Anda di halaman 1dari 16

Process Equipment

Scrvicc lo lncluslry. Almost.


from its Iounding+-over 50 years
ago-Chain Belt Cornpany has
been identified with processing
work in industry by the materials-
handling and transmission equip-
ment it has supplied.
lt is a logical step forward to ex-
pand this service to industry in
the engineering, Iabrication and
furnishing of necessary equip-
ment for the complete processing
of various kinds. Thc pages which
follow in this section are a brief
portrayal of what is now avail-
able and a forerunner of what
will follow. Of this equipment,
the newest is:
Uo_uhlr~dcrk . . Nc_r T~1crmo-Uolo Coolcr and Hcatcr pror,e.11:J,:inf! r.i:tru." Rex Food-Processing Equipment
jutccs '" a (.ol,.[ornw plaut of o nme natfo,wl food com.panu, <:a11.~
orr. drrt1.trd aud introdurcd ino nwrhinc by thc [rrdrr rmwcynr al lhr.
"/JJ>H rcht. rn nsfcrrcd mt tlic ~lidc dwlr.--in thr r,:utr.r--Jrom th:
To the greatest industry of all=-food-e-Rcx Equip-
u 11,cr (lil'ala) drck fo ic lc!wer (roula) dccic, aml di.wlwr111d from /he ment brings a new conception of product improve-
roolrr ,irck-'11 th c l01l'fr Tl!lhl -onlo lln: wr.liurd ro1111'fif>r l,11diu,1 tu ment, cost roduction, and the lightcning of human
the ecw tur n-toblc uucl twivtcr in tite Jon'!ITUlllld, titen lo ht: rollnf ,,; ln:
labdrrs. labor. In ach ieving cornplctely original and out-
standing solutions to thc canncr's oldest problems, t.
i

l. he "know-how" of many years of .serving industry


s blended with the remarkable results of intensivo
rosearch and devclopmcnt boing carried on under . i
he
I dircction
- of capablc cngincers
Thc tested anti provcn individual items of h s
ood processing
( equipment,
), now commcrcially,
available to the carmer, are Hex Thcrrno-Rot.o
Cooler and Heater Hex Micro-Film Deaerator
and Rex Juicc Line.
This equipment in modern canning plants now
processes liquid and sem-liquid foods unbelieva- ,
bly fast, on a continuous high-production basis
yet retaining all the flavor and goodness of field-
ripened fruit and vegetables. To the canner, Rox .
Food-Processing Equipment brings operat ing
economies heretofore impossible, and the prorniso
of greatly-expanded markets through. wider con-

rf ~,.
sumer acccptance of his products

-t
--~"''""!..._ ~

. 1

J. 1l
{ \bul'c-
do.-:t-11 JI r:w of 11,c uhm c ltc s: Th cr m-r-
Roo '111rhi11c shmci11g [ccdinn ron1 q1vr .-:u~t,m
o n p pcr
t

hralcr) dcck, and-al cnro nrc lo


nmchine-c-Lhc ran clnmps (11-,,cr h-JI) tJrnl control
hc q
[ccd (mm into
in of tlic mu rh nc,

Al riyht--clmw-u, l of d-isc.har!}c cml of lhr. luwrr-


. cunrcuvr
~r.oolcr) dcck: slunoisu; thc di::-cJrnryc ; ,
curry-
t o/ ite maclcinc, uml
1119 tlie rm,s out , llie JrcJ..; cvm
1
rpldcly filkd..~ uith cuns, with r u roso u tltt: [1 ,.:t
valley rcady o be tran ..'lferrcd o tto the tli:-.rli fr1J"
434o11veyor, u ~oon a.-; il ha.'{ clcu c,l it.-;df.

CH A IN BELT COMPANY

,_
Thermo-Roto Cooler
t:
t
1:
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t.
t

'
'
t
t
Shup vie-w of a double-d~ck Ucx Turnus-Roto Coult:r, 81tuwiny ce ns bciriy rfcirculalcd thruu,yh tite lowu tfrck Jor tcstiua awl adjustmen: prfor
to :,i.ltipm.ent. 1'he fluid lines from thc hydrcrnlit: rive to lite tiariou:s opcruling r.-yltders, as -wcll as tlw lever urrattr,cmertt uctw.aliuy the draw-

Thc Hm: Thcrruo-Rot o Coolcr is a unique


bar,'f, nre rlearly showu.

