previously demonstrated skills by
the student eg. you have already flown most of the required techniques for the
circuit in the upper air, now all we have to do is relate them to an actul runway.
This approach will have the instructor focusing on teaching the new material by fully
considering what Bloggs knows.
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Teach how. Remember that after reading the SATG and attending the mass
brief,the student will know what is to be done. It is your job in the pre-flight brief to
ensure that the student understand HOW to they are going to do it. Your
understanding of how to fly thesequence will come from your experience of flying iy.
Where you look, what you look for and how you react are the core requirements of
how you fly.

PROGRAM PEMBELAJARAN

1. Bab : IV (Fundamentals of Airborne Instruction).

2. Sasaran Pelajaran : Selesai pelajaran ini para siswa diharapkan mampu :


a. memahami tentang fundamentals of airborne instruction
b. memahami tentang demo, direct, monitor
c. memahami tentang instructor follow through
d. memahami tentang types of demonstration
e. memahami tentang teaching cognitive skills
f. memahami tentang airborne error analysis and correction
g. memahami tentang students psychology.

3. Waktu Pembahasan:
a. Teori : 14 Jam Pelajaran.
b. Praktek : - Jam Pelajaran.

4. Tempat Pelajaran : Kelas Pendidikan Instruktur Penerbang TNI AL.

5. Penugasan Siswa : Merangkum dan mempelajari Materi Pelajaran Bab.IV


Fundamentals of Airborne Instruction.
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BAB IV
FUNDAMENTALS OF AIRBORNE INSTRUCTION

1. Introduction.

As previously stated the basic airborne instructional model used by the ADF is
based on Demonstrate, Direct and Monitor. To correctly use this model an understanding
of the process and tools available is required. This section details the common usage and
application of instructional tools.

2. Demonstrate (Do)

a. A demonstration is used to explain by way of a physical example. The way in


which this is achieved, however, is somewhat more involved. To carry out a
demonstration efficiently and effectively we have some tools to assist us.

b. Subdivision (SUB). For instructional purposes subdivision is a process of


breaking down tasks into simple building blocks and them reassembling them. If we
consider WBK prior to teaching an exercise we will soon realise that there will be
some sequences that can be taught in one go and others that will need to be
subdivided. The degree to which these sequences will need to be subdivided will
depend on the ability of the student to cope with the complexity demanded. Each
subdivision block should convey a clear message whilst still presenting a suitable
challenge. Appropriate subdivision presents a challenge worthy of the students
skills. The ability to meet these challenges will instil confidence and motivate the
student. Too much subdivision can be inefficient and result in the student switching
off due to the obvious intent and undemanding nature of the subdivision block.
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c. Direction of Attention (DoA). Direction of attention is used to highlight the


key enabling requirements of the exercise. We can use DoA to achieve a variety of
outcomes. Some examples are to get the student to look in a ceratin place, notice a
specific attitude or rate of change of attitude, highlight timing of events or show
movement of controls. The important aspect to DoA is that it is very specific.
Generalisations such as the way I do it or see what happens achieve little in
focusing the students attention. It is equally important to ensure that you do not
overload the student by asking for too many points to note. Selecting DoA points is
best achieved by asking yourself How do I fly this exercise, where do I look, what
am I looking for and how do I react. Answering these questions should provide you
with your DoA points. When using DoA check the students head (and where
possible eyes) to ensure that he is actually looking where you have directed.

3. Follow Me Through (FMT)

Follow Me Through (FMT). FMT is simply a physical form of DoA. It is used


by the instructor to get the student to place their hands and feet on the controls.
This enables the student to experience the control inputs necessary to achieve the
required outcome. You should not fall into the habit of automatically stating FMT
before every demonstration. It should only be utilised when the intetion is to point
out a specific displacement, rate or timing of a control input or inputs. Unnecessary
use of FMT will reduce the students ability to concentrate on other matters being
presented.

The meaning of Follow me through should be explained to the student


before the very first flight, as should the meaning of Relax. Make sure that when
pre-briefing FMT that the student does not get onto the controls at the time. FMT as
the executive is usually prefixed with Eyes out the front- FMT the student should
respond with Following Through. Relax is used as the executive to indicate that
the student should now take their hands off the controls and place them on their
thighs. The students feet should remain on the rudder pedals at all times, however,
the student should not exert pressure on the pedals unless they are actually flying.

