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Department of Mechanical Engineering

University of Malaya
Semester 2 Session 2016/2017

KMEM4347 Energy and Environment

Title: Advantages of Using CSPF Energy Rating
Compared to EER in Malaysia


MATRIC NO. : KEM130013



In this era of globalization, air conditioning systems have become common to be installed in
various areas either in residential or commercial areas as well. Air conditioning systems could
be one of the significant energy end-use appliances in most of the countries which contribute
to peak load growth consumptions of energy in factories, buildings and houses. Southeast Asia,
for example Malaysia which is situated near the equator of the Earth would experience a
climate of tropical rain forest that is hot and humid throughout the year. Due to this climate,
the application of air conditioning system at larger scale has not been a surprise and the
utilization of air conditioners could be the largest share of the increase in electricity demand.
To date, air conditioners would be seen as less luxurious appliances as income increases.

With the increasing trend of installation and application of air conditioners for
household and commercial uses, various countries has established their own rules and
regulations so as to control and alleviate the increasing energy demand due to usage of the
appliances. For instance, Singapore, with the aid from National Environment Agency (NEA)
has established its Mandatory Energy Labelling program for all registrable items including air-
conditioners since 2008. In Malaysia, Suruhanjaya Tenaga has also established Energy
Efficiency Label program while Australia has launched its Energy Rating program.

Generally, all these regulatory measures are intended to encourage consumers to have
a deeper understanding on the benefits of energy efficiency for a greener future. Consumers
will have to select the most suitable appliances with least amount of energy consumption
according to their daily activities requirement. Besides, regulatory measures could also
stimulate the manufactures and importers to carry out more research and improvement so as to
create and innovate their products with better energy efficiency and supply to the market.

Take a further look at Malaysias air conditioning systems regulatory measures, it is

found out that method for calculation of energy efficiency for air conditioning system is defined
by energy efficiency ratio (EER). However, there is another ways of calculation for energy
efficiency for air conditioners which is cooling seasonal performance factor (CSPF) and it is
believed that CSPF could be better and more accurate in determine the energy efficiency of an
air conditioners.
This report would investigate the uses of cooling seasonal performance factor (CSPF)
and its advantages as compared to energy efficiency ratio (EER) in determining the energy
efficiency of air conditioners in Malaysia.


According to the final report from Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) based on a
workshop of Reducing Barriers to Trade through Development of a Common Protocol for
Measuring the Seasonal Energy Efficiency (SEER) of Air Conditioners, EER testing standards
are actually different from one country to another which is the major barrier of harmonization
during trading. As such, a common protocol of SEER is introduced to countries of APEC so as
to make the trading of air conditioners runs smoother. From the implementation of SEER
program, the actual performance of air conditioners can be evaluated and determined by
precisely calculate the cooling loads and electrical consumption through the cooling season.
Electric demand during peak season could be reduced and finally promote to a greener

During the workshop, several speakers from different countries have presented the
development of air conditioners energy efficiency evaluation with respective testing conditions.
Japan has moved further from SEER to implement annual cooling or heating seasonal
performance evaluation for room air conditioners. Korea standard is already available for
SEER including cooling and heating seasonal performance factor (CSPF and HSPF) for fixed-
speed compressor, multi-speed compressor and variable speed compressor with the launch of
Energy Efficiency Label and Standard Program. While in New Zealand, heat pump with 2 uses
(cooling and heating) is preferred. Energy efficiency evaluation has combined both heating and
cooling criteria together through implementation of seasonal heating & cooling performance
factor. China currently only implements SEER for variable-speed room air-conditioner but
single speed air conditioner energy efficiency evaluation is still based on EER. They plan to
use annual performance factor which combine cooling and heating criteria t evaluate energy
efficiency of air conditioner in near future. Taiwan would still use EER method with minimum
energy performance standard to evaluate room air conditioners. Development of SEER is not
finalized yet. United States has introduced SEER concept in year 1979 and their respective
standard improves over time.
According to Energy Commission Malaysia, there are 5 MS standards which are in the
enforcement of Minimum Energy Performance Standard (MEPS) while air conditioners is one
of them which is MS2597:2014. It applies to single split wall mounted air conditioner capacity
up to 25000 Btu/hr. Its energy efficiency evaluation is based on EER in which the EER values
will be divided into 5 efficiency ratings depending on the cooling capacity either less than
4.5kW or between 4.5kW and 7.1kW. the MEPSs value is equal to 2 star. Any air conditioners
that do not meet the requirements will be banned from entering the market.