4~, and 6~ inches. While all machines havethe

'tt
t
machine that swiftly cools liquid and semi-Iiquid
food products in cans. For such products as
tomato juice, fruit juices, soups, etc., this machine
provides an ideal tool for the last important opera-
same width, 5 lengths of tanks are available. The
cooling cycle can be varied through a range of
2 to 6 minutes. From various combinatons of
tank lengths, roll spacings, and cooling cycles,

t
tion in commercial canning+-cooling the sealed
can after the heat process.
Hcvolulionary in principie, the Rex Thermo-
Hoto Process achieves remarkable heat-transfer
standard machines can meet almost all normal
requirernents.
Acid-food products (tomato juice, fruit juices and
pineapple juice) can be processed as well as cooled
by the Rex Thermo-Roto Process. With steam
1
t efficiency in cooling can contents, and gives several coils at the bottom of the water tank, the machine

shorf cooling cycle (3 to 5 minutes), and

''
the

contents, while progressing the cans


through the machine by means of a
unique kicker-bar transfer. Cans are
rotated by resting in the valley
bctween two rotating live rolls. To
accommodate con- tainers of various
important benefits to the uses of the process. The diameters, Rex Thermo-Roto Machines
extremely are furnished with roll spacings of 3:1:',
continuous method of operation, result in im-
portant savings in time, man-hours of labor, water
consumption and plant space. The swift, thorough
cooling of the can contents checks the action of
prolonged high temperature and over cooking, and
preserves the texture, color, and taste of the
product.
Thc Hcx Thcrmo-Hoto Process consists of very
rapidly rotating the cans in a circulating bath of
cooling water, creating a turbulence in the can
Using a heater deck in connection with the cooler
deck, the decks are combined into a double-deck
unit, achieving savings in floor space and operat-
ing economy. The upper deck is the heater, from
which the cans are discharged directly to the lower
or cooler deck. A common drive operates both
becomes a heater, in which the temperature of the decks and synchronizes the timing. For many
can contents can be quickly elevated to 205 to 208 degrees products a 3-minute heating cycle is ample; for
Fahrenheit. Thus, processing, as well as such products the heating and cooling can be com-
cooling, of suitable acid-food products can be done on a pleted in little over 6 minutes. Double- and triple-
continuous basis with the same speed and deck coolers are practical,
ease, and similar benefits obtained for the steriliz- ing cycle.
435
OF MILWAUKEE
Thermo-Roto Cooler

(;lose-up vicw nf ff'fd-1/u/r mtr.h,11,i.o.:w xlww11 i11 il.x rcrnrcd pm:ition. U:hcn in fhis po .vit ian, nws nrr ullo1rcd lo entrr muchinc Jrmn UM
far sidc, on lhr [ceder conrcuor n'h ich i.. : ,"11lin11nll!I oprrotin. lrhr.11 thr. rou o/ ('lW.'I fill.~ h c culirc midth of marhim:, r.an clam ,x al far sdc o/
m.ad1i11c i'.nt-:fautly rlo:-.r, 11tr>1nr.utaril h11!di11q burk: fhc line nf tan.~. 'Fh c bar, iw inunrdioc forc(rnioul, .:; hc rmrnrrlion l,d1n:n1. 1/,,: frr,1-
>lrt!c and rrntejrr 111r.duu-1ism. H'hen lu: lrcrn~f,r lmr:. oncnc to url.,mirc tlu: bed. of r<ws onc val/('!/ [orirnrd, lhc row of ca.ns lu lurn .f,u.:I
nlfrrcd lhc mucinc is ntorcd into thr. Jirsl 11allr11 hclucru rol/::: tiu h ie frrd-plafr. 111,miu.9 [nr rnrd, H-'hc,i he frcd-,lafc /m,. rcinr ncd fo i . .:
rdracfcd poxilion, 11,c rnu clomp im;tantly open anrl prrmit thc i,1troduct;on nf anolhcr row of <'<rn,q to rcpeat lhc qrlc.

'-'

Hcrc, tll 1/u; cnlrnwcc fo mnchne, ln: r11n dttm.n~ ,rrc nlunrn in clo.~cd J)u.~ilion, finnly Jwldinr1 a c1rn from cnleriiur madiinti dnrin(I thc t-rcwsfa
ryrlc ... \ ddilioual c,ws lirouaht llJJ Uy ie [ecdcr cmwcyor icit: be hdd bock: untit thc fccd-plate (scc ,i/11,rc) has nuwctl back lo tlcc open -poeiiion,
;\lcamrhilc lhc feeder convcuor bclt continurs lo opcrulc, cvc,i ushen the can clam ps are doxcd, by Rlidiny undcr ie linc of cuus. Whc,i the
clam ,.s spring open, cu11.'> H!Jnin 11w1 c Jorward <it ff!Jular spr:cd, kc p! pcrfectly in liue by quidc bars thnt extcwl throu.gh thc clamps.
1 Can clamp:.
are hydraulically opcratcd (base of hydraulic cytimlcr locaied abot'c tlie clam,ps jusl shou:s in tlie pidure) which J>rOli<les in,-:lantancous aclio11
uith a powcrful, yet gcntle, grip. Tite aclion o/ the can clamps is alwa11s positivc, holding the can securel11, even if iust the head is cauyht.

