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THE AGORA

ATHENIAN
RESULTS OF EXCAVATIONS
CONDUCTED BY
THE AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CLASSICAL STUDIES AT ATHENS
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

VOLUME XXI
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GRAFFITI AND DIPINTI

BY

MABEL LANG

THE AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CLASSICAL STUDIES AT ATHENS


PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY
1976

American School of Classical Studies at Athens


is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend access to
The Athenian Agora
www.jstor.org
PUBLISHED WITH THE AID OF A GRANT FROM MR. JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER, JR.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens
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ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data


Lang, Mabel L 1917-
Graffiti and dipinti.
(The Athenian Agora; v. 21)
Bibliography: p.
1. Athens. Agora. 2. Graffiti-Athens.
3. Inscriptions, Greek-Athens. I. Title.
II. Series: American School of Classical Studies at Athens. The
Athenian Agora; v. 21.
DF287.A23A5 vol. 21 938'.5s [938'.5] 75-40229
ISBN 0-87661-221-4

PRINTED IN GERMANY at J.J. AUGUSTIN, GLtCKSTADT


PREFACE
P erhapsevenmorethanin othervolumesof theAthenianAgoraseriesthe materialpresentedherehas
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

hadthebenefitof muchtimeandthoughtovertheyearson thepartof a goodlynumberof excavators,


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cataloguersand visitorsin the Agora. Everyoneenjoysverbalpuzzlesthat challengeone's powersof


reading(ancient)minds,andmanyhappynotionsaboutthesetextswereevolvedaroundthe tea tableso
that the 'onliebegetter'may have been lost in obscurity.
Dating of the materialhas also been a cooperativeeffort,so that the presentauthoris indebtednot
only to excavatorsbut also to the many scholarswhose study of particularkinds of materialfor
particularperiodshas broughtorderout of complicationand confusion.
Basicto this workwasfirsta completelistingof all graffitiand dipintifoundin the Agora,initiatedby
LucyTalcottand effectedby SuzanneYoung and a successionof helpfulvolunteers.Then,the founda-
tions of this study'scategoriesA throughG werelaid in a preliminary versionwrittenin the early1950's
by George A. Stamires and EugeneVanderpool.Although far more limitedin scope and numberof
piecesstudiedthan this, that workhas on severaloccasionsprovidednot only the best readingbut also
the rightphrasesin whichto presentthe material.In the yearsfollowing,the presentauthorwas for-
tunatein beingableto consultwithEugeneVanderpoolandbenefitfromhis vastexperienceof all things
Greekand graphic.His wisdomand temperedjudgmentin consequencepervadethe whole work; the
infelicitiesand whaterrorstheremay be of commisssionor omissionare all my own.
Illustrationsof the graffitihavebeenlimitedto drawings.In the case of dipintiphotographshavebeen
preferredfor one category,becauseof the difficultiespresentedby a combinationof run-oncursiveforms
and the fugitivemedium.The drawingswere made by Hero Athanasiadesand Helene Besi who have
shownboth skill and firmnessin representing whatwas actuallyvisibleratherthan being influencedby
the 'wishfulseeing'of the author.

'It is easy to read if you know what it says.' - EUGENE


VANDERPOOL

NOVEMBER,1974 MABEL LANG


TABLE OF CONTENTS
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

V
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PREFACE ........................................................................

LIST OF PLATES ............................................................ .... viii

ABBREVIATIONSAND BIBLIOGRAPHY ...................................................... ix

.........
INTRODUCTION ................ . ..................................... 1
A. ABECEDARIA ........................... . ................. ..... 6
AND LISTS ......................................................
B. MESSAGES 8
C. LOVENAMESAND HATENAMES........... ................................ 11
D. NAMESON SHERDS................... ........... ................... 16
NOTATIONS
E. NUMERICAL ON SHERDS .......................... ................... 21
F. OWNERS' MARKS ....................... ............................ 23
F. PRIVATEOWNERSHIP ...................................................... 30
FA. PUBLIC OWNERSHIP: DELTA-EPSILONLIGATURES .................................... 51
FB. PUBLICOWNERSHIP:
DELTA-ETA
LIGATURES ........ ........ ......... 52
G. DEDICATIONSAND CONVIVIAL
INSCRIPTIONS
.............................. ............ 52
H. COMMERCIAL
NOTATIONS.......................................................... 55
HA. CAPACITY....................... ............... ..................... 55
HB. TARE .6............................................................. 64
HC. DATE ................................................................ 69
HD. CONTENTS ....................................................... 72
HE. COMBINATIONS ....................................................... 75
I. TAX NOTATIONS ....... ......... ................................... 82
J. CHRISTIAN
INSCRIPTIONS............................................ 87
K. MISCELLANEOUS
NOTATIONS
......... ................................... 88
L. UNCLASSIFIEDNOTATIONS
................. ............... ................... 90
M. PICTURES ............ ..... .......................... .............. 94
DEPOSITS ................................................9...................96
CONCORDANCEOF INVENTORYAND CATALOGUENUMBERS ................................... 101

INDICES............................................ 105
INDEX NOMINUM........... .. ............................. . ..... . .......105
INDEX VERBORUM ................................................................... 110

INDEX NUMERORUM ................................................................. 115

INDEX SIGILLORUM .................................................................. 116


LIST OF PLATES
PLATE
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

1 Abecedaria (A 1-11)
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2-3 Lists and Messages (B 1-21)


4-6 Love Names and Hate Names (C 1-34)
7-9 Names on Sherds (D 1-44)
10 Numerical Notations on Sherds (E 1-16)
11-28 Owners' Marks (F 1-334)
29 Owners' Marks: De(mosion) Ligatures (Fa 1-26; Fb 1-3)
30-31 Dedications and Convivial Inscriptions (G 1-23)
32-36 Commercial Notations: Capacity (Ha 1-56)
37-38 CommercialNotations: Tare (Hb 1-31)
39-40 Commercial Notations: Date (Hc 1-26)
41-42 Commercial Notations: Contents (Hd 1-23)
42-47 CommercialNotations: Combinations (He 1-44)
48-53 Tax Notations (I 1-45)
53-54 Christian Inscriptions (J 1-12)
54-55 Miscellaneous (K 1-19)
56-59 Unclassified (L 1-56)
60-61 Pictures (M 1-23)
62 Actual State Plan of the Agora
ABBREVIATIONS AND BIBLIOGRAPHY
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Agora TheAthenianAgora,Resultsof Excavationsconductedby the AmericanSchool


of ClassicalStudiesat Athens
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III R. E. Wycherley, Literary and Epigraphical Testimonia, Princeton, 1957


(see below,Wycherley)
IV R. H. Howland, GreekLamps and their Survivals,Princeton, 1958 (see
below, Howland)
V H. S. Robinson, Pottery of the Roman Period: Chronology,Princeton,
1959(see below,Robinson,Chronology)
VI C. Grandjouan, Terracottasof the Roman Period, Princeton, 1961
VII J. Perlzweig, Lamps of the Roman Period, Princeton, 1961
VIII E. T. H. Brann, Late Geometric and Protoattic Pottery, Princeton, 1962
(see below, Brann)
X M. Lang and M. Crosby, Weights,Measures and Tokens, Princeton, 1964
XII B. A. Sparkes and L. Talcott, Black and Plain Pottery of the 6th, 5th and
4th CenturiesB. C., Princeton,1970(see below, Sparkes-Talcott)
A. J.A1. AmericanJournalof Archaeology
Annualrio Annuariodella (R.) Scuola archeologicadi Atene
Beazley, A. B. V. J. D. Beazley, Attic Black-Figure Vase-Painters,Oxford, 1956
Beazley, A. R. V. J. D. Beazley, Attic Red-FigureVase-Painters,second edition, Oxford, 1963
Bechtel Fr. Bechtel, Die historischePersonennamendes Griechischen,Halle, 1917
Bickerman E. J. Bickerman, Chronologyof the Ancient World,London, 1968
Brann Late Geometricand Protoattic Pottery. Agora, VIII
B. S. A. Annualof the British School at Athens
B. C.H. Bulletin de correspondancehellenique
C. I. L. CorpusInscriptionumLatinarum,Paris, 1862-1963
C.R. Classical Review
Edmonds J. M. Edmonds, The Fragmentsof Attic Comedy,Leiden, 1959-61
Howland Greek Lamps and their Survivals.Agora, IV
I.G. InscriptionesGraecae,Editio minor, Berlin, 1924 -
I. G. A. Imagines InscriptionumGraecarumAntiquissimarum,third edition, H. Roehl,
Berlin,1907
LG. R.R. InscriptionesGraecaead Res Romanas Pertinentes,Paris, 1906-2/
Immerwahr H. R. Immerwahr,"Some Inscriptionson Attic Pottery," The James Sprunt
Studies in History and Political Science, XLVI, 1964, pp. 16-27
Jeffery, L. S. A. G. Lillian H. Jeffery, The Local Scripts of Archaic Greece, Oxford, 1961
Kretschmer P. Kretschmer,Die griechischenVaseninschriften,Giitersloh, 1894
Kubitschek W. Kubitschek, GrundriJ3fi
der antiken Zeitrechnung,Munich, 1928
LSJ H. G. Liddell,R. Scott, H. S. Jones,A Greek-English
Lexicon,Oxford,1925-
40
Meisterhans2 K. Meisterhans, Grammatikder attischen Inschriften, second edition, Berlin,
1888
x ABBREVIATIONS AND BIBLIOGRAPHY

Metrolog. Script. MetrologicorumScriptorumReliquiae,Leipzig, 1864-1866


P. Oxy. Papyri,B. P. Grenfelland A. S. Hunt, ed., London, 1898-
Oxyrhynchus
Pape J. E. Pape, Worterbuchder griechischenEigennamen,third edition (G. Benseler),
Braunschweig,1884
Prosop. Att. J. E. Kirchner, ProsopographiaAttica, Berlin, 1901-03
Robinson, Chronology Pottery of the Roman Period: Chronology.Agora, V
Robinsonand Fluck D. M. Robinson and E. J. Fluck, A Study of Greek Love-Names,Baltimore,
1937
Roehl See I. G. A. above
S. E. G. SupplementunEpigraphicumGraecum,Leyden, 1923
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Sparkes-Talcott Black and Plain Pottery of the 6th, 5th and 4th CenturiesB.C. Agora, XII
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

Tolstoy J. Tolstoy, Grecheskie Graffiti drevnikh gorodov Severnogo Prichernomoreia,


1953
Moskva-Leningrad,
Wycherley Literary and EpigraphicalTestimonia.Agora, III
INTRODUCTION
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Informal inscriptions,incisedor painted,appearon over 3000 pieces (pottery,lamps,miscellaneous


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clay) cataloguedin the Agora excavations.At least one-thirdof these consist of one or two letters
only, incisedon the bottom of smallvessels,perhapsas marksof ownership,or paintedon the necks
of unglazedamphoras,perhapsas somekindof commercialnotation.Thebrevityof thesetextsallowsso
greata varietyof interpretations that publicationwouldserveno usefulpurpose;it is sufficientto note
the largenumberof suchcurtailedabbreviations.In additionto the completeinscriptionsof one or two
letterstherearemanybrokeninscriptionsconsistingof onlya fewletterswhichadmitof so manypossible
restorationsthat nothingcertaincan be learnedfrom them.This publicationthereforeis limitedto the
859 graffitiand dipintiwhichhave sufficientcontentto be meaningful,whetherthe meaningis clearor
not. The selectedpiecesrangein timefromthe late 8th centuryB.C.,whenlettersfirstappearon pottery,
to the 6th centuryof our era. Sincethe varietyof the materialis so great,otherspecificcriteriaemployed
in the selectioncan best be listedin connectionwiththe variouscategoriesof texts.
Certaintypes of inscriptionson potterydo not belongin this studyand will be more appropriately
dealtwith elsewhere:
1) Ostraka;
2) Artists' signatures,love names and other paintedinscriptionson black-figuredand red-figured
pottery;
3) Convivialinscriptionspaintedon Hellenisticpotteryand Late Romanmotto mugs, and all other
paintedinscriptionswhichare part of the decorationof the pot;
4) Stampedor moldedinscriptionssuchas amphorahandles,lampsignatures,Arretinestamps,etc.
Classification
Variousas the selectedmaterialis, themajorityof itemsfallsreadilyinto a comparatively
smallnumber
of categories:
A. Abecedaria
B. Messagesand Lists
C. Love Namesand Hate Names
D. Names on Sherds
E. NumericalNotationson Sherds
F. Owners'Marks
F. PrivateOwnership
Fa. Public Ownership,Delta-epsilonLigatures
Fb. Public Ownership,Delta-etaLigatures
G. Dedicationsand ConvivialInscriptions
H. CommercialNotations
Ha. Capacity
Hb. Tare
Hc. Date
2 INTRODUCTION

Hd. Contents
He. Combinations
I. Tax Notations
J. ChristianInscriptions
K. Miscellaneous
L. Unclassified
M. Pictures
An introductionto eachcategorydefinesthe type,indicatesspecialcharacteristics
and suggestsparallels,
purpose,etc.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Dating and Provenience


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Theremay be as manyas threekindsof evidencebearingon the date of any particularinscription:


1) form of the letters;2) date of the object on which the inscriptionwas written;3) date of the de-
posit in whichit was found. Sometimesall threeof these lines may give a result;sometimes,however,
thewritingmaybe characterless, the pot fragmentmaybe featureless,or the contextmaybe meaningless.
Although the date of the inscriptionis whatwe haveto determine,it must most often be arrivedat by
means of one of the other dates, since the chronology of letter forms is not as yet an exact science. The
context date will often be the most convenient. Where the date of the pot agrees closely with the context
date,it seemsunnecessaryto give a datefor the pot as well. Dates for the pots are includedtherefore
onlywherethe contextis meaninglessor wherethe pot is obviouslyearlierthanits context.For the most
part,threedateswillbe givenonlywhentheyaredifferent,as for examplefor a geometricsherdinscribed
in the 7th century B.C. and found in a 5th-centuryB.C. context.
The arrangementof inscriptionsin each categoryis chronological,but since there is considerable
differencein the degreeof accuracypossiblefor variousitems,the orderin somecasesis purelyconven-
tional.Thusthose pieceswhichcan not be datedmorecloselythan to a centuryfollow those that have
beenassignedto a particularquarteror half of thatcenturyeventhoughtheymayindeedbe earlierthan
the second-halfor fourth-quarter pieces.Even more vague are dates like EarlyRoman (roughly1st-
early3rd centuriesafterChrist)or LateRoman(late 3rd-6thcenturies)whichcoverstill longerperiods
of time.
Whenthe sherdor pot comesfroma closeddeposit,the depositnumberon the Agoragridis given.A
list of the depositswithall piecesherepublishedfromeachwill be foundin the indexof Deposits.When
a piece comes in a fill predominantlyof one period,thoughnot a closed deposit,the context date is
given withouta depositnumber.Whenan item was found in an area whichprovidedno information
concerningits date, no mentionis madeof provenience.
PublicationReferences
Whena piece has alreadybeen eithernoted in a preliminaryreportor moreformallypublishedin a
specialstudyin Hesperiaor in an Agoravolume,the publicationreference(oftenonly the most recent)
is includedin the first paragraphof the cataloguedescription.This referencemay be in the form of
volumeand pagenumbersor expressedas an equationbetweenthe cataloguenumberhereassignedand
that givenin the otherpublication,e.g., "Ha 26 (P 9902).Round-mouthed jug, Robinson,Chronology,
M 169" or "F 177 (L 4212).Black-glazedlamp(= Howland,no. 267)." Frequentlythe shapeand form
of a vesselis definedwith referenceto examplesalreadypublishedand datedeitherin Hesperiaor one
of the AthenianAgoravolumes.See list of Abbreviationsfor shortformsof reference.

Letter-shapesand Spelling
The varietyof shapeswhicheachlettermay takeis dependenton severalfactorsof whichchronology
is only one; othersarethe natureof the writingsurface,the natureof the writingimplement,the writing
INTRODUCTION 3
skill of the inscriber,and the amount of care which he has taken. Thus anything but the most painstaking
incision on (or through) good black glaze results in angular letters and straight lines where curves might
be expected. A very fine metal point is easier to control but seems not to have been used so often as some
blunter instrument.The older, softer fabrics lend themselvesmore to curved lines so that even the straight
uprightsof alphaanddeltaareoftencurved.A writerwhoknowshis letterswellproducesmorerecogniz-
able shapes than one who drawseach line without much feeling for the appearanceof the letter as a whole.
Becauseof thesefactorsit is not practicableto see all differencesin letter-shapesas relevantto thedate
and development of the alphabet. For example, even though epsilons are known to develop from tailed
to untailed, a good black-glazed sherd of the 5th century B.C. may show a long-tailed epsilon while those
on a coarse pot of the 6th century B.C.are without a tail. One or more of a number of reasons may be
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

involved:the hardsurfaceof blackglazerequiresso muchpressurethatcompletecontroloverthe length


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of line may be lost; the 5th-centurywriter may be an old man using the letter-shapesof his early youth;
the 6th-centurywriter may have been a careful person who had established a base line below which he
did not go, etc.
Spelling, and the use of Attic or Ionic alphabet, are also subjectto other influencesthan that of chronol-
ogy. Although in formalpublicinscriptionsthe Ionic alphabetwas not ordinarilyused until 403 B.C.,
individualsin Athenswere open to influencesof many sorts: citizensmay have been quickto pick up
the morepreciseIonic vowelsfor greaterclarity;meticsand slavesmay havebroughttheirown writing
habitswith them. In a time beforedictionaries,therecan have been no standardof spellingor even of
pronunciation,so that even with the best will in the worldspellingwill havebeenidiosyncratic.A good
example of the range and variety of both letter-shapesand spelling possible to individuals all writing at
the sametime may be the ostrakacast againstThemistoklesin the 480's:
Theta-square or round;crossbarredor dotted
Epsilon-bars horizontalor slanted;omittedat least once
Mu-last leg of equalor unequallength
Iota-sometimes omitted
Sigma-most often three-barred,occasionallyfour or more; sometimesdoubled, or reversed,or omitted
Tau-most often writtentheta,occasionallytau
Omicron-squareor round
Kappa-no variety
Lambda-alwaysAttic
Epsilon-see above; eithersingleor doubled;omittedat least once
Sigma-see above
The letters of Neokleous not already dealt with are only nu (last leg may be equal or unequal) and the
diphthong (most often omicron, occasionally omega). In Phrearriosthe phi may be square or round, the
rho'smaybe tailedor not, and the rho in the middlemay be singleor double,both withand withouteta
as the aspirate.
A close studyof letter-shapeshas beenincludedin the introductionto Owners'Marks(F), sincethis
category alone not only covers our whole time span from early 7th century B.C.to the 6th century of our
era but also provides a sufficientnumber of similar texts for statistical purposes. The conclusions arrived
at for that one group can here be tested on all categories; they appear generallyto hold true.
"A more or less standard old Attic alphabet(A or ABAAEIIH?IKLNMNOPP$TVOX or +)lis used with
only a few exceptions and variant forms through the second quarter of the 5th century B.C."(p.23
below). Obviously these standard shapes will often only be approximatedby writerswho may be unskilled
or using intractable materials,but in addition there are real exceptions which may be tabulatedas follows:

Digamma is not used alphabeticallybut only numerically;koppa is used more exceptionallythan regularly;xi and psi are
regularlyindicatedby the combinationof chi and phi, respectively,with sigma.
4 INTRODUCTION

Norm Exceptions
A r (B5; C24; F48)
A A (A3,A4) A (E8) D (F50)
g (B1; F14)
H B (B1; C1,C8; D6; F53; L3)
? 0 (A3; C3,C17, C 21; F12,F13, F 26) ffi (F31)
K 9 (D4,D5,D12,D18; K2,K3)
!. A (B2; C 7, C 13, C 15, C 20, C 24; D27, D 39; F56,F59, F 74)
XI 5 (D35,D39; F53)
O O (B7; D35; F64; G4)
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P q (A2) D (B1, B4; D l; F20,F23,F24,F39,F41; Hal)


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R (B7; D6, D 25, D 37, D 39; F


E3; F43, 61-63)
S I (F2; K1) i (B1, B2, B4, B5; C15; D25-27; E3; F1, F16, F42, F44, F56,
F75, F77; L3)
Z (C2,C9,C 18; D1,D3,D7,D 10, D12, D14, D18, D23, D24; F6,F12, F13,F18,
F23; K4)
(D e (D15; F50) 0 (F43) lI (F66)
X+ Y (F25, F65)
O Q (A3; C24; F56,F75, F78) w (F72)

Perhapsmost interestingis the use of the two exceptionalsigmas(four-barred


andreversedthree-barred)
for special purposes like word-ends and to combine with chi for xi; see below in introduction to Names
on Sherds(D) (below,pp. 16-17). "Punctuation"in this periodis limited:a line dividingthe end from
the beginningof a text writtenin a circle(C 16; seen somewhatlater in F 83, F 92); dot punctuation
betweensome words(B 1, B 3; F 18, F 24; G 2); spacesbetweenwords(C 14).
"Withthemiddleof the [5th]century[B.C.]thebalanceshiftsso that theruleis a moreor less standard
Ionicalphabet(ABrAEIHOIKAMNsOPPTY(DXYQ)2 witha graduallydiminishingnumberof exceptions"
(p. 24 below).The exceptionsfor all categoriesmay be seen in the followingchart,whichis primarily
designedto show the transitionin the 5th and 4th centuriesB.C.from Attic to Ionic forms;the later
changesand introductionof cursiveformsare not for the most partindicated;only someof the earliest
examples of cursive letters are noted; it is understood that these became fairly general by the 1st cen-
tury B.C.

Norm Exceptions
A A (F94,F 169) A (F 157, F 183) A (G 16)
E E (F 198,F 210; G 13)
I Z (F178; G19)
= +( (F85) I (Ha 17) i (K 13)
P P (F81, F84, F105)
, (F 84, F 118, F 119, F 125; Ha 8) C (F 165, F 182, F 196, F 202-204)
C (Ha 17)
(D + (F 126, F 152) c (F 151,F211)
X + (F 85; Ha2, Ha10; K7)
Q 0 (B9; D41; G7) co (F 138, F 199, F 212; K 12)

2 Xi
with or without the center uprightoccurs indifferently;the tailed upsilon is not immediatelygeneraland can not always be
certainlydistinguishedin carelesswriting.
INTRODUCTION 5

For the use of the long vowelsalso the middleof the 5th centuryB.C.is a time of transition.In the
earlierperiodeta is used for the aspirate,and epsilonis used for both short and long vowel and for
epsilon-iota,with the followingexceptions:epsilon-iotafor epsilon-iota(B 2, B 6; C 7, C 10, C 19;
D 8, D 25, D 36; F 3, F 12, F 13; G 1, G 4); eta for the long vowel (B 7, B 8; C 18, C 23; D 35; F 15,
F 53); eta for the diphthongor shortvowel (C 8; F 55); no aspirate(B 7, B 8; C 8; D 13, D 16; F 54).
After the mid-5thcenturyB.C.thereis a change,and eta is used for the long vowel, exceptperhapsin
F 84, F 116,F 123 and G 6. In the earlierperiodomicronis used for both shortand long vowel and for
omicron-upsilon,with only two exceptions:the diphthongis writtenout in F 23; omegais writtenin
F 56, F 72, F 75, F 78. After the mid-5thcenturyB.C. omegais used for the long vowel exceptin F 85,
F 132,F 145, G 6 andG 7. Omicroncontinuesin use for omicron-upsilon well into the 4th centuryB.C.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

with only one exception(F 144); omicron-upsilon becomesgeneralin the late 4th centuryB.C.
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Some otherconfusionabout vowelspersists:pEV&ofor live'o(C 2, C 14); iota for epsilon-iota(D 1,


D 25; G 8); eta for epsilon(B 14; D 35; F 127) or iota (D 42); epsilon-iotafor epsilon(C 33; F 65);
omegafor omicron(F 160). And frequentin latertimesis epsilonfor alpha-iota(Ha 25, Ha 32; I 18).
Other spelling "errors" less easily categorized include: delta for zeta (B 13 -rriTpacrri.lia;C 33 2amadlaI);
interchange of aspirated and unaspirated consonants (D 16 'Iqo7Oye;F 11 .SaSi F 184 MTrSIKi; Hb 22
KOiTrov;119 Ovuicovos; K 1 lrp&aTros);and others (D 34 AVVK[; G 15 Trril;Ha 1 1*-erpio;Hd 1 oaXoS;
He 6 Atowo6iov; I 11 OiK[; 1 23 ME.9fvri).
Single letters are omitted as follows: B 2 Ka<I>vos; C 5 'OXU< 1> TO6viKoS; C 9 'Eyr<( p)>arcs; D 1
pca-os; D 10 nlpacxx<i>v6;D 32 N?OK<A>ovsU;
ntlaa(<T> F 46 MeXa<(y>K6CIa; F 84 cl0<i(>3pES; Ha 15
l>
Kv< (ov); Ha 23 L
<a-r>TrIs; 8 rr<v>T6.The iota subscript is omitted in B 17, B 18 and G21, and a
wholesyllablemayhave been omittedin B 6. The only casesin whichlettershavebeenaddedare where
a sigmabeforea dentalhas been doubled (F 26, F 77; He 31) and in C 19 ('AXXKato).For the most
part, however,double consonantsare writtenas singles:B 17; D 11, D 16, D 17, D 21, D 30, D 35;
F3, F 58,F62,F103,F138,F 168; 120.
The generalpracticefollowedin the directionof writingis also discussedin the introductionto
Owners'Marks(below,p. 23). Retrogradewritingand boustrophedonappearonly in categoriesA, D
and F, and the boustrophedonin D is most often a resultof followingthe edge of the sherd.As one
mightexpect,ligaturesandmonogramsarelimitedto the Owners'Markscategory.Abbreviationsare of
differentsorts: the variouslyshortenedforms of namesused to identifypropertyin particularcircum-
stances(below,pp. 26-28); standardizedformsof weights,measures,etc. which appearin commercial
notations(below,pp. 56-57).
Nothing more in the way of generalintroductionseemseithernecessaryor desirable.It is not even
possibleto pointto any parallelworkthatincludesthe variety,numberand scopeof textsthat mightbe
useful.One collection,that of J. Tolstoy, does cover much of the same groundas our earliermaterial
(A-G), but in all casesspecific parallelscan be most effectivelyquotedin connectionwiththe particular
categoriesor items.

CONVENTIONS
All dates before Christare so indicated.Dates not thus markedbelong to our era.
Inscriptionsin the Attic alphabetare transcribedas they are written. For the sake of clarityor
to indicateour interpretation,we sometimesgive a paralleltext in the Ionic alphabet.Otherwisea
name or word will appearin Ionic letters only in the appropriateindex.
Exceptwhere otherwisenoted, all drawingsare actual size. Since in the interestsof accuracythe
drawingswere made as faithfulrepresentationsof the inscriptionsratherthan as illustrationsof the
readings given here, they often include marks and lines which have seemed to us irrelevantand
immaterial.
6 A. ABECEDARIA

The Agora inventorynumberis given in parenthesesafter the presentcataloguenumber.A con-


cordancein the order of the Agora numbersis given below.
The dimensionsof vesselsare for the most partgivenonly in those categories(Capacity,Tare,etc.)
wherethe size of the pot is relevantto its inscription.
1. = liter, m. = meter, H. = height, D. = diameter, P. = preserved.