It can be considered that there are four phases to FMT, they are; PB FMT
Relax Debrief. If any of these are left out the FMT becomes ineffective. Failure
to Pre-brief the student what you want them to notice about the control inputs may
lead to them missing the intent of the exercise. Failure to get the student on the
23

controls at all has obvious implications. Failure to chek student perception will leave
both you and the student unaware if the appropriate response was noticed.

A non-DoA use of FMT is as an aid to handover/takeover during high G


flight. This is done because it may be difficult or even impossible for the student to
place their hands on the controls once the G has been applied. The FMT in this
case initiated prior to the onset of high G and the handover/takeover occurs during
manoeuvre.
4. Types of Demonstrations

There are three general types of demonstartions practical, proof of concept


and No Quack. A practical Demonstration is to teach something we want the
student to be able to do. A proof of concept Demonstration validates theory of the
SATG. A No Quack demonstration is used sas a no pressure introduction.

The Practical Demonstration by its nature tends to be time constrained and


therefore requires a through pre-brief, use of key words and through debrief. The
implication here is that there is insufficient time to talk through out the
demonstration itself. The proof of concepts Demonstration tends to be less time
constrained and most of the information is elicited during the demonstration.
Accordingly the pre-brief may be quite simple and there may be no debrief at all.
The requirement for key words may be substantially less and a more conversational
approach can be employed.

The No Quack demonstration is used to introduce a sequence without


instruction. The purpose of this can be to allow the student to experience the
exercise without initially having to worry about how to fly it. This can beimportant for
highly dynamic or complex tasks. It sets the scene, possibly relaxes the student if
apprehension is a factor (first stall, Loop, etc..), and allows the instructor to assess
conditions and calibrate their flying (first circuit,PFL etc..). pre0brief points are
usually only for orientation, I will fly a Loop, just sit back, relax and I want you to
notice that we start and finish on the same line feature and complete 360 in the
vertical plane. These points will generally not be debriefed. To debrief a No
Quack will defeat the purpose of doing it in the first instance.

A No Quack demonstration is not always advisable. Spinning, for example,


can lead to student airsickness by virtue of the extra spin encountered, as well as it
24

being time consuming. Also. It may be of little value to an advanced student or one
who has experienced a simiiliar type of sequence in earlier flights.

5. Pre-Brief

The pre-brief is used to allocate responsibilities and to highlight DoA points.


It can sometimes be used to elicit key information from the student airborne. We
should not be introducing any new concepts so there should be no requirement for
prolonged discussion. An effective pre-brief is short and to the point. The basic
structure is as follows.
a. Instructor responsibility,
b. Student responsibility,
c. DoA points,
d. FMT points,
e. Any questions ?

An example of demonstration pre-brief may be : Ok Bloggs I am going to


show you the entry to the climb. I want you to noticethe rate of attitude change i
use. Follow me through on the controls to notice the rate of power application and
how much rudder displacement is required to maintain balance. Any questions?
(pause).. Eyes of the front, follow me through.

6. Key words (KW).

The rationale for the use of key words has alreday been discussed. The
effective use of key words within a demonstration is mostly dependent upon timing.
The key words should come just before the requirement. The intent is to establish a
pattern that the student will respond to in the Directional phase.

7. Debrief (DB).

The Debrief of demonstration will generally validate the main points. There is
no need to run through an airborne Mass brief, let the demonstration speak for
itself. The bulk of your debrief will come from eliciting the DoA/ FMT points that
were covered in the pre-brief.

Direct (Dt)
25

8. Direction. Direction involves the instructor usingverbal commands to initiate


student actions. It may involve the complete direction of an entire sequence
immediately following a demonstration or it may be a gentle reminder during the
monitor phase to prevent the repetition of a mistake. It is easy to fall into an Auto
Quack mode where you talk about every thing that the student is doing or is about
to do. To avoid this focus on only using previously established key words and inly
direct those elements of the event that are new to the student.

9. Pre-brief (PB). The prebrief for a direction primarly consists of aloocation of


responsibilities. The structure for a pre-brief of a direction is as follows :
a. Student responsibility,
b. Instructor responsibility,
c. DoA points,
d. Any questions ?

The DoA points, if any.for a direction would be those that the student would not be
able to notice on the demonstration. These usually involve the control force
required to achieve a displacement.

An example of a direction prebrief may be: this time I will get you to fly the
wingover and set up and I will talk you through the stall recovery without power.
When lowering the attitude to un-stall the wing I want you to concentrate on
relaxing the back pressure to achieve the displacement rather than pushing
forward. Any questions? (pause) Eyes out the front handing over.