436
CHA IN BELT COMPANY

-
Thermo-Roto Cooler

l?rad ou beml, he cm1s in eacb. row murily rotatc O!I onc, 11'hilc thc cntro dNk of llu: mad1i11r i.,; nmipletelu filled u1ilh lhr. !{pi11uiu!J ,mH1. l n
tl1i.1 1>irture, tlie l110 t!urmwic.~ sluno opcu 8J><ircs ll'hid, rlcurly rcvcal tne i,,murlfio-u uf lite rulfltin!I ,,rn:,; iu lu: rmrnlajlu11 of c,H,litt!I water.
The nmadoblt: heut-trunvfcr cfli,-ncy o/ fhc Ut..r. 'l'l1crmo-!foto Coolcr fa nmlily undcn;toud iu scciny ttie t'mu.:fllut wa~hiny of lite <'HIIX iu 01t
circulati'.n!) cuoli11y u-otcr, At tlu: sume tm h e ru psl: rnl<llimt uf the r.m1 ~rl.' UJ> a tu.rlmlcucc c.,f !he ru11lc11ts thu! ulw117is l1ri11ys Jn.:sh portiou
in couurt with tite n,l can WHII.

1'/ie slcwly stream of r.rLfl.,"I, ."twiftly cnlcriny crnd lcaviny lite mnrkinc, uiakt.s he o perntiun: MCt:m vcry simple, but uclually litis is 710~:(i/Jl,: only
bticu:use Uw Hex 'l'hcrmv-Jfotu <:uoler 1 a uwrvd uf syuchruni.::ution. erc, i n liie picure, the Ju:art of thc wlwle operution is cxposcd to vlt'w, the
intricute, ycl simple, co'l/trol. Split-suoud timiny is reyulaled uith ,w1,r:iny case by memt~ of lhis hydraulic-drioe arru norme nt. ''kc cuva nas
btctt removed to show tlu: Jlul incs leudiny from lhc control vulvcs lu the operatinu cylimlt!r:, ..ll:o clearlv showu in tJw Jurcyrou,ut is tite cam11hafl
as:umibly wiicli urluuies the plu119er:i to lite 'individual cuutrol talr,es. By meaus of th cams that are awn, tJw precise cv-ordillution
o/ the transfer mecnunsm uw.1 tlte cuu-clomp uperation i:J pcrfectl11 icv,,chroniutl, oml by reau.laUng thc :;peed of Ou; camslwft th~ timt! cudt:
of operation ccu be r,arierl.

437
OF MILWAUKEE
Thermo-Roto Cooler
OPERATION
Thc secrct. of t.he rcmarkahlc cfficic11cy of the the time required to progress a can from one val ley
Rex Thermo-Roto Cooler is the unique means by to the next, and (b) the rotatng cycle--the lengt.h
which the cans are kept constantly rotating, and of time the can rotates between transfers. These
at the same time steadily progressed through the two cornbined become the time cycle, and t.he
machine. During t.he entire operation ali of the cooling time - the Iength of time required for a can
rolls (with the cans carried in the valleys between to progress through the machine-is determined
the rolls) are constantly rotating. by this time cycle multiplied by the number of
valleys. A common cooling time is 3 minutes, and
From Fig. 1 it can be sccn t.hat the cnds of thc rolls with t.hc No. C-307 machinc for cxample t.o
are fittecl with shafts that extend through bearing accornplish this, the: time cycle is 6.2 seconds.
brackets. Sprockets, mounted on the cnds of thc This No. C-307 machine has 30 rolls (or 29
shafts, enable the rolls to be driven at high speed valleys), and 29 X 6.2=179.8 SCCOnds, or 3-minul.cs
by roller chain drives. Also at the cnd of each rol! cooling time.
is a transfer arm, positioncd in the bearing bracket
and operating on it, All the transfcr arms are con- Figs. 1 to 6, which follow on this and opposit.e
nected at the top to the drawbar, ancl at. t.he pagc, will hclp to explain just what happcns in
bottom to the Lransfer bars, the machine. The rclative posit.ions of the cans
nurnbercd 1 lo 4, and the rolls lcttered A lo E,
Thc operu t io n of t hc nuu-h i nc consista of two are shown during the five stages of the transfer
dist.inct operating cycles, (a) the t.ransfer cycle cycle.