A document published by bigEE has investigated the industry of energy efficient air
conditioners in South Africa. Air conditioners are not the priority appliances in South Africa
but in recent years, high demand of air conditioners can be seen especially for high income
households where by 40% of affluent homes are equipped with air conditioners. Air conditioner
has become desirable products for them. And possibly due to this, electricity tariffs have tripled
from year 2008 to 2012. Initially, South Africa has introduced a voluntary energy label mainly
targeted to refrigerators and freezers but has limited impact. Until year 2009, South Africa
National Standard was officially implemented then more focus was set towards energy efficient
products. In year 2014, compulsory specification for energy efficiency and labelling of
electrical and electronic apparatus, VC9008 was published by government which confirmed
the MEPS to be set at level B for units not exceeding 7.1kW (24000 Btu/hr) and it would come
into effect after 18 months. However, the energy efficiency evaluation is still based on
coefficient of performance (COP) or EER expressed in terms of Watt/Watt. Results will be
assigned to 7 different energy efficient classes from A to G.

While according to report year 2010 from Department of Alterative Energy

Development and Efficiency, Thailand, 46% which is the largest portion of energy
consumption in residential sector is come from air conditioner. In order to curb the issue of
high energy demand, standards are introduced so that market transformation could shift to
demand on appliances that is higher in energy efficiency and thus, saving more energy and
promoting to greener environment. Energy efficiency standard and labelling measures include
voluntary measure and mandatory measure. Mandatory measure is where the MEPS is applied
to eliminate low energy efficiency electrical appliances such as room air conditioners for either
split or non-split type. However, the test condition is still considering always at full-load, at
rated frequency and voltage with a single set of stable environmental condition. Part-load
performance of multiple or even variable speed drive units are not taken into account.
Another cooling benchmarking study has been done by Econoler, Navigant, Spain
Centre for Testing Innovation and Services (CEIS) and American Council for an Energy-
Efficient Economy (ACEEE) in partnership with The Collaborative Labeling and Appliance
Standards Program (CLASP). Part of the study includes the difference between EER and SEER
calculation in determining energy efficiency of air conditioners. SEER is firstly adopted by
United States followed by Korea and more recently Japan and China. However, in Japan, the
energy efficiency matric is reported to consumer in terms of annual performance factor (APF)
which is also defined as average of cooling seasonal performance factor (CSPF, alternative
named used by Japanese, Korean and Chinese) and heating seasonal performance factor (HSPF,
similar to SEER but in heating mode). This is due to the fact that most air conditioners sold in
Japan are reversible (equipped with heating and cooling function) thus, APF is a more
representable metrics in terms of energy efficiency of products.


3.1 Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER)

Currently, all air conditioners in Malaysia is tested accordance to MS ISO 5151:2010. In

determining the cooling capacity rating, all tests shall be conducted with the equipment
functioning at full-load operation. The electrical input values used for rating purposes shall me
measured during the cooling capacity test. For temperature setting condition, Table 1 is referred
for according to different climate condition either cool, moderate or hot climate.

Standard rating conditions

T1 T2 T3
Temperature of air entering indoor side:
- Dry-bulb 27C 21C 29C
- Wet-bulb 19C 15C 19C
Temperature of air entering outdoor side:
- Dry-bulb 35C 27C 46C
- Wet-bulb 24C 19C 24C
Condenser water temperature:
- Inlet 30C 22C 30C
- Outlet 35C 27C 35C
Test frequency Rated frequency
Test voltage Refer Table 2
T1: Standard cooling capacity rating conditions for moderate climates.
T2: Standard cooling capacity rating conditions for cool climates.
T3: Standard cooling capacity rating conditions for hot climates.
- The wet-bulb temperature condition shall only be required when testing air-cooled condensers which evaporate
the condensate.
- Equipment with dual-rated frequencies shall be tested at each frequency.
Table 1: Cooling capacity rating conditions