10. Key words. The use of key words is critical during the direct phase. When
using the key words you must allow for the student reaction time and ensure that
your key words are keeping up with the aircraft the sequence and the student.

Sometimes during a direct you may feel compelled to introduce additional


key words in order to get the exercise back on track. To do so usually requires more
than one word. Planned key words have had meaning and context ssociated with
them. Unplanned key words present the opportunity for confusion. Power on short
finals may have the student increasing or decreasing power. It may also brak the
student thought processes and cause them to forget to flare the aircraft. Only if a
dangerous situation starts to develop or if sgnificant training value is going to be
lost would you consider taking over during a direct.
26

11. Ghosting. Whilst directing a sequence never ghost the controls and never help
him out with his control inputs. You my feel that you can save a sequence by
coming on to the controls for a couple of seconds whilst he is flying but invariably
the student will become confused as two who is actually flying the aircraft and their
concentration for the job at hand will be shattered. If necessary take over early,
discuss the problem and direct him through the sequence again. The only time you
should come on the controls without completing a formal handover/ takeover is to
avert a safety violation.

12. Debrief (DB). When considering the students first attempt at sequence under
direction you must have realistic expectations. Also you will need to consider
whether your direction affected the outcome. Essentially the outcome of a direction
is more than that of the student. Therefore it is inappropriate to criticise the student
for a poor direct. If there were several faults only the main one or two should be
addressed and student allowed to move onto the monitor.

Monitor (Mo)

13. Monitor. Essentially the monitoring phase is where the instructor checks if the
student has actually grasped the concept of what was being taught. The student will
usually never fly a perfect sequence during the monitor phase and you must allow
them to make a few mistakes without reverting to directing immediately. This means
say and do nothing unless a dangerous situation starts to develop or significant
training value is going to be lost.

If signifcant training value is going to be lost, your options are to use limited
direction or take over. A judicious key word or two way may save a sequence. Once
those key words have been given you need to again remain quite and let the
student fly the rest of the sequence. It is very easy ti continue quacking once you
have started quacking. Over-direction is one of the most common errors that
instructor make. The students perception and reaction time are developing. You will
compromise this development if you never letthe student fly the aircraft through a
sequence unaided. Limited direction is discussed in more detail later in this section.

13. Debrief (DB). The old saying a pat on the back is always better than a kick
in the pants. Holds true for flying instrction. Give praise when it is due but dont
condescend or overdo it. Conversely, avoid overly negative criticism in cockpit or
27

you will lose the student for the remainder of the sortie. Address the issues more
firmly in the sortie debrief if required.

14. Teaching cognitive skills. The majority of the early parts of Pilots Course
involves teaching psychomotor skills. Establishing the hand eye coordinatio and
fine motor skills required to physically fly an aircraft. An instructor must also be
capableof developing a students cognitive skills; ie the ability to perceive a situation
and then apply a logical sequence of events (mental skills to arrive at the required
solution/action). Such cognitive skills could be termed airmanship or capacity.
Sequences that require cognitive processing with limited psychomotor skills
are navigation and flying of instrument aproaches. Teaching cognitive skills involve
enabling the student to determine the next course of action (ie; reasoning) by
judicious questioning. Such questions should not be completely cryptic in an effort
to ensure the students gains maximum benefit from having to deduce the complete
answer. Nonetheless, they should not be so full of clues that little mental effort is
required by the student to deduce the situation. A means of overcoming this
problem is to start with a reasonably vague question, then add clues if the student
is unable to provide the answer. An example of such cognitive skills directing in
navigation could be what is our next event? An incorrect answer may be followed
successively by yes we do have to do that but what time is it now and what time is
our next pinpoint due?, do we have anything else to do before the pinpoint?,etc.

Teaching cognitive skills is somewhat time consuming by its very nature. As


a result, the Instructor must initiate such questioning some time before the events
to which it refers. If the required answer has not been solicited from the student by
the starting time of event, then the instructor should switch to command directing
for that event. The instructor must also take care not to question the student during
or immediately prior to a high workload situation where the students attention will
be diverted from the action in hand. This could cause a reduction in the standard of
the present situation plus an inability to cope with the questions being proffered.