_l
. GUIDE BAR ~------- DRAW BAR
14-------PIVOT PIN

ll~t--------TRANSFER ARM

~------ BEARING BRACKET


,,., ORIVE SPROCK[T

ROLL SHAFT

Fig. l \!io, of 011r. end of th,~ roll~ ct,ul tranrfer l,ars (takim a.t ri.yht rrnylcR to ttie vie1',-;
in Fiq~. :! to ,:, :,;./w1t1ing dctail:< nf our roll drise, a,id onc lrt1.11:,;.fcr bar -wilh il.'f tra nvfer
arm and f'o111wrlion lo lhe arlual1'.uy trcunbur ,

BAR RANSFER

: 1

R
BA
Fi'.::; l!tri1;'..' thr roJ_,,Jiu!J prrfod,tln! rnnnjcr lmrs rcmuin ni .n:sl al the la.nk bottmn. and it is [ronillii
poeitvon :,1til l.c tr a netcr cydc slurts. ])ur,.a thi.~ rotuliug period, note tlu the flou.: of coolino water wasltcs
thc undcrsidc of the rotaline can.s.

438

CH A IN BELT COMPANY

---------------~--" - -
Thermo-Roto Cooler
OPERA TION-- Continued

DISCHARGE
CONVEYOR
Fiy.:J .:\t tite sauutl stoyf of hc trnn~Ja ,y,f,, ... "'
0.45 ::irrond::i--lf1f' 1111tl of IJH' dro,dmr has currfrd kc ru nvfcr
arm~ parily lltrtm!llt thrr an of tr,wd. 'l'hc tra,i~Ja b11rs lm1c nmfacif',I uncl urf :~turtirty to lift th can.-: (uithuul
nwtufolly ::ilup1i11!/ rofflliori) 11, o/'a the rols,

DISCHARGE
CONVEYOR
J,'iy. 4 The tltird :~ta9,-ul 0.90 1-w,u,ul:,i -L Jwlf-woy lhrouyh lhe cyck. 'J'hc drawbur lws r,mli1t1H'tl to travel,
cmd tltc tronstcr urms lw,1e liffrd tite ccws tu tl1c loJI of Che r,,lls. ll'ltile the df'!1't'C of t'uw1crsiou of thc ran. in
the rooling water ha:,i lwni '11tflfrrially ks,.;t'wd ut litis puinl, 'llt'l't'rtJu:le.~s conlact with the cuulig water iw stifl
mair1tni11cd.

OISCHARGE
CONVEYOR
/liy. 5 1'h1t'c-jfmrlhs throuyh ll1e cyt'lc--ut 1/u: fuurth si<lflC or 1.40 :1txow/,.,,--lhe ,lrnwbar Jws rcached the [arthest
'poi ut of trcwrl anti /ui."I Hlarted lo rc urn, '/'he cans are u11er the kum] of tlie roll, and are nwmcntarily restinq
aoainsl thc back uf the ncx; trunefcr bar. 'l'Jw Ia:1t cun has ,"llurltid to rolt fo tite disr.lwrge cmwcyor.

r'

Piy, G Al ttie r.umpldiuu of lht: cycfr-al 1.8 ."lt'n111cl.-< -fJlf lru114a l111r has rdur11nl lu rrrl , awl the rulali11g
cyck ;-Cf"rls. Note tJwt tlie c,rns ha,e 1ww pru!lrt'."ISt:,I UIII' rnllcg [or u-nrd, uml lu: fost ,un is co11t1!1 0111 ou hr <li:c~
ctiome r:mweyor. /Jy vuryiny tite lf:uylh uf 01e rot11ti,,y cyrle, tltt' time qcle is rurrcspu11di11yly Hjfi'f'lt:d, utul tite
cooliny me is nlored lo suit a yirr,1 irodud u11d size oj rtmlainer.

439

OF MILWAUKEE
Thermo-Roto Cooler
COMPARISON OF COOLING METHODS
Using Convent.ional Open-Tank Method The rate of heat t.ransmission through thc con-
tainer wall is thcreby greatly accelerated, and t ho
(11 co nvcn t iouu l opcn-tank cooling n1cthods,
cooling time markedly shortencd. In t.he Rcx
the dissipation or transfcr of heat from the in-
Thermo-Roto Cooler, this turbulencc of the con-
terior of the container is principally by means of
tainer contents is induced through rapid rotation of
conduction and convcction. The rato at which
the container, whilc partially submerging it, in a flow
this heat dissipat.ion takcs place depends on sev-
of the cooling water at thc samc time. (Sce
era! factora+-the container size, the viscosity of
.Fig. 8).
the contents, the temperature difference between
the container contenta and the surrounding water Thc ralc of hcal tram;for, greatly accelerated
bath, the container material, and the thickness of by this turbulence, is furthcr directly affected hy
the so-callcd "films" that tcnd to adhere to bot.h
the speed of rotation of thc container. As the
the interior ancl the exterior surfaces of thc con- .
speed is increased, a corresponding increase in the
tainer. (Seo Fig. 7).
cflicicncy of heat transfer takes place, up to a
crit.ical specd. Ahove this critica! spced, t.hc
.
cfficioncy curve lat.tcns out and rclat.ively lil.t.l
.-------------------------
"

::_ -=-- -_-_.:_ . -::__ :_:~:: COOLING WATER::::-::_==-=.:_- :. ..