A. ABECEDARIA
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

The elevenabecedariafoundin the Agoraare all now incomplete;only fivemay havebeen originally
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

complete(A 2, A 3 almost certainly;A 1, A 4, A 5 probably),but all the rest were fragmentaryin in-
tention.The differenceis clearlya chronologicalone: throughthe early5thcenturyB.C. completealpha-
bets werewrittenout, perhapsas modelsin the spreadof literacy,perhapsfrom the sheerpleasureof
exercisinga new skill; from the 4th centuryB.C. on only the beginningof the alphabetwas written,
perhapsfor magicalpurposes,perhapsas a proof of literacyor as a countingdevice.The chronological
range,as for all classesof informalepigraphyin the Agora,is wide,fromthe 8th centuryB.C. to the 4th
centuryof ourera,withmorethanhalfthe examplesin the 5thand4th centuriesB.C.
Letter-shapesare for the most part canonical.In the early examples(A 1-5) the forms of the old
Attic alphabetare constantwith only slight variations:the rectangulardigammaratherthan the F-
shapeappearsin A 2, A 3; deltawith a dot substitutedfor its bottomstrokeis seenin A 3, A 4; the dot-
ted thetaof A 3 combineswithits inclusionof omegato suggestforeigninfluence.In the laterexamples
(A 6-11) the only notablepointsare:an old Attic gammain A 6 whichis out of placein the 4th century
B.C.; more chronologically to be expected,a broken-barred alphain A 10 and a lunateepsilonand Z-
shapedzeta in A 11. The numberof lettersincludedin these fragmentaryabecedariais howeververy
limited,so thatwe mayexpectmuchmoreevidencefor letter-shapes fromothercategoriesof inscriptions.
The scantinessand incompletenessof the abecedariaare most disappointingfor the studyof alpha-
beticorder,sinceno othertextsprovideevidencefor this. Of the two pointswhichshouldbe noted,one
is familiarandthe otheris withoutparallel:it was to be expectedthat the sixthplacewouldbe takenby
digammaonly in the earlyalphabets(A 1-3) and that the digammawoulddisappearlater,but the final
letter-orderof A 3 (chi, phi, omega)must be eithera mistakeor a reflectionof the orderin whichthe
non-Phoenicianletterswereaddedin some omega-usingenvironment.
Again,in the directionof writingmost of the abecedariaare seen to be typicalof theirtimes:A 1 as
the earliestpiece is not only retrogradein both lines with the two upsidedown to each otherbut also
showsat least two lettersreversed(epsilonand digamma);with one exceptionthe laterpiecesall read
from left to right(withonly one letterreversedin A 2). The peculiarityof A 5, whichreadsfirstfrom
bottomto top and then reverses,is more likelyto resultfrom lack of skill than to be an indicationof
date.
PreviouslyknownAtticabecedariaareneithernumerousnor particularlysignificant.Theyincludeone
piecepublishedin Bull.dell'Inst.di Corrisp.archeol.,1867,p. 75 whichseemsto be a numericalalphabet,
includingdigamma,koppa and sampi,and at least two examplesamongthe Hymettossherds(C. W.
Blegen,A.J.A., XXXVIII, 1934,pp. 10-28, no. 10: alpha, beta, gamma; R. S. Young, A.J.A., XLIV,
1940, pp. 1-9, no. 9: alpha, beta, gamma, delta), which belong to the 7th century B.C.As far as abece-
dariafromthe restof Greeceareconcernedthe latestgeneraltreatmentis thatin Jeffery,L.S.A.G.
A. ABECEDARIA 7

A 1 (MC 907). P1. 1. Pyramidal loomweight, A 4 (P 13282). P1. 1. Fragment from the wall of a
much worn at the edges, inscribed with an small closed vase. Graffito scratched through
abecedariumon one of the broadfaces and with black glaze on outside. Context: early 5th
a horse and rideron thebottom(M 1). Context: century B.C. (H 12).
late 8th-early 7th centuries B.C. (N 11:6). Early V cent. B.c. a [ y [
Hesperia,XXX, 1961,p. 146, R 22, pl. 23. The delta appears to have been dotted, as in
VIII-VII cent. B.C. a py ? r . . KX
v. A3.
(retrograde)
A 5 (P2707). P1.1. Fragment of black-glazed
All trace of theta, iota and the upperhalf of
cup-kotyle of early 5th-century B.C. type, like
kappaare lost as a resultof wear on the lower Hesperia, XV, 1946, p. 293, no. 78, pl. 45.
edges. Surfacewear has obliteratedsome other
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Context:early5thcenturyB.C.(G 6:3). Graffito


strokes: the lower crossbars of epsilon, the on both upperand lowersurfaces.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

crossbars of zeta and the slanting stroke of


lambda.The directionof writingis retrograde, Early V cent. B.C. (lower surface) K a [3y 5
but some lettersface in the oppositedirection: The firstthreelettersof the alphabet,reading
epsilon and digamma. Theta and iota must from the bottomup, arequiteclear.Abovethem
have turnedthe corneron the now worn edge a delta and an epsilon (reversedorientation)
so that the secondline also readsfrom rightto can be made out. Below the alpha is a large
left and is upside down to the first line. kappa. On the upper surface a few scratches
A 2 (P 6074, P 3272). P1. 1. Two fragments from may representan even less successfulattempt.
the shoulder of a large amphora of 6th-century A 6 (L 3773). PI. 1. A fragmentof the body of a
B.C.type, like Hesperia, VII, 1938, p. 378, no. 9, black-glazed lamp of the 4th century B.C.
fig. 14. The smallerfragmentwas found in a (= Howland,no. 277, Type 25A). Graffitoon
layerof the 6thcenturyB.C.insidethe Hellenistic the outer wall. Context: mid-4th centuryB.C.
Metroon;the largerpiece was found besidethe (F 19:2).
foundationsof the Metroonbut in association IV cent. B.C.(near the handle) q K 3 y P3a K
with7th-to 6th-centuryB.C.pottery.Graffitoon a (<y>)
inside.The two fragmentsdo not join but evid-
ently belong to the same alphabeticalexercise. (at the nozzle) K[
VI cent. B.C. (a) a PyE This should probably be regarded as an
a3py5E r .l alphabeticexercise,perhapswith magicalsigni-
(b) ] i KX[ ficance,ratherthan as an abecedarium.
po[
From its location on the sherd,the first line A 7 (P 1504).P1.1. A fragmentpreservingsomeof
of (a) seemsto be an incorrectimitationrather the rim and body of a black-glazedfish-plateof
than a false start.For the rectangulardigamma, the 4th century B.C. Inscribed on the under
see .G., I2, 760 and Tod, B.S.A., XLV, 1950,
surface.
p. 135; see also A3 below. Rho is the only IV cent. B.C. a y
letterwrittenin reverse. A 8 (P 22110).P1.1. A fragmentfrom the wall of
A 3 (P 7247). P1. Fragment a black-glazed a black-glazedbowl. Graffitoon outside,upside
1. of
kylixbase of early5th-centuryB.C.type, related down to the pot. Context: 4th century B.C.
to Bloesch's Acropolisgroup (H. Bloesch, For- IV cent. B.C. a Py 6E [
men attischer Schalen, Bern, 1940, pl. 39, 1).
Graffitoon uppersurface. A 9 (L 4414). P1.1. Lampfragment(= Howland,
no. 599, Type 46B). Graffitoon underside.
Early V cent. B.C. ] .y6? E F ri[ ] Xc
Mid-III cent. B.C. a P3y
Somewhatless than half the foot is preserved,
but it is clear from the arrangementof the A 10 (P 2145). P1.1. Part of a black-glazedbowl
lettersthat the alphabetwentall the way around of 2nd-centuryB.C. fabric. Graffito on floor.
so that its end its
overlaps beginning. For the II cent. B.C. a y
dotted delta, which is also found on ostraka of
the early 5th century B.C., see Kretschmer,p. 96 A 11 (P 18248). P1. 1. Flat-bottomed jug of early
and Beazley, A.J.A., LII, 1948, p. 336. Theta is 4th-century type, like Robinson, Chronology,
also dotted. The order of the non-Phoenician M 228. Graffito on shoulder.
letters can not be paralleled. Early IV cent. a 3 y 8 EL
8 B. MESSAGES AND LISTS

B. MESSAGES AND LISTS

Messagesand lists were for the most part writtenon potsherds,which were used as we use scrap
paperfor casualnotes and notations.OnlyB 17 and B 18 werecertainlywrittenon the completevessel,
whichwas, in thesecases,the subjector objectof the message.
Themessages,whichrangein datefrommid-6thcenturyB.C. (B 1) to the 2nd-3rdcenturiesof our era
(B 18), includeboth notes urgingsome action (B 1, B 2, B 7) and whatmay best be thoughtof as tags
accompanyingand explainingvariousthingsdelivered(B 6, B 9, B 17, B 18). The lists, rangingin date
fromthe 4th-3rdcenturiesB.C. to the 5th centuryof our era, aremostlykitcheninventoriesor shopping
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

lists (B 12-16,B 20) withone (B 19)morelimitedto pharmaceutical itemsandanother(B 21) to amounts


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

of wine.Other itemsare moreuncertain since they are too fragmentaryto providecontinuoustexts:B 5


may be a list of men in variousrelationships;B 8 and B 11 mightbe literaryquotations;B 10 couldbe
a B 3 4
an informalcopy of contractor treaty; and B are completelyuncertain.
The lettersand dialectof B 1 are certainlyMegarianand so may best be comparedwith texts from
Megara(see, for example,Jeffery,L.S.A.G.,pp. 132ff.).The Attic texts earlierthan 403 B.C.(B 2-9)
show an irregularuse of late, unusualand Ionic formsand shapes:four-barredsigmain B 2, B 4, B 5
and B 9 comparedto the three-barred sigmaof B 7; Ionic lambdaand/orgammain B 2, B 5 and B 9
as againstAttic formsin B 4, B 6 and B 7; tailedrho in B 7; epsilonfor eta exceptin B 7 and B 8; omi-
cron for all o-soundsin all texts. The latertexts use the Ionic alphabetconsistently;stemmedupsilons
and dotted theta are also regular.One lunate sigma appearswith other four-barredforms in B 12;
lunate epsilon first appearsmuch later in B 17. As far as more specificallyorthographicodditiesare
concerned,we see the substitutionof deltafor zeta in B 13, a singlefor the moreproperlydoubledpi of
B 17 anda second-declension dativesingularwithoutthe iota subscriptin both B 17 andB 18.
Parallelsfor textsof this sortmaybe notedin Tolstoy,Jefferyand Immerwahr.

B 1 (P 17824). P1.2. Base of a skyphos of Co- F 13). The word ouB6s,whichis from the same
rinthianshape, with rays above the foot, of a root as 660s, still retainsits roughbreathingin
type which may be dated to the firsthalf of the this earlyinscription.
6th century B.C. Graffito on the underside,
B 2 (P 1265).PI.2. Fragmentfrom the rim of a
obviously written on the sherd; the base has
beenmendedfromfourfragments,but partof it red-figuredkylix of late 6th-centuryB.C. type.
is missing. Context: 6th centuryB.C. (J 18:4). Graffito on inside, obviously written on the
See Hesperia,XVII, 1948,p. 160, pl. 41, 2 for a sherd. Context:beginningof 5th centuryB.C.
brief account of the circumstancesof finding (G 6:3). Hesperia,XV, 1946,p. 279, no. 32.
and of some of the objectsfound in the same Ca. 500 B.C. TrCa-, -rTl(aAa[vSoi]
deposit. &Aos Ka<C>v65 YA[tvTp]
as 96pEt
Mid-VIcent.B.C. [Oa;ve]ui:KxSE'S:hvnorTO hoBo
Tas $ipaS TOKTro : Trpfov(a) "Boy,bringothernewcouchesfor Phalanthos."
The namePhalanthosand the wordfor couches
"Thamneus,put the saw underthe threshold are restoredexempligratia.The use of the Ionic
of the gardengate." A fragmentis missingfrom lambdaand four-barredsigmaat this earlydate
the beginning of the inscription;we restore is exceptional;the omega is not used. For the
here the name Thamneus(of which a possible omittediota see Meisterhans2, pp. 24-25.
trace of the final upsilonis preserved)because
two vases belongingto Thamneus(F 12, F 13) B 3 (P 12225).P1.2. Fragmentfrom the wall of a
were found in the same pit. The letter forms black-glazedkrater.Graffitoon outside,written
correspondwith those used in Megarain the verticallyto the pot; obviouslywrittenon the
Archaic period: b-shaped epsilon, closed eta sherd, which was subsequently broken all
as aspirate, triangularrho, and four-barred around. Context:early 5th centuryB.C.
sigma(cf. Jeffery,L.S.A.G.,pp. 132-138). Prob- Early cent. B.C. ]E . [
V
ably, therefore, the writer was a Megarian. ]!PE:A[
Thamneushimselfwritesin Attic letters(F 12, ].OM[
B. MESSAGES AND LISTS 9

The punctuationsuggestsa fairlyextensivetext then broken at one side. Context:second half


like a messageor list. 5th century B.C. (C 19:5).
B 4 (P 14131).PI. 2. Fragmentfromwall of lekane Second quarter V cent. B.C. oT-l TTa-rCaEK[
of early 5th centuryB. c. Graffitoon outside, A long verticalstroke seems to separatethe
obviously written on the sherd, which was beginningof the text from the end. The text
subsequentlybrokenall around. does not seem to have been long enough to
allow for a reading which requiresan alter-
Early V cent. B.C. ]N N ![
] I E[ native, i.e., OrtL.
]EPn[ B9 (P 2022). P1.2. Handle and immediately
]AMME[
adjacentpart of rim and wall of black-glazed
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

]onoOA[ skyphos. Graffitoon inside, obviouslywritten


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

B 5 (P 10511).P1.2. Fragmentfromwall of lekane on the sherd. Context: fourth quarter 5th


of early 5th century B.C. Graffito on inside, century B.C. (J 13-14:1).
obviously written on the sherd, which was Fourth quarterV cent. B.C. Zoo(veo(S)
subsequentlybrokenall around. w?wa?EXE
Early V cent. B.C. ]EPFN[ rfAaVKOI
]ANT IB[ ?s &Oarv
]OONA[ Ev8E?g9t(v)
]ANAOK[ "Sosineossenta bundleto Glaukosin town."
]E! [ Tag or message?
A possiblerestorationmightbe:
iTr]Ep rv[&9covos B 10 (P 16391).P1.2. Two non-joiningfragments
6 8ETva]
'AvrTi3[(o from the wall of a largeunglazedpot. Graffito
]oS 'Ova[cro on outside,obviouslywrittenon the sherd.Of
6 8eTva]'AvSoKfr6O the originalsherd,which appearsto have been
]El [ fairly large, two fragmentsare preserved;the
relationbetweenthe two is not evident. Con-
B 6 (P 27850).P1.2. Fragmentfrom rim of black- text: mid-4th century B.C. (F 19:2).
glazed kylix. Graffito on inside, probably
writtenon the sherd.Context:early5th century Mid-IVcent. B.C. (a) ]vSov rQ9vreos
Ka[
] rTaUT.v XacraTo[
(H 13:5).
]tl&rcov'V E&v rrl[
O
Early V cent. B.C. KA(i<Tro)>18 ] Kopiv.S.. ovyy?[
The omission of a syllable may have been ]v-ra 5'syEvrilS va[
accidentalor it may be a form of abbreviation; ]aPEv9S . OXUKEV[
cf. Kleimenes and Kleitomenes. The dative ]9OZO..... SO..[
case suggeststhat the sherdwas used as a tag. ] olKos 6vapia oarr[
]Xtpas vivvgpl[
B 7 (P 15208).P1.2. Fragmentfrom wall of un- ]Y2QT....[
glazedamphora.Graffitoon outside,obviously ]2...A[
written on the sherd. Context: ca. 490-450 B.C.
(F 19:4).
Second quarterV cent. B.C. EOEh,Xls iK[e] | 6s (b) ]s:E[
T'r6XoSI'ApKaipos (only tracesof other letters)
"Eumelis, come as quickly as you can. The readingis neithercertainnor complete
Arkesimos." The cos -raxos was crowded in enough to make a restoredtext possible, but
later as an afterthought.Above the text is an we may perhapsassumefrom the mention of
isolated gamma; below, an isolated epsilon. Corinth and such words as Xtou-ro that we
Note the use of eta as aspiratedlong vowel. have a rough copy of some contractor treaty.
This feminineform of a commonname is not
attested;Arkesimosis knownin Eretria(Bechtel). B 11 (P 23690).P1.2. Wallfragmentof a Corcyrean
amphoraof the 4th century B.C. Graffitoon
B 8 (P 18325).P1.2. Base of lekythos of second outside, obviouslywrittenon the sherd,which
quarter5th-centuryB.C.type. Graffitoon under- was subsequentlychippedon the upper right.
side, possibly writtenon the sherd, which was Context: 4th century B.C.
10 B. MESSAGES AND LISTS

IV cent. B.C. ort 'Acias XEyo[ Late IV-early III cent. B.C.
{TA} {AMAX} XowTra8r i.e., dish
TAZATTETEMAI IEydArl I large 1
OTI 'Aaias ffioTr(a) II half-size2
The use of OTt is like that in excerpts from 6]p3rcai : 11 long loaves2
literarytexts, but both sense and syntax are X]ICpTrr[s papyrus roll?
obscure. Line 1: presumablyan alternateform for
Line 3: cf. Aesch., fr. 91 for /l[iorros: of
AoTrraS.
The next three items (B 12-14) are lists of vases something small; Galen 13, 558 fio0Trov=fiotCu.
and culinary equipmentand may be thought of Line4: cf. B 12, line 2.
as rough kitchen inventories or shopping lists. B 15
(P 23309).P1.3. Fragmentof small shallow
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

All come from the immediate vicinity of the saucer with dull red glaze. Graffitoon floor.
Tholos and are undoubtedlylists of the kitchen
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

Context: 4th century B.C.


equipmentused in that building. They are men-
tioned in Hesperia, SupplementIV, p. 135. For a IV cent. B.C. El.[
more formal inventory of Tholos equipmentsee ,uiXa i.e., half-choes
the inscriptionpublishedibid., pp. 144-147. B 15, ]i8ES
perhaps part of a similar list, is not from the Line 2: the short form of filwXoais found in
Tholos area butfrom South Stoa I. LG., XI 2, 199 B 80.
B 12 (P 10810).PI.2. Fragmentof a smallshallow B 16 (P 3289). P1.3. Fragmentof roof tile with
saucer with dull red glaze. Graffitoon floor. dull blackglaze on one side. Graffitoon glazed
Context:late4th-early3rdcenturiesB.C.(H 12). side, obviouslywrittenon the sherd. Context:
Late IV-early III cent. B.C. Hellenistic.
Kap6]oTros i.e., kneading-trough III-II cent. B.C 6oXiXouv xio<u>
6]3peiai AA[ long loaves 20+ vlKat
AoTraw&a dishes
TTivaKEs platters Apparentlythe heading of an informallist
of victoriesin two events(the long raceand the
5 pcaot i III middle-sized 4
stone). It is also possiblethat the word in the
3aTravi(a) : [ little dishes 5+
secondline is a verbratherthan a noun. In the
7roptcxpaI1[ cups 2+ first line the last letter of the first word was
AXiKuvos oil-flask
half-chous originallya sigma, which was correctedto an
fl,Jixouv
10 TpvJpXtov bowl upsilon. There was no room for a similar
correctionat the end of ?dSos.For the contests
poqpEaA[ ? 10+
involving a stone (weight-liftingand putting
]A1[ the shot) see E. N. Gardiner,Athleticsin the
Line2: cf. 6opesiain I.G., II2, 1631, 409; 1672, Ancient World, Oxford, 1930, pp. 54, 60, 154.
310; Hesperia,XXIV, 1955, pp. 80-81. Line 3: B 17
cf. Allen, Classical Studies presented to Edward (P 9922). P1.3. Wheel-ridgedamphora(=
Capps, Princeton, 1936, pp. 1-2. Line 6: cf.
Robinson, Chronology,M 104). Dipinto in
black on body. Context:second half 2nd cen-
Hesychios,s.v. Line 11: new word.
tury(M 17:1).
B 13 (P 3784). P1.3. Fragmentof small shallow Secondhalf II cent. crT[&]vov &rro6os
unglazed saucer. Graffito on floor. Context: lhiTrrcAo
c)tl{nr1
second half of 4th century B.C.(F 12:3).
Second half IV cent. B.C. "Returnthe stamnos to Philippa'sbrother
XVTpas i.e., pots Philip." For the absenceof the iota subscripts
rTnSri,Ta(Ta)Pill lids 9 in the dativescompareMeisterhans2, pp. 52-53.
(traces) B 18 (P 8341). P1.3. Shoulderfragmentof am-
TrriTpaTrrT6[a tableware
phora (= Robinson, Chronology,J 52). Dipinto
Line 4: for a similarsubstitutionof delta for in black.Context:mid-2ndto early3rdcenturies
zeta in a 4th-centuryB.C.graffito see C 33. (C 12:1).
B 14 (P 4899). PI.3. Fragmentof small shallow Mid-II-early III cent. ['I]EpoV[L]i.co
saucerwith dull red glaze, similarto B 12 but [Xp]norT as6ex9[~c]
with grooved rim. Graffitoon floor. Context: [ira]pa [&]8Ap[q5v]
F 12. [Orr]y.vos
C. LOVE NAMES AND HATE NAMES 11
"A stamnosfor our good brotherHierony- Late Roman
mos from his brothers." See B 17 for the KcbvCc[V i.e., of pine-cones
omissionof the iota subscriptin the dativecase. ywpcoic[v of buns
6cap?i(ou) of fish or relish
B 19 (P 8046).P1.3. Fragmentfrom side of bowl. 6o(pca.a)
rrEpcarf peaches?
Graffitiinside(a) and out (b), obviouslywritten vauOou of freightcharges?
on the sherd.Context:late Roman. 6Oap?i(ou) of fish or relish
is olvov [ for wine
Late Roman (a) vrrepa Line 1: cf. Ath., II, 57b. Line4: cf. 6ouoAacx
(b) 9oIvou Line 7: is for Els, see Meisterhans2,
71TpoCKa.
O6Trovo(U)y(Kiat)L['
pp. 38-39.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

CKU( ) o(O)y(Klai) U'


B 21 (P 2004). P1.3. Wall fragmentof micaceous
v]opJ.r [
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

water jar. Graffito on outside. Context: 5th


The "pestles"of (a) may have been required century(Q 13:3).
to preparethe drugs of (b): 47 ounces of the V cent. ]cQiP K(ontXat)iy'
juice of the red poppy; 7 ounces of acorn (OKuAoS) K(OTrCAal)
PEv]a&ppi(ov) E'
or of a seed which,mixedwith whitewine, was ]A K(o-nXai) 5'
goodfor scorpionbites(&cKvuXcbvlov,
Dioscorides, Smallpoints(for omicrons)in the upperpart
III, 100); some quantityof strychnine(vopurl). of the kappas combine with the numbers
following to suggestan abbreviationlike that
B20 (P 11763). P1.3. Fragment from wall of which is restored.The item in the second line
unglazedclosed pot. Graffitoon outside, ob- has been tentativelyrestoredas a kind of wine;
viously written on the sherd. Context: mixed perhaps the inscriptionrecordedthe mixture
to Late Roman. withinthe jar.

C. LOVE NAMES AND HATE NAMES

This categoryis rathera mixedbag. Besidesa few love namesand vilificationsof a standardsexual
type we have includedseveralotherpieceswith inscriptionsof a highlypersonalor emotionalnature.
Love namespaintedon figuredvasesare not includedheresincethey are moreproperlystudiedin con-
nectionwith the vases on whichthey appear.
The 14 kalos-name inscriptionscataloguedbelowlrangein time from the mid-6thcenturyto the end
of the 5th centuryB.C.and in contentfromthe simpleand anonymouso6rrcasKcaos (C 4) to the full and
o Kia6oSOKEI'Iav.98[ (C 10). The admirersare not namedin ten cases (seven mas-
explicitAUKo6IaXO
culine objects, two feminine, one both), but it is apparently not possible to assume that the writer (or
admirer) was always masculine, since the dative MECAiT(to whom Alkaios seems beautiful) in C 19 is
most probably feminine. Of the named admirers (C 3, C 7, C 10, C 19) two lack endings and so might
conceivablybe eithergender,althoughit is likelythat the admirerof Antheme(C 3) is Aischinesor Ais-
cheas2and that Lykomachos'admirer(C 10) is lanthis ratherthan Ianthides.These probablehetero-
sexualpairsarematchedby a clearlyhomosexualone in C 7, whereMenekratesis beautifuland dearto
Lysikles.
Parallelsfor these kalos-namesare most convenientlygatheredtogetherin Robinson and Fluck,
Greek Love Names, and in Beazley, A.R. V. and A.B. V.
Sexualinsultplaysa partin 15 of the textsbelow.3Themost commonterm(eighttimes)is KalTctruycov
(or Truyacos),ordinarilyappearingwith masculinenames but occurringonce in abbreviatedform-
KaTaTruy(aiva)-witha feminine name (C 27). Certainlycomparableare the epithetsXaKKo6TpcoKToS
(C 23)

1 C 3, C 4, C 7, C 1O, C 11, C 13, C 1S-17, C 19, C 21, C 28, C 29, C 31.


2 Feminine names with these initial letters are very rare.
8 C 1, C 2, C 5, C 8, C 12, C 14, C 18, C 22-27, C 33, C 34.
12 C. LOVE NAMES AND HATE NAMES

and AacKaorpia (C 34) and perhapsalso the JliIOT-rTO


of C 1. Fourtexts (C 2, C 8, C 14, C 33) use various
verbsto describesexualproficiencyand relationships.Parallelsfor hate namesof this generalsort may
be foundin Hesperia,XXII, 1953,pp. 215-224.
The five remainingtexts are miscellaneous:a love-pledge(C 6), namesof men admiredor insultedin
othertexts (C 9, C 20), pictureandpet nameof the maleorgan(C 30), and nameswrittenbackwardsfor
somepresumablyfell purpose(C 32).
Sincemost of thesefrankexpressionsof admirationand distastedate from beforethe end of the 5th
centuryB.C.,the forms of writingand spellingare for the most part old Attic. That is, for the pieces
through C 29, it will be easiest to state a general practice and then to note exceptions: general are Attic
lambdaandgamma,three-barredsigmas,crossbarredtheta,chi-sigmafor xi, eta openandusedonlyfor
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

the aspirate;exceptionalare Ionic lambda and/or gammain C 7 (part),C 13, C 15, C 24, C 27-29,
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

four-barredsigmain C 26-28, dottedthetain C 3, C 17, C 21, omegain C 24, closedeta in C 1 and C 8,


eta for both aspirateand long vowel in C 18 and C 23, eta for the long vowel in C 29 and for epsilon-
iota in C 8. Other spelling odditiesinclude: 'OAu<H
>Tri6VIKOS(C 5); pEVECo(C 2, C 14); 'AAAKcxlTo
(C 19).
Afterthe end of the 5th centuryB.C. the generalruleis Ioniclettersincludingeta and omegafor the long
vowels,but still omicron-upsiloncontinuesto be writtenomicron.SpellingodditiesincludeOeilooo1 a
and XataLK5Ei(C 33). As far as "punctuation" is concerned, only two pieces provide evidence: C 14
leavesspacesbetweenwords;C 16 showsa strokebetweenend andbeginningof a circulartext.