Rated voltagea (V) Test voltageb (V)

90 to 109 100
110 to 127 115
180 to 207 200
208 to 253 230
254 to 341 265
342 to 420 400
421 to 506 460
507 to 633 575
For equipment with dual rated voltages, such as 115/230 and 220/440, the test coltages would be 115V and 230V in the
first example, and 230V and 460V in the second example. For equipment with an extended voltage range, such as 110V to
120V or 220V to 240V, the test voltage would be 115V or 230V, respectively. Where the extended voltage range spans
two or more of the rated voltage ranges, the mean of the rated voltages shall be used to determine the test voltage from this
The voltages in this table are for capacity and performance tests other than the maximum cooling and the maximum
heating performance tests.
Table 2: Voltages for capacity and performance tests

The indoor-side air has to be maintained at 0Pa static pressure. Tests shall be conducted with
no changes to fan speed or system resistance to correct for variations from the standard
barometric pressure. Grille positions, damper positions, fan speeds and others shall be set in
accordance to manufacturers instructions. Otherwise, those setting shall be set to provide
maximum cooling capacity. The test shall be operated until equilibrium conditions has
reached. Data shall be recorded at equal intervals spanning 1min or less. And the recording of
data shall continue for at least 30minutes period.

Currently, EER and a weighted EER formulae are adopted for fixed speed and
inverter respectively. They are used to report a performance of an air conditioner in which the
calculation is as follow:

I. Non-inverter type:

( ) ( )
() =
( )
II. Inverter type:

0.4 (100% ) 0.6 (50% )

() = +
(100% ) (50% )

3.2 Cooling Seasonal Performance Factor (CSPF)

Currently, air conditioners that adopt CSPF formula for energy efficiency calculation are
calculated in accordance to ISO 16358-1:2013. However, in terms of cooling capacity test, the
air conditioners are tested in accordance with ISO 1515 which is similar to MS ISO 5151 as
above. In addition to it, if the capacity is not fixed and can be adjusted, addition information
test conditions are stated in Table 3.

Two- Multi- Default

Test Characteristics Fixed Variable
stage stage value

Full capacity (35)(W)

Full power input (35)(W)
Standard cooling

capacity Half capacity (35)(W)
Indoor DB 27C - -

WB 19C Half power input (35)(W)
Outdoor DB 35C (29)/0.914
WB 24C
Minimum capacity (35)(W)
Minimum power input
(35)(W) (29)/0.914
required test.
optional test.
NOTE1 If the minimum capacity test is measured, min (29) test is conducted first. Min (35) test may be measured or may
be calculated by using default value.
NOTE2 Volatge(s) and frequency (ies) are as given in the three referenced standards.
Table 3:Temperature conditions and default values for cooling at T1 moderate climate
condition of ISO 5151, ISO 13253 and ISO 15042

The cooling seasonal performance factor (CSPF), , of the air conditioners shall be
calculated according to formula as below.

= (1)

Where, is the cooling seasonal total load (CSTL) in Wh and is the cooling seasonal
energy consumption (CSEC) in Wh.
Cooling load is represented by a value and the assumption that it is linearly changing depending
on the change in outdoor temperature where it is defined as in Table 4.

Parameter Load zero (0) Load 100%

Cooling load (W) 0 (100 )
Temperature (C) 0 100
Table 4: Defined cooling load

Reference values of defined cooling load to be used shall be as follows:

0 = 20 and 100 = 35

The defined cooling load, ( ) at outdoor temperature , which is necessary to calculate the
cooling seasonal energy consumption, shall be determined by:

( ) = (100 ) (2)
100 0

where (100 ) is the cooling full capacity at 100 at full-load operating conditions.

Different from EER, CSPF has included outdoor temperature bin distribution for cooling as
shown in Table 5.

Bin number j 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Total

temperature, 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 -

Fractional bin
0.055 0.076 0.091 0.108 0.116 0.118 0.116 0.100 0.083 0.066 0.041 0.019 0.006 0.003 0.002
Bin hours, 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 -
Reference bin
100 139 165 196 210 215 210 181 150 120 75 35 11 6 4 1817
hours ( ) h
Table 5: Reference outdoor temperature bin distribution

From Table 5 above, bin hours of each outdoor temperature may be calculated by multiplying
the fractional bin hours by the total annual cooling hours if the fractional bin hours are

Cooling seasonal characteristic of fixed capacity units are calculated for as shown below.