J ..
-~ _-_-_=r:': ,{
_- _-.:.: ~-=-- -,1. .
".
- -- -- - -
-- - ..
.. - \. --,
--
-------

~
.: .::::::::: = .
.
.
------------
- - - - - - - - - -, .-.
,:;,....::::
- - --- - - - - -- - - - _ ..
- _, ..;_

- -
...
.

..
..
Fi!/. '/ L'ln n diuyr11111 1;/111wi11!J fflll i1111111:r:.ol in 1>w11 n,oli11!J /1111k. /.'i!J, ,, J,'laolion di11!Jr11,n ,'-hJ1t'i1111 lurlmlr,1rr of nml,:,,/s i.n ,,111
'/'hr Jif111.<1. prnr,il ,Jfirirul r.011li11u. rol11fi11a at hiuh .~prnl.

Liquids are nolably poor conduclors of lu-u t , corresponding gain is obtained from higher
.".
and the presence of the stagnant films on both of speeds. Optimum rotative speeds for each .
the container surfaces, acting as insulating layers, product and container size are accurately de-
termined in the Chain Belt Food Laboratory.
depresses the rate of heat transmission through
the container walls. If allowcd to remain in a

.
Thc a111ou11L of hcadspacc in lhc container
quiescent state, cooling takes place very slowly.
In acldition, the mass effect of many cans closely
(whic.:h bccomes the revolving bubblc in Fig. 8)

."
also directly affects the rate of cooling. In orrlcr
packed in a basket Iurther rct.ards Lhe rato of to have auy dcgrec of turbulencc in thc c.:onLaincr,

cooling. Moreovcr, to insure thc cans al thc ccnter hcach;pace is neccssary or thc Lurbulencc cannot.
of the basket bcing properly coolcd , those a t. thc be creatccl. Whcrc headspacc is lacking, coolin~
out.sidc will nccessarilv be at much lowcr t.om- ..
...
cliciency irnmediately is depresscd.
peratures t.han necd be.

The development of the Rex Thermo-Roto Coolcr .,


Using Rex Thcrmo-Rofo Mcthod has been based on fundamental engineering prin- '11

Creating a t ur bu h-ru-c within thc container cipies. Thc unfavorable effcct of prolongcd high .
..
constant.ly washes the stagnant insulating films
off the container surfaces and exposes fresh por- 440
tions of t he hot interior to the cool container wall.
temperaturcs on canned food products has nnw processing. ~
A ~
been eliminated through swift and cert:tin

CHAIN BELT COMPANY

.
Thermo-Roto Cooler
DIMENSIONS AND CAPACITIES

~"' ~"'
z z
..,o
iil "'
Q
;;:: ";;:': .....

~! .,
. ., "
. !.

'o
-6

~
'
"'
-

CONN[C TIONS TO

FEEOCR
CONV[YORS
r TANK_~[NCTH-S([ TA~l,_~-------------

CONNECTIONS

DISCHARGE
CONVEYORS
TO

.
J,

Machinc Sizes
Machinc
Nv.
c._ m-l)i.imctcr
lks.ignatiou
I Holl Sprn.:ini!.
I11d11~s
Numlxr
or l{olls
Nominal Tank
FL,t -Tnchcs
l..cn~th,

--- . ----- - ------ ------------ -------- ---------------- -----------


C-100 211 to :307 24 9-6

C-203 " 31 11
C-306 36 13-
C-409 ,13 15-
C-512 48 17-

C-101 307 to ,JQ,I 20


!l-li
C-204 2G
11-8
C-307 13-,1
30
C-410 36
15-G
C-513 17-1
10

C-102 603 9-ti


H
C-205 " 11-8
18
C-308 21 13--1
C-411 25 15-6
C-514 28 17-1
*Thc first digit in thc designat.ion rcpresents inches, the ncxt two digit.s the extra Iraction expressed as sixtecnths o( an inch.

Determination of Capacities
Thc capacity of these machines, in cans per Cooling time for a given product and size of can
minute, is proportional to the can diameter and is dependent upon the temperature difference be-
length, and the required cooling time. The tank tween product and cooling water, and on the
therrnal characteristics of the product itself, to-
width is constant. Varying the tank length and gether with sorne other considerations. Selection
the time of the transfer cycle results in a range of of the correct size of machine will be made at Mil-
capacities for a given size of can and given cooling waukee from a study of the cooling requirements
time. and pertinent laboratory data.