C 1 (P 26452). P1.4. Fragmentfrom rim of cup Late VI cent. B.C.


similar to Hesperia, Suppl.II, p. 157, C 55. T{rTa 'OXAv<>)7r6vv[i]K.os
KcrraTjyov
Graffitoon outsidebelow flaringrim. Context: "Titasthe Olympicvictor is a lewd fellow."
second quarter 7th century B.C. (R 17:5). The name is not otherwiseattested, and the
Hesperia,XXX, 1961,p. 377, S 18. victory is presumablyfigurative, to suggest
ho Tra[s
Second quarter VII cent. B.C. ICETro5 Titas'championshipstatus.
"Theboy is lewd." C 6 (P 7690). P1.4. Fragmentfrom floor of red-
C 2 (P 13322).P1.4. Wall fragmentfrom closed figured kylix with courting scene inside and
vase. Graffitoon outside. Context: early 6th palaestraoutside,dated by Beazleyto 500 B.C.
century B.C. or a little earlier. Graffito on inside beside
figures.B.S.A., XLVI, 1951,pl. 16, c.
Early VI cent. B.C. ]oS pEV[ET
Ca. 500 B.C. (qn?]oTrilov i.e., loving-cup
For the verbsee C 14.
Fortheuseof thewordcf. Aristoph.,Lys.,203.
C 3 (P 23693).P1.4. Fragmentfromthe bottomof The endinghere suggestseithera neutervessel
a black-glazedalabastronof mid-6th century understoodor a masculineone in the accusative
B.C. type. Graffito on outside. case (as the objectof an understoodverb).
Mid-VI cent. B.C. 'AvS3xEKcaX[8O]KE1AaIX[ C 7 (P 20787). P1.4. Fragmentaryblack-glazed
"Antheme appears beautiful to Aisch ...." kylix of whichmost of lowerpartof cup is pre-
Cf. C 10. The femininename is known from served. Graffito around lower outside wall,
Eretria(Bechtel). upside down to pot. Context: late 6th-early
C 4 (P 17827). P1.4. Rim and wall fragmentof 5th century B.C.(R 12:1).
black-glazedskyphos.Graffitoon outside,upside Late VI-early V cent. B.C.
down to pot. Context: mid-6th century B.C. M[eVE]KparEs[K]aXosKO'ipiAosAviiuAEI
(J 18:4). "Menekrates is beautifulanddearto Lysikles."
Mid-VI cent. B.C. ho Tra[csKaX6s The Ionic lambdasin the last two wordscom-
An upsilon at lower left may be the end of bine with smaller letters to suggest that the
this inscription. last threewordswere addedby a secondhand.
C 5 (P 24910). P1.4. Plain hydria. Graffito around (In the drawing the piece with -Kprr5s is slightly
misplaced.)
top of rim. Context: ca. 520-480 B.C. (R 12:4).
Hesperia, XXV, 1956, p. 63, pl. 22, c, f. Cf. C 8 (P 15555).PI.4. Rim fragmentof unglazed
no. 1594.
Sparkes-Talcott, bowl. Graffitoon inside, obviouslywrittenon
C. LOVE NAMES AND HATE NAMES 13
the sherd.Hesperia,Suppl.VIII, p. 399, pl. 58, 450 B.C. with much earlier material (C9:6).
10, a (withdifferentinterpretation).
Cf. Sparkes- Hesperia,Suppl.V, p. 143,fig. 71, 35.
Talcott,no. 1892. Second quarter V cent. B.C. ]oS Kacih[
Early V cent. B.C. 'Eyoprpacros ]oaaKai X[
,oi ioynrI ]fov ep3s[vvTro
]PE6VT[o
"Hegestratoslies with me." Eta is not used Cf. Acropolisgraffito(Graef-Langlotz,Vasen
for the aspiratebut as the epsilon-iotaof the der Akropolis, II, Berlin, 1925-33, no. 256):
thirdsingularverb.Whetherthe activevoice of
PEvETat,which Peek (ibid., p. 131, "Epigraphische
this verb can be used with a suppressedobject
Nachtrage") takes as equivalent to pivErat.
to convey the meaning usually expressedby
Cf. also Hillervon Gaertringen,Inschriftenvon
the middleor passiveseems uncertain.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Priene,Berlin,1906,no. 317.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

C 9 (P 15379).P1.4. Wall fragmentof large pot C 15 (P 27698). P1.4. Half of hemispherical


of non-Atticfabric. Graffitoon outside. Con- black-glazedstand. Incised before glazing and
text: pottery rangingfrom Geometricto early firing.Cf. Sparkes-Talcott,
p. 180, note 2.
5th century B.C. Hesperia, Suppl. VIII, p. 399,
Second quarter V cent. B.C. ]os NIK[
fig. 4.
KcOA6[s
Early V cent. B.C. 'EyEo(T<p>aTos For the pictureon this piece see M 9.
This piece is included here because it was C16 (P5128). P1.4. Black-glazedkylix base.
found about 15 metersfrom C 8 and may be a Graffitoon underside.Context:secondquarter
similarreferenceto the sameman. 5th century B.C. (H6:5). Hesperia, V, 1936,
C 10 (P 14710). P1.4. Base fragment of small p. 347. Cf. Sparkes-Talcott,no. 436.
black-glazedkylix. Graffito on upper surface. Second quarterV cent. B.C. Tui6XCEvos Koi6S
Context:late 6th-early5th centuriesB.C. A long line separatesthe end of the writing
Early V cent. B.C. AuxK6Ia)C[oS
KC1a6s] from the beginning.
'cavSf8[
[8]oKeT From this same well (H 6:5) came the next six
"Lykomachosappearsbeautiful to Ianthi..." pieces (C 17-22). All share the second quarter
The spacingis just about rightfor the lengthof 5th-century B.C. context and all were first
the supplement.Lykomachosis not knownbut published in Hesperia, V, 1936, pp. 347ff. See
also Robinsonand Fluck.
appears to be an acceptablecompound.The
name Ianthe (not Ianthis which might be the C 17 (P 5144).P1.5. Fragmentary base of skyphos
feminine patronymic from the following) is of Corinthiantype. Graffitoon underside.Cf.
known in Athens (I.G., II2, 3799) and Ianthos Sparkes-Talcott,no. 314.
elsewhere(Pape). Second quarter V cent. B.C. o-rTTIEUS
Ka[A6S
C 11 (P 14943). P1.4. Fragmentof black-glazed C 18 (P 5157). P1.5. Small lekane (= Sparkes-
kylixfoot of early5th-century
B.c. type. Graffito Talcott, no. 1794).Graffitoon underside.Hes-
on underside. peria, XXII, 1953, p. 218; Beazley, Potter and
Early V cent. B.C. 'Aypo]SiroaKca[] Painter in Ancient Athens, London, 1946,
Cf. Beazley, A.R.V., p. 944 for two other p. 20; Richter, Attic Red Figure Vases, New
instancesof the love nameAphrodisia. Haven, 1958,p. 57.
Second quarterV cent. B.C.
C 12 (P 410). P1.4. Wall fragment of black- locriaS KcrraTryov
glazedcup. Graffitoon outside. h6osprlcvho ypacpras
Early V cent. B.C. ]EsTuy[aIoS Althoughit has been suggestedthat a name
was obliteratedbefore rcnoiv,
it seemsunlikely,
C 13 (P 27848). P1.4. Rim fragmentfrom black- since both paint and surface are preserved.
glazed mug. Graffito on outside below lip. "Thus says the writer" (cs 91rnav)seems right.
Context: early 5th century B.C.(H 13:5). Note open eta for both long voweland aspirate.
Early V cent. B.C. K]aX6S [ C 19 (P 5160). P1.5. Lekane(= Sparkes-Talcott,
C 14 (P9482). PI. 5. Wall fragment of lekane no. 1792).Graffitoinside,upsidedownto pot (a),
with dull red glaze inside. Graffitoon outside, on the underside(b), and outside,upsidedown
verticalto pot. Context: pottery down to ca. to pot (c).
14 C. LOVE NAMES AND HATE NAMES

Second quarterV cent. B.C. Second quarterV cent. B.C. EAi[qi]


(a) TTuS68opos
KaX6[s S KTaTro
(b) 'AX<X>Ka1os
KaCOS "ycpv
TO SOK1EMAr1T Note the Ionic letters.
(c) PhOpE C 25 (P 10779). P1.6. Base fragmentof lekane.
(b) 2: T6 seems to be TcO;for the form see Graffitoon underside.Context:secondquarter
LSJ, s.v. -rT. (c): the third letter was originally 5th century B.C.
read as theta, but compare other theta-like
Second quarter V cent. B.C.
phi's: D 15, F43. For the name Melis, cf. Mv[
S.E.G., XXII, 237. KaTa]TrOyo[v]
C26 (P 5449). P1.6. Base fragment of black-
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

C 20 (P 5167). P1.5. Base of lekane (= Sparkes-


glazedskyphos.Graffitoon underside.Context:
Talcott,no. 1795).Graffitoon underside.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

ca. 470-425 B.C.(E 13:1). Hesperia, XXII, 1953,


Second quarter V cent. B.C. 'AXKai(ov) p. 220, no. 6, fig. 2, left.
This may well be an owner's name but is Third quarterV cent. B.C. Ka]TaTr.y[cov
includedhere as being undoubtedlythe same 'ApIlaolp[vES
personas is praisedin C 19 and C 22.
C 27 (P 17123).P1.6. Baseand lowerpartof body
C 21 (P 5164). P1.5. Large lekane. Graffito on of black-glazedskyphoswith rays above foot.
underside,which was marked off in squares. Graffito on underside.Context: third quarter
Cf. Sparkes-Talcott,no. 1797. 5th century B.C. Hesperia, XXII, 1953, p. 220,
no. 7, fig. 2, right,pl. 66, b.
Second quarter V cent. B.C. $Eoi GEpltKE
Third quarterV cent. B.C.
Ssoi lViroXovos iKuAaKacaTnuy(alva)
QEoT 1n6).XCTOVOS
TV'.ao0vos The writerfirstwroteKarrv,then correctedit
KaXos to KacTaTry( ) but finally left the word un-
XappliSES finished,perhapsfrom lack of space, perhaps
KcO6Ao in doubtas to the feminineform(see the discus-
The name in line 3, whichshouldperhapsbe sion thereofin Hesperia,XXII, 1953, pp. 216-
read as np(<a)cov,is most probably genitive 217).
and gives the paternity,whether physical or C 28 (P 19403).P1.6. Fragmentof roof tile with
figurative,of Therikles. dullredto blackglazeon concaveuppersurface.
Graffitoon glazed side, writtenafter tile had
C22 (P 5169). P1.5. Fragment of lekane base beenbroken.Context:late 5th centuryB.C.
(= Sparkes-Talcott,no. 1796). Graffito on
underside. Late V cent. B.C. [ ]rrpa-ro
[Ka]A6s
Second quarter V cent. B.C.
'AX]KoaosKaTcrcaT[yov Considerationsof spacesuggesta shortname
suchas Sostratos.
For the restorednamesee C 19, C 20.
C 29 (P 10618).P1.6. Fragmentof convex cover
C 23 (P 18499).P1.5. Rim fragmentfrom lekane. tile with flakybrownglaze on outside.Graffito
Graffito on inside. Context: second quarter on glazed side. Context:potteryrangingfrom
5th century B.C.(C 18:7). late 5th centuryto 3rdcenturyB.C.
Second quarter V cent. B.C. Late V cent. B.C. ]XhrKahi1
AawKKO6p[o]cros
ETArXl
C 30 (L 2450). P1.6. Nozzles and parts of rim of
ho Eubp6oiaXos
black-glazedlamp (= Howland,no. 176, Type
First line mostly erased.Whetherthe verb is 21C). Graffito on top of nozzle. Context:
activeor passivein senseis uncertain.The name potteryto near end of 4th centuryB.C.(E 6:3).
is unknown. Late V-early IV cent. B.C. KOK
C 24 (P 15225).P1.5. Fragmentsof roof tile with KiA(oi)
black glaze on top surface.Graffitoon glazed (drawing phallus)(See M 13)
of
side. Context: ca. 490-450 B.C. (F 19:4). Hes- like K6mOKo,
Presumably KOKKC6Ao, could be
peria,XXII, 1953,pp. 219-220. used for testicles, but it is also possible that
C. LOVE NAMES AND HATE NAMES 15

this is an abbreviationof the name Kokkaline presumablyput on at the samefestival:Eubou-


(Demosth.,LIX, 35, 120, 124). los' Prosousia and Theopompos' Pantaleon. If
C 31 (P 23837). P1.6. Rim fragmentof unglazed it did (andthe possibilityseemsno moreremote
lid. Graffitoon either side, obviously written than the unprecedentedpairing of male and
on the sherd.Context:ca. 420-390B.C.(Q 15:2). female names with Kcxs6and Ka?i), it would
provide a definitecross referencebetweentwo
Ca. 400-390 B.c. KoAXin
(inside) TTpoorooca comic poets and a far closerabsolutedate than
rTavrTaAcovKlJaA6 the scantyfragmentsof the playsallow.
(outside) KaXo
TTav-rTcacov |
Tnpo
lroocriaKac[if C 32 (L 5298).PI. 6. Black-glazedlamp, similarto
Note the way in whichthe two omittedletters Howland,no. 267, Type 25A. Graffitoon top
in the lastlinewereaddedbelow.BothPantaleon of nozzle and rim. Context: 4th centuryB.C.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

and Prosousiaare known as personalnames, Hesperia,XXVII, 1958,p. 159,pl. 46.


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

but the peculiarincidenceof Prosousiashould Mid-IV cent. B.C. 'AVTriKAEISr


be consideredin combinationwith the fact -patias
that both namesare also titles of comediesand 'ApKEaicaS
that the well in which this sherd was found 'AAKfcas
also produced several coarse pitchers with 'Av-rTIPnrSl
comicscenes(Hesperia,XXIV, 1955,pp. 76-84). (iA65rl6lpos
That is, Prosousiaseems to be limitedto mid- The names are written backwards, not
4th-century B.C. tombstones (.G., II2, 8769, retrograde.Since some magic seems to be
12533-5), suggesting that something at the involved, the piece is included here under
beginningof the centurygave rise to this rash "hate names." Of the six names all but one
of an otherwiseunattestedname. Could Eu- (Antimedes)were borne by two or more 4th-
boulos' play Prosousia (or The Swan), which centuryB.C. Athenians,so that identificationof
presumablytook its first name from a "Pres- this particulargroup is unlikely.The fact that
ence" (whetherfemalecharacterorabstraction), three mid-4th-centuryB.C. men bearingthree
have been responsible?The play is tentatively of these names (Antikleides,Arkesilas,Philo-
dated by Edmonds (The Fragments of Attic demos) have naval connectionsand belong to
Comedy, II, p. 641) to 385-380 B.C., but a case the Erechtheidphyle is more likely to be a
might well be made for a date closer to the function of the nature of our sources than a
context date of this sherd: Edmondsassumed clue to the identityof this group.
that the two titles may refer to Diogenes
Laertius'story (3,5) that Socrates,after dream- C33 (P6153). P1.6. Fragmentaryblack-glazed
ing of a cygnet in his lap which later flew skyphos. Graffito on outside, just below lip,
awaywitha pleasantcry,identifiedthe birdwith startingnear one handle and runningaround
Plato, who came to him (prosousia)as a pupil under the other (a), and on opposite side (b).
the next day; Edmondsfurtherassumedthat Context: mid-4th century B.C. (D 15:3). Hes-
the play wouldnot have been relevanttill Plato peria,XXII, 1953,p. 221, note 5a.
beganteachingin the Academyin 386 B.C., but Mid-IV cent. B.C. (a) OEIoSocrlaCatiKa'E[] 6Ei
it is hardto imaginethat this was the firsttime (b) A(aiKaorrpra)
his voice had been heard. The last letters of the verb, and hence its
Theopompos' play Pantaleon presumably exact form, are doubtful, but the root and
had as its chief characterthe pranksterof the thereforethe meaningare certain.For another
same name (Athen.,XIV, 616a).4If this Panta- instanceof delta used insteadof zeta in a 4th-
leon is the older brother of the speaker of century B.C. graffito see B 13. Theodosia's
Lysias X and the defendant in Lysias KcrTaTTav- namehas been crossedout. For the supplement
rcaXsovToS(frags. 210, 211; Prosop. Att., no. in (b), cf. C 34.
11599),he could have been about 27 years old
in 400 B.C.and full of the kind of deviousness C 34 (MC483). P1.6. Black-glazedspindlewhorl
that might lend itself to comic treatment.Even of a type found in 5th-4th centuriesB.C.,like
if that identificationis uncertain,Theopompos' Hesperia, Suppl. VII, pp. 94-96, no. 9. The
productivelife (415-362 B.C.)allows the possi- graffitoruns all the way around the whorl at
bility that our sherd representsapplause or the lowerpart of the side.
favorable critical judgment of two plays, IV cent. B.C. KoaiXatKc-rptia
4 See Edmonds' note
(op. cit., I, p. 864,d): "It is thought possible that this man, by giving his name to his profession,originated
the stock characterof mediaevalItalian comedyfrom whose dresscomes our word pantaloon,now in its shortenedform 'pants'... "
16 D. NAMES ON SHERDS

D. NAMES ON SHERDS

The criterionfor admissionto this categoryis that the nameor namesshallhave been writtenon the
sherd,not on the completevase.Althoughobviouslyit is not alwayspossibleto be absolutelycertainon
this point,it maybe saidthatthe writingwasdefinitelydone on the sherdwhenit eitherturnsto follow
the edge of the sherd or continues in the next line on reaching the edge, or when it was done on the
insideof a fragmentfroma closedpot. It maybe saidprobablyif not certainlyto havebeendoneon the
sherdwhenit is alignedwith one edge of the sherdor neatlycenteredon it.
Sherdswith a nameincisedon themhavebeenfoundin considerablenumbersat the Agoraand else-
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

wherein Athens.The greatmajorityof them can be datedin the 5th centuryB.C., and the namesthey
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

bear are frequentlythose of personswell known in Athenianhistory.These sherdsare ostraka,the


ballots used by the Atheniansin votingat an ostrakophoria.The law on ostracismmay well havebeen
partof Kleisthenes'constitutionandprobablydatesfromthe last decadeof the 6th centuryB.C.although
it was not applieduntil488/7B.c.1 It was invokedat intervalsfor the next seventyyearsuntil418/7B.C.
whenHyperboloswas ostracizedundersuch scandalouscircumstances that the institutionwas thrown
into disrepute,and the Athenians never again had recourse to Therefore,any sherdwith an incised
it.
namethat can be datedin the 5th centuryB.C.has an a prioriclaimto be consideredan ostrakon.There
are now about 6500 sherdswhichhave been identifiedas ostraka,2and the identificationmay be con-
sideredcertainin all but a veryfew cases.
But how shallwe interpreta sherdwith a nameon it whichmustbe datedeitherearlieror laterthan
the periodwhenostracismwas practiced?Thereis quitea groupof them,mostlyof the 6th centuryB.C.,
witha few as earlyas the 7th or late 8th centuriesB.C. In Hesperia,Suppl.VIII,pp. 405-408a sherdwith
the name Peisistratos(D 1 below) was publishedand along with it four sherdsfrom 6th-centuryB.C.
contexts(D 6, D 8, D 14, D 22), eachwith a nameincisedon it. In the case of the Peisistratossherdand
which bears the name Aristion the suggestion was tentatively put forward that they
one of the othermes
may have been used by the Council of the Areopagos as ballots on the occasion of Peisistratos'first exile.
For the otherpiecesno definiteinterpretationwas offeredother than the generalsuggestionthat they
may have been the work of school childrenor of idlerswritingtheir own namesor the name of some
friend, acquaintanceor lover. It is also possible that the sherds may have served in some way as tags to
accompanygoods or parcels,or to identifyindividualbelongings.It is likely that no single interpre-
tation will suit all these early sherds, especially as some of them have women's names, others have two
namestogether,and still otherswereinscribedon both sides,sometimeswithdifferentnames.Theywere
no doubtwrittenon variousoccasionsand for variousreasons.
Parallels may be quoted from elsewhere in Greece: Amyklai, Lakonia (A.J.A., LXI, 1957, p. 168);
Phaistos, Crete (Annuario,XIV-XVI, 1952-1954, pp. 167-173); see also Jeffery,L.S.A.G., p. 314.
Generallyin D 1-39 (late8th centurythroughthe secondquarterof the 5th centuryB.C.), we see pretty
consistentuse of a standardold Attic alphabet(ABAAEIH IKL-MNOPP$TV0+ or X). The exceptions
are:Ioniclambdain D 27, D 39; closedeta in D 6; tailedrho in D 6, D 25, D 37, D 39; xi in D 35, D 39;
phi with horizontalcrossbarin D 15; four-barredsigmain D 25-27 and reversedthree-barred sigmain
D 1, D 3, D 7, D 10, D 12, D 14, D 18, D 23, D 24. Theuse of thesetwo aberrantsigmasis suchthatthey
almostcertainlyrepresenttwo effortsto differentiate fromregularsigmathe sigmathat comesat word-
endsor combineswithchi to makexi. Thatis, all threeuses of four-barredsigmacomeat word-ends;of
the nineoccurrencesof the reversedsigmasevencome eitherat word-endsor with chi; only one of the
1 For the
argumentsconcerningthe dateof the origin of ostracismsee K.J. Dover, Cl.Rev.,XIII, 1963,pp. 256-257withbibliography
and J. T. Keaney, Historia, XIX, 1970, pp. 1-11. For a general account see E. Vanderpool, "Ostracismat Athens," Lecturesin
Memoryof Louise Taft Semple,second series, no. 4, Cincinnati,1970.
2 The previouscount of ca. 1500 (see Hesperia,Suppl. VIII, pp. 408-411) has recentlybeen greatly augmentedby an estimated
4000 found in the Kerameikos(cf. B.C.H., XCII, 1968, pp. 732-733;AE-r., XXIII, 1968,XpovIKa,pp. 24-32; S.E.G., XXIV, 1969,
no. 74, pp. 29f.).
D. NAMES ON SHERDS 17

two reversedsigmasin D 1 and that in D 23 are not in thesespecialpositions.This samepatternmay be


seenin the use of four-barredand reversedsigmasin the earlyexamplesof Owners'Marks.Butwhether
the effortto differentiatewas motivatedby a "heard"differenceor by a desirefor visualaid is unclear,
as is the reasonwhy the effortwas so comparativelyshort-lived.3
Spellingpracticein thesesameitems(D 1-39) is as follows:epsilonfor eta exceptin D 35 (andin D 36
whereepsilon-iotaseemsto substitutefor eta); epsilon-iotaspelledout exceptfor D 1 (only iota), D 9
(only epsilon)andD 25 (only iota in two cases,but the diphthongonce); eta for the aspirateexceptin
D 13 (but this name is attested elsewherewithout the aspirate),and perhapsD 16; omicronfor all
o-sounds;koppainsteadof kappabeforeo- and u-sounds;properlydoubledconsonantsare regularly
singleexceptin D 37; thenasalsoundin D 34 is represented by nu-kappa.As faras mistakesareconcerned
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

all that can be detectedin the fragmentarystateand natureof the materialare threeomissionsof single
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

letters(D 1, D 10, D 32).


Sevenof the namesare writtenretrograde(D 1, D 6, D 13, D 15, D 23, D 31, D 36); five are in some
formof boustrophedon(D 11, D 14, D 16, D 24, D 32). Thereis no indicationof punctuation.
In the five pieces which date from after the middleof the 5th centuryB.C. the generalrule is Ionic
letters,four-barredsigmas,eta andomegaas long vowels;D 42 exceptionallysubstituteseta for iota.
Identificationof the personbearinga particularnamecan be attemptedonly rarely.Nameswhichare
attestedelsewherein Atheniansourcesare in the majorityand are not so noted. Whena nameis not
knownin Attica, note is made.
D 1 (P 3629). P1.7. Fragmentfrom foot of large glaze outside. Graffito on outside, probably
late Geometric vase, decorated outside with writtenon the sherd.Context:7th centuryB.C.
tooth pattern.Graffitoon inside, upside down (F-G 12:1). Hesperia,Suppl.II, pp. 126, 226;
to pot; certainlywritten on the sherd. For a B 56.
full discussion of this graffito, see Hesperia,
Second half VII cent. B.C. TprrriS
Suppl.VIII, pp. 405-408 (Vanderpool).See also
9iJo[s
Jeffery,L.S.A.G.,p. 70, pl. 2, no. 9e.
Late VIII-early VII cent. B.C. Tnla<<Tr>paTos The convivial sense of the inscriptionsug-
(dateof vesselonly) (retrograde) gested in the originalpublicationseems to us
unlikely.We suggestinstead two names, both
D 2 (P 6578). PI.7. Fragmentfrom wall of very attestedelsewhere,the first in the nominative,
largelate Geometricvase, decoratedwith a row the second probably in the nominative but
of hatchedtrianglesbetweenbands.Graffitoon possiblyin the genitive.
outside, obviously written on the sherd. Con-
text: well of early 6th centuryB.C. with much D 5 (P 3534). P1.7. Fragmentfrom wall of large
potteryof the 7th centuryB.C. (F 12:5). plain amphora.Graffitoon outside, diagonal
Late VIII-earlyVII cent. B.C. ME]vEsSoi with respect to the pot; probably but not
certainly written on the sherd. Context: late
Perhaps a tag accompanyinga parcel ad- 6th centuries B.C.
dressedto a woman named MevsoScb 7th-early
(assumed
feminineform of Menestheus). Late VII-early VI cent. B.C. ]e8tS9o
D 3 (P 13655).P1.7. Fragmentfromwall of coarse We may restoresome name such as Arche-
pot, preservingthe stub of a handle on the dikos.
outside.Graffitoon inside,verticalwith respect
to the pot; obviously written on the sherd. D 6 (P 2030). P1.7. Fragmentof light roof tile
Context:firsthalf 7th centuryB.C.(T 19:3). with dull reddishglaze on concave side. Graf-
First half VII cent. B.C. 'AvEprros fito on the glazedside, obviouslywrittenon the
sherd.Context:early6th centuryB.C.Hesperia,
On the rarenameAneritossee Bechtel,p. 195.
Suppl.VIII, p. 407, pl. 60, d.
D 4 (P 4664). P1.7. Fragmentfrom wall of large Early VI cent. B.C.
7th-centuryB.C. amphora, with streaky red ropyiasho .ucpelos (retrograde)
3 It is unlikely that this differentiationis in any way related to the later
developmentof two sigmas, one initial or medial and the
other final; that is almost certainlya result of cursivewriting.Comparableusage in the early period may be seen on the Dipylon Jug
and in the Nikandrainscription(cf. Jeffery,L.S.A.G., pp. 68, 291).
18 D. NAMES ON SHERDS

This reading of the mother's name seems The interpretationis uncertain. Read as a
preferableto the reading flp3aKiogiven in the single word, it would be nTvpoSovptiSris, a
originalpublication. name otherwiseunattested.Sir John Beazley
D7 (P 27741). P1.7. Base fragmentfrom large suggested rTOppou i.e., patronymic
Oovupia&qs,
and name. Anotherpossibilitymightbe Huppcb
amphoraof early6th-centuryB.C. type. Graffito OoupiaBrlS,i.e., two names, a woman's and a
on inside of base ring, upside down. Context: man's.Thouriadesis not attested,but Thourios
first half 6th century B.C. (I 10:1). is knownoutsideof Attica.
Early VI cent. B.C. ETrrpaXais
D 12 (P 14693). P1.7. Fragment from wall of
D 8 (P 4794). P1.7. Fragmentfrom wall of large large unglazedpot. Graffitiinside and outside,
coarse pithos. Graffito on outside, obviously obviouslywrittenon the sherd. Context: first
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

writtenon the sherd.Context:early6th century quarter 6th century B.C.(S 21:2).