Capacity ( )() of the equipment when it is operated for cooling at outdoor

temperature linearly changes depending on outdoor temperatures and thus, from two
characteristics, one at 35 and the other at 29, the formula is:
(29) (35)
( ) = (35) + (35 ) (3)
35 29

For power input ( )() of the equipment when it is operated for cooling at outdoor
temperature linearly changes depending on outdoor temperatures and thus, from two
characteristics, one at 35 and the other at 29, the formula is:

(29) (35)
( ) = (35) + (35 ) (4)
35 29

While for cooling seasonal total load (CSTL), , shall be determined from the total sum of
cooling load at each outdoor temperature multiplied by bin hours as follow:

= ( ) + ( ) (5)
=1 =+1

a) In the range of ( ) ( )( = 1 ):
( ) shall be calculated as in formula (2).
b) In the range of ( ) > ( )( = + 1 ):
( ) shall be calculated as in formula (3).

Finally, the cooling seasonal energy consumption (CSEC), , shall be determined from
the total sum of cooling energy consumption at each outdoor temperature as follow:

= ( ) ( ) (6)
( )

Operation factor ( ) shall be calculated as below:

( )
( ) = (7)
( )

In the case of ( ) > ( ), ( ) = 1

While for part load factor (PLF), ( ) that is caused by equipment when it is cyclically
operated at outdoor temperature , shall be determined by formula as follow using
degradation coefficient .

( ) = 1 [1 ( )] (8)

1. Cyclic operation ( ) ( ) = 1:
In formula (6), ( ) shall be calculated by formula (7).
In formula (7), ( ) = ( )
2. Full capacity operation ( ) > ( ):
In formula (6), ( ) = ( ) = 1

With all the relations and formula above, CSPF of a fixed capacity units of air conditioner shall
be determined. For CSPF of two-stage, multi-stage or variable stage capacity units, the
formulae are almost similar as that in fixed capacity thus, they are not stated here for simplify


In this section, case study on oversea country is carried out to investigate the adoption of
seasonal performance cooling factor (CSPF) to be applied in energy efficiency evaluation on
air conditioners. In this report, case study on Japan is done regarding on annual performance
factor (APF) which includes CSPF and HSPF (heating mode). However, focus is made more
towards CSPF as it could be the reference of applying CSPF on energy efficiency evaluation
in Malaysia.

4.1 CSPF and APF in Japan

Japan is one of the most advanced technology producer of air conditioners in the world.
Variable speed split air conditioners (inverters) was introduced in the early of 1990s in Japan.
With the technology of variable refrigerant flow, operating load condition can be altered
according to the needs of occupants in a space. A seasonal performance metric was adopted in
2004 and 2006 to catch up and set up regulatory measures with the new technology of air
conditioners for residential and commercial used respectively. Standard JRA-4046 is
developed for room air conditioners sold in Japan as single-package type or split-system type
with a rated cooling capacity not exceeding 10kW and rated electric power consumption not
exceeding 3kW. This standard has included the different load and temperature conditions to
take into account the usage characteristics of commercial equipment such as air conditioners.
To be specific, JRA-4046 is dedicated only for air conditioners with single fixed-speed
compressor or variable speed compressor but not for two speed compressor or two capacity
stages as those types of air conditioners are not sold in Japan. While for standard JRA-4048,
the different load and temperature conditions are same as residential standard. The difference
is just that JRA-4048 is dedicated to packaged air conditioners with cooling capacity not
exceeding 28kW which is primarily intended for commercial used. This standard includes
multi-split units which are not classified as room air conditioners in Japan.

4.1.1 Temperature and load conditions

Overall, the climate condition of standard APF value is evaluated based on Tokyo mild
climate although there are actually 17 other Japanese climates are being stated in the standard
as well. The trending of cooling building load graph is evaluated in straight lines which is
defined by the formulae explained in the following section.

The rated cooling capacity, is defined from building load having an outdoor air
temperature of 33C with zero load at outdoor temperature of 23C. Therefore, as compared to
ISO 5151 where the moderate climate test condition that having outdoor air temperature of
35C, the air conditioners are comparatively undersized by a few degrees.