441

OF MILWAUKEE
Deaerators
DEAERA TION OF LIOUID AND SEMI-LIOUID FOOD PRODUCTS

product. Act.ually desired is the elimina t ion of


oxygen, because it is the oxygen alone tha: causes
the det.rimental effects.
Liquid and serni-Iiquid food producs can be re-
duced to an oxygen-free condition by the simple
and inexpensive procedure of passing these prod-
ucts con.inuously through a deaerator. Canners
havo becn skcptical, but it has now hcr-n provn
that through deaeration "black-neck" and bubbles
are prevcnted in catsup, citrus juices retain a
better flavor, and inhibiting the oxidizing of food
products adds much to t.he products' salal.ility.
'I'Ir principie of dcacratio11 is based upan the
applicat.ion of well-known gas laws. Thc most
practica! method of deacrating liquid ami viscous
foods is to expose t.he product in thin films or
laycrs under conditions of temperat.ure n nrl pres-
surc t.hat. cause thc product to boil ami t.hercby
throw out of solution any dissolved gases. The
most effectivc means of providing the proper
temperature and pressure conditions is to intro-
duce the product into a vacuurn chamber where
the temperature is depresscd about 10 degrees
Fahrenheit below the entering ternperature of the
--
UTLET
. product.,
/ .., '. ,. .\1 frru- f,'if111 / u-cu-rotor
In t hr- Hcx Vl icro-F'i l m Deucra tor, the product
is introduced into the vacuum chamber so as to
Ali food produch dt'lcrioral( 11po11 cxpo,-;11rc form it into extremely t.hin strearns which are
lo air. Food technologists ha ve long k nown t.his impinged upon t.he interior surface in the presence
to be part.icularly true of liquid and semi-Iiquid of a high vacuum. The high vacuum causes a
products fruit, vegetable, ancl citrus juices, as port.ion of the liquid to "flash" (or bol) inl o vapor,
well as cutsup and other viscous producs. These forcing the dissolved air to come out of solution.
rapidly lose color, flavor, and aroma, when exposed The combination of largc liquid surface, high
to air. vacuum, and high-velocity impingement provides
inst.antaneous removal of boih <lissohwl and
1,Iost. hoUlcd und cuu ncd .;oods cou t ai n air occlu<lcd air. The amount of flash or temperature
in varying amounts, clepencling on the nature of drop depends on the nature of the product, and
the product, manufacturing methods, and the con- far most juices a flash of 5 to 10 degrees Fahren-
tainer vacuum. Ordinary juices contain appreci- heit is sufficient for thorough deaeration.
able amounts of air from the airpresentin the inter-
cellular spaces of the fruit or vegetable, and from Thus, the Rex Micro-Film Deaerator has been
the unavoidable addition of air during the ex- carefully designed and balanced to maintain de-
tracting and finishing processing. The air con- aeration ata level of sustained high efficienr.y, and
tained in the juice is in two forrns, (a) dissolved operating results show consistent air removal of
98 to 99 per cent. A well-known packer of catsup
und (b) occluded. Usually, t.he occluded air ap- recenUy reportcd thc prescnce of approximately
pears in the product as bubblos, more commonlv 22 ce. of air per 14-oz. boLt.lc prior to ck:1eration.
not.iced in viscous product.s, such as atsup. Afl.er dcacraLion wit.h a Hcx Micro-Film llnit, thc
air cont.cnt. was reducccl to lcss !.han J "2 ce. per
The many advantagcs secured by .he eurly elim- bott.le.
ination of oxygen from food products, as wcll as
the necessity for maintaining the product in an Thc srvcral cssc11l.ial dcmcnts of t.hc Rex
oxygen-Iroe condition, are now recognizcd by Iood Micro-Film Deaerator are (a) Lhe vacuurn cham-
technologists. ber, (b) the product flow systcm, (c) Uw vacuum
syst.em, and (d) the control system. The proper


Dcacration preven t s t.hc dcvclop111c11 t of many combination of ali these elements is essential to
off-fla vors, preserves ascorbic-acid content (Vita- dcacrator operation. ~
min C), prcvents foaming in filling, adds to t.he
shelf-life of many products, and irnproves t.he
From the illustration and description given on the

appearancc and finish of such foods as tomate following page, the functioning and int.cr-relation

catsup or any viscous product packed in glass. By
de:wration -1 rucn nl. tiJ1: climinu .ion of air Irom the
of these parts will be clear, and t.he reasons far the
supcriority of the Rex Unit will be appan,11t. ".
~
..