(F 12:5). Hesperia, Suppl. VIII, p. 406.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

B.C.
FirstquarterVI cent. B.C. (outside).E.vSuivss
Early VI cent. B.C. AEtvLceia (inside) 9uv68paX[os
ATlileveiawould be the Attic feminine form of On the outside severalheavy strokesin the
of uncertainprovenience(Diod., XIV,
Aai'invrls, upper left corner have partiallyobscuredthe
53,5). first two letters, but the reading seems fairly
D9 (P 13333). P1.7. Fragment from neck of sure. On the inside much of the surfacebelow
coarse unglazedwaterjar. Graffitoon outside, the namehas flakedaway,and the endingof the
verticalwith respectto the pot; certainlywritten name is not preserved.It might equally well
on the sherd. Context: early 6th centuryB.C. have been genitive,as a patronymic,or dative,
as an addressee.
Early VI cent. B.C. TTEpalab[
This sherdmay have been a tag accompany- D 13 (P 18271).P1.7. Part of flat handleof large
Protoatticpot, with wavy lines downthe outer
ing a parcelbeing sent to Peiraieus:TTFipaiaBE.face. Incised on the inner face, verticallywith
It is also possible that the name T1EipaiaSrln
(unattested)was written. respect to the handle,and almost certainlyon
the sherd.Context:secondquarter6th century
D 10 (P 18342). P1.7. Fragment from wall of B.C.(A 17:1). Cf. Hesperia, XXX, 1961, p. 323,
large amphorawith streakyglaze on outside, F2.
of 7th- to 6th-centuryB.C. type. Graffito on First half VI cent. B.C. 'E6opT[1o (retrograde)
outside,verticalwith respectto the pot, almost
certainlywritten on the sherd. Context: first Note the absenceof the aspirate,as in the
quarter 6th century B.C.(B 18:10). same name in .G., I2, 579. The surfaceafter
the tau is almostcompletelydestroyed.
First quarter VI cent. B.C. (a) Eu.pUTr
(b) TTpaXcr<i>v D 14 (P 6067).P1.7. Fragmentfrom wall of large
The first graffito,which was writtenalong one pot with dull brown glaze outside. Graffitoon
edge of the sherd, seems to have been delib- inside,obviouslywrittenon the sherd.Context:
mid-6th century B.C. (19:1). Hesperia, Suppl.
erately trimmed off, so that only the lower
parts of the lettersremain.The sherdwas then VIII, p. 406.
turned around, and the second graffito was First half VI cent. B.C.AEPt6pi?XOS
(boustrophedon)
written.Euryteis a mythologicalname;Praxine
would be the Attic feminineform of Prexinos, D 15 (P 12212). P1.7. Fragment from wall of
knownoutsideAttica. large amphora,with dull streakyglaze outside,
of 7th-or early 6th-centuryB.C.fabric.Graffito
D 11 (P 14687).P1.7. Fragmentfrom wall of a on inside, written vertically to the pot and
Protogeometricpot. Graffito on inside, ob- skipping over a wheelmade groove. Context:
viously written on the sherd. Context: first down to mid-6th century B.C.
quarter 6th century B.C. (S 21:2). First half VI cent. B.C. E(<9>po[ (retrograde)
FirstquarterVI cent. B.C. The originalsherdis brokenat the left and
THYPOGOPIAAEE(boustrophedon)
chippedat upperright. The third letter, which
Since the potteryfrom this well is consistently is perfectly clearly preserved, consists of an
early 6th centuryB.C. in date, we assumethat oval with a horizontalline across it. This is
the writingon the sherd dates from the same perhapsan incompletetheta, whichwould give
period,and is not contemporary with the sherd. a namelike Euthronor Euthronios.Sinceboth
D. NAMES ON SHERDS 19

of these are rare (for the latter cf. F 43), it D 20 (P 24745).PI. 8. Fragmentof verylargevase
seems preferableto read the third letter as phi with thin black glaze on outside, of 7th- or
and restore some more common name like early6th-centuryB.C.fabric.Graffitoon outside,
Euphron or Euphronios. Phi's of this form are certainly written on the sherd. Context: third
to be found on certain early 5th-centuryB.C. quarter 6th century B.C.(with D 21).
ostraka, e.g., one of ThemistoklesPhrearrios Mid-VI cent. B.C. Aucias I Mup-r6
(Agora inv. no. P 17682 - unpublished);see Thefinalsigmaof Lysiaswassqueezedaround
also below,F 50. It occursoccasionallyeven on
the corneronto the secondline.
stone, e.g., the Kallimachosepigram(I.G., I2,
609); see also I.G., I2, 487. D21 (P 24746). P1.8. Fragment from wall of
unglazed pot. Graffito on outside, probably
D 16 (P 13). P1.7. Fragmentfrom wall of large
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

writtenon the sherd,of which the upperright


closed pot with thin streakyglaze outside, of cornerhas been broken.Context:thirdquarter
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

7th- and early 6th-centuryB.C. fabric.Graffito 6th century B.C.(with D 20).


on the outside,obviouslywrittenon the sherd,
which has been broken on the left. Context: Mid-VI cent. B.C. riupoS
mid-6th century B.C. D22 (P 10159). P1.8. Fragment from wall of
First half VI cent. B.C. ]papErT large amphorawith streakyglaze on outside,
of 7th-to B.C.type.Graffitoon
'I9poTjyE (boustrophedon) outside, early6th-century
certainlywritten on the sherd, which
Probablytwo women'snames.Thefirstmaybe appearsto have been trimmedto a moreor less
Timarete,Demareteor the like. In the second circularshape.Context: 7th-6th centuriesB.C.
line the letters, which are perfectlyclear, read Hesperia,Suppl.VIII, p. 406.
Ipholuge. This strange name is not attested. Mid-VI cent. B.C. 'AplICTrov
Perhaps the writer intended 'ITrTroAuyr(also
not attested,but less strange),writingphi for pi D 23 (P 26539). P1.8. Wall fragmentfrom large
as was done in the name hlpoXp&Tos on an closed pot, with thin, flaky, rather metallic
ostrakon (Hesperia,Suppl. VIII, p. 403), and glaze on the outside, perhaps Geometric.
inadvertentlyomitting the rough breathing(or Graffito on inside, obviously written on the
exchanging it with the aspiratedpi). sherd, which is chippedbelow. Context:mid-
6th century B.C.(T 18:3).
D 17 (P 26618). P1.8. Fragment from wall of Mid-VI cent. B.C.
coarse unglazed pot. Graffito on outside, 'Apti7Ts-r(ES) (retrograde)
obviously written on the sherd, which has a The inscription was left unfinished. The
small fragmentmissing at the right. Context: fillingin whichthis sherdwas foundis too early
first half 6th century B.C. for it to be consideredan ostrakonof Aristeides.
Firsthalf VI cent. B.C. Ka&ovi i.e., K&.XcovL D 24 (P2041). P1.8. Fragment from neck of
unglazed water jar. Graffiti inside and out,
Perhaps a tag accompanyinga parcel to obviouslywrittenon the sherd,whichwas then
Kallon. brokenat one end.Context:mid-6thcenturyB.C.
D 18 (P 13360).PI. 8. Fragmentfrom wall of an Mid-VI cent. B.C.
unglazedporous water jar. Graffito on outside, (outside) ]EISES (boustrophedon)
almost certainlywrittenon the sherd.Context: (inside) ]Ev
mid-6th century B.C. (H 10:2). Like D 23 this may have readAristeides.The
Mid-VI cent. B.C. circumstances of finding, however, make the
K]?XrisA69po i.e., iKAjfls A6Kpou interpretation of this sherd as an ostrakon
impossible.
Perhapsan invitationor summonsof a man
namedLokros. D 25 (P 15664). P1.8. Fragment from wall of
largeopenbowlwithbandof dullredglazeboth
D 19 (P 1993).PI. 8. Fragmentfrombase of black- inside and out. Graffition both sides, certainly
glazedskyphos,of a type commonin the second writtenon the sherd,of whicha pieceis missing
quarter 6th century B.C. Graffito on floor on one side.
inside, almost certainly written on the sherd VI cent. B.C. (outside) 'ApyEi[8es
becausethe cup was small and deep. Context:
Q 13:2. 'Ap]yi(8<?(s)
(inside) 'ApyiSEs
Mid-VI cent. B.C. 'O]v.Eoip[os ]. oCTOV
20 D. NAMES ON SHERDS

Each name is writtenalong one edge of the D 32 (P 4627). P1.9. Fragmentof pan tile, glazed
sherd; also various scratchings. Three are on uppersurface.Graffitoon the undersurface,
repetitions of the same name, Argeides, which obviouslywrittenon the sherd.Context: 6th-
seems not to have been reportedhithertobut early 5th centuries B.C. Hesperia, Suppl. II,
may derive from Argeios, which is known in pp. 121-122,226, no. B 47; Suppl.VIII, p. 400,
Attica.Thefourthnamewill havebeenMneson, note 20.
Tlesonor the like. Late VI-early V cent. B.C.
D 26 (P 13248). P1.8. Fragment from wall of NEoK<A>Eo(S) (boustrophedon)
largepot with tracesof dull black glaze on the MEAaviSs
outside, probablyGeometric.Graffition both Althoughit is possible that the sherd is an
sides, obviouslywrittenon the sherd.Context: abortiveostrakon,as suggestedin Supplement
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

second half 6th century B.C. VIII,it seemspreferableto readtwo names,one


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

VI cent. B.C. (inside) TJauvias of a man in the genitiveand one of a womanin


(outside) TIPAI the nominative. The man's name (probably
Note the two formsof the lettersigmain the Neokles)wasleft incomplete;thewoman'sname
name Pausias. An incompletename or word is not attested.
appearson the outside. D 33 (P 14130). P1.9. Fragmentfrom base of
D 27 (P 13251). P1.8. Fragment from wall of lekane,preservingpart of foot and lower wall,
largepot, with two bands of dull glaze outside, of late 6th-to early5th-centurytype. Graffitoon
probably Geometric. Graffito on the inside, wall outsideand upsidedown to pot, probably
obviously written on the sherd. Context: late written on the sherd.
6th century B.C. Late VI-early V cent. B.C. A]iocx(av
VI cent. B.C. Alia-rEhE The reasonfor the accusativecase is obscure.
The nameis not known.
D 34 (P 10717). P1.9. Fragment from rim of
D 28 (P 16812).P1.8. Fragmentfrom wall of very lekane, of late 6th- to early 5th-centuryB.C.
a
large unglazedpot, probably pithos. Graffito type. Graffitoon outside, probablywrittenon
on inside,obviouslywrittenon the sherd.Con- the sherd, which seems to be broken at the
text: end of 6th centuryB.C.(G 15:1). lowerright.
VI cent. B.C. OpOvov Late VI-early V cent. B.C. Avv[
D 29 (P 15693). P1. 8. Fragment from wall of large Cf. A[O]vKos from Larisa(LG.,IX2,568,18).
heavy pot or pithos, probably prehistoric, D 35
roughlycut into a rounddisc. Graffitoon out- (P 4696).P1.9. Fragmentfrom wall of large
closed pot, glazed on outside. Graffitoon in-
side, centeredon disc.
BA6avU side, obviouslywrittenon the sherd,whichhas
VI cent. B.C. been brokenat left. Context:early 5th century
The only evidencefor the date is the archaic B.C.
letterforms.The nameis not known.
Early V cent. B.C. ]E NO[
D 30 (P 15694). P1.8. Fragment from wall of ]AKInO[
large closed pot. Graffitoon inside, obviously Ionic letters. No likely names suggestthem-
writtenon the sherd, which is broken on the selves unlesserrorsare assumed,e.g., -Evocov,
right.Context:6th centuryB.C. "AXKiTrrroS.
VI cent. B.C. Kiaco[s i.e., Kiaclos D 36
(P 19287). P1.9. Fragment from rim of
The nameis knownonly as an ethnic. lekaneof late 6th-to early5th-centuryB.C.type.
D 31 (A 2498).P1.8. Fragmentfrom light roofing Graffitoon inside,upsidedown and then verti-
tile of Laconiantype. Inscribedthroughglaze cally to the pot, obviouslywrittenon the sherd.
on uppersurface;probably writtenon the sherd, Context: 5th century B.C.
which was later chippedon the left. Context: Early V cent. B.C.
thirdquarter4th centuryB.C. ]K6io5[ (drawingupsidedown)
VI cent. B.C. Aaleja[s (retrograde) D37 (P 10809). P1.9. Fragment from rim of
Becauseof the directionof writingwe assume black-glazedkylix of early 5th-centuryB.C.
that the sherd is considerablyolder than the type. Graffitioutsideand in, obviouslywritten
deposit in which it was found. on the sherd,whichhas beenbrokenat one end.
E. NUMERICALNOTATIONSON SHERDS 21

Early V cent. B.C. (outside) MeAa[ date.Graffitoon inside,upsidedownto the pot;


nupp[ obviously written on the sherd, of which the
(inside) ]6Es upperrightcorer has brokenoff.
LateV cent. B.C. Ki],iov
Assumingthat the same pair of names was O]caTIs
writtenboth insideand out, we may restore,for
example,Melanippidesand Pyrronides;neither
of these has been reportedfrom Attica. Presumablya list of three names which we
have restored exempli gratia.
D38 (P 27844). P1.9. Wall fragment of large
unglazedvessel. Graffitoon outside, certainly D 42 (P 16865). P1.9. Fragment from base of
writtenafterthe sherdwasmuchworn.Context: black-glazedbowl of late 5th-centuryB.C.type.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

early 5th century B.C.(H 13:5). Graffitoon inside, almost certainlywrittenon


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

the sherd, which is broken above and at the


Early V cent. B.C. 'ETrTmyVES
right.
D 39 (P 15209). P1.9. Fragment from wall of Late V cent. B.C. ]..X
unglazed amphora. Graffito on outside, ob- 'AprloroT[AXrs
viously written on the sherd. Context: ca. 490-
450 B.C. (F 19:4). For possibleconfusionbetweeneta and iota,
compare the inscriptions found in Plato's
Second quarter V cent. B.C. MEVESEo5S Academy(Epyov, 1958,pp. 12ff.;A.J.A.,LXIII,
cxapfat
Xapias 1959,p. 279).
-avSeS
D 43 (P 6799). P1.9. Fragmentof cover tile with
'AIpgipoXos
dull red glaze on the convex surface.Graffito
TTpoTapXos
on the glazed side, obviously written on the
VTEVTapio'TE
KcAio-TpaT' sherd. Context: second half 4th century B.C.
Note the mixture of Attic and Ionic letter (D-E 8-9:1).
forms. Xanthes and Amphibouloshave not Second half IV cent. B.C. rTp&'rcov
been reportedfrom Attica; for Pentaristesee
A.J.A., LI, 1947,p. 368. D44 (P 10775). P1.9. Fragment from wall of
unglazed amphora. Graffito on outside, ob-
D40 (P 21583). P1.9. Fragment from wall of viously writtenon the sherd. Context:Roman
large unglazedpot. Graffitoon outside, prob- (G 11:2 dump).
ably written on the sherd, which is certainly II cent.
broken at the left. Context: second half 5th 'EvriyovosIlh7tXiovos KuSoaSTvaiEvs5
century B.C. Two persons of this name are recorded,
Late V cent. B.C. ]. lAIA apparently a grandfather and a grandson. The
formerappearsas an ephebe in the year A.D.
]AIEE
118/9(I.G.,II2, 2030,10),the latteras an ephebe
D 41 (P 4791). P1.9. Fragmentfrom wall of large in about A.D. 180 (I.G., II2, 2107, 10). Whichof
open red-figuredpot of early 5th-centuryB.C. these two is named on our sherdis uncertain.

E. NUMERICAL NOTATIONS ON SHERDS

The criterionfor admissionto this categoryis that the notationshallhave beenwrittenon the sherd,
not on the complete vase. Although obviously it is not always possible to be absolutely certain on this
point, in the case of numberswhichcould have borneno relation(of price,capacityor weight)to the
pot of which the sherdwas originallya part, it may be said probablyif not certainlythat they were
writtenon the sherd.
The sherds here presented are only representativepieces, several of which were published in "Numeri-
cal Notations on GreekVases," Hesperia,XXV, 1956,pp. 19-24. For other examplessee that publi-
cation.
22 E. NUMERICAL NOTATIONS ON SHERDS

The numbersused on these sherds,which except for one later and uncertainexample(E 16) date
from the 5th and 4th centuriesB.C., are acrophonicwith one exception(mu as the numberof weight
drachmason E 15).Theyincludemu for myriad,pi-chifor 5000,chi for 1000,pi-etafor 500,eta for 100,
pi-deltafor 50, deltafor 10, pi for 5 (alsopi-sigmafor 5 staters),andeitherthe drachmasignor a simple
uprightstrokefor the unit. For fractionsof the drachmaa simplestrokeservesfor the obol (ordinarily
uprightbut once apparentlyhorizontalon E 4), a C-formfor the half-oboland a tau for the quarter-
obol. The only oddityin letter-shapesis the dotteddeltaof E 8.
The namesor words,mostlyabbreviated,whichon some sherdsaccompanythe numbers,presentno
unusualfeaturesin letter-shapesor spelling.Sincetheir significanceand interpretationare so various,
they can best be treatedindividuallyin the cataloguedescriptions.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

E 1 (P 12214). P1.10. Fragment fron1 wall of Probably a tag indicating the number of
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

large krater,glazed inside. Graffito on inside, pots or tiles ratherthan the price; the handle
obviously written on the sherd. Con [text: 6th- makesit particularlyconvenientto attach.
- KAp. ')
5th centuries B.C. Hesperia, XXV, 1' JVu, 'V, E 6 (P 12317). P1. 10. Fragment of roofing tile
no. 86. with glaze on concave surface. Graffito, on
Early V cent. B.C. !PXXXX i.e., 9975 glazed surface,probablywrittenon the sherd,
PHHHH which was brokenat the left. Context:fourth
r^AAP quarter 5th century B.C. (O 19:4). Hesperia,
E 2 (P 5133). P1.10. Foot of black-glazed kylix. XXV, 1956,p. 19, no. 79.
Graffitoon underside,probablywrittten on the Late V cent. B.C. P FIC T
sherd.Context:secondquarter5th centuryB.C. Partof an informalabacus,with the symbols
p. 88, noite2.
(H 6:5). Cf. Sparkes-Talcott, servingas headingsfor theplacementof pebbles:
Second quarter V cent. B.C. 5 (drachmas),1 (drachma),1 (obol), ? (obol),
MXH (retrograde) 4 (obol).
I.e., (uiplioi)X(ito1) h(EKacTrv) E 7 (P 4909). P1.10. Fragment from foot of
E 3 (P 226). PI. 10. Foot of a Corinthian-type black-glazedbowl of late 5th-centuryB.C.type.
skyphosof the secondquarter5th centuryB.C. Graffito on underside,inside foot, probably
Graffitoon bottom,probablywrittenon sherd. writtenon the sherd.
Second quarter V cent. B.C. mr Late V cent. B.C. AAHtF[
AiaXea
~p ~
NiKavof Perhaps a price tag, since the units are
Perhapsa tag accompanyinga colnsignment drachmas.
(weighingfive staters), belonging to Aischeas E 8 (P 9177). P1.10. Fragmentfrom lower part
and perhaps certifiedby Nikanor. It is also of black-glazedskyphos of Attic type of late
possible that only one person is involved, 5th centuryB.C. Graffitoon underside,within
namelyNikanor,son of Aischeas. the foot. Hesperia,XXV, 1956, p. 16, no. 69.
E 4 (P 27694).P1.10. Wall fragmentfroim lekane. Late V cent. B.C. AA111[
Graffito on inside, obviously written on the Since the units are simple strokes, the re-
sherd,whichwas later brokenat the left. Con- ferenceis to somethingotherthandrachmas.
text: second quarter 5th century B.C. (P 14:3).
E 9 (P 25886). PI. 10. Fragment from wall of
Second quarter V cent. B.C.
]a FFF-IC <T> i.e., 4 dr., 1 3/4 ob. plain storagejar. Graffitoon outside,obviously
1 3 ob. ~(?) writtenon the sherd.Context:5th centuryB.C.
] F i.e., dr.,
(Mll 18:).
The writing of obol strokes hcrizonta
V cent. B.C. ]io0v ---FFFF
insteadof verticallyis not usual.
] P-H
E 5 (P 16981).P1.10. FragmentfromrimI of black- ]AAAPF
glazedskyphos,preservingone handle Graffito Perhapsthe sherd representsthe tallying of
on inside,obviouslywrittenon the sherd. Con- drachmas (6paXi&ov)from different sources.
text: late 5th century B.C. (A-B 21-22:1). The fact that the six drachmasof the first line
Hesperia,XXV, 1956,p. 19, no. 82. have not been resolvedinto PF suggestssome
Late V cent. B.C. KEpa&pOS AAAAInf[ kind of tallying.
F. OWNERS' MARKS 23
E 10 (P 23873).PI. 10. Baseof lekane(= Sparkes- Thejug seemsto havebeen usedas a tag on a
Talcott,no. 1810).Graffitoin centeron under- shipmentof 60 pieces;the singledrachmaseems
side, probablywritten on the sherd. Context: to be price, whetherof the whole shipmentor
ca. 420-390B.C. (Q 15:2). some part. Perhapsthe shipmentwas pots of
which the tag was the visiblesample.
EarlyIV cent. B.C..P
The graffitois repeatedin smallerformat one E 14 (P 6876). PI. 10. Fragmentfrom floor of
edge. black-glazed bowl or plate, with stamped
palmettes on the floor, of the 4th centuryB.C.
E 11 (P 14622).PI. 10. Fragmentfrom lower part Graffitoon floor, almost certainlywritten on
of black-glazedskyphos of early 4th-century the sherd.
B.C. type. Graffito on underside,within ring Hesperia,XXV, 1956,p. 19, no. 81.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

foot; probablywrittenon the sherd. IV cent. B.C. APFFF


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

EarlyIV cent. B.C. Niy( ) HHA[ E15 (P25983). P1.10. Lower part of black-
Perhapsa tag?or an I O U? glazed kantharosof late 4th-centuryB.C. type.
Graffito on underside,within foot, probably
E 12 (P 18610).P1.10. Fragmentfrom lower part writtenon the sherd.Context:3rd centuryB.C.
of small black-glazedolpe. Graffitoon under- (Q 19:2).
side, probablywritten on the sherd. Context: Late IV cent. B.C.
first half 4th century B.C. (C 19:5).
Aio ( ) 6xK(at) i' i.e., 40 dr. (weight)
Firsthalf IV cent. B.C. Mi ( ) AA
It is likely that the first three letters are an
E 13 (P 3512). P1.10. Small black-glazedring- abbreviatedname ratherthan a commodity.
handledjug. Graffito on underside.Context:
secondhalf 4th centuryB.C.(F 11:2). Hesperia, E 16 (P 6349). P1.10. Lower part of Pergamene
XXV, 1956, p. 16, no. 68, pl. 3. Cf. Sparkes- bowl of the late 1st centuryB.C. Graffitoon
Talcott,no. 1192. underside,perhapswrittenon the sherd. Con-
Third quarter IV cent. B.C. FPA text: 1st century B.C. (E 14:1).
k Late I cent. B.C. 6p (aXlpat) AAAAA

F. OWNERS' MARKS

The large numberof what seem almost certainlyto be marksof ownershipinscribedon complete
vessels makes possible some useful statistics1of various sorts: changesin letter-shapesand spelling
throughoutthe rangefromearly7th centuryB.C. to the 6th centuryof our era; natureof identification,
rangingfrom simpleinitialof the nameto a completesentenceassertingownership(withconsideration
of the numberand kinds of abbreviations);locationof the markson varioustypes of vessels;andthe
natureof the writing,whethergraffitoor dipinto.
A more or less standardold Attic alphabet2(A or ABAASlIH?IK.MNOPPJTVO+or X) is used with
only a few exceptionsandvariantformsthroughthe secondquarterof the 5thcenturyB.C.: Ioniclambda
or gammaappearsonly in F 56, F 59 andF 74; variantsfor thetaincludethreedotted(F 12, F 13, F 26)
and one square(F 31); variantsfor rho includefive apparentlystemless(F 20, F 23, F 24, F 39, F 41) and
four with tails (F43, F 61-63). "Foreign-educated" writerswere probably responsiblefor the one
example of a B-shapedepsilon(F 14), the two examplesof psi-shapedchi (F 25, F 65), one combination
of closed eta as a vowel with Ionic xi (F 53), and four cases (F 56, F 72 cursive,F 75, F 78) in which
omegais used. Othervariantsare most likelyto be due to the difficultyof incisingand lack of skill of
the writer: misformed phi's (F 43, F 50 with almost horizontal crossbar,F 66 square), square omicron
1 Although the numbermay be sufficientfor statistical purposes, it is still true that the extremebrevity of the texts and relative

rarity of some letters and forms decreasedthe value of the results.


2 Digamma is not used alphabeticallybut only numerically;no opportunityfor psi arisesin these texts; xi is indicatedby a com-
bination of chi and sigma.
24 F. OWNERS' MARKS

(F 64), and curveddelta (F 50). Most interestingis the variationin sigmas;althoughthe four-barred
form is mostly the resultof sporadicforeigninfluence(F 16, F 44 with stemmedupsilon,F 56 with
omega and Ionic lambda,F 75 with omega,F 77 in a Cretanname),the role of the earliestexample
(F 1) is perhapsbest explainedas an alternateto the reversedsigmawhich seemsmost often to have
been used as a specialform markingthe end of the word (see above in introductionto Names on
Sherds,pp. 16-17).So herethe four-barredsigmaat theends of F 1 and thefive-barredsigmaat the end
of F 2 combinewith the reversedthree-barred sigmasat the endsof F 12, F 13,F 18 andF 23 to suggesta
gropingfor a significantvariantfor this specialpurpose;the only otherreversedsigmadoes occurin
the middle of a name (F 6) and may indicateeitherindividualidiosyncracyor the still fluid state of
experimentation.
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With the middleof the centurythe balanceshifts so that the rule is a more or less standardIonic
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alphabet(ABFAEIHOIKAMNEOnlP(TY(DXYQ)3 with a graduallydiminishingnumber of exceptions.


Attic lambdaor gammaoccursin no singleexample;thereare threetailedrho's (F 81, F 84, F 105)and
one that is more likely influencedby the Latin form (F 219). The most persistentof the older letter-
shapesis the three-barredsigma(F 84, F 118, F 119, F 125) whichoccurseven with omegaand eta as
long vowels.Exceptfor triangularand otherodd phi's (F 126,F 151,F 152,F 161,F 211) and a unique
broken-barred alphain F 157,thereis littlechangeafterthe 5th centuryB.C. untilthe gradualinfiltration
of cursiveformsbeginningin the late 4th-early3rdcenturiesB.C.:cursivezeta in F 178; lunatesigmain
F 182 and F 209; lunate epsilon in F 210; cursive omega in F 212, F 213.4From the end of the 3rd century
the non-cursiveforms(at least of certainletters)areexceptional:alphacontinuesuncial,showinga
B.C.
brokenbar or otherodditiesin F 254, F 271,F 280,F 299, F 302, and is cursiveonly in F 292, F 295 and
mostly thereafter,particularlyin dipinti; square epsilon occurs only in F 220, F 221, F 228, F 231, F 247,
F 249,F 277, F 333,F 334; pi continuesto be uncialfor the most part,with the developedcursiveform
only in F 318; the four-barredsigmaoccursonly in F 222 andF 225, but thereis an angularlunateform
in F 301 and a rectangularform in F 319; omega is uncial only in F 220 and F 231. Cursiveligatures also
in F 330. The Latinletters,whichoccuron F 228,
beginto occur:epsilon-iotain F 276, omicron-upsilon
F 251,F 277,F 283,F 288,F 298,F 313 andF 328, aretoo few to showanynotabledevelopment.
As mightbe expected,if we makeallowancefor the informalityof thesenotationsand the largeand
variednumberof theirwriterscomparedto the formalstoneinscriptionsandtheirfew inscribers(selected
presumablyfor theirskill),the changeanddevelopmentof letter-shapesin the earlyperiodis remarkably
similar. For the later period such a comparison is not possible since stone-cuttingis much less conducive
to cursive forms even than scratchingin fired clay and a completely differentworld from that of dipinti.
Here a comparison may be made with texts written in ink on papyri; and again there is a remarkable
similarityin letter-shapesbetween pots and paper, without so great a differencebetween our casual owner-
scribesandthewritersof casuallettersandaccountsas betweenthe formerandprofessionalstone-cutters.
As far as spelling is concerned, the first point to be considered, because of its close association with
letter-shapesand the Ionic alphabet, is the use of eta as "h" and of both eta and omega as long vowels.
No eta appearsas "h" afterthe secondquarterof the 5th centuryB.C., and even beforethat time it is
omittedonce(F 54).Theearliestuse of eta as a vowelis late 6th centuryB.C. (F 15);in the firsthalf of the
5th centuryB.C. it appears sporadicallyand in texts which show other foreign influences(F 53, where it is
combined with an Ionic xi, F 55, where it is misused for epsilon or the diphthong). After the middle of the
centuryepsilonas eta is the exception(F 84, wherethe likelygenitivesingularin -es shouldnot be the
Attic form after a rho, F 116, wherethe initial vowel of Hegesanderis writtenas eta but the second
vowelis writtenepsilon,andpossiblyF 123wherethe interpretation is not certain).Theoppositemistake,
writing eta for epsilon,which may reflecta confused and over-zealouseffortto use the "new" vowel,

8 Xi with or without the centeruprightoccurs indifferently;the tailed upsilon is not immediatelygeneraland can not always be
certainlydistinguishedin carelesswriting;
4 The hourglasssigma, if such it is, of F 183 must be foreign or idiosyncratic?
F. OWNERS' MARKS 25

occursin F 127. A comparableconfusionbetweenthe o-soundsis seenin F 160 wherean omegais used


for an omicron.Generally,in the earlierperiodomegaappearsfor the long vowel only in F 56, F 72,
F 78 and for eithershortor long in F 75. Afterthe middleof the 5th centuryB.C. the long vowelis con-
sistentlywrittenas omegaexceptin F 85, F 132,F 145 andpossiblyF 123.Lessconsistencyis apparentin
the treatmentof the diphthongsepsilon-iotaand omicron-upsilon.Einmiis writtenwith epsilon-iota
except twice (F 63, F 65); in the latter case the confusionis confoundedby the writingof Aischeas'
epsilonas a diphthong,but this is probablya Boiotian hand. The use of simpleomicronfor omicron-
upsilon(ordinarilyin the masculinegenitivesingular)continuesfrom earliesttimes(F 3, F 5, F 9, F 58,
F 63-65, F 77, F 92, F 94, F 104, F 107, F 115, F 125, F 127, F 131, F 132, F 136, F 143, F 146) to well
beyondthe 5th centuryB.C. with only two exceptions(F 23, F 144); only from the late 4th centuryB.C.
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does the diphthongomicron-upsiloncome to be generallywritten(F 177, F 180, F 198, F 201, F 203,


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F 209, F 212, etc.).