( ) =
33 23

Where ( ) is building load having an outdoor temperature of .

While for the total operating hours, cooling season is defined as running from June to
September in Tokyo where the number of hours in the season that having outdoor temperature
exceeds 24C are binned as a function of outdoor temperature. Subsequently, the product of
number of operating hours and the cooling capacity by temperature bin is represented in the
graph as in Figure 1. From the graph, the weighted average point of the distribution occurs at
54% of full load and 28.4C.
Figure 1: Distribution of cooling energy as a function of outdoor air temperature (ECCJ, 2006)

4.1.2 CSPF and APF computation

Annual performance factor, APF is calculated as the ratio of the total thermal energy supplied
by the equipment to the total electricity consumption of the unit over the year for the default
Tokyo climate.

( + )
( + )

Where is cooling seasonal total load in kWh, is heating seasonal total load in kWh,
is cooling seasonal total electricity consumption in kWh and is heating seasonal
total electricity consumption in kWh.

While cooling seasonal performance ratio (CSPF) can be calculated as:

From calculations above, it can be seen that CSTL is the sum of cooling energy provided by
air conditioners in each temperature bin. It is linear function of the rated cooling capacity of
the air conditioner with reference to ISO 5151 moderate climate test condition for an equivalent
number of full load hours. According to the standard JRA-4046, it is found out that number of
equivalent full load operating hours is determined as 583 hours for cooling and 1421 hours for
heating. Results of CSTL and HSTL are shown in the table below.
Figure 2: CSTL and HSTL variations according to rated cooling capacity, JRA-4046 for in

4.1.3 Test Condition and Modelling for Different Load and Outdoor Temperature Pairs

For fixed speed air conditioners, the default degradation coefficient is set to 0.25. For
variable speed units, two tests are required which are ISO 5151 T1 test and the intermediate
cooling capacity test, where the manufacturer has the freedom to determine what percentage of
full load capacity for the latter test to be conducted. Normally, it would be 50% of rated
capacity by default.

4.1.4 Minimum Test Points Required for APF Rating

The minimum test points required for each of the rating is shown in Table 6.

JRA-4046 and JRA-4048 CSPF HSPF APF

Single speed compressor 1 2 3
Two capacity stages (JRA-4048 only) 2 3 5
Inverter 2 3 5
Table 6: Number of test points (required and optional)
4.1.5 Implication of Adopting CSPF in Japan

For fixed speed units, it can be seen that CSPF is directly proportional to ISO 5151 T1 EER
for fixed speed units with CSPF = 1.135 EER. While for variable speed rive units, the rated
performance could depend on efficiency at T1 condition and the efficiency at 50% reduced
capacity, such that CSPF can be defined as a function of these two efficiency values.

4.2 Comparison on Efficiency Ratings and Labelling for Air Conditioners between
Different Countries.

In this section, comparison has been done on energy labelling and rating systems for air
conditioners between Singapore, Malaysia and Australia. Besides, effect of adoption of CSPF
into Malaysia energy rating system is studied too.