442 .
CHAIN BELT COMPANY
,
.
Deaerators
DET AILS OF CONSTRUCTION

VALVE TOP

Hcx Micro-Film Deaerator Sizes


I
CATSIIP JU CE

Capacil y, Capacit y,
IJ Size Callons Size Gallons
No .
pcr
Minute
No. per
Minute
STEAM EXHAUST
TO ATMOSPHERE lKD 2-l(i lJD 2- 8
2 KD l 7- 2(i 2 JD 9-12
:lKD 27-3(i :i JD 13-17

PRODLX:T OUTLET
4 KD 37-46 4JD 18-22

lllw.drtllicm of Hrx Mrrv-Flnc


i JJ-,
VcrU'rntor Hhowi11r1 rcm1umcnt t"'rf.-:.
5 KD
tiKD
47-60
sireo
5JD
6 JI)
23-27
28-32

Vacuurn Chamhcr is the shell and cover, fabri- Conlrol SY!olc111. The dual control system -flow
cated entirely of stainless steel and finished to a control and flash control -assures dependable au-
high sanitary polish both inside and out. Thc tomatic operat.ion at ali times. The rate of flow
cover is easily removed to expuse .he inside for through the deaeral.or is regulated by the modu-
quick cleaning-no pipes to disconnect or bolts to lating valve, actuated by the float mechanism and
loosen. A baffle holds product entrainment in the stainlcss steel float in the product pool. The modu-
air and vapor removal to a negligible minimum. lating val ve vares the inlet flow to exactly balance
any fiuctuations in filler demand. It is impossible to
Product Flow Syslcm consists of the inlet tee,
modulating valve, inlet pipe, elbow and spray-
pipe assembly. Ali parts are fabricated from stain-
less steel, finished inside and out to a high sanitary
polish, All fit.tings are standard stninless st.eel
sanitary it.t.ings. The product enters t.hc vacuum
flood the deaerator, and the proper volume of
deaerating space -a necessity for effective deaera-
tion is constantly maintnined.
For clicicut dcncrnt.ion .hc product must be
lashed through a given ternperature range --
1
charnber in thin streams ttirough orfices of t.he usually 10 degreos for hot products and somewhat
spray pipe and is impinged, at high velocity, less for cooler ones-v-independent of varying inlet
against the wall of the shell, There it flows down temperatures, To assure this is the function of the
t.he side in a thin film to collect in the pool at tho flash regulator. A vent valve in the vacuum sys-
bottom, from where it is withdrawn to the filler. tem is operated by the flash regulator, and thc
degree of vacuum produced in the shell is thus
\'nc11111n Syslcm. The vacuum is produced by controlled. The instrument is calibrated to main-
means of a steam jet or thermo-compressor, usng tain a 10-degree-Fahrenheit dilferential between
a dependable supply of steam at about 100 pounds the ternperature at the bulb in the inlet tee and
per square inch. This typc of vacuum production the teruperat.ure at the bulb in the product at the
means low operat.ing cost and trouble-free opera- bottom of the shell. Any variation 'in temperature
tion - +no moving parts, mechanical pumps or rno- at either point will actuate the vent val ve to corre-
tors. Steam and water consurnption amount to only spondingly chango the vacuum in the chamber
a few ccnts per hour. Usual accessories to providc ami thus irnmedintely reestablish the 10-degree-
clean dry steam to the evactor are includcd. In Fahrcnheit differential.
the deaeration of hot products the steam is usually
exhausted to the atmosphere. With cooler prod- For both the flow control and the flash regulator a
ucts, requiring higher vacuums and greater steam supply of compressed air+-at approximately 25
consumpton, a condenser is often advisable. pounds per square inch-is required.

443

OF MILWAUKEE
Deaerators

certain that there is no re-introduction of air fol-


-- COOKING KETTLE lowing deaeration. The filling equipment must be
o a type thut <loes not permit entry of uir to the
product.. T'he dcaerator unit. locat.ion prefcrably
should be such that flow from t.he unit i~ by grav-
ity rather t.han by pumping.

r1Nl5HER~ Thc sueccssf'u] irnslallalio11 of a Rcx Micro-


Film Deaerator involves more than thr- selection
of the proper-size unit., Without obligation.
traincd technologists will gladly assist by study-
HOLDING TANK ----11~ ing a problem and recornmending not only the
correct sizc deacrator unit, but also thc hcst loca-
tion for rnost cfficient operation. To permit thor-
ough study of any specific problem, it is im-
portant that the following essent.ial information
be supplied:
REX
MICRO-rlU,1
DEAREATOR_. l. Product to be deaerate<l.

2. Desired capacity in gallons per minute.

;_ ] nlct. tompcrnl.urc of t.hc product .

4. Desircd filling terupcrat.urc of t ti,i product.

5. Typc of filler or equipmcnt (witli l':tpacity I


Iollowing dcaerator.
.-rll.U.R
'l'u nil ,ul:w , G. Is source of high-pressuro steam nvailablc.
Jlow diarrom. and at what pressure?
~howinu lora/ion
o.f Kcs: fllirro-
Filsn Dcacrotor 7. Is source of compresscd air ava ilable, and
in reuion lo
othcr u11it . s, at what pressure?