Single letters standing for doubled consonants are standardin the early period (F 3, F 58, F 62, F 103)
and even occur sporadicallyin the 4th century B.C.(F 138, F 168) when the usual practice is to write both
consonants (F 124, F 131, F 146, F 198, F 201, F 205, F 214, F 217, etc.). The reverse situation, where a
single letter is doubled, occurs only in the case of sigma precedinga dental (F 26, F 77) and so may reflect
a felt differenceof pronunciationmore than uncertaintyor confusion. Another reflectionof pronunciation
may be seen in the cases where letters are omitted: F 46 (MeAa<y>K6Oa) and F 84 (itoCu< > ppEs).One
insertionof an originallyomittedletter also exists:Gogias correctedto Gorgias(F 64). Metathesisof
aspirationalmostcertainlyoccursonce (F 184 Mr1.9fKn for MrXTIXTI),perhapsas a reflectionof pronun-
ciation, and only if we may assume the substitution
of theta for tau in F 11 (SaSi for TraTi)is an inter-
pretationof that owner'smarkpossible.
With regardto the way in whichthe lettersof the namesare arrangedwe shouldnote both how the
directionof writingis relatedto the chronologyandhowandwhenlettersarejoinedtogetherin ligatures
or monograms.The retrogradeinscriptions(F 1, F 4, F 5, F 18, F 35) continueinto the early5th century
B.C. and the only later example (second quarterof the 5thcentury B.C.)is also unique in every other way,
being writtenin the Cypriotesyllabary(F 67). No true boustrophedonarrangementappears,but the
crampedconditionsof a small circularbase sometimesproducea kind of false boustrophedon,as in
F 76, F 91. Ligaturesandmonogramsrepresenta morefrequentdeparturefromthe normallinearwriting
fromleft to right;moreover,theypersistsporadicallyfromthe 6th centuryB.C.to the 6th centuryof our
era. A ligature,for our presentpurposes,may be definedas the joining(often by a commonstrokeor
strokes)of two or moreletters,whethersideby sideor aboveandbelow,thusleavingthe termmonogram
for those cases in whichall the lettersof a name(abbreviatedor in full) are interlacedand combined.
The earliestcases are mostlymonogramsof three-letterabbreviations (F 14,F 15, F 19, F 27, F 45, F 48,
F 52, F 69)or of two letters(F 73, F 89). Onlyone case survivesfromthis periodof a two-letterligature
as part of a whole name (F 46). Later examplesare more various:a probablyfour-lettermonogram
(F 129); four cases of two joined letters in a longer text (F 162, F 193, F 224, F 314) ;5 two monograms of
three-letterabbreviations(F 190, F 221); one monogram of a five-letter abbreviation (F 241) and one of
a complete name of seven letters (F 214).
Punctuation is rare in these short texts: two or three dots vertically arrangedoccur between words on
two early pieces (F 18, F 24); a long line marking off the end from the beginning of inscriptions that
circle around on themselves appears on two later examples (F 83, F 92).
Mention has already been made in passing of the non-Greek scripts which are included in this collec-
tion: one Greek name written in the Cypriote syllabary(F 67); and several Latin names written in Latin
letters (F 228, F 251, F 283, F 288, F 298, F 313, F 328) as well as one which is apparently given in both
Latin and Greek letters. Two other pieces seem to be non-Greek (F 99, F 100).

6 Not includedhere are the cursivejoints, as for example betweenthe letters of the diphthongsepsilon-iota(F 276) and omicron-
upsilon (F 330).
26 F. OWNERS' MARKS

The variouswaysin whichownersexpresstheirclaimmay be categorizedas follows,startingwiththe


shortestand simplestand workingup to the most elaborate:
Name abbreviated(rangingfrom 1 to 8 letters) 148
Name in nominativecase 51
Name in genitivecase 72
Name in dativecase 4
Moreelaboratestatementof ownership 21
Incompleteor obscure 46
3426
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The abbreviationsare especiallyto be noted sincewe have from no othersourcesuch abundantevi-


dencefor abbreviationsin the earlyperiod.Of the 152 abbreviationsoccurringon 148 pots (fourhave
morethanone abbreviation)the lengthsandchronologicalrangesareas follows:

Numberof
letters Number7 Dates
8 1 Late4th-early3rdcenturiesB.C.
6 4 From mid-5th into 4th century B.C.
5 13 From secondquarter5th centuryB.C.into Late Romanperiod
4 47 From 6th century B.C. into Late Roman period
3 70 Fromfourthquarter6th centuryB.C. to 5th-6thcenturies
2 13 Fromfourthquarter6th centuryB.C. to mid-3rdcentury
1 4 From early 5th century B.C.to 1st century B.C.
152

The comparative scarcity of one and-two-letter abbreviations results from our criteria of selection (see
Introduction, p. 1) and is not at all a reflection of the actual state of affairs.There are vast numbers of
pots or fragmentswith only one or two letters,but becausethe scopefor interpretation is so wide they
can give us little or no information.Of the four one-letterabbreviationswhichare includedthreehave
not only the initialbut also the full name(F 163,F 185,F 245) and the other(F 40), althoughit has only
the initial,is one of a groupof pots all apparentlymarkedby the sameownerin variousways. Of the
13two-letterabbreviations, one (F 39) belongsto this samegroup,another(F 213) was also foundin the
samecontextwith a completename,six occurtogetherin pairson threepots (F 89, F 112,F 228), one
(F 28) representsfive differentjars all markedin the sameway, one (F 73) is a uniquemonogram,one
(F 127) shows the full name as well as the abbreviation,and the last two (F 242,F 296) seemedsuf-
ficientlyunlikeany otherinscribedpots of the periodto be interesting.8
6 This total exceeds the number of catalogueditems by eight because so many both have abbreviationsand belong to another
category:F 91, F 127, F 152, F 163, F 180, F 185, F 245, F 323.
7 Eight letters: F 181
Six letters:F 80, F 145, F 167, F 308
Five letters:F 59, F 79, F 97, F 108, F 119, F 147, F 153, F 193, F 237, F 241, F 320, F 326, F 331
Four letters: F 20, F 49, F 51, F 54, F 66, F 68, F 71, F 81, F 88, F 90, F 91, F 95, F98, F 110, F 114, F 121, F 129, F 137, F 148,
F 151, F 152, F 162, F 163, F 166,F 180, F 186,F 189, F 195, F 200, F 206, F 211, F 217, F 222, F 227, F 229, F 236, F 240, F 244, F 254,
F 255, F 261, F 271, F 278, F 299, F 317, F 327, F 334
Three letters: F 14, F 15, F 17, F 19, F 21, F 22, F 25, F 27, F 2931, F 33-37, F 41, F 42, F 45, F 47, F 48, F , F 53, F 57, F 60,
F 61, F 69, F 70, F 74, F 87, F 102, F 105, F 106, F 109, F 111, F 120, F 133, F 155,F 156, F 159, F 173-175, F 178, F 190,
F 194, F 196, F 197, F 207, F 208, F 210, F 219, F 221, F 235, F 239, F 247, F 248, F 260 F 265,
, F2 F277,F F
281, F 283,
F 293, F 294, F 303, F 314, F 323
Two letters:F 28, F 39, F 73, F 89 (2), F 112 (2), F 127, F 213, F 228 (2), F 242, F 296
One letter: F 40, F 163, F 185, F 245.
8 Actually this two-letter abbreviation could as well refer to contents or give a date or other number and so serves as an example of
these abbreviations'elusiveness.
F. OWNERS' MARKS 27

With the 71 three-letterabbreviationswe are on somewhatfirmerground,sincethe majorityof them


could not be numbers and all can be more easily interpretedas names than as common nouns. This is
not to saythatmostof themcanbe identifiedwithone particularname,sinceit is obviousfromthemake-
up of personalGreeknamesthat initialcombinationslike Eur-,Kri-,Men-,Nik-, and Phil- may easily
standfor a greatvarietyof names.How abbreviationsso potentiallyambiguousservedany purposeat
all is obviouslythe next question.The most likely answeris one whichsuggeststhat this collectionof
owners'marksmay have sociologicalas well as epigraphicand alphabeticimplications:the groupsin
whichabbreviationsof one, two, three,four and evenfive lettersmightbe usefulmustnecessarilyhave
beensmall,andwiththe tendencyfor the sameor similarnamesto be usedrepeatedlywithina particular
family,it is unlikelythat the groupsin questionwerefamilies.Clubssuggestthemselvesas a possibility,
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with the membersmarkingtheirown vessels,whetherfor drinkingor pouring;anotherpossibilityis a


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groupof customersof one smallshop who left vesselsto be filled.Perhapsothersuchgroupsmightbe


thoughtof, dependingon the kindof vesselsmarked.Thatthe make-upof the groupsometimesrequired
moreexplicitor longerabbreviationsis obviousfromthe varietyof lengthswhichwe actuallyfind,e.g.,
Ar (F 112), A (F
(( 21, Aris 81), Arist (F
153), risti (F
F 80). These pieces did not, obviously, belong to
one group,but the varietysuggeststhat therewas a tendencyto cut one's nameto fit the circumstances.
If, for instance, Aristogeiton was the founder of his club he might well have marked his drinkingcup Ar,
while subsequent joiners named Aristotle, Aristeides, Ariston and Aristippos would have arrogated to
themselves respectivelythe abbreviations Ari, Aris, Arist and Aristi.
The four-letterabbreviationsare not for the most part much more particularizing than those with
three,but the majorityof those made up of five or more lettersgive almostcertainidentification
with a
particularname.
As wasnotedabove,six of the abbreviatednamesareaccompaniedby whatmustbe the samenamesin
full: Dexio and De (F 127); Diphilou and Diphi (F 152); Menonos, Meno and M (F 163); Theon and Th
(F 185); Nikolaou and N (F 245); Eukarpos and Euk (F 323). This range of one, two, three and four-
letter abbreviations alongside full names confirms us in our interpretation of the abbreviations as
owners'namesbut still leavesus puzzledas to why these six ownerssaw fit to identifytheirproperty
by both forms.
Whatever may be imagined as the intended grammaticalcase of the abbreviations,the variety among
the names that are complete allows considerable choice: nominative 40%; genitive 57 %; dative 3 %.9
Since the nominative may always be considered as the subject of an understood verb of owning with the
object inscribed as the understood object, and since both genitive and dative can express possession, the
usage may depend on individual preference. The choice of case seems not to have been dictated by
changingfashion,sinceit is apparentthat nominativeand genitive,at any rate, wereboth used pretty
consistentlyfrom the beginningto the end of our period.
A few of the owners'namesin the nominativeand genitiveare accompaniedby additionalidenti-
fication:the father'sname appearscertainin F 231, F 304 (also grandfather),F 316, and possiblyin
F 117 and F 118; tradename, title or epithet appearsin F 262, F 304 and F 316. Whethertwo names
apparentlyin the samecasesuggestjoint ownershipor somekindof relationshipperhapsvariesaccording
to the situation(F 150, F 165, F 180, F 332). More uncertainor incompleteare the additionsin F 103,
F 183,F 284,285.Most frequentis the presenceof one or two (or three)lettersapparentlyusedas numer-

9 Nominative:F 1, F 6-8, F 11, F 16, F 24, F 44, F 46, F 62, F 72, F 76, F 78, F 83, F 85, F 93, F 117,F 135,F 138,F 150, F 164,F 168,
F 170, F 176, F 183-185, F 187, F 188, F 204, F 214, F 224, F 225, F 231, F 238, F 250, F 252, F 257, F 274, F 282, F 285, F 287, F 290,
F 291, F 309-311, F 316, F 318, F 322, F 323, F 329.
Genitive: F 2, F 4, F 9, F 23, F 64, F 67, F 77, F 84, F 86, F 92, F 104, F 113, F 118, F 125, F 127, F 136, F 140-143, F 146, F 152,
F 157, F 158, F 163, F 165, F 179, F 180, F 182, F 198, F 201-203, F 212, F 216, F 223, F 230, F 233, F 234, F 243, F 245, F 246, F 251,
F 256, F 258, F 259, F 262-264, F 267-270, F 273, F 275, F 276, F 279, F 286, F 292, F 295, F 297, F 301, F 304, F 306-308, F 312,
F 321, F 325, F 330, F 332.
Dative: F 50, F 284, F 288, F 298.
28 F. OWNERS' MARKS

als: alpha(1) in F 87, F 170; gamma(3) in F 317; delta (4) in F 162,F 282; epsilon(5) in F 98; stigma-
zeta (6-7) i 04; kappa(2 in F 73; kappa-alpha(21) in F 297; nu (50) or pi-delta(50) or both in
F 130,F 206,F 252; andepsilon-iota-rho (115)in F 315 andkappa-theta-tau(329)in F 250. The numbers
need not all be used similarlyand could not be expectedto be so over so greata lapse of time and on
such differenttypes of vessels.It is possiblethat the smallernumbersmight referto qualityor age of
contents,that any of the numbersmightindicatethe particularvessel'splacein a series,or giveeithera
date or taahecapacityon he basis of some era or unit taken for granted.Finally,one vessel(F 198) on
whichthe capacityis spelledout is cataloguedhere ratherthan underHa (Capacity)becausethe first
item in the inscriptionis the owner'sname.
In additionto a few unexplainedmarksthat are not evencertainlylettersor numberson severalpots,
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thereis one smallclassof someinterest,that is,either,


namesaccompaniedby the chi-rhosymbolor the
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cross:F 322, F 323 (on whichthe additionaliota-epsilonmightbe eithera numberor the abbreviation
for "priest"or "sacred"),F 324.
The most frequentformulaamong the more elaboratestatementsof ownershipmakes the vessel
assert,"I am (the property)of ." This simpleform occurs 13 times (althoughsome
texts are incomplete and so may have included more): F 5, F 12, F 13, F 18, F 32, F 56, F58, F 63, F 65,
F 107, F 115, F 144, F 177. One variant adds a predicate (F 3); another uses the adverb dikaios (F 94,
F 131, F 132, F 139, F 154). F 103 may name itself as the property of Philippe; F 199 appears to record a
conversation:"(Thisis the property)of Agathonthe thief." "Cheapat a chalkous!"Two of these
inscriptionsalso haveadditionalinformation:F 65 maygivethe owner'sethnic;F 131 may add a prohi-
bition to the assertionof ownership- "I am really(the property)of Andriskos;[let not] anyoneelse
[touch]."F 63 may indicatejoint ownership.
The 46 incompleteor obscuretexts can not profitablybe treatedas a group,since the uncertainties
involvedare so various.Most are nameslackingcase-endings(or more);10thereare a few wherethe
names themselves are uncertain, if indeed they are names;u and two texts are literally illegible because
they employnon-Greekletters(F 99, F 100).
Sincethe kind of vesselsand the locationof the inscriptionsthereonaremost often related,it will be
convenient to consider these two matters together. For our purposes the vessels do not need to (and
often can not because of theirfragmentarystate) be separatedinto many individual categories of shape. It
is sufficient (and often only possible) to distinguish open vessels (like cups, bowls, basins, plates) from
closed (like amphoras, pitchers,jugs). In addition there are lamps and lids and one disc-stand, as well as
three unexplained objects of clay.
The vast majority (73 %) of open vessels12are inscribed underneath,on the base; on 19% the inscrip-
tion appears on the side wall; the locations of the other 8% are various, with only a few examples of
each: inside (often on floor), top of rim (of basins), top of foot or stem (kylix), handle. Two of the side-
wall inscriptions are upside down to the vessel (F 6, F 25), and one runs vertically (F 203). For the great
number of inscriptions underneaththe orientation is obviously a matter of indifference.

10F 10, F 26, F


38, F 43, F 55, F 75, F 10, F 116 F
F
128,F
F,1
1230, F 134, F 149,F 160, F 161, F 169,F 172, F 205, F 215, F 218,
F 220, F 226, F 232, F249, F253, F266 F 289, F 300, F 302, F 305,F 315, F 319, F 324, F 328, F 333.
" F 82, F 91, F 96, F 122, F 123, F 171, F 191, F 192, F 209.
12
Thereare 183 examples,of which threeare inscribedin two places,so the percentagesare basedon 186inscriptions.Underbase:
F
10O, F 11, F14,F15,F17,F18,F21-23,F26,F27,F30,F31,F33,F34,F36,F37,F39,F41,F43,, 8, F50, F 51, F 53, F 54,
F 56, F 59, F 62-64, F 66, F 67, F 69, F 74-77, F 79, F 80, F 82-86 (also foot-top of F 86), F 87, F 89, F 90, F 91 (also inside), F 92,
F 94-96, F 98, F 104, F 105, F107, F108, F 110, F112, F 117, F 119, F 120, F 122, F 123, F 125, F 126, F 128, F 133-135, F 137,
F 139, F 40, F 143-14716 F 159162 F 164 F 167, F 168, F
F 149-151, F 15170, F 173 F 174 F 176, F179 180, F 182, F 184,
F 186-195, F 200, F 206 (also outside wall), F 208, F 210, F 213, F 215, F 221, F 222, F 226, F 227, F 229, F 230 (also inside), F 234-
F 236, F 237, F 24, FF245 (also inside), F 246-249, F 254-256, F 264, F 265, F 301, F 302, F 334. Outside wall: F 1-6, F 25, F 32,
F 45, F 46, F 57 F 68, F 78, F 99-101, F 109, F 115, F 118, F 124 F 154, F 169, F 172 F 181, F 201,2F326 (F206 also under-
neath),F 207, F 209, F 223, F 225, F 231 (also inside), F 232, F 330. Inside:F 70, F 91 (also underneath),F 116, F 138,F 1, F 156,
F 220, F 230 (also underneath),F 231 (also outside), F 245 (also underneath).Stem or top of foot: F 24, F86 (also underneath),
F 158. Tip of rim: F 88, F 106, F 132. Handle: F 219.
F. OWNERS' MARKS 29

Inscriptionson closed vessels13occur most often on the shoulderor side (67%) or neck to mouth
(17%), less often underneath,on the base (9+ %), and on the handle (6+ %). Only one inscription
(F 97) is upsidedown to the vessel,but three(F 9, F 65, F 298) run vertically.Handleinscriptionsseem
to readindifferentlyup or down.
If thereis anychronologicalconclusionto be drawnfromthesefigures,it is onlythe sameone thatmay
be derivedfrom a generalsurveyof the potteryof the Agora: that there are more examplesof open
shapesin the Greekperiodthan in the Romanperiod.
The inscribedlamps number15; four are inscribedon the nozzle (F 113, F 152, F 178, F 185); four
underneath,on the base(F 42, F 93, F 197,F 214);threeon top or aroundthe rim(F 103,F 183,F 212);
threeon the side-wall(F 129,F 177,F 211); oneis inscribedon top, on the nozzleandon one side(F 163).
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All lids (F 49, F 58, F 121,F 157,F 216) and one disc-stand(F 8) are inscribedon the top surface.The
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miscellaneousclay objects(F 165,F 166,F 240) are inscribedon any convenientsurface.


Becausethere are more fine waresinscribedin the Greekperiodand more coarse ones in Roman
times,graffitipreponderategreatlyin the centuriesbeforeChristand are not even quitematchedin fre-
quencyby dipintiin our era. Thatis, glazedwarecan be most visiblymarkedby scratchingthroughthe
glaze;unglazedwarenot only lendsitselfmoreto paintbut makespaintmorevisible.Theseproportions
applyonly to this category,sinceit is obviousthatthe graffitois a morehome-mademethodof marking
and that variouscommercialnotationswill have been made14less laboriouslyand moreprofessionally
with a brush.Of our 334 owners'marks289 (86%) are graffitiand only 45 (14%) are dipinti.l5Six
of the graffitiwere incisedin the clay while it was still soft (F 216, F 259, F 261,F 288,F 306,F 318).
One dipintoowner'smark(F 252) was supplemented with a graffitonumber.
We come finallyto the namesthemselvesand a considerationof the prosopographical value,if any,
of these inscriptions.Actual identificationof individualownerswith knownpersonsis not, exceptin
very specialcircumstances,possible;nor would it be usefulto know, for example,that a man whose
only "claimto fame" was servicein the Boule in a particularyear had scratchedhis name on a pot.
Onlywherethereis moreinformationthanthe name,or wherethe nameis veryrareindeedmay identi-
ficationbe possible.For the restourchiefconcernwillbe the nameratherthanthe person,thatis, wheth-
er it is known(1) fromAthens,or (2) elsewhere,either(3) roughlycontemporaneously with its appear-
ance on the pot, or (4) some othertime. Sincemost of the completenamesbelongto the firstcategory
(known at Athens) and also to the third (roughlycontemporary)it will save space in the catalogue
descriptionsif this is assumedto be the case unlessthe contraryis noted.Thatis, a nameis noticedonly
if a roughlycontemporaryAthenianis not knownfromProsop.Att., I. G., or S. E. G. For the abbrevi-
ated names,it will be most often sufficientto indicateexamplesof possibleAtheniannamesin the few
caseswherethesearenot obvious;onlywherenonesuchexistwillfurtherdiscussionbe required.
Of the completeGreeknames(and the sufficientlycompleteabbreviations)only 19 are not attested
anywhereat all as names:two of these (F 150, F 325) are known in somewhatdifferentforms; eight
(F 11, F 84, F 93, F 104, F 169, F 230, F 301, F 330) are knownas commonnouns and seem hereto be
usedas nicknamesor titles;only nine(F 1, F 4, F 76, F 155,F 171,F 178,F 271,F 273,F 276)arewithout
parallel.A fairnumberof namesareattestednot for Athensbut elsewhere;16 a few areattestedat Athens
18 There are 127 examples.Shoulderor side: F 7, F 9, F 12, F 13, F 16, F 19, F 29, F 52, F 55, F 60, F 61, F 65, F 97, F 127, F 130,
F 131 (also handle), F 171, F 196, F 198, F 217, F 224, F 233, F 235, F 241, F 243, F 244, F 251-253, F 257, F 258, F 260-262, F 266-
279, F 282-285, F 287-289, F 291-296, F 298-300, F 303-309, F 311-313, F 315-319, F 321-323, F 325-327, F 331. Neck to mouth:
F 28, F , FF 38, F 142, F 218, F 228, F 239, F 250, F 263, F 280, F 281, F 286, F 290, F 297, F 310, F 314, F 320, F 324, F 328, F 329,
F 332, F 333. Under base: F 40, F 44, F 47, F 71-73, F 81, F 136,F 155, F 175, F 202, F 259. Handle:F 20, F 102, F 111, F 114,F 131
(also side), F 148, F 199, F 238.
14 Just as the somewhatdifferentcommercialnotations of the Greek
period were made by stampsimpressedin the soft clay, as on
amphorahandles.
15 For brevity'ssake only the dipinti numbersare herelisted: F 198, F 211, F 217, F 218, F 228, F 233, F 235, F 241, F 250, F 252,
F 257, F 258, F 263, F 266, F 267, F 276, F 277, F 280-282, F 284-287, F 290, F 292-298, F 304, F 305, F 308, F 310-312, F 316, F 317,
F 322, F 324, F 328, F 331, F 332.
16F 12, F 13, F 24, F 43, F 46, F 67, F 88, F 108, F 117, F 118, F 123, F 166, F 176, F 184, F 206, F 224, F 239, F 240, F 284, 285,
F 297, F 306, F 310, F 326.
30 F. OWNERS' MARKS

for a differentperiodfromthe one hererepresented(F 10,F 49, F 87,F 235,F 262).Therearealso several
ethnics(F 44,F 62,F 63,F 77,F 170,F 203,F 257),someof whichhavenot previouslyappearedin Attica;
some of thesemay be slavenames.17
As far as sex is concerned,the predominanceof the male, whetherin termsof possessionor in the
expressionthereof(literacy),is clear:127namesareprettyclearlymasculine;only 19 arefairlycertainly
feminine,withan additionalsix thatcouldbe eithersex;18mostabbreviations areobviouslyuncertain.

PRIVATEOWNERSHIP(F) F6 (P 17380). P1.11. Skyphos with offset lip,


reservedhandlezone and small spreadingfoot.
F 1 (P 10151). Pl. 11. Fragmentaryone-handled
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Graffitoon lowerpart of body, upsidedown to


cupwithplainrim,concavesidesandflatbottom pot. Context: second half 7th century B.C.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

(= Brann, no. 194). Dull streakyblack glaze (M 11:3). Hesperia,XXX, 1961, p. 366, H25,
inside and out; bottom reserved.Graffitoon pls. 78, 89.
the side. Context: first half 7th century B.C.
(T 19:3). Second half VII cent. B.C. O6oov
First quarter VII cent. B.C. F 7 (P 14691).PI. 11. Upper part of amphoraof
]X.
&nXOS (retrograde) 7th-centuryB.C. type. Graffito on shoulder.
Context:firstquarter6th centuryB.C.(S 21:2).
PerhapsElatichos(not known),but possibly Cf. Brann,p. 33.
third declension genitive rather than second
declensionnominative.If the chi is writtenfor Late VII cent. B.C. ATrp]616Tr[o]
the
kappa, possibilities becomemore numerous.
F 8 (P989). PI. 11. Black-glazed disc stand.
F2 (P26420). PI. 11. One-handled cup with Graffitoon upper surface. Context: first half
flaringlip and flat bottom. Graffitoon upper 6th centuryB.C. (116:4). Cf. Sparkes-Talcott,
wall. Context:second quarter7th centuryB.C. no. 1323.
(R 17:5). Hesperia,XXX, 1961, p. 377, S 17, Firsthalf VI cent. B.C. (Oav*Ae
pl. 87.
F 9 (P 195).P1.11. Fragmentfrom upperbody of
Second quarter VII cent. B.C. Ot(Iovos
black-figuredolpe or small amphora, of the
F 3 (P 4663). P1.11. Skyphoswith offset lip and first half 6th century B.C. On reservedpanel
low ring foot. Graffitoon the side, just below outlinedby a single glazed line, the tail of an
level of handle. Context: 7th-6th centuries animal. Graffito beside panel vertical with
B.C.(F-G 12:1). Hesperia,Suppl. II, pp. 124- respectto the pot.
p. 7.
125,figs. 89, 90. Cf. Sparkes-Talcott, First half VI cent. B.C. Av]cainlo
Mid-VII cent. B.C. Eapio sljil -roTfplov
The restorationis one of severalpossibilities,
F 4 (P 22709).P1.11. One-handledcup with offset probablythe most likely for 6th-centuryB.C.
lip (= Brann,no. 184).Graffitoon upperwall. Athens.
Context:thirdquarter7thcenturyB.C.(0 12:1). F 10 (P 2029). P1.11. Fragmentfrom base of
Third quarter VII cent. B.C. open bowl, glazedinsideand out, exceptunder
'ATxoraTas (retrograde) foot. Graffitoon bottom. Context:6th century
B.C.
The name is not known;compareTataieon
a lekythosfrom Cumaein the BritishMuseum First half VI cent. B.C. EOTr[
(Jeffery,L.S.A.G.,p. 240, no. 3, pl. 47). No such name is attested till the Roman
F 5 (P 23452).Pl. 11. Fragmentfromwall of cup. period.
Graffito on outside. Context: third quarter F 11 (P 24727). P1.11. Fragmentfrom base of
7th centuryB.C. (R 8:2). Hesperia,XXX, 1961, skyphos,of a type commonin second quarter
p. 353, G 33, pls. 81, 89. 6th century B.C., with red band above foot.
Third quarter VII cent. B.C. Graffito on bottom. Context: fourth quarter
]MAoE[IPt (retrograde) 6th century B.C.(R 12:3).
17Strabo VII, 304 I
v y&p Ko4?iLro, tl 'oTs BVEatv KEivois6pOvitovs &Aov TOS-rotK'ra, cs AvS6v Katl2Opov, q TOTS
tj ous
bmrroA&Louvav thi 6v61saoi rpocry6pvov, &S M6vnv A^Ti6av T6v Oprya, Tiplov 8 Trv naorXay6va.
Crtainy fem ne: F 4, F 8, F 11, F 24, F 79, F 84, F 103, F 117, F 158, F 165, F 176, F 184, 230, F 257, F 255, F 306, F 311,
F 322, F329. Eithersex: F46, F 113, F 182, F 183, F 188, F224.
F. OWNERS' MARKS 31

Second quarter VI cent. B.C. Oa0{ i.e. TaTf? F 19 (P 24882). P1.11. Glaze-bandedamphora
Perhapsthe "mistress'cup", inscribedby a of 6th-centuryB.C. type. Graffitoon shoulder.
servant of the house. An abbreviationis less Context: ca. 520-490 B.C. (Q 12:3). Cf. Sparkes-
likely, since names beginningthus are much Talcott,no. 1502.
later. VI cent. B.C. ZUI ( ) (monogram)
F 12 (P 17825). P1.11. Small black-glazedolpe ThemostlikelyAtheniannameis Symmachos.
with high-swunghandle and large spreading F20 (P 25922). P1.11. Handle from unglazed
foot (=Sparkes-Talcott,no. 251). Graffitoon amphora.Graffitoon outsideof handle,written
side. Context: mid-6th century B.C. (J 18:4). from bottom up. Context:6th centuryB.C.
Mid-VI cent. B.C. Oaluv?o5?ei.i VI cent. B.C. 'Aypu( )
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Name attested for Carian from Ialysos A demotic('AypvXAss) or a name(unattested)


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

(Ath., VI, 262). derivedfrom &ypuTrv4co?