4.2.1 Singapores NEA Mandatory Energy Labelling Scheme

Singapores National Environment Agency (NEA) has launched the Mandatory Energy
Labelling for registrable household-based goods in year 2008. All goods including air
conditioners have to carry with energy labels to indicate their energy efficiency so that
consumers are able to understand and choose products with higher energy efficient rating. The
energy efficiency rating has five levels from one tick to five tick where five ticks representing
the most energy efficiency appliances. The rating is important and easily recognized in energy
label design that comes with other energy-related information as well. For air conditioners, the
tick rating is determined by Coefficient of Performance (COP), which is defined as the ratio of
cooling output from an air conditioner system to the power input to the system. The unit is
expressed in terms of Watts per Watts (W/W). Currently, Minimum Energy Performance
Standard (MEPS) of Singapore is set at 3.34 for most air conditioners except for casement and
window-type air conditioners at 2.9, single-split and multi-split air conditioners (both non-
inverter) at 2.70. All the air conditioners models in Singapore are tested at 230V AC with
accordance to ISO 5151:2010 except for multi-split type which is ISO 15042:2011. For standby
mode power test, all the air conditioners models are tested with reference to IEC 62301:2005
or IEC 62301:2011. Table 7 below shows the rating system for air conditioners.
Capacity Coefficient of Performance (COP100%) (W/W)
(kW) 1 tick 2 ticks 3 ticks 4 ticks 5 ticks
2.90 3.78 4.29
COP100% 5.50 and
Casement and window 8.8 or lower COP100% < COP100% < COP100% <
4.86 Standby
3.78 4.29 4.86
powers 4
Less than 10 COP100% < COP100%
3.78 4.29
Single-split (non- 3.78 COP100% 5.50 and
COP100% < COP100% <
inverter) 2.78 4.86 Standby
4.29 4.86
10 or more COP100% < powers 4
Less than 10 COP100% <
3.78 4.29 5.50 and
Multi-split (non- 3.78 COP100%
COP100% < COP100% < Standby
inverter) 2.78 4.86
4.29 4.86 powers 9
10 or more COP100% <
Weighted Weighted
COP 3.34 Weighted Weighted Weighted COP 5.50,
Single-split (inverter) Less than 10
and COP100% COP 3.78 COP 4.29 COP 4.86 COP100%
3.06 and COP100% and COP100% and COP100% 4.86 and
Weighted COP
Weighted 3.34 3.78 4.29 Standby
10 or more
COP 2.78 power 4
Weighted Weighted
COP 3.34 COP 5.50,
Less than 10 Weighted Weighted Weighted
Multi-split (inverter) and COP100% COP100%
COP 3.78 COP 4.29 COP 4.86
COP100% 3.06 4.86 and
and COP100% and COP100% and COP100%
Weighted COP Standby
Weighted 3.34 3.78 4.29
10 or more power 9
COP 2.64
Table 7: Singapore tick rating for air conditioners

4.2.2 Australia Star Rating Scheme

The energy rating in Australia was launched based on the Greenhouse and Minimum Standards
(GEMS) legislation in year 2012. It has created a national framework for appliances and
equipment energy efficiency in Australia. In October 2004, all single phase air conditioners
will have to meet MEPS in which the minimum levels of energy efficiency for air conditioners
is 2.75 based on EER calculation method. This also applies to three phase air conditioners. The
star rating for air conditioners is evaluated from the measured EER and COP. From 2010, 1
start is equal to EER of 2.75 with an extra star for increment of 0.5 for cooling. The energy
rating label in Australia covers wide range of appliances which clearly shows the star rating
with other energy-related information as well. All air conditioners in Australia are tested in
accordance to AS/NZS3823 standard which covers testing, rating of performance for air
conditioners ad heat pumps and also energy labelling and minimum energy efficiency
requirement. Table 8: below shows the star rating of air conditioners in Australia.

Minimum EER Star rating Improvement in

Star rating
(Cooling) Increment EER Values
1 2.75 1 star 1.5 stars 0.25
1.5 3.00 1.5 starts 2 starts 0.25
2 3.25 2 starts 2.5 starts 0.25
2.5 3.50 2.5 starts 3 starts 0.25
3 3.75 3 starts 3.5 starts 0.25
3.5 4.00 3.5 starts 4 starts 0.25
4 4.25 4 starts 4.5 starts 0.25
4.5 4.50 4.5 starts 5 starts 0.25
5 4.75 5 starts 5.5 starts 0.25
5.5 5.00 5.5 starts 6 starts 0.25
6 5.25
Table 8: Australias Star Rating

4.2.3 Malaysia Energy Efficiency Program

Energy Commission in Malaysia has launched the energy efficiency program for household
appliances in year 2013. MEPS is also introduced so as to further promote the efficient use of
energy in the country. In terms of rating for air conditioners, there are 1 star to 5 stars in which
5 stars representing the most efficient product. The rating of air conditioner is based on EER
rating which is defined by ratio of cooling output from an air conditioner system to the power
input to the system. The unit is British Thermal Unit/hour per Watts (Btu/hr/W). The MEPS
for Malaysia stands is determined as 9.00 for all types of air conditioners. The rating of air
conditioners is based solely on cooling capacity where inverter or non-inverter is non-
recognizable. The energy efficiency labelling is based on Electricity Regulation 1994
(Amendments 2013) Regulation 101A (3) which states that all appliances shall come with an
energy efficient rating label. On the other hand, all air conditioners in Malaysia are tested in
accordance to MS ISO 5151:2004 (Non-ducted air-conditioners and heat pump: performance
indicator and testing standard). Table 9 below shows the star rating of air conditioners in

