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# Roll No.

## Bipin Tripathi Kumaon Institute of Technology, Dwarahat

M.Tech. (1st semester), Digital Communication
Session: 2016-2017
Coding for Reliable Communication (DC-101)

## a) What do you mean by Reliable Communication? What are the constraints?

b) Consider a discrete memory less source whose alphabet consists of K equiprobable
symbols. Explain why the use of a fixed length code for the representation of such a source
is not efficient enough.
c) State and proof Kraft inequality.
d) Explain different properties of line codes.
e) Discuss Hamming code. How error correction is done using this code.

## Q2- Attempt any two of the following: (10x2=20)

(a) Define Entropy and types of Entropy. Give relation between them. Draw the entropy curve
for binary memory less source.
(b) What is Mutual Information? Discuss the properties of Mutual Information?
(c) Two binary channels are connected in cascade, as shown in fig 2; 1. Find the overall
channel matrix of the resultant channel and draw the resultant equivalent channel diagram.
2. Find P (z1) and P(z2) when P(x1)=0.6, P(x2)=0.4.

## Q3- Attempt any two of the following: (10x2=20)

(a) A DMS X has five symbols with probabilities 0.4, 0.19, 0.16, 0.15, 0.1. Construct a
Shannon-Fano code for X, and calculate the efficiency of the code. Construct another
Shannon-Fano code and compare the results. Repeat for Huffman code and compare the
results.
(b) Discuss Shannons third theorem. Find the channel capacity of an ideal AWGN channel
with infinite bandwidth.
(c) The parity check matrix of a particular (7,4) linear block code is given by
1 1 1 0 1 0 0
[H]=[1 1 0 1 0 1 0]
1 0 1 1 0 0 1
i. Find the generator matrix.
ii. List all the code vectors.
iii. What is the minimum distance between the code words?
iv. How many errors can be detected? How many errors can be corrected?

## Q4- Attempt any two of the following: (10x2=20)

(a) Show that the code C = {0000, 0101, 1010, 1111} is a linear cyclic code. Find the generator
polynomial g(x) for C and show that every code polynomial is a multiple of g(x).
(b) Explain Markov statistical model for information source.
(c) Find the channel capacity of the binary erasure channel.

(e) Companding