F 13 (P 17826). P1.11. Unglazed oinochoe with
trefoil mouth. Graffito on side. Context: F 21 (P 16585). P. 11. Black-glazedkylix base.
mid-6th century B.C. (J 18:4). Cf. Sparkes- Graffito on underside.Context: 6th-5th cen-
turies B.C.
Talcott,no. 1637.
Mid-VIcent. B.C. eOavEos Eil.i
Early V cent. B.C. 'Aya( )
F 14 (P 8813). P1.12. Black-glazedstemmeddish F22 (P 16869). PI. 11. Black-glazedkylix foot.
(= Sparkes-Talcott, no. 966).Graffitoon under- Graffito on underside.Context: 6th-5th cen-
side. Context: ca. 520-490 B.C.(E turies B.C.
14:5).
Ca. 525 B.C. (a) At ( ) (monogram) Early V cent. B.C. 'Eop( )
(b) N (fragmentaryletter) F23 (P2610). P1.11. Base of small skyphos.
Since At3( ) gives no reasonable Greek Graffitoon underside.Context:early 5th cen-
name, we assume the alphabetto be a non- tury B.C. (G 6:3). Hesperia, XV, 1946, p. 277,
Attic one in which t equals E or H, such as no. 19.
Megarianor Corinthian.
EarlyV cent. B.C. 21iKpivov
F 15 (P 8826). P1.12. Black-glazedkylix. Graffito Too earlyfor Sophocles'contemporary
on underside of foot. Context: ca. 520-490 B.C. (Ath.,
XIII, 592b)?
(E 14:5).
F24 P1.11. Black-glazedkylix stem,
Late VI cent. B.C. Kpr( ) (monogram) with(P2759). raised
slightly ring at lower end, marked
F 16 (P 1206).PI. 11.Shoulderfragmentfromlarge off above and belowby an incisedline. Graffito
non-Atticamphora.Light buff clay, micaceous carefully spaced around stem on this band,
and hardbaked,with red bandat base of neck, with punctuationbetweenlast and first letters.
turningdownwardat its right end. Graffitoon Context: early 5th century B.C. (G 6:3). Hes-
shoulder. Context: late 6th centuryB.C.(G 15: 1). peria,XV, 1946,p. 277, no. 18.
Late VI cent. B.C. 'Apaiorov Early V cent. B.C. i Xapia[v]0e
F 17 (P 5206). P1.11. Base of kylix with short The nearest attested name is from Thasos:
thick stem; raised ring with added red; of Xa]piav0EOrs (.G. XII, 8, 285, 6).
late 6th-centuryB.C. type. Graffito on inner
face of foot. F 25 (P 4232). P1.12. Lower body of skyphos.
Graffitooutside,upsidedown to pot. Context:
Late VI cent. B.C. BM( ) late 6th to early5th centuriesB.C.
F 18 (P 9055). P1.11. Base fragment of black- Early V cent. B.C. Xoi( ) e.g., Xot(pf?ou)
glazed bowl with torus ring foot. Graffitoon Note the use of the non-Atticchi.
underside.
Late VI cent. B.C. ]oros: E[I1t F 26 (P 4666). P1.12. Fragmentfrom bottom of
(retrograde) black-glazed
Thereare not many nameswith genitivesin cup kotyle of late 6th- to early
5th-centuryB.C.type. Graffitoon underside.
-coroS;amongthem are TTrlaSpcos, an Athenian
vase-painter of mid-6th century B.C. (Hesperia, Early V cent. B.C. 'A]lKi(c<a>)[voS
IX, 1940, pp. 225-226), and 'Apapcbs(Prosop. F 27 (P 6173).P1.12.
Kylixfoot, reservedbeneath.
Att., no. 1575). Graffito on underside. Context: early 5th
32 F. OWNERS' MARKS

century B.C. (E 15:6). Cf. Sparkes-Talcott, F 34 (P 20788).Foot of black-glazedkylix.Graffito


no. 439. on underside.
Early V cent. B.C. Early V cent. B.C. Opa( )
lau( ) rTa ( ) (two monograms)
F 35 (P 20790). Fragmentfrom mouth of pelike.
On another base (Agora inv. no. P6633) Graffitoon outside.
from the same well is a fragmentarygraffito
whichmay be read lI]au ( ). Early V cent. B.C. Opa( ) (retrograde)

F 28 (P 24668,P 24911,P 24912,P 24922,P 24923). F 36 (P 20761). Small black-glazedstemmeddish


P1.11. Five unglazedkadoi; P 24668=Sparkes- (= Sparkes-Talcott,no. 986).Graffitoon under-
side of foot.
Talcott,no. 1601.On neck of each, a graffitoof
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

two letters,presumablythe abbreviationof the Early V cent. B.C. epa( )


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

owner's name. Context: ca. 520-480 B.C.(R 12:4).


F 37 (P 20768).Black-glazedsaltcellar.Graffitoon
Early V cent. B.C. Au( ) underside.
F29 (P 24917). P1.11. Fragmentaryunglazed Early V cent. B.C. Opa( )
amphora. Graffito on shoulder. Context: ca. F 38 (P 20785). Black-glazedpelike. Graffitoon
520-480 B.C. (R 12:4). neck,brokenat right.
Early V cent. B.C. KAE( ) Early V cent. B.C. [pa ( )
F 30 (P 13462). P1.12. Black-glazedsaltcellar. F39 (P 20789). Foot of black-glazed kylix.
Graffitoon underside.Context:early 5th cen- Graffitoon underside.
tury B.C.(N-P 20:1). Early V cent. B.C. ep( )
Early V cent. B.C. Tnau( ) F 40 (P 20791). Fragmentfrom foot of black-
F 31 (P 14950). P1.12. Black-glazedkylix foot. glazedpelike.Graffitoon underside.
Graffito on underside. Context: early 5th Early V cent. B.C. 0 ( )
century B.C. (F 19: 5). F 41 (P 20792).PI. 12. Foot of black-glazedkylix.
Early V cent. B.C. Tie( ) Graffito on underside. Context: early 5th
century B.C.
(R 12:1).
F 32-40. P1.12. In a well of the late 6th-early
5th centuryB.C. (R 12:1) were found no fewer Early V cent. B.C. Aep( )
than eight vases and fragments(F 33-40) in- The rho, though misshapen,resemblessome
scribedwith the letters theta-rho-alpha,theta- of the rho's on the "Thra"vases which come
rho, or theta. In a dumpedfilling of the same from the samewell.
period a short distanceto the south (Q 13:2) F 42
was found the neck of a vase (F32) which (L 1096). PI. 12. Lamp (= Howland, p. 33,
no. 103). Graffitoon underside.Context:early
appearsto have been inscribedwith the same
name written out in full, but unfortunately 5th century B.C.(H 5-6:1).
now incomplete.The owner of the house or Early V cent. B.C. Xaa( )
shop was to his
evidentlygiven marking prop- F 43
erty. (P8). P1.12. Fragment of black-glazed
saltcellarof early5th-centuryB.c. type. Graffito
F 32 (P 11392).Fragmentfrom wall of deep cup on underside.
with reservedband on the outside. Graffitoon Early V cent. B.c. E]OepovUI[o
outside. The name Euthronis known from the Dal-
Early V cent. B.C. Opa[ matiancoast (Pape,s.v.), but perhapshere too
?t]mt the theta standsfor phi; cf. D 15.
Since the second line appearsto read etli, F 44 (P 137). P1.12. Base of lekythos of early
we assumethat the name is writtenout in full 5th-centuryB.C. type. Graffito on underside.
genitiveformin the firstline.
Early V cent. B.C. Tupcrav6o
F 33 (P 20757). Black-glazed kylix (= Sparkes- The name, attestedonly as an ethnic adjec-
Talcott,no. 404). Graffitoon undersideof foot. tive, as wellas the non-Atticletterforms(alpha,
Early V cent. B.C. Opa ( ) sigma, upsilon),seems to indicatea foreigner.
F. OWNERS' MARKS 33

F 45 (P 5012). PI. 12. Wall fragmentfrom black- Early V cent. B.C. 'EQ1( )
glazed cup. Graffito on outside. Context: Note combinationof Ionic xi and closed eta
early 5th century B.C. used as a vowel. Presumablythe writer was
Early V cent. B.C. KeS ( ) (monogram) not an Athenian.
Perhaps KArl(covos); names beginning AEK- F 54 (P 24274). PI. 12. Black-glazedkylix base.
do not seemto be so early. Graffitoon underside.
F 46 (P 5009). PI. 12. Fragmentfrom lower part Early V cent. B.C. 'Epa ( )
and bottomof red-figured mug. Graffitoon the All names derived from Hephaistos have
side, partly on the glaze, partly on the figured rough breathing;no other names begin thus.
scene. Context: early 5th centuryB.C.Beazley, Thewriterwasthereforepsilotic,but not Ionian.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

A.R.V.,p. 152.
F 55 (P 24735).P1.12. Shoulderfragmentof red-
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

Early V cent. B.C. MXa<y>K6Cia figured oinochoe. Graffito on outside below


Ligature of mu and epsilon at beginning. bandof leaf pattern.
Probably the genitive of the masculine name, Early V cent. B.C. OrIoyi[Tovos]or Orloi[Trou]
which has been reported outside of Attica
Note combinationof crossbarredtheta with
(Pape,s.v.; Bechtel,p. 303). eta for eitherepsilon-iotaor epsilonalone.
F 47 (P 26180). P1.12. Part of spreadingfoot of
F56 (P 17677). P1.13. Fragmentary skyphos
black-glazedoinochoe. Graffitoon inner face (= Sparkes-Talcott,no. 339). Graffitoon bot-
of foot. Context:early 5th centuryB.C.
tom. Context: first and second quarters 5th
Early V cent. B.C. AEV( )
century B.C.(A 18-19:1).
F 48 (P 26179). P1.12. Fragmentof black-glazed Early V cent. B.C. MiAcovos Eiit
kylix foot. Graffito on underside. Context: Since only one Milon is known in Athens
early 5th century B.C. beforethe 4th centuryB.C., this ownermay well
Early V cent. B.C. 'Aya ( ) (monogram) be the grown-upversionof that darlingwhose
beauty was noted on a late cup of Oltosa gene-
F 49 (P 26192). P1.12. Lid of small black-glazed rationearlier
(Naples,no. 2617).
pyxis. Graffitoon top. Context: late 6th-early
5th centuriesB.C. F 57 (P 15224). P1.13. Black-glazedone-handler
Early V cent. B.C. 'Op-rv( ) (= Sparkes-Talcott,no. 745). Graffito on lip
betweenattachmentsof handle. Context:490-
Ortygion is attested in Eretria in the late 450 B.c. (F 19:4).
4th century B.C.; Ortyx is known from Athens
in the Late Romanperiod(I.G.,III, 1163). Early V cent. B.C. hecr( )
SeeF 68.
F 50 (P 20089). P1.12. Black-glazedbase, prob-
ably from column krater. Graffito on inner F 58 (P 5453). P1.14. Black-glazedpyxis lid with
face of foot. Context:early5th centuryB.C.Cf. reserved, pierced knob (= Sparkes-Talcott,
Sparkes-Talcott,no. 54. no. 44). Graffitoaround outer edge of top.
Context: 470-425 B.C. (E 13:1).
Early V cent. B.C. $tDioSplOt
Early V cent. B.C. 'ATroXoSopo
E1ti
Presumablya dativeof possession.
F 51 (P 20422). P1.12. Black-glazedkylix foot. F 59 (P 5137).PI.13. Black-glazedstemlesskylix.
Graffito on underside. Context: early 5th Graffitoon undersideof base. Context:second
quarter 5th century B.C. (H 6:5). Hesperia, V,
century B.C.(C 18:11).
1936,pp. 339, 352. Cf. Sparkes-Talcott,
no. 456.
Early V cent. B.C. iXo ( ) Second quarter V cent. B.C. 'OqAp ( )
F 52 (P 24126). PI. 12. Large unglazedamphora, F 60
of apparently non-Attic clay. Graffito on (P 5174).PI. 13. Unglazedamphora.Graffito
on shoulder. Context: second quarter 5th
shoulder. Context: ca. 520-490 B.C. (Q 12:3).
century B.C. (H 6:5). Hesperia,V, 1936, pp. 345,
Early V cent. B.C. 352.
'A-w( ) or ArT( ) (monogram) Second quarter V cent. B.C. 'Aua ( )
F 53 (P 7058). P1.12. Half of black-glazedkylix Names beginningwith these letters seem to
foot of type commonin early 5th centuryB.C. be either heroic or later than the 5th century
Graffitoon underside. B.C., e.g., Amadokos, Amarantos.
34 F. OWNERS' MARKS

F 61 (P 5175).P1.13. Unglazedamphora.Graffito F 67 (P 17463).P1.13. Fragmentof black-glazed


on shoulder. Context: second quarter 5th kylix foot of second quarter 5th-centuryB.C.
century B.C.(H 6:5). Hesperia,V, 1936, pp. 345, type. Graffitoon underside.
352. Second quarterV cent. B.C.
Second quarter V cent. B.c. Xap( ) ku-po-ro-ta-mo,i.e., Kurrpobgaio
F 62 (P 5168).P1.13. Fragmentary base of lekane. (signsof Cypriotesyllabary,retrograde)
Graffitoon underside.Context:second quarter F 68 (P 15990).P1.13. Black-glazedskyphoswith
5th century B.C. (H 6:5). one vertical and one horizontal handle (=
Second quarterV cent. B.C. Tpip3.aos Sparkes-Talcott, no. 361).Graffition lip between
A Thracianslave's name?It appearslater in attachments of horizontal handle (a) and
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

between attachments of vertical handle (b).


inscriptions (I.G., II2, 4199, 959c). A long stroke Context: ca. 490-450 B.C. (F 19:4).
(betweentau and rho on one side and between
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

omicron and sigma on the other) divides the Second quarter V cent. B.C. (a) HE
base in half. (b) ZT
F 63 (P 7140). P1.13. Fragmentof skyphosfoot The two graffitiare apparentlyto be taken
of secondquarter5th-century B.C. type,approx- togetherand read as h-cr( ). Cf. F 57 from
imately like Agora inv. no. P 5145 (Hesperia, the same well. The man's name will have been
V, 1936,pp. 340f., fig.8). Graffitoon underside. Hestiaiosor the like.
SecondquarterV cent. B.C. [A]rrmpo ix[i{] F 69 (P 16024). P1.13. Small black-glazedbowl.
]Ias E[pt] Graffito on underside.Context: ca. 490-450
Onlyone Athenianso namedis knownto us: B.C. (F 19:4). Cf. Sparkes-Talcott,no. 855.
the fatherof a man who died beforethe middle Second quarter V cent B.C.
of the 4th century B.C. (I.G., IP, 12136/7). Do Inap( ) (monogram)
the two names(?)indicatejoint ownership?
F 70 (P 27690).P1.13.Miniatureone-handled bowl.
F64 (P 10805). P1.13. Kylix foot of second Graffito on inside. Context: second quarter
quarter 5th-centuryB.C. type, approximately 5th century B.C. (P 14:3).
like Agora inv. no. P 5116 (Hesperia,V, 1936,
pp. 336f., fig. 4). Graffitoon underside.Con- Second quarter V cent. B.C. ZKI( )
text: late 6th-early5th centuryB.C. Names beginningwith these three lettersare
Second quarterV cent. B.C. Fopyio rare enough for us to imaginethat this might
The rho was apparently omitted at first have been a childhoodpossessionof Skironides,
the general of 412 B.C.
writingand insertedafterwards.
F 65 (P 15347, P 15348). P1.13. Unglazed am- F 71 (P 27692). P1.13. Base fragmentof banded
oinochoe. Graffito on underside. Context:
phoraof non-Atticfabric.Graffition body: (a) secondquarter5th centuryB.C.(P 14:3).
underone handle,verticallywith respectto the
pot; (b) and (c) on shoulder. Context: ca. Second quarterV cent. B.C. Tllo ( )
490-450 B.C. (F 19:4).
F72 (P 15867). P1.13. Lekythos base in two
Second quarter V cent. B.C. (a) Aitosio Eii degrees, as in Haspels, Athenian Black-Figured
(b) BOI nE Lekythoi,Paris, 1936, p. 48, 3-5. Graffitoon
(c) B underside.Context:mid-5thcenturyB.C.(C 9:6).
Note the non-Atticchi; if it is Boiotian, we Hesperia, Suppl.V, p. 142, fig.70, a; 71, 38.
should perhaps read Boi (cbTov) as a reference Second quarterV cent. B.C. MiKIov
to the vessel or its contents and take HEas a
numberindicatingcapacity,e.g., Tr(vTrE)E(taiO). Note the use of omega, which makes it
temptingto suppose that the writer was the
F 66 (P 15218).P1.13. Kylix foot similarto F 64. Mikion who was praisedby Lysitheos(I.G., I2,
Graffito on underside.Context: ca. 490-450 924) and that he learnedhis letters from his
B.C. (F 19:4). admirer.Thatis, Lysitheosspellswithan omega
Second quarter V cent. B.C. KEqt( ) but retainsepsilonfor long e.
Presumably Kriclnos (e.g., Prosop. Att., F 73 (P 15868).P1.13. Bottom of small olpe with
no. 8286)or some one of the severalcompound disc foot of second quarter 5th-centuryB.C.
namesbeginningKephiso-. type. Graffitoon underside.Context:mid-5th
F. OWNERS'MARKS 35

century B.C.(C 9:6). Hesperia, Suppl. V, p. 143, B.C. (N 7:3). Hesperia, XXII, 1953, pl. 38, no.
fig. 71, 37. 135.
Second quarter V cent. B.C. Mid-Vcent. B.C.
iKuva( )
Ke( ) (monogram) an ethnic known from
Probably imKca(tva),
Ke
Sincethe namemaybe either ( ) or Kl ( ), elsewhere (Pape, s.v.); mOerhs exists in 5th-
the possibilitiesare too numerousto be use- century B.C. Athens.
fully suggested. F 80 (P 21374).P1.13. Base of black-glazedbowl.
F 74 (P 15707). P1.13. Black-glazed skyphos. Graffitoon underside.Context:ca. 460-440B.C.
Graffitounder foot. Context: 5th centuryB.C. (N 7:3). Hesperia,XXII, 1953, pl. 38, no. 132.
(G 18:1). Cf. Sparkes-Talcott,
no. 359. Mid-Vcent. B.C. 'Apori( )
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Second quarter V cent. B.C. KAe( ) After the iota a sort of dot has been incised,
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

perhapsthe startof the next letter.


F 75 (P 10466). P1.13. Base fragmentof black-
glazed kylix of type common in the second F 81 (P 21400). P1.13. Base of semi-glazedoino-
quarter5th centuryB.C. Graffitoon underside. choe. Graffito on underside. Context: ca.
Second quarter V cent. B.C. 460-440 B.C. (N 7:3). Hesperia, XXII, 1953,
NIKCCa[
pl. 38, no. 133. Cf. Sparkes-Talcott,no. 152.
The name might be a feminineNK<'caa with
Mid-V cent. B.C. 'Aplti(T )
omega used correctly, but some masculine
name with omicron (e.g., Nikosthenes,Niko- Note combinationof tailed rho and four-
stratos)is perhapsmorelikely. barred sigma. Presumablythe same name as
F 80, fromthe samewell.
F 76 (P 18337). P1.13. Base of a one-handler.
Graffitoon underside.Context: first half 5th F 82 (P 21373). P1.13. Fragment of base of
century B.C. (C 18:4). lekane. Graffito on underside. Context: ca.
460-440 B.C. (N7:3). Hesperia, XXII, 1953,
Second quarter V cent. B.C. Kspiov pl. 38, no. 136.
Note changein directionof writing.Namenot Mid-V cent. B.C. IN ]ovroS
known. Although the sherd might have been
convenientas a kleros (lot), the diminutiveis F83 (P 21404). P1. 13. Base and lowerwall of
not attestedin this sense. black-glazedskyphos. Graffito on underside.
Context: ca. 460-440 B.C. (N7:3). Hesperia,
F 77 (P 21290). P1.14. Black-glazedskyphos of XXII, 1953, pl. 38, no. 137. Cf. Sparkes-
Attic type. Graffito on underside. Context: Talcott,no. 343.
460-440 B.C. (N 7:3). Hesperia, XXII, 1953,
Mid-V cent. B.C. Kotvai
pl. 38, no. 134. Cf. Sparkes-Talcott,
no. 342.
SecondquarterV cent. B.C. If the word is complete, it must be nomi-
O(Dacc<'>Tio nativefemininepluraland referperhapsto a set
Note doubled sigma (four-barred)and early of cups which were common property.A long
form of alpha. This name in the form of an line separatesthe end of the word from the
ethnicadjectivehas not previouslybeen report- beginning.
ed from Attica.
F 84 (P 5109).P1.14. Fragmentof base of black-
F 78 (P 17898,P 17971).P1.14. Red-figuredmug glazed bowl. Graffito on underside.Context:
with running Hermes, in the vicinity of the second half 5th century B.C.
Alkimachos painter. Graffito on upper wall Mid-V cent. B.C. 2]tOv<(>ppES
opposite figure. Cf. Sparkes-Talcott,no. 195. The eta (written as epsilon) following rho
Second quarter V cent. B.C. MiScov
suggests a foreigner.The nearest parallel for
Perhaps this is the father (or teacher) of this name is liacu4pptov, (nick)name for an
Lamproklesmentionedin Schol.Ar., Nub.,968, hetaira in Theophilos' Flute-lover(Edmonds,
after whom Alexis' Midon (Ath., XI, 491c) II, p. 575, fr. 11).
may have been named? The four vertical F 85 (P772). P1.14.
strokesbeneaththe nameare unexplained. Skyphos foot of mid-5th
century B.C. type. Graffitoon underside.Con-
F 79 (P 21399). P1.13. Base of semi-glazedbowl. text: third quarter 5th century B.C. (117:1).
Graffito on underside.Context: ca. 460-440 Mid-V cent. B.C. 'EXaOcKO
36 F. OWNERS' MARKS

F 86 (P 22998). P1.14. Foot of black-glazed XVIII, 1949, p. 330, fig. 6, pl. 93. Cf. Sparkes-
kylix of second quarter5th-centuryB.C.type. Talcott,no. 935.
Graffition top and bottom. Context: 5th-4th Fourth quarter V cent. B.C.
centuries B.C. Hesperia, XXIII, 1954, p. 54. (a) Ztuv ( )
Cf. Sparkes-Talcott,
no. 438. (b) nAPAMYNQTO0
Mid-V cent. B.C. CompareF 180 for directionsof writing.
(top) ipcovos
(bottom) MQNO F 92 (P 10803).PI. 14. Small black-glazedbowl.
A quantity of hobnails found in the same Graffitoon underside.Context:fourth quarter
area with this sherd suggeststhat this Simon 5th century B.C.(H 12:6).
may be the cobblerwho was friendto Perikles FourthquarterV cent. B.C. MvrlalCoiXo
and Sokrates(Diog. Laert.,II, 122).The letters
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

on the undersideare almost certainlyanother The writingexactlyfills the circleof the base,
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

versionof the name whichappearson the top. and an incised line separatesthe end of the
name from the beginning.At least two men of
Why the first two letterswere omittedis puzz- this name lived in Athens at this time (Prosop.
ling. Perhapsthe writerstartedby using paint, nos.
then thought it might rub off and continued Att., 10333-4).
with a sharpinstrument,forgettingto go over
F 93 (L 3088).P1.14. Black-glazedlamp(= How-
the first two letters. Perhapsthe letters now
visible were all that were ever written and land, no. 175, Type 21C). Graffitoon under-
side. Context:fourth quarter5th centuryB.C.
representthe last part of the name used as a (H 12:6).
nickname.
Fourth
quarter V cent. B.C. Apa-CTrrI
F 87 (P24698). P1.14. Base of black-glazed
stemlessbowl. Graffitoon underside.Context: The name of a slave (?), perhapsone who
thirdquarter5th centuryB.C. came to Athens as a deserteror refugee?
ThirdquarterV cent. B.C. A Map( ) F 94 (P 12030). PI. 14. Fragmentfrom base of
The first alpha may or may not belong to black-glazed stemless cup. Graffito on inner
the name. Athenian names beginning Mar- face of foot. Context:fourth quarter5th cen-
seem to be Hellenisticand later (e.g., Marsyas, tury B.C.(N-P 20:1).
Maron,Markos). Fourth quarterV cent. B.C. ]aro SIK[aicosEli
F 88 (P 21694).P1.14. Largeunglazedbasin with F 95
(P 13099).P1.14. Base of black-glazedbowl.
projectingflat-toppedrim, steep sides and ring Graffitoon underside.Context:fourth quarter
foot (= Sparkes-Talcott, no. 1840).Graffitoon 5th century B.C.(O 19:4).
top of rim. Context: third quarter5th century
B.C.(07:10). Fourth quarterV cent. B.C. Aiin ( )
Third quarterV cent. B.C. KXta(pTros)
F 96 (P 15217).P1.14. Black-glazedone-handler.
No other restorationsuggestsitself. A Klia- Graffitounderfoot. Context: 5th centuryB.C.
retos is known from Orchomenos(Pape, s.v.). (G 18:1).
F 89 (P 23283). P1.14. Fragmentaryblack-glazed Fourth quarterV cent. B.C. . .PKE
skyphos. Graffition underside.Context:third F 97 (P 18620). P1.15. Part of shoulder of un-
quarter 5th century B.C.(O 16:1-2). glazed amphora.Graffitoon top of shoulder,
ThirdquarterV cent.B.C. E0( ) (monogram) upside down to pot. Context: fourth quarter
Au( ) (monogram) 5th century B.C.(C 19:9).
Both monogramsare partially erased with Fourth quarterV cent. B.C. 'AvSpi(rKou)
thin fine scratches.
F 98 (P 12510).P1.15. Fragmentfrom bottom of
F 90 (P 17961). P1.14. Black-glazedbolsal (= black-glazedone-handlerof late 5th-century
Sparkes-Talcott,no. 540). Graffito on under- B.C. type. Graffito on underside. Context:
side. Context: 430-410 B.C. (B 19:7). late 5th-4th centuries B.C.
Fourth quarterV cent. B.C. thXo( ) Late V cent. B.C. E MEI( )
F91 (P 10537). P1.14. Black-glazedsaltcellar. PerhapsMeli(io),Meia(ia8o)or the like. Vari-
Graffition inside (a) and outside(b). Context: ous such names are known in Athens from
fourth quarter5th centuryB.C.(B 15:1). Hesperia, early in the 4th century B.C.
F. OWNERS' MARKS 37