14. Student Flying/ Instructor Talking. In general, if the studnet is flying, the
instructor should only be talking to him as part of the actual diretion phase of the
sequence. For any other discussion with the student, such as debriefing their just
completed attempt at a sequence, the instructor should take over the aircraft
controls. This enables the student to concentrate on the instructors comments
28

rather rhan being distracted by their involvement in aircraft control. With more
experienced students the requirement to take-over is not as critical.

15. Airborne Error Analysis and Correction. When considering error analysis,
the instructor should remember that the monitoring phase is not a test, but a means
of ensuring that the necessary knowledge and techniques have been imparted to
the student. The instructor should address the root cause of the problem, not
necessarily the error itself. Between sequences the instructor will have limited time
to address errors made by the student. To isolate the major one or two errors,
consider what errors if remedied will give the student the best opportunity to
complete a succesful attempt. Although there is imited time, avoid rushing in and
starting to debrief before you have thought about the problem fully.

If the student demonstrates a lack of ability, then it well may be that the
instuctor has failed in this transfer of information. Redemonstrating, further
subdivision or using a different approach may be necessary before the instructor
may reasonably assume that the fault is the stuents and not their own. A golden
rule error correction is that if the student flies two marginal/ uancceptable monitors
in a row then the third evolution is an instructor redemonstration. Another
demonstration of the correct pictures after the student has made of couple of
attempts may allow the student to quickly recognise what he really should be
seeing and doing more than any verbal description you can give him (no training
aids airborne). Also the likelihoon of the student flying a satisfactory third attempt
without another look at it is minimal due to fatigue setting in, loss of confidence and
simply forgetting the correct pictures that he saw in the first demonstration.

16. Criticism. Criticism must be constructive rather than negative. This requires that
the instructor should detail errors and methods of correction rather than abusing the
student for creating them. Abuse demonstration lack of instructional ability and
provides no benefit to the student. Constructive criticism delivered with emphaty
and understanding, no matter how vexing the situation will enhance the students
ability to learn. The self-controlled instructor will gain far more respect and success
than a screamer.

Even with the best intentions, the student may interpret an honest
assesment as negative criticism. How you interact with the studnet in the airborne
and post flight debrief is critical. The airborne environment allows little time for
29

pleasantries with negative (error and correction) points generally outweighing the
positive. The student must be told what they are doing wrong, but they should
understand that the instructor is trying to help, not just pointing out errors in
knowledge or technique.

Accordingly when providing constructive criticism, the instructor should be


wary of being overly critical as this may demoralise the student. Instructors can
readily fall into the trap of looking only for faults and thereby disregarding the
commendable aspects of a students flying. Complimentary statements can be as
productive as constructive criticism, so the instructor should give credit when credit
is due.

16. Student Psychology. Most students will at some time during their training fall into
one or more of the following behaviour patterns:

a. Over-confidence. A conceited student often displays a degree of


confidence that is not borne out their ability. The instructor should insist relentlesly
on high standards of accuracy and airmanship, criticising all imperfections in a firm
but fair manner so that the student is constantly aware of their shortcomings. A
more difficult case occasionally arises in which a feeling of inferiority or insecurity is
cloaked in an attitude of aggressiveness; the subject may betray himself by
nervous gestures or mannerisms when off their guard. This complex requires
careful handling, since repressing the apparent over-confidence may only
aggravate the cause.

b. Under Confidence. The nervous, diffident student needs encouragement.


He tends to be extremely self-critical and becomes discouraged if not assured that
their progress is normal. He should be praised freely when doing well and their
mistakes should be explained carefully without undue reflection on their ability.
Care must be taken in the air to avoid any signs of apprehension while they are in
control of the aircraft.

c. Forgetfulness. Most students forget a great deal of what they are taught
and facts must be instilled by constant revision. Ordinary carelesness, neglect of
nornal disciplinary measures and instances of genuinely poor memory are
frequently encountered. Forgetful students should be made to take a very active
part during dual instruction and should be called upon to recount on the ground
what they have been taught in the air. Faulty checks should be corrected and the
30

student made to repeat the correct drill in its entirely; periodical and incidental
checks should be called out about by the student. Neglectful flying cannot be
tolerated indefinitely, and the student should be warned that the continuation of
their training depends on improvement in this respect.

d. Inconsistency. The process of learning is an irregular one, and many


instructors are discouraged when they find their students become stale from time to
time. This is because the mind can become saturated with new ideas and the
students receptivity often deteriorates until the fresh information has been
consolidated in their memory. Flying training takes place in an entirely new medium
and it is not uncommon for a student to make a slow start, only to progress rapidly
at alater stage when they feel more at home. It is, therefore, unwise to worry unduly
if the student appears to stand still for a time. When this occurs it is best to revise
the earlier lessons until the student has recovered their pace. A lengthy lapse,
however, is usually due to some more prefound difficulty and requires close
investigation.