8. Size and type of contemplated product line


to and from unit.

Thc Hcx 1\licro-Filr11 l>cacralor is easily lo- \.J. If any othcr product also is to be rleaerated.
cated at the ideal point in any processing line.
The typical flow diagrrn (shown above) for 10. lf future increase in capacit y is con-
catsup shows the deaerator located between the templated.
. finisher ami the filler, primarily so as to removc l L. Furnish sketch of proposed local ion show-
any air t.hat. may be introduccd by tho 'inishing ing:
opcration. With jujees, often Lhe combination of
high temperalurc and oxygen in the air rapidly (a) Rclat.ivc posit.iou of holdiuu tank or
deteriorares color and delicate flavor, as well as unit ahoad of dcaerat.or, with both hor-
Vitamin-C content. With theso, where it is irn- izontal and vertical distances.
portant to remove the oxygen prior to processing,
(b) Relativo position of filler or unit fol-
the deaerator can be placed ahead of the proc-
lowing deaerator, with both horizontal
essing unit.
and vertical distances,
In contemplat.ing deaeration it must be cautioncd
that the benefits of deaeration can easily be lost, (c) Space available for elevatinz deaerator
Before installing a deaerator in any processing unit to provide proper barometric leg
line, it is imperative to carcfully check to make on outlet line.

444

CHAIN BELT COMPANY

,.
RHAU t.Z _ A.i &JWUJSLOHW+A.l..,i&!L fi't . J'f.,.,..'"'ff._


Juice Lines

FINISHER
r---- --------~-------------.

CONTINUOUS

SALT
rEEDER

HOLDING TANK

SALTING TANK --
REX rLASH
STER LIZER
1 I

J
ro "'"" \...,."7<C-=-c~--------".=. ---"'=~-'-"- '---,.
_c,=;-r::-;"S'rS"l

'1'11 >-icul tonuo-juice fimo <ifoyram, slwwin(J location of tke t'<1rious Re Unils in relat-iou to Olll' anutlcer und olher _r.quipmerit.

The Hcx Juicc Proccssin~ Lirie provides the method of continuous high-ternperature proc-
modern canner with an amazingly swift processing essing at high speed. With tomato juice, for
method for juices and liquid-food products. Irn- exarnple, as shown in the flow diagram above, the
port ant henefits are achieved greater consurner juice flows from the finisher to the salting tank.
acceptance and product salability, high operating Here salt is continuously added, exactly propor-
efliciency resulting from continuous processing, tioned to the flow of juice. From the salting tank
and maximum econorny and profit from high- the juice goes into a holding tank or surge tank.
production capacity with a mnimum investment Next, in the Hcx Flash St.eri lizer, the juce is
in plant and equipment. heated to approximately 240 degrees Fahrenhet in
Cornph-te proccssin~-- from finisher to labeler a matter of seconds, and the processing ac-
-requires less than 10 minutes. Elapsed time, be- complished while the juice is flowing through
tween incoming yard trucks to labeled cans in the unit,
cases loaded in shipping cars, need require no From the flash sterilizer the juice goes to the Rex
more than 15 minutes. Processing retorts, cooling Micro-Film Dcacrator, where at atmospheric
tanks, and the endless and ~xpensive handling of pressure, it flashes to 208 to 210 degrees Fahren-
can baskets are obsoleto for juice processing. heit, and then flows on to the filler and closer at
'J'h dcsl ruct ion alHI i nacl ivu tion of the patho- this temperaturc. Following closing, rapid cool-
genic organisms that cause food spoilage - the ing of the cans takes place in the Bcx Thcrmo-
purpose of ali food processing -is a matter of pre- Hoto ( :oolcr, from which the cans emerge at 100
cise scientific control. Food technologists have degrees Fahrenheit ready for labeling.
dernonstrated that a vcry definite time-tempera- Thc B1x J II ice J>roccssi 11~ Linc has widc appli-
Lure rclat.ionship is necessary to successful proc- cat.ion, hutas each problem requires careful study
cssing, In bricf, the higher the processing tern- by .rained t.cchnologista, it is possible lo sketch
perature used, the shorter the processing time here only the barest outline as to what this.process is
need be. Vcry rapid processing plus rapid cooling and accomplishes. Chain Belt Technologists will
accornplishes thc necessary sterilizat ion without gladly study juice-processing problems, apply the
sacrifico of any product wholesomeness that pro- correct equipment to the given plant, and show
longed high-temperature processing might impair. what will be accomplished and what results can be
Hriefly, thc Bcx .}lricc Pnwcssin~ Li n e is a expected,

445
OF MILWAUKEE