F 99 (P 16903).P1.15. Fragmentaryblack-glazed Late V cent. B.C. KEp( )


one-handler(= Sparkes-Talcott,no. 754). Graf- The odd spacing results from the writer's
fito on outside lower wall. Context: late 5th avoidanceof the black-glazedot and circle in
century B.C. (A-B 21-22:1). the center. Another scratchto the right does
Late V cent. B.C. (see drawing) not seemto be a letter.
Perhapsnon-Greek? F 106 (P 24774). P1.15. Rim fragmentof lekane.
F 100 (P 16904). P1.15. Wall fragment from Graffito on top of rim. Context: latest 5th
black-glazed skyphos. Graffito on outside. century B.C.
Context:late 5th centuryB.C. (A-B 21-22:1). Latest V cent. B.C. _av ( )
Late V cent. B.C. (see drawing)
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

F 107 (P 103). P1.15. Fragmentof straight-sided


Second and third letters appearto be non-
black-glazedsaltcellarof a type found chiefly
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

Greek?CompareF 99. in second half 5th centuryB.C.; compare,for


F 101 (P 16905).PI. 15. Rim fragmentof black- example, Hesperia, IV, 1935, p. 508, no. 48.
glazed skyphos. Graffitoon outside. Context: Graffitoon underside.
late 5th century B.C. (A-B 21-22:1). Second half V cent. B.C. S(ho
Late V cent. B.C. KEKpo[ Eiii
Compare Kekropidon of the mid-4th cen- F 108 (P 1870). P1.15. Black-glazed saltcellar
tury B.C. (Prosop. Att., no. 8264). with flat bottom and slightlyincurvingwalls of
F 102 (P 26424). PI. 15. Lower part of amphora a type common in later 5th century B.C.;
handle with thumbprintimpression. Graffito compareHesperia,XVIII, 1949,p. 330, no. 69.
on outside, running vertically from bottom. Graffitoon underside.
Context:late 5th centuryB.C. Secondhalf V cent. B.C. 'E].rrS( )
Late V cent. B.C. Fva( ) Names beginningthus seem generallyvery
late (Romanperiod)or non-Athenian.
F 103 (L 2653). PI. 15. Fragmentaryblack-glazed
lamp(= Howland,no. 215, Type23A). Graffiti F 109 (P3736). P1.15. Rim fragmentof black-
on rim (a) and nozzle(b). glazedbowl. Graffitoon outside.
Late V cent. B.C. (a) Ka[uovrilp]lti{rrnls Second half V cent. B.C. 5av ( )
(b) AN Note combination of Ionic xi with slant-
One expects kappa-alphato begin a word barredalpha.
for lamp, but kandelionis too late. The word
restored above is one possibility; another is F 110 (P 19555).PI. 15. Fragmentaryblack-glazed
that kappa-alphabegins the name of a child one-handler.Graffito on underside.Context:
of Philippein the nominativecase servingas second half 5th century B.C. (C 19:5).
subjectof &v(erlK?). Second half V cent. B.C. 'Etry ( )
F 104 (P 27314).P1.15. Black-glazedsaltcellar of
111 (P 24265).P1.15. Black-glazedhandlefrom
late 5th-centuryB.C.type. Graffitoon under- F
small oinochoe, triangularin section. Graffito
side, within ring foot. Context: last quarter on outside,
5th century B.C. (S 16:1). Cf. Sparkes-Talcott, runningdown vertically.Context:
second half 5th centuryB.C.(Q 8:1).
p. 135, note 5. Hesperia,XXXV, 1966, p. 83.
Second half V cent. B.C. AEv( )
Late V cent. B.C. TpoXiXo
This nicknamemay derivefrom the bird or We know several 5th-centuryB.C. Athenian
from the comedy of Heniochos of the same names beginningwith these letters, e.g., Leu-
name, dated by Edmonds to ca. 411 B.C. (Ed-
kades,Leukaios,Leukippos.Cf. also F 47.
monds, I, p. 915, fr. 4; p. 997). More lightly F 112 (P 24691).P1.15. Base of semi-glazedone-
scratchedin center of foot two numeralsmay handler.Graffitoon underside.Context:second
be distinguished:s- , i.e., 6 and 7. half 5th century B.C.
F 105 (P 27353).P1.15. Fragmentaryblack-glazed Secondhalf V cent. B.C. 'Ap( ) (ligature)
bowl of late 5th-centuryB.C.type. Graffitoon Mo( )
underside, within ring foot. Context: last Mo( )
quarter 5th century B.C.(S 16:1). Mo( )
38 F. OWNERS' MARKS

Two crossing lines divide the circle inside F 122 (P 20019). P1.16. Base fragmentof black-
foot into four sections;the ligatureoccupiesone glazedskyphos.Graffitoon underside.
of these, and two of the thrice repeated two V cent. B.C. ]ayu( )
lettersoccupytwo others.
F113 (L 3269). P1.15. Nozzle of black-glazed F 123 (P 21220).PI. 16. Base and part of wall of
small stemless black-glazedcup. Graffito on
lamp(= Howland,no. 220, Type23A). Graffito underside. Context: late 5th century B.C.
on top of nozzle.
Second half V cent. B.C. 2aT |Ipas (Q 10:4).
V cent. B.C. KOE
Probablyfemininegenitive.The Satyrawho
was hetaira to Themistokles (Ath., XIII, See drawing.PerhapsKcbq(s) ?
was no but the
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

576c) probably longer alive, F124 (P 25822). P1.16. Black-glazedrim frag-


namewas an appropriateone for the trade.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

ment,probablyof mug. Graffitooutside.


F 114 (P 26866). P1.15. Upper part of handle of V cent. B.C. ]aXtIa[
black-glazedoinochoe (= Sparkes-Talcott, no.
116). Graffitoat mouth attachment. PerhapsK]cAXkor K]aZXia[Sou.
Late V cent. B.C. rXav( ) F 125 (P 25892).PI. 16. Fragmentof black-glazed
F 115 (P 5203). P1.15. Lower wall fragmentof kylix base. Graffitoon underside.
black-glazedcup. Graffitooutside. V cent. B.C. :evio[
V cent. B.C. ]E{iS Eii[i F 126 (P 83). P1.16. Base fragment of black-
F 116 (P 7254). PI. 15. Fragmentfrom bottom of glazedbowl (?). Graffitoon underside.
semi-glazed one-handler (?). Graffito inside, V cent. B.C. OIt ( )
almostcertainlywrittenon the wholepot.
V cent. B.C.
F 127 (P2841). P1.16. Black-glazed oinochoe
'Hyearcv[5pou with ring foot and trefoil mouth. Graffition
F 117 (P 8120). P1.16. Part of bottom of red- shoulder. Context: ca. 410-390 B.C. (H 12:11).
figured skyphos with ring foot. Graffito on Ca. 410-390 B.C. An ( ) Ant{o
underside.
V cent. B.C. CompareF 136.
]arrairl
]S F 128 (P 18952).P1.16. Partof bottomof bowl or
Perhaps 'EKaTralcr(not known in Athens); cup with ringfoot, glazedblackto red. Graffito
non-Atticbecauseof eta followingiota? on underside.Context:late 5th-early4th cen-
turies B.C. (C 19:9).
F 118 (P 10512).P1.16. Fragmentaryblack-glazed
saltcellarwith concave sides and flat bottom. Late V-early IV cent. B.C. AEco[
Graffitoon outsidewall. Beautifullettersworthyof major epigraphy.
V cent. B.C. Tloi]*iKTropos
Many names beginningin this way are known
in 5th-centuryB.C.Athens:Leobotes,Leogoras,
]Cro
Leodamas,Leon, etc.
The suggested name is heroic and non-
Athenian. F 129 (L 4134). P1.16. Fragmentaryblack-glazed
F 119 (P 14938).PI. 16. Base fragmentof black- lamp(= Howland,no. 258,Type24C). Graffito
on side.
glazedkylix. Graffitoon underside.
Late V-early IV cent. B.C.
V cent. B.C. AicX ( ) MEIK ( ) or Mei ( )? (monogram)
F 120 (P 17139). P1.16. Base of black-glazed Perhaps for a name like Meixiades, etc.,
stemlesscup of 5th-centuryB.C.type. Graffito beforethe letterxi was obligatory.
on underside.
V cent. B.C. F 130 (P 17059).P1.16. Fragmentfrom shoulder
Ep ( ) of unglazed amphora. Graffito on outside.
F 121 (P 19958).P1.16. Black-glazedpyxis lid of Context:5th-4thcenturiesB.C.Hesperia,XXV,
5th-centuryB.C. type. Graffito on top. Cf. 1956,p. 23, no. 103.
no.
Sparkes-Talcott, 1307. V-IV cent. B.C. AIoxr[
V cent. B.C. NIKr
r( )
F. OWNERS' MARKS 39

F 131 (P 23821).P1.16. Fragmentaryblack-glazed F 139 (P 24024). P1.17. Base fragmentof black-


oinochoe with ring foot and trefoil mouth. glazedskyphosof Corinthiantype. Graffitoon
Graffition handle(a) and on wall (b). Context: underside.Context: first quarter 4th century
ca. 400-390 B.C. (Q 15:2). B.C.(G 13:5).
Ca. 400-390 B.C. (a) 'AvSpaoxodll 8iiKawco First quarterIV cent. B.C.
(b) ]?os TOUSvEav?dit 5i]KalcoS
For the assertion of ownership compare F 140 (P 3721).P1.17. Fragmentary base of plastic
Hesperia, Suppl.VII, p. 31 and also F 132 vase with traces of figureattachment.Graffito
below. Another black-glazedfragment (Agora on underside. Context: second quarter 4th
inv. no. P 26389) from this deposit has part of centuryB.C.(H 7:3). Hesperia,VI, 1937,p. 89,
what is probablythe same name: ]ioxo[. fig. 46, f.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

F 132 (P 23835). P1. 17. Fragmentary lekane with Second quarter IV cent. B.C. ]filovoS
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

flat-toppedrim. Graffitoon top of rim. Context: F 141 (P 12396). P1.17. Small roughly made
ca. 400-390 B.C. (Q 15:2). saucerwith thin glaze. Graffitoon floor. Con-
Ca. 400-390 B.C. i]Kla(io'A[vS]pfioo [ei[] text: secondquarter4th centuryB.C. (G 12:23).
Note use of omicronin the adverb,as com- Second quarterIV cent. B.C. Ev6opa
paredwith omegain F 131. (Partof the lekane vTOS
couldnot be foundwhenthe finaldrawingswere
F 142 (P 14636).P1.17. Fragmentaryblack-glazed
made,so that it was necessaryto copy the -Katos oinochoe. Graffito on neck. Context: second
from the drawingon the cataloguecard; the
letterswhichwere neverfound are dottedin to quarter 4th century B.C.(E 2:3).
show the spacingand hence presumedorder.) Second quarter IV cent. B.C. Fripvos
F 133 (P 23872).PI. 16. Fragmentarybolsal, glaze F 143 (P 14644). P1.17. One-handledbowl of a
fired red all over. Graffitoon underside.Con- type commonin the first half 4th centuryB.C.;
text: ca. 400-390 B.C.(Q 15:2). cf. D. M. Robinson, Olynthus,V, Mosaics,
Ca. 400-390 B.C. TlT ( )
Vases and Lamps, Baltimore, 1933, pl. 180,
no. 923. Graffitoon underside.Context:second
F 134 (P 23874).P1.16. Basefragmentof unglazed quarter4th century B.C.(E 2:3).
pot with ring foot. Graffito on underside. Second quarterIV cent. B.C. XCOTrpaTO
Context:ca. 400-390 B.C.(Q 15:2).
Ca. 400-390 B.C. F 144 (P 14658).P1.17. Base fragmentof black-
2cool[
glazedskyphosof Attictype. Graffitoon under-
F 135 (P 7977). P1.16. Part of base of black- side. Context:second quarter4th centuryB.C.
glazed skyphos of early 4th-centuryB.C.type. (E 2:3).
Graffito on underside. Context: 4th century Second
B.C.(E 6:3). quarter IV cent. B.C. ]6aiou il[pi
F 145 (P 11798).PI. 17. Fragmentaryblack-glazed
Early IV cent. B.C. AEiviaS
one-handler(= Sparkes-Talcott, no. 759). Graf-
F 136 (P 8621). P1.16. Part of base of oinochoe fito on underside.Context:firsthalf4th century
like F 127. Graffito on underside. Context: B.C. (BB 17:1).
4th century B.C.(E 6:3). First half IV cent. B.C. -EvoTO(vTos)
Early IV cent. B.C. AEsio[ F 146 (P 18003). P1.17. Base of black-glazed
CompareF 127. skyphos of a type common in first half 4th
F 137 (P 23272).P1.16. Part of bottom of black- centuryB.C.;cf. D. M. Robinson,Olynthus,V,
glazed one-handler(?). Graffitoon underside. pl. 85. Graffito on underside. Context: first
half 4th century B.C.(C 19:5).
Context:latest5th to 4th centuriesB.C.
First half IV cent. B.C. 'AXKih
Early IV cent. B.C. Aaca ( ) rTO
F 138 (P 27566).P1.16. Base of black-glazedbowl F 147 (P 1444). P1.17. Base of black-glazed
of early 4th-centuryB.C.type. Graffitoon in- kantharos with rouletting on floor; mid-4th
side. Context:late 5th-early4th centuriesB.C. century B.C. type, approximately like Hesperia,
(I 16:7). VI, 1937,pp. 88-89, fig. 46,c. Graffitoon under-
Early IV cent. B.C. rlupcov side, insidefoot.
Note angular form of omega. Mid-IV cent. B.C. Tfav6l( )
40 F. OWNERS' MARKS

F 148 (P 1458). P1.17. Handle of black-glazed F 156 (P 20987).P1.18. Small black-glazedbowl.


oinochoe, triangularin section. Graffitonear Graffitoinside on floor. Context:thirdquarter
top, runningdown from above. Context:mid- 4th century B.C.
4th century B.C. (H 17:5). Third quarter IV cent. B.C. Noy ( )
Mid-IV cent. B.C. 'ApTn( )
F157 (P 22218). P1.18. Black-glazedpyxis lid
F149 (P 7502). PI. 17. Base fragmentof black- with groove around outer part of top and
glazed bowl. Graffito on underside, within aroundouteredge(= Sparkes-Talcott,no. 1317).
foot. Context: mid-4th century B.C. (C 12:2). Graffito on top. Context: third quarter 4th
Mid-IV cent. B.C. century B.C.
'Apia-u[
Third quarter IV cent. B.C. 'EXwepariSa
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

F 150 (P 14705).PI. 17. Baseof black-glazedbowl, (Seedrawingfor othersymbols.)Note broken-


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

with stampedpalmetteson floor, of mid-4th barred alpha; cf. so-called Darius vase, A.
centuryB.C. type. Graffitoon underside.Con- Furtwangler and K. Reichhold, Gr. Vasen-
text: 4th century B.C.(F 20:1). malerei,II, Miinchen,1909,p. 146.
Mid-IV cent. B.C. wcoqpovasAlovi0aio F 158 (P 22116). P1.18. Black-glazedstem of
Do the two names perhaps representjoint multiplekernos.Graffitoaroundstem.Context:
owners?The first is not attested either as a to third quarter 4th century B.C. (J 11:1). Cf.
masculinenominativeor femininegenitive. no. 1364.
Sparkes-Talcott,
F 151 (P 19956). P1.17. Foot of black-glazed Third quarter IV cent. B.C. AvauiTp[6]Ths
kantharosof mid-4thcenturyB.C.type. Graffito F159 (P 26945). P1.18. Ring foot of black-
on underside,withinfoot. glazed bowl of Hellenistictype. Graffito on
Mid-IV cent. B.C. 'ATpo( ) underside.Context: third quarter4th century
B.C. (I15:2).
It seemsmore likely that the secondletteris
an incompletetriangularphi than eithertau or Third quarterIV cent. B.C. 'Apr ( )
chi. The third letter is smallerand more bluntly
incised; perhapsit is an addition by another
F 152 (L 535). P1.17. Black-glazedlamp (= hand.
Howland,no. 283, Type 25A). Graffition left
side of nozzle, unfinishedbecause of lack of F 160 (P 266). PI. 18. Base fragment of black-
space (a), and on right side, upside down to glazed plate with roulettingand stampedpal-
lamp(b). Context: mid-4th B.C.
century (G 14:2). mettes. Graffito on underside, within foot.
Context:fourthquarter4th centuryB.C. (H 6:9).
Mid-IV cent. B.C. (a) Aipit(Aou)
(b) AiplXou Fourth quarterIV cent. B.C. T]iicoiv[ou
Note use of omega.
F 153 (P22914). P1.17. Black-glazedsaltcellar
with incurving rim and small ring foot (= F 161 (P 6889). P1.18. Base fragmentof black-
Sparkes-Talcott,no. 947). Graffito on under- glazed plate with roulettingon floor, of late
side. 4th-centuryB.C. fabric. Graffitoon underside.
Mid-IV cent. B.C. 'Apo-r ( ) Late IV cent. B.C. KEpa[
F 154 (P 18619).P1.17. Walland basefragmentof F 162 (P 15446).PI.18.Black-glazedsmallstamped
smallblack-glazedpyxis with moldedringfoot. plate of late 4th-centuryB.C.type. Graffitoon
Graffitooutsideon wall. Context:thirdquarter underside.
4th century B.C. (B 18:7). Late IV cent. B.C. Kapa( ) A
Third quarter IV cent. B.C. Readingvery uncertain;first alpha and rho
8aev
[TroU EIltU1
i]Kaico[s] in ligature.The two attestedAtheniannames
(Karaichosand Karaios) belong to the 2nd
F 155 (P 20283). P1.17. Base fragmentof black- centuryB.C. More temptingis the 4th-century
glazed closed pot. Graffito on underside. B.C. orator Kallimedonwhose nicknamewas
Context:third quarter4th centuryB.C. Karabos(Plut.,Dem.,27).
Third quarter IV cent. B.C. 'Ecov( ) F 163 (L 3042).PI. 18. Red-glazedlamp (= How-
No name beginningthus is attested. land, no. 372, Type 26B). Graffition right side
F. OWNERS' MARKS 41
of body (a), on top of nozzle(b), and on rim(c). No such nameis known.Perhapsa label for
Context: late 4th centuryB.C.(B 13:8). Hesperia, something"rotten"?
A LL * T JU-*A 19609
XXXVIIIT f 390
*^ % /Y'? n.
A
F 170 (P7670). P1.18. Bottom of black-glazed
Late IV cent. B.C. (a) Mivcovos skyphos of same type as F 168. Graffito on
(b) Mvco(vos) underside.Context:2nd-4thcenturies(C 13:2).
(c) M(ivcovos)
IV cent. B.C. 7i:pos A
F 164 (P 897). PI. 18. Base of black-glazed kantha-
ros. Graffitoon underside,insidefoot. Context: Probablya slave'sname?or a metic's?
secondhalf 4th centuryB.C. (F 16:1). F 171 (P9645). P1.18. Shoulderfragmentfrom
Second half IV cent. B.C. Mkvcov coarse amphora. Graffito outside. Context:
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

4th century B.C.and late Roman.


Mentioned in Hesperia, III, 1934, p. 317
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

whereothergraffitiwhichmay be abbreviations IV cent. B.C. ]. O H T .[


of the samenameand perhaps referto the same ]MriTTtyE
personare cited. Comparealso F 163, whichis Metigenes is not known, but there seems to
contemporaryand was foundnot far away. be no reasonagainstsuch a compound.
F 165 (MC 216). P1. 18. Black-glazedterracotta F 172 (P 17794). P1.18. Rim fragment from
object, beehive-shapedand verticallypierced, black-glazedlidded bowl of 4th-centuryB.C.
with neck on top and flat bottom. Graffiti fabric.Graffitooutsidejust below flange.
aroundbody (a) and on underside(b). Context:
4th to early 3rd centuries B.C. (D-E 8-9:1). IV cent. B.C. NlKta[

Second half IV cent. B.C. (a) Arlqrlrpias F 173 (P 17902).P1.18. Base fragmentof black-
(b) Eurruv[as glazedbowl of 4th-centuryB.C.fabric.Graffito
on underside.
(b) is perhapsmorelikelyas a wordthanas a
name. IV cent. B.C. TXa( ) K
F166 (MC224). P1.18. Red-glazed terracotta F 174 (P 20846). P1.19. Base fragmentof black-
object with rounded bottom, concave top, glazed plate with roulettingon floor, of 4th-
centralcollar aroundverticalhole. Graffitoon centuryB.C.fabric.Graffitoon underside.
top. Context: 4th to early 3rd centuriesB.C. IV cent. B.C. Xat( )
(D-E 8-9:1).
Second half IV cent. B.C. Kapm( )
F175 (P 22104). P1.19. Base of black-glazed
Names beginningthus are both late and too olpe of 4th-centuryB.C.type. Graffitoon under-
side.
foreignto be likely. Possibilitiesare: Kamireus
(man of Kamiros);kamineus(kilnmaster).But IV cent. B.C. M.( )
perhapstwo lambdashave run togetherand it F 176 (P 24859). P1.19. Base of black-glazed
shouldbe read KaAli(as). bowl. Graffito on underside.Context: 5th-
F 167 (P 133). P1.18. Base fragment of black- 4th centuries B.C.
glazedplate with rouletting,of 4th-centuryB.C. IV cent. B.C. KaXOKr
type. Graffitoon underside,within ring foot. The name is borne by various mythical
IV cent. B.C. TT]oXu6u(KTou) persons (Pape, s.v.) including the heroine of
F 168 (P 199).P1.18. Baseof black-glazedskyphos Stesichoros'poem of that name (from which
of 4th-centuryB.C. type, as in D. M. Robinson, was derivedthe name of a song, Aristox., Fr.
Hist., 72); also a memberof Lysistrata'scon-
Olynthus,V, p. 185. Graffito on underside.
spiracyin Aristophanes'play (Lys., 322).
IV cent. B.C. 'Hyfictr(oS)
Scratcheson the rim suggest an attemptat F 177(L 4212).P1.19.Black-glazed lamp(= How-
land, no. 267, Type 25A). Graffition side (a),
a final sigma. on otherside, upsidedown to lamp (b), and on
F 169 (P 6903). P1.18. Rim fragment of semi- top of nozzle(c).
glazed saucer with plain rim. Graffitooutside
IV-early III cent. B.C. (a) AItoKAouV
just below rim. Context:5th-4th centuriesB.C. (b) Eili
IV cent. B.C. Ecarrpa[ (c) EM
42 F. OWNERS' MARKS

The drawingof a boukranionon this same of Euboulosin the first half of the 4th century
piece is catalogued below as M 14. On the B.C.(Ath., XIII, 567d).
bottomis an unidentifiedmark.
F 185 (L2019). P1.19. Nozzle of black-glazed
F 178(L 3653).P1.19.Black-glazed lamp(= How- lamp(= Howland,no. 315, Type25B). Graffiti
land, no. 276, Type 25A). Graffition top (a) on side (a) and top (b). Context:3rd-2ndcen-
and on eitherside of nozzle(b,c). turiesB.C. (D 10:2).
IV-earlyIII cent. B.C. (a) Eac( ) Late IV-early III cent. B.C.
(b) Eax( ) (a) O&ov
(c) CEa( ) (b) 0 (andligature)
A foreign name? None such is attested, to See drawingfor ligature.Theta used as an
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

our knowledge. initial on top makes the personalname Theon


morelikelythan 6oov.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

F 179 (P 580). P1.19. Base of black-glazedbowl


with moldedfoot. Graffitoon underside,within F 186 (P 14960).PI. 19. Base fragmentof black-
foot. Context: late 4th to early 3rd centuries glazedbowl (?). Graffitoon underside.Context:
B.C. late 4th to 3rdcenturiesB.C.
(H 16:3, Group B, Hesperia, III, 1934,
pp. 330ff.). Late IV-early III cent. B.C. Eipi(ou)
LateIV-earlyIII cent. B.C. 'Aya0oKvA9[u]s F 187 (P 15397).P1.19. Base of black-glazedbowl
F 180 (P 633). PI. 19. Base of black-glazedbowl of late 4th- or 3rd-centuryB.C. fabric. Graffito
with molded foot. Graffito on underside, on underside.
within foot. Context: late 4th-early 3rd cen- Late IV-III cent. B.C. An9lqtXnos
turies B.C. (H 16:3, Group B, Hesperia, III, The lettersare crowdedtogethertowardsthe
1934,pp. 330ff.). end, with the sigma writtenover the omicron.
Late IV-early III cent. B.C. aTru( ) F 188 (P 18625).P1.19. Floor fragmentof black-
Mi6ou
glazed plate with stampedpalmettesand rou-
Two names, of successiveor joint owners? letting.Graffitoon underside.
For arrangementof letters compareF 91 and IV-III cent. B.C. NIKCO
L 12.
Or it could be an abbreviationof a longer
F 181 (P 1493, P 1538). P1.19. Rim fragmentof name.
hlrk. l.r1a7r kIntharnc nf earlv ellen1nticr.
-v__, F 189 (P 136). PI. 19. Base of small glazed bowl of
type. Graffitoon upperwall ou.'C"tside *tside.
early 3rd-centuryB.C.type. Graffitoon under-
Late IV-early III cent. B.C. D]Et8oo-Tp(aTro)side, withinfoot.
F 182 (P 7740).P1.19. Base of bl ack-glazedbowl. Early III cent. B.C. Ait6(ou)
Graffitoon underside.Context late 4th-early The two ligaturesof delta with a stroke at
3rd centuries B.C.(E 3:1). the side (see drawing)may give a namesuch as
Late IV-early III cent. B.C. ActlfaS X the above. It is also possiblethat the first two
H -
(= How- lettersof a namewerewrittentwice (cf. F 112).
F 183 (L 2229). P1.19. Unglazedlamplap (=
land, no. 296, Type 25A'). ( jraffito on top. F 190 (P 119). P1.19. Base of open bowl with
Context:late4th-early3rdcentiuriesB.C.(E3:1). brownishblack glaze and ring foot, similarto
Late IV-early III cent. B.C. tmae'Hqa
C ) F 189. Graffito on underside, within ring foot.
Context:to mid-2ndcenturyB.C.(H 6:9).
It hardlyseemspossiblethat the second word
is an abbreviationfor the god. EarlyIII cent. B.C. Mev( ) (monogram)
F 184 (P 18009).P1.19. Disc base o b of blacd Athenian names beginningthus in the third
centuryB.C.rangefrom Menaichmosto Menon.
bowl or stemless cup. Graffit< 3 on lnackrgazed
underside.
Context: late 4th-early 3rd centuries B.C. F 191 (P 416). P1.19. Molded ring base from
(A 18:6). black-glazed cup of early 3rd-centuryB.C.
Late IV-early III cent. B.C. IMVTeiK1i type. Graffito on underside, within foot.
PerhapsMqrTiX)l, with a shiift of aspirates? EarlyIII cent. B.C. HQ E
The only Meticheknownto us is the courtesan Compare F 192, same type of base, same
who gavehernickname(Klepsy< dra) to a comedy inscription,found about 40 metersaway.
F. OWNERS' MARKS 43
F 192 (P 19170). P1.19. Molded ring base from F 199 (P 5820, P 5925). P1.20. Flat handle from
black-glazedcup of early 3rd-centuryB.C. type. large unglazed amphora or pitcher. Graffito
Graffitoon underside,withinfoot. on outside,runningfrom bottom up. Context:
Early III cent. B.C. HQ E 3rd century B.C.(E 14:1).
III cent. B.C. 'Ayt6covosKiMTrr[ov]
F 193 (P 7607). P1.19. Base of black-glazedbowl
CbvfXCAKC
with moldedring foot of early 3rd-centuryB.C.
type. Graffitoon underside.Context: Hellen- That is, "(the property)of Agathon,a thief;
istic (C 14:1). a bargainfor a penny."The writingmay be in
two differenthands,as if afterAgathonlabeled
Early III cent. B.C. nlapE ( ) the jar he himselfwas labeleda thief and re-
The firsttwo lettersform a ligature. spondedwith an assertionof the pot's worth-
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

F 194 (P 20216).P1.19. Fragmentaryblack-glazed lessness.