17. Enthusiasm. If a student becomes unusually apathetic, inattentive or erratic, it can


be due to a number of troubles. It may, of course be mere backsliding but it would
be wrong to assume this without having investigated the cause. It is always
possible that they may be distracted by a problem of their own instrictor should try
to discover as tactfully as possible and then do what they can to help. Simply
having someone in whom to confide can often redue worry. The four most common
reasons for loss of enthusiasm are private worries, loss of motivation, or pesonal
antiphaty between student and instructor.

a. Private worries. Domestic or financial problems can be very distarcting and


the student is usually reluctant to discuss them, particulary if they are of an
emotional nature. Before attempting to branch any subject with the student it is best
to make enquires among their close friends.

b. Services problems. Loss of interest may bedue to dissatisfaction with


some service matter that may not be directly related to flying. An injustice, real or
imagined, can be a source of distraction to the student. The instructor can often
explain a misunderstanding or assist in redress of a grievance before it assumes an
exaggerated importance.
31

c. Loss of motivation. A student who has been quite keen, somtimes loses
motivation for flying because of adverse comments about the aircraft they are flying
or another type which they are likely to fly in the future. They may, on the other
hand, have been upset by an accident to themself or another student. They will
seldom admit a loss of confidence but often betray it by expressing a dislike for the
student need careful treatment and must be reassured by all possible means. The
condition is usually a passing phase but it sometimes happens that the student has
sudddenly realised that they are not suited for serious flying; in this case the
necessary action will be taken by the supervisory staff.

d. Instructor/student relationship. A good nstructor/ student relationship is


essential. If incompability occurs, a change of instructor should be arranged if at all
possible, otherwise the students progress will be adversely affected. This should
not reflect poorly upon the student. Only if the student appears to be incompatible
with more than one instructor should the matter be examined more closely.
32

PROGRAM PEMBELAJARAN

1. Bab : V (Debriefing and Reports).

2. Sasaran Pelajaran : Selesai pelajaran ini para siswa diharapkan mampu :


a. memahami tentang debriefing and reports
b. memahami tentang post flight debrief
c. memahami tentang assesment
d. memahami tentang training report.

3. Waktu Pembahasan:
a. Teori : 2 Jam Pelajaran.
b. Praktek : - Jam Pelajaran.

4. Tempat Pelajaran : Kelas Pendidikan Instruktur Penerbang TNI AL.

5. Penugasan Siswa : Merangkum dan mempelajari Materi Pelajaran Bab.V


Debriefing and Reports.
33

BAB V
DEBRIEFING AND REPORTS

1. The Post Flight Debrief.

The post flight debrief. Do not make the debrief a running commentary of the sortie
from start to finish. The sortie debrief provides closure for the training outcomes of that
training outcomes of that particular sortie. It is important to debrief as soon as possible
after the sortie so that the images seen by the student airborne are still fresh. However, do
not debrief walking in as there too many distractions for the student to focus adequately.
The debrief is an extension of the error analysis already performed airborne. The outcome
of which is to leave the student in no doubt as to how they can improve their performance.
Ensure that your debrief details not just the errors created, but also the reason for those
errors and how to correct them.

If possibel the debrief should begin on agood point and generally follow the
sandwich model (ie start with some good points, then the bad bits and end on a positive
note). Prior to commencing the debrief the instructor may ask the student for their
impression of the flight. As the students progress through each phase they become more
aware of the flying environment and their own performance. This ability to self-analyse will
enhance the productivity of the students solo flights and may provide the instructor with
the answer or solutions that would not othwerwisw be discovered eg. What was the
student thinking or where were tthey looking. Be careful to not let the student waste time
on the irrelevant or indulge in self-flagellation.
34

As debriefing time is limited mush of the debrief must be devoted to error corretion
and hence the student may gain a pessimistic impression of their performance (with a
corresponding effect o confidence). give praise to the student when it is due, avoid
sarcastic criticism and never ridicule the student. If the student has misconceptions about
what has transpired they need to be addressed. The student may have seen new
problems/ situation airborne that were not discussed in the brief which may also need to
be addressed. Avoid dwelling too long on smal pooints and dragging the debrief out too
long. Debrief to the training outcomes of the sortie and try to avoid letting the debrief
become a process of rebrief/ revalidation. Briefly discuss the next sortie and guide the
students preparatory study.
When summarising the debrief highlight the two or three major points that you want
him to take away from the sortie (do not repeat the whole debrief again). Ensure the
student is clear on their grading for that sortie before they leave the debrief. If you still
need more time to assess the students performance or to discuss their performance with
the Flight Commander, tell them precisely what you are doing and then seek them out
later to personally advise them of their grading for that sortie and the logic behind it.