Star Rating Cooling Capacity EER

Less than 4.5kW 9.00 9.55
Between 4.5kW and 7.1kW 7.50 8.02
Less than 4.5kW 9.56 10.3
Between 4.5kW and 7.1kW 8.03 8.93
Less than 4.5kW 10.37 11.15
Between 4.5kW and 7.1kW 8.94 9.82
Less than 4.5kW 11.16 11.93
Between 4.5kW and 7.1kW 9.83 10.70
Less than 4.5kW 11.94
Between 4.5kW and 7.1kW 10.71
Table 9: Malaysias Star Ratings for Air Conditioners

4.3 Adoption of CSPF Evaluation in Malaysia for Air Conditioners

From the discussion and case study above, it is clearly explained that how CSPF evaluation for
energy efficiency could be better than EER. Thus, a scheme is recommended to current star
rating of air conditioners in Malaysia which specifies the requirements value according to
number of stars. Table 10 below shows the proposed implemented star ratings for air
conditioners in conjunction with the adoption of CSPF evaluation.

Star Rating Cooling Capacity CSPF (W/W)

Less than 4.5kW CSPF < 3.1
Between 4.5kW and 7.1kW CSPF < 2.9
2 Less than 4.5kW 3.1 CSPF < 3.3
Between 4.5kW and 7.1kW 2.9 CSPF < 3.1
Less than 4.5kW 3.3 CSPF < 4.6
Between 4.5kW and 7.1kW 3.1 CSPF < 4.0
Less than 4.5kW 4.6 CSPF < 5.3
Between 4.5kW and 7.1kW 4.0 CSPF < 5.1
Less than 4.5kW CSPF 5.5
Between 4.5kW and 7.1kW CSPF 5.1
Table 10: Proposed Malaysias Star Ratings for Air Conditioners


As what has been discussed in all sections above, we are able to understand different types of
energy efficiency evaluation method for air conditioners. This includes energy efficiency ratio
(EER) which defines ratio of output cooling energy to electrical input energy. However, it
seems to be less accurate as compared to cooling seasonal performance factor (CSPF) since
CSPF takes into account on how does the system behaves over a season where the outdoor
temperature varies. Currently, CSPF which is also known as seasonal EER is adopted in United
States, Japan, Korea, China and Europe. Other countries such as Taiwan, Malaysia and
Thailand has now in consideration of replacing the EER rating into CSPF rating. With the
implementation of CSPF, the illustration of the energy efficiency could be made even clearer
to the not only to consumers, but also to manufacturers so that they would give more focus
towards reality operating condition for air conditioners, rather than blindly improving the full
load condition only. Department of research and development will have to carry out continuous
innovation so as to create and introduce more and more efficient products into the market, as a
contribution to save the mother Earth. While in the point of view as a consumer, CSPF rating
that provides performance indicator which is closer to the reality situation help consumers to
make better comparison between our requirement of products and what we shall need to
purchase. Furthermore, with the aid of energy label categorized for each appliances, consumers
are able to select and choose the most suitable with high efficient products which could help
them in reducing the daily energy consumption and thus, there will be significant reduction in
the household spending such as electric bill. On the other hand, countries that adopt CSPF
evaluation on electric appliances including air conditioners based on their climatic conditions.
With the implementation of minimum energy performance standard (MEPS) and energy
efficiency labelling, those appliance that are not up to par will be eliminated from entering the
market, leaving energy efficiency products to be purchased by consumers. Thus, trend of
purchase of appliances will slowly shift to appliances with higher energy efficient. And
evaluating from years afterwards, total annual energy consumption could be reduced
significantly with considerable electricity saving and carbon dioxide emission reduction.
Eventually, with implementation all these regulatory measures, environment issues such as
global warming, climate change and resource depletion could be controlled and prevented from
becoming worse and thus, promoting a greener environment for future generation.


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