2. Assesment.

Never commit yourself to a final assessment of the students performance whilst


you are still in the aircraft. You may find yourself frustrated at a students inability to peform
the airborne sequences perfectly but upon reflection as to the stage thatthe student is at
on the syllabus their performance may even turn out to be above average. You will find
some sorties to beblack and white in terms of student performance but others may
require the debrief to be completed prior to you settling on a grading.

When attempting to determine what gradeto give a student refer to the world
pictures in the front of the PT51. Also review the special requirements when grading
marginal airmanship, consecutive marginals for the same sequence in consecutive flights
and the grading of remedial missions. Dont be afraid to use the full marking range of the
system. If the student flew a sequence as well as you could then it should be assessed as
such. Conversely, if it was a below average sortie mark it down for to not do so may
deprive the student of the appropriate remedition required.

When determining what you should write in the PT51 you shoud again primarily
address the root cause of any problem and then provide amplifying comments as
necessary. Any carry over problems from previous sorties should also be documented in
35

detail. Any marginal or unsatisfactory elements of the flight should be annotated in red ink
or bold to highlight these aspects to the Flight Commander and ner instructor. Any
attutude problems observed should also be annotated.

Finally, the students are required to read and initial each sortie write up after you
have completed it. Document the sortie as it was, but avoid using language or tone that
will destroy the students confidence when they read it or may be viewed as
unprofessional by others. The PT51 should also be completely consistent with your
debrief, there are to be no surprises for the student in the write up.

3. Training Report

The training report is a means by which an intructor advises the schools executive
of a student who has faile a sortie or who is consistently achieving poor results. The
executive take action on this notification by initiating remedial training or suspesion. The
training report should be regarded as a means of highlighting a students problems and
therefore enabling the schools to provide more resources, if appropriate, to rectify the
situation. The policy regarding circumstances that require a training report to be submitted
will be detailed in Unit Standing Instruction or Unit Training Instructions.
36

DAFTAR ALAT INSTRUKSI/ALAT PENOLONG INSTRUKSI

NO BAB POKOK AJARAN TEMPAT ALINS ALONGINS


1 2 3 4 5 6

- Kelas.
1 I Pendahuluan - Flash Disk a. Papan Tulis
b. LCD.
a. Umum.
c. Komputer.
b. Maksud dan Tujuan. d. Layar.
e. Pointer.
c. Ruang Lingkup.
d. Pengertian

- Kelas.
2 II Flying Instructions. - Flash Disk a. Papan Tulis
b. LCD.
a. The Instructional process.
c. Komputer.
b. The Flying Instructor d. Layar.
e. Pointer.
c. Building Raport
d. Preparation
e. The Students

- Kelas.
3 III Pre-Flight Briefings. - Flash Disk a. Papan Tulis
b. LCD.
a. Introduction
c. Komputer.
b. Briefing aids d. Layar.
e. Pointer.
c. Briefing contents
d. Sequences
e. Keywords
f. Teach How

- Kelas.
4 IV Fundamentals of Airborne - Flash Disk a. Papan Tulis
b. LCD.
37

Instruction. c. Komputer.
d. Layar.
a. Introduction
e. Pointer.
b. Demo
c. Direct
d. Monitor
e. Instructor follow through
f. Types of Demonstration
f. Teaching cognitive skills
g. Airborne error analysis
and correction
h. Students psychology

- Kelas.
5 V Debriefings and reports. - Flash Disk a. Papan Tulis
b. LCD.
a. The Post flight Debrief.
c. Komputer.
b. Assesment d. Layar.
e. Pointer.
c. Training report
38

PENYUSUN

PAKET INSTRUKSI : AIRBORNE INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUE (AIT)

UNTUK : PENDIDIKAN INSTRUKTUR PENERBANG TNI AL

DISUSUN OLEH : KAPTEN LAUT (P) ADRIANSYAH MAKMUR NRP 18317/P