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

plate with linked palmettesand roulettingon F 200 (P 5838). P1.20. Fragmentaryblack-glazed


floor, of early 3rd-centuryB.C.shape. Graffito fish-plate. Graffito on underside. Context:
on underside. 3rd century B.C. (E 14:1).
Early III cent. B.C. 'Apo( ) (retrograde) III cent. B.C. NIKI( )
]. N F 201 (P 5918). PI.20. Rim fragmentof a West
F 195 (P 20848).P1.19. Base of black-glazedbowl Slope kantharoswith offset lip; 3rd-century
with stampedlinked palmettesand rouletting B.C.fabric.Graffitoon outsideof lip. Context:
on floor. Graffitoon underside.Context:early Hellenistic.
3rd century B.C.(D 17:3).
III cent. B.C. Xpyvr[[]Tnrov
EarlyIII cent. B.C. MIKa ( ) F 202 (P 8037). PI.20. Fragmentof base of un-
An abbreviationof some namelike Mikalion glazed pot. Graffito on underside. Context:
or Mikalos has been assumed, but the four 3rd century B.C. (B 13:1).
lettersmay be the completenominativeof the
femininename Mika; six women of this name III cent. B.C. MevJr-roS
wereburiedin Athensbetweenthe late 5th and F 203 (P 11202).P1.20. FragmentaryWest Slope
early 3rd centuries B.C. (I.G., IF2,12126-12131). kantharosof 3rd-centuryB.C.type. Graffitoon
F 196 (P 16295).P1.19. Shoulderfragmentfrom lower body, runningdownward.Context: 3rd
unglazedpitcher.Graffitoon outside. Context: century B.C. (B 13:1).
3rd century B.C. (N 21:4). III cent. B.C. XOpou
SecondquarterIII cent. B.C. Nrc ( ) The name appearsin Athenianrecords(e.g.,
I.G., II, Add. 834b, c; 959c 16; II, Suppl.
The abbreviatedname is framed by a car-
4114b) but may well be a slave's name. Com-
touche; see drawing.Nesiotes or Nesokles are pare F 170.
possiblenames;no exampleof eitheris known
to us from this generaltime, with the possible F 204 (P 20191). P1.20. Rim fragment from
exception of a restored Nesiotes in S.E.G., Megarianbowl. Graffitoon outside,just under
XXI, 330.5 (307/6 B.C.). lip. Context:late 4th-3rdcenturiesB.C.
F 197 (L 3293). P1.19. Black-glazedlamp base III cent. B.C. Mus
(= Howland,no. 553, Type 43C). Graffitoon The name may be complete, or it may be
underside. Context: second half 3rd century abbreviatedfrom Mustion, Mustichides,etc.
B.C. (N 20:7).
F 205 (P 20329). P1.20. Rim and wall fragment
Late III cent. B.C. Kpi( ) of black-glazedbowl. Graffitoon outsidejust
F 198 (P 24935).P1.20. Unglazedtall-neckedjug. above base. Context:3rdcenturyB.C.
Dipinto in black on shoulder.Context:second III cent. B.C. 'A]pXiTrrTo[u
half 3rd century B.C. (O 16:3).
F 206 (P 25998). P1.20. Black-glazedbowl with
Second half III cent. B.C. stamped palmettes and rouletting on floor.
ia'
'Epil'Irou X(6S) j3'K(o6'rXat) Graffition underside(a) and on outsidewall(b).
The capacityis 10.200liters to the lip. Two Context: 3rd century B.C. (F 17:3).
choes and elevenkotyles(35 kotyles),basedon III cent. B.C. (a) Amyv( )
a kotyleof 0.273 1., wouldbe 9.555 1. (b) N
44 F. OWNERS' MARKS

If this is a name, Dimnos is a possibility F 215 (P 1881). P1.20. Fragmentfrom base of


not knownin Athens,but a friendof Alexander deep black-glazedbowl of 3rd-to 2nd-centuries
the Great(Diod. Sic., XVII, 79). B.C. fabric. Graffito on underside. Context:
Hellenisticfilling of the MiddleStoa, so prob-
F 207 (P 26004). P1.20. West Slope kantharos. ablynot laterthanmid-2ndcenturyB.C.
Graffito outside on wall below lip. Context: III-II cent. B.C.
3rd century B.C. (F 17:3). 'Ovrloi[[ou

III cent. B.C. Aac ( ) F 216 (P 3163).PI.20. Fragmentof coarsepot lid.


Lettersincisedin soft clay. Context:Hellenistic.
PossibleAtheniannames include Laios (4th
III-II cent. B.C. ]ioTri6ou
century B.C., Prosop. Att., no. 8961) and Lais-
podias (5th century B.C., Prosop. Att., nos. F 217 (P 3285). P1.20. Shoulder fragment of
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

8962,8963). large coarse amphora.Dipinto in black. Con-


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

text: Hellenistic.
F 208 (P 26262).P1.20. Fragmentaryblack-glazed
III-II cent. B.C. 'lTrra ( )
fish-plate.Graffitoon underside.Context: ca.
200 B.C.(M 18:10). F 218 (P 3446). P1.20. Neck fragmentof coarse
Ca. 200 B.C. 'AoK( ) amphora.Dipinto in red. Context:Hellenistic.
III-II cent. B.C. 'IpoK[
F 209 (P 6128). P1.20. Fragment from rim of
Megarianbowl of 3rd-to early 2nd-centuries F 219 (P 3788). P1.20. Small black-glazedhandle
B.C. type. Graffitooutside.Context:Hellenistic. from cup. Graffitoon outside, runningdown
fromabove. Context:Hellenistic.
III-early II cent. B.C. ]s Alowviou .[
III-II cent. B.C. 'Apt( )
Not certainly an owner's name. Perhaps
genitiveis father'sname. F 220 (P 12200). P1.20. Base fragmentof small
bowl of Hellenisticfabric.Graffitoon floor.
F 210 (P 10729).P1.20. Fragmentaryblack-glazed III-II cent. B.C. OeoyeT-co[v
bowl. Graffitoon underside.Context:3rd-2nd
centuries B.C. (F 5:1). F 221 (P 14566). P1.20. Base fragmentof large
Late III-early II cent. B.C. rEv( ) black-glazedplate of Hellenisticfabric.Graffito
on underside.
F 211 (L 2122). P1.20. Unglazedlamp (= How- III-II cent. B.C. ipe ( ) (monogram)
land, no. 464, Type 34 Var.). Dipinto in black F 222
on side. (P 17425).P1.20. Base of largeblack-glazed
bowl or plate of Hellenisticfabric.Graffitoon
Late III-early II cent. B.C. O?ix ( ) underside.
F 212 (L 4194).P1.20. Black-glazedlamp(= How- III-II cent. B.C. Trpa( )
land, no. 430, Type 32). Graffito on rim. F 223 (P 18264).PI.20. Rim fragmentof bowl of
Context: late 3rd-early 2nd centuries B.C. 3rd-to 2nd-centuryB.C.type, with West Slope
(M21:1). decorationinside; for the shape, cf. Hesperia,
Late III-early II cent. B.C. Kcblov III, 1934, pp. 348ff., C7, D 14, D 15, D28.
Graffitooutsidejust belowlip.
CompareF 213 from samecistern.
III-II cent. B.C. 'ETrmyvous
F 213 (P 18756). P1.20. Base of black-glazed
F 224 (P 22836). PI.20. Shoulderfragmentfrom
mug or bowl of Hellenisticfabric.Graffitoon
underside.Context:late 3rd-early2nd centuries coarse amphora.Graffitoon outside. Context:
B.C. Hellenistic.
(M 21:l).
Late III-early II cent. B.C. III-II cent. B.C. ]v rlhav'r!Tio
Kcb(uou)
SeeF 212 for the restoredname. The next to last lettermay be eithera ligature
of iota-omicronor eta. If this is a name it is
F 214 (L 3077).P1.20. Black-glazed
lamp(= How- not attested,but Planetiadesexistsas an epithet
no.
land, 445, Type34A). Graffitoon underside. of the CynicDidymos(Plut.,def. or., 7).
Late III-II cent. B.C. F 225 (P 23523). PI.20. Wall fragmentof West
See drawingfor monogram,probablyto be Slopeware.Graffitoon outside.
resolved thus: Kafcasr III-II cent. B.C. OXtinrroSH[
F. OWNERS' MARKS 45

F 226 (P 5828). P1.20. Base fragmentof black- on shoulder. Context: late 2nd to early 1st
glazedplateor bowl. Graffitoon underside. centuries B.C.(B 11:1).
Hellenistic 'Epupo[ Late II-earlyI cent. B.C. Alovuriov B
F 227 (P 17043).P1.20. Basefragmentof lekaneof F 234 (P 6864).P1.21. Fragmentpreservingabout
Hellenisticfabric. Graffitoon underside.Con- a quarter of a very large gray-wareplate.
text: first half of 2nd century B.C. (B20:2). Graffitoon underside.Context:mixedHellenis-
tic to earlyRoman(D 12:2).
First half II cent B.C. 'Appco( )
Late
II-early I cent. B.C. ]1iv&8o
This may be not an abbreviationof a longer
masculinenamebut a completefemininename: F 235 (P 6717). P1.21. Neck and shoulderfrag-
'Appcb. ment of unglazed amphora. Dipinto in red.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Context:Hellenistic.
F 228 (P 6867). P1.21. Neck fragment of large
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

Romanamphora,similarto Robinson,Chronol- II-I cent. B.C. Niy ( )


ogy, M 14. Dipinto in red. Context:late 2nd All names beginningwith these letters seem
century B.C. (C 9:7). to be Latinin originand belongto the Roman
Late II cent. B.C. CO ( ) periodin Athens.
SE( ) F 236 (P 23163). P1.21. Base fragmentof black-
Sincethis abbreviationmay standfor co(hors) glazedbowl with stampedpalmettesand roulet-
se(cundus),we may wonder if this is a Latin ting, of 2nd- to lst-centuriesB.C.type. Graffito
owner's mark. on underside.
II-I cent. B.C.
Eiurlp(pov)
F 229 (P 526). P1.21. Base of black-glazedplate
F
with stampedpalmettesand rouletting.Graffito 237 (23227). P1. 21. Base fragment of black-
on underside,withinfoot. Context:4th to 2nd glazed bowl with roulettingon floor; 2nd- to
century B.C. (G 14:2). Ist-centuries
B.C. type. Graffitoon underside.
II cent. B.C. Euvo( ) II-I cent. B.C. 'AvSpi( )
ProbablyEunomos. F 238 (P 6873).P1.21. Handleof coarseamphora.
Graffitoon outside,runningdown from above.
F 230 (P 5738). P1.21. Base of large black-glazed
Late Hellenistic 'Apicrrcov
plate of 2nd-centuryB.C. fabric. Graffiti on
underside(a) and on floor (b). Context: 2nd- F239 (P 20361). P1.21. Neck fragment from
early 1st centuries B.C. (E 15:3). coarseamphora.Graffitoon outside,in shield-
II cent. B.C. (a) FaXfis shapedframe.
(b) X Late Hellenistic Fov( )
Gales is not knownas a name. Couldit be a The name Goneus is reportedfrom Samos
nickname-"female skunk"-in the genitive in the 3rd century B.C.(Bechtel).
case?
F240 (P 25816). P1.21. Small terracotta base.
F 231 (P 6034). P1.21. Fragmentof small black- Graffito on side opposite notch for support
glazed bowl of 2nd-century B.C. fabric. Graffiti tenon.
outside(a) and inside(b). Late Hellenistic Xail ( )
II cent. B.C. (a) Opaoivcov The second and fourth letters are uncertain
OEoEvov(s) and might be lambda and nu respectively.In
(b) eoo<E)> any case no Atheniannameis known.
Perhaps writtenon the if a
sherd; so, tag. For F 241 (P 13386).P1.21. Shoulderfragmentfrom
the name Thrasunon see S.E.G., XII, 123, 47
amphora. Dipinto in black. Context: second
(2nd century B.C.). quarter 1st century B.C.(T 27:1).
F 232 (P 23045). PI. 21. Rim fragmentof black- EarlyI cent. B.C. W"Apaa(Tro) (monogram)
glazed plate of Hellenistic type. Graffito on F 242
outside. (P 12100).P1.21. Base of red-glazedplate
withflaring,moldedfoot. Graffitoon underside.
II cent. B.C. AioyE[ Context:secondquarter1st centuryB.C.(N 20:
F 233 (P 7082). P1.21. Part of neck and shoulder 4).
of large unglazedamphora.Dipinto in black Second quarterI cent. B.C. Ku( )
46 F. OWNERS' MARKS

F 243 (P 5726). PI.21. Small, partly glazed jug F 252 (P 20719). P1.22. Upper part of amphora.
with angular shoulder. Graffito on top of Dipinto in black on shoulder and graffito
shoulder.Context:mid-istcenturyB.C.(E 14:3). above. Context:early 1st century(R 10:1).
Mid-I cent. B.C. Xprlovo EarlyI cent. (dipinto) NEiKCov
(graffito) Fr N
F244 (P4723). P1.21. One-handledjar similar The spellingof this very commonnamewith
to Robinson, Chronology,F 65. Graffito on the diphthonginsteadof simpleiota is frequent
shoulderbelowhandle. from the 1st centuryB.C. on. Since both signs
I cent. B.C. Xprlcr( ) in the graffitostand for 50, this seemsto be a
"bilingual",but it is uncertainwhether the
F 245 (P 4915). P1.21. Base of small Pergamene number refers to price, capacity, or the fact
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

bowl. Graffition underside(a) and on floor (b). that the jar is fiftiethin some series.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

I cent. B.C. (a) NKoXaouv F 253 (P 21777).PI.22. Ovoid amphorawith tall


(b) N neck, offset shoulderand pointed toe. Graffito
At least two men of this name are known on shoulder.Context:early1stcentury(R 10:1).
from Athensin this century(Prosop.Att., nos. EarlyI cent. 'Epp[
10925,10927).
F254 (P 7957). P1.22. Shallow bowl with wide
F 246 (P 10634).P1.21. Base fragmentof glazed ring foot. Graffito on underside. Context:
plate, of Hellenistictype. Graffitoon underside. firsthalf 1st century(R 13:1).
I cent. B.C. OtIi9u Firsthalf I cent. 'AKv( )
CompareF 320. Akindunosoccursin Roman
F 247 (P 13307).P1.21. Fragmentaryblack-glazed Athens.
plate. Graffito on underside. Context: 1st
century B.C. Hesperia,Suppl. IV, p. 121, fig. F 255 (P 11249). P1.22. Small Samian A bowl
90, a. with illegible stamp. Graffito on underside.
Context:secondhalf 1st century(B 14:3).
I cent. B.C. 'Epco( )
Secondhalf I cent. TTpoo( )
F 248 (P 16594).P1.21. Base fragmentof black- F 256
(P 11256).P1.22. Fragmentof shallowbowl.
glazed plate. Graffitoon underside.Context: Graffito on underside.Context: second half
late Hellenistic. 1st century(B 14:3).
I cent. B.C. Tpco( ) Secondhalf I cent. FpaqmKoi
F 249 (P 2272).P1.21. Fragmentof smallArretine F 257 (P 18435).PI.22. Upper part of amphora
bowl with stamp on floor (L. Titius). Graffito with tall neck, sloping shoulder and vertical
on underside. handles.Dipintoin blackon shoulder.Context:
I cent. B.C. 'ETrrtTE secondhalf 1st century(C 18:2).
Secondhalf I cent. "EqEa
F 250 (P 18284).P1.21. Fragmentfrom neck of
MasculineEphesiosexistsin RomanAthens.
amphora.Dipinto in red. Context: 1st century
B.C. to 1st century (B 19:9). F 258 (P 10712). P1.22. Amphora with body
I cent. B.C.-I cent. KOT taperingto flatbase.Dipintoin redon shoulder.
A]Ir'Orros Context:late 1st century(E 14:2).
The numbermight be a date on the Seleucid LateI cent. Mrapia
era (from 312/1 B.C.): 329 Secleucid = A.D. 17. Comparethe Christianuse of this name in
F 322.
F 251 (P 3143). PI.21. Shoulder fragment of
amphora. Graffito on outside. Context: 1st F 259 (P 7994). P1.22. Flat base of coarse pot.
century B.C.-lst century (E 15:1). Incised on undersidein soft clay. Context:
1stcentury(E 11:2).
I cent. B.C.-I cent. Marini
I cent. OEtoScop86ou
In the same channelwas the upperpart of a
largeamphorawith the sameinscription(Agora F 260 (P9878). P1.22. Narrow-mouthedhigh-
inv. no. P 3144).The name appearsas Mapelvos neckedjugwithovoidbody.Graffitoon shouldr.
in Greek. Context:1st century(K 18:1).
F. OWNERS' MARKS 47

I cent.
'AKU() F269 (P 11142). P1.23. High-neckedjug with
PerhapsAquila; in Roman Athens various globularbody and twistedhandle. Graffitoon
relatednamesexist: Akulanos,Akulas,etc. shoulder.Context:late 1st to late 2nd centuries
(B 14:2).
F261 (P 10032). P1.22. Small amphora with LateI-mid-IIcent. 'OvrltpOpoU
body taperingto small flat base. Incised on
shoulder in soft clay. Context: 1st century F 270 (P 15296).PI.23. Unglazedjug with round
(K 18:1). mouth, profiledlip, cylindricalneck, somewhat
I cent. Aqro( ) like Robinson, Chronology,M 43, but with
twisted handle, round body and ring foot.
F 262 (P 10035).P1.22. Shoulderfragmentfrom Graffito on shoulder. Context: mid-Ist to
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

closed pot. Incised on outside. Context: 1st mid-2ndcenturies(N 17:2).


century(K 18:1).
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

Late I-mid-II cent. 'EpPaiou


I cent. KiKKou iEpfios
F 271 (P 15302). P1.23. Jug similar to F 270.
Note archaizingIonic genitive. The name Graffitoon shoulder.Context:mid-ist to mid-
may be an epithet, since the word kikkos is 2nd centuries(N 17:2).
variouslydefinedby Hesychios(LSJ, s.v.). But
related names do exist in an earlier period: Late I-mid-IIcent. M&ita(0os)
Kikos (I.G., XII 9, 222, 1-3rd century B.C.); The name is incised over an earliergraffito:
Kikon (I.G., II2, 1953, 9-4th century B.C.); 'AyaOeas.For the name cf. FI274,F 278. We
Kikkon (I.G., IV, 926, 45-4th century B.C.). havefound no evidencefor this name.
F 263 (P 14623). PI.22. Fragmentfrom neck of F272 (P 15303). P1.23. Jug similar to F 270.
plain amphora. Dipinto in black. Context: Graffito on shoulder. Context: mid-lst to
1st century. mid-2ndcenturies(N 17:2).
I cent. 'PoOPou Late I-mid-IIcent. Evy( )
F 264 (P 17005).PI.22. Fragmentfrom floor of CompareF 275.
gray-wareplate. Graffitoon underside,within F 273 (P
ringfoot. 15304). P1.23. Jug similar to F 270.
Graffitoon lower part of body. Context:mid-
I cent. ]Acoviou 1st to mid-2ndcenturies(N 17:2).
F265 (P 19007). P1.22. Base of Samian bowl Late I-mid-II cent. TTaciTnlKou
with foot stampon floor. Graffitoon underside. Thereis no evidencefor this as eithernameor
I cent. 'EKX ( ) word.
PerhapsEklektos. F 274 (P 15305). P1.23. Jug similar to F 270,
F 266 (P 25245).P1.22. Amphorawith ovoid body exceptthat handleis ridgedratherthan twisted.
and flat bottom similarto Robinson,Chronol- Graffitoaround shoulder.Context:mid-lst to
mid-2ndcenturies(N 17:2).
ogy, M 50. Dipinto in black on shoulder.
Context:1st century(Q 17:4). Late I-mid-IIcent. MalaOos
I cent. Eurro[ F 275 (P 15307). P1.23. Jug similar to F 270.
F 267 (P 17144).P1.22. Amphorawith tall cylin- Graffitoon shoulder.Context:mid-lst to mid-
drical neck, verticalhandlesand body tapering 2nd centuries(N 17:2).
to small concave base. Dipinto in black on Late I-mid-IIcent. Ei'v6oou
shoulder.Context: 1st century(B 20:1).
F276 (P 10447). P1.23. Upper part of ovoid
I cent. Auoviov amphora with narrow neck and flaring rim.
F268 (P 4498). P1.23. Narrow-mouthedhigh- Dipinto in black on shoulder. Context: late
necked jug like Robinson, Chronology,M 43, 1st to 2nd centuries(B 14:2).
but with narrowerneck and twisted handle. Late I-II cent. EiXEifo
Graffitocarefullyincised on shoulderopposite
handle.Context:1stand 2nd centuries(F 11:1). PerhapsIlios, whichis not, however,attested
as a personalname.
I cent. 'Ovrola9popo F 277 (P 9513). P1.24. Upper half of large am-
For the namecompareF 269 andF 279. phora with wide neck and vertical handles.
48 F. OWNERS' MARKS

Dipinto in red in large letters on shoulder. F286 (P964). P1.24. Small wheel-ridgedam-
Context: lst-2nd centuries(M 18:1). phora with ring foot. Dipinto in red on neck.
I-II cent. FEL( ) 1[TlA
( ) Context:late 2nd-early 3rd centuries(I 16:1).
Late II cent. KapTrou
Bilingual,perhapsfor Felix?
But compareHe 17 wherethis wordrefersto
F 278 (P 13602).P1.24. Shoulderof round-bodied contents.The nameis veryfrequentat this time.
pot. Graffito on outside. Context: latter 1st F287
and earlier2nd centuries(N 19:2). (P 16704). P1.24. Amphora like F267.
Dipinto in red on shoulder. Context: 2nd
I-II cent. Mala(eos) century(N 21:1).
Cf. F 271,F 274. II cent. 'Eriyovos
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

F279 (P 22234). P1.24. Shoulder fragment of F 288 (P 770). P1.25. Shoulderfragmentof large
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

round-bodiedjug withnarrowneck.Graffitoon amphora.Lettersincisedin soft clay. Context:


shoulder. 2nd centuryB.C.with later intrusions(I16:5).
I-II cent. 'Ov]ril9copov II-III cent. CN ( )
TITIO[
F280 (P9835). P1.24. Neck of large amphora F 289 P1. 25. Small wall fragmentof
with evertedrim and verticalhandles.Dipinto (P7063).
small coarse pot with thin black wash outside.
in red. Context:firsthalf 2nd century(M 19:1). Graffitoon outside.
EarlyII cent. 'Aao( ) II-III cent. ].<pcovo[s
Perhaps Asmenos. F 290 (P 25224).P1.25. Amphorawith elongated
F 281 (P 9925). P1.24. Neck of amphorasimilar ovoid body and horned handles. Dipinto in
to F280. Dipinto in red. Context: first half black on neck. Context: late 2nd-early 3rd
2nd century(M 19:1). centuries (Q 17:4).
Late II-early III cent. 'AvrTia.cXos
EarlyII cent. 'Apr ( )
F291 (P 10778). P1.25. Two non-joiningfrag-
F 282 (P 12459).PI.24. Ovoid amphorawith flat ments of neck and shoulder of plain jug.
bottom. Dipinto in black on upperwall. Con- Graffitoon shoulder.Context:early3rdcentury
text: early2nd century(N 20:5).
(G 11:2).
EarlyII cent. 'E-r]fyovos 8' EarlyIII cent. Etlr[6]copos
F 283 (P 17133).P1.24. Jug with cylindricalneck F 292 (P 12352).P1.25. Tall narrow-bodiedam-
and pear-shapedbody on ring foot. Graffition phora with wide mouth and vertical handles,
shoulder(a) and neck (b). Context: first half similar to Robinson, Chronology,M 177. Di-
2nd century(B 20:1). pinto in red on shoulder.Context: early 3rd
Firsthalf II cent. (a) DOM( ) century(N 20:5).
(b) (illegible) EarlyIII cent. 'E-rryacio0
F284 (P 21393). P1.24. Shoulder fragment of F 293 (P 12354).P1.25. Amphorasimilarto F 292.
large plain amphora(=Robinson, Chronology, Dipinto in red on shoulder. Context: early
H33). Dipinto in black. Context: first half 3rdcentury(N 20:5).
2nd century(P 8:1).
EarlyIII cent. 'AXE( )
Firsthalf II cent. nTpi(pcp F294 (P 12357). P1.25. Amphora similar to
EOpupl[ F 292. Dipinto in black on shoulder.Context:
Bechtelnotes a Periphosfrom Naxos under early3rdcentury(N 20:5).
Periphanes. Early III cent. 'HpK( )
F 285 (P 10040).PI.24. Amphora(= Robinson, Perhaps Fl. Herklanos (ephebe in I.G., II2,
Chronology, M 94). Dipintoin red on shoulder. 2239,241 of A.D.238/9-243/4), sincethis is the
Context:secondhalf 2nd century(M 17:1). only namewe findbeginningthus.
Secondhalf II cent. Ka[ F 295 (P 13615). P1.25. Amphora with slender
rnoiSe ovoid body on base ring. Dipinto in black on
PerhapsPudens?Outside Athens TToOSiri is shoulder. Context:firsthalf3rdcentury(P 19:1).
attested(S.E.G.,XV, 214). Firsthalf III cent. EuTtrXIavoO
F. OWNERS' MARKS 49

F 296 (P 19203). P1.25. Neck and shoulder of F 306 (P 25475). P1.26. Shoulder fragment of
amphorawith flaringrim. Dipinto in black on largeamphora.Lettersincisedbeforefiring.
shoulder.Context:mid-3rdcentury(B 17:1). EarlyRoman Kapyivfas[
Mid-IIIcent. Av ( ) Comparea Roman lady in Spain (C.I.G.,
F 297 (P 26410). P1.25. Amphoraneck and part III, 6644); also Karphinas(Prosop.Att., no.
8261-4th century B.C.).
of shoulder.Dipinto in red on neck. Context:
potteryof mid-3rdcentury. F 307 (P 10613).P1.26. Flat-bottomedjug similar
Mid-IIIcent. EivrvXiov KA to Robinson, Chronology,L46. Graffito on
The name is not attestedin Athens. Kappa- shoulder. Context: third quarter 3rd century
(G 11:2).
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

alphamay be a number:21.
ThirdquarterIII cent. Zcooitou
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

F 298 (P 8040). P1.25. Shoulder fragment of


Note branchfollowingname.
amphora.Dipinto in black runningdown wall.
Context:thirdquarter3rdcentury(C 14:2). F 308 (P 12257). P1.26. Shoulder fragment of
Mid-IIIcent. ] GEMMIANO smallamphora.Dipintoin black.
F 299 (P 26127). P1.25. Small jug with narrow LateIII cent. 'louvio ( )
neck and ovoid body. Graffito on shoulder. Presumablyonly the upsilon of the genitive
Context:mid-3rdcentury(Q 19:1). is omitted.
Mid-IIIcent. 'AKe( )
F 309 (P 14024).P1.26. Smallamphorasimilarto
PerhapsAlketes. Robinson,Chronology, L 3. Graffitoon shoulder.
Context: 3rdcentury(M 18:4).
F300 (P2228). P1.25. Wall fragment of small
jug. Graffitoon outside. III cent. l os
Z[bcr[]
EarlyRoman OIArnT[ F 310 (P 11196). P1.26. Neck and shoulder
F301 (P 3549). P1.25. Base of small bowl of fragmentof small amphora.Dipinto in black
at base of neck. Context: late 3rd-early 4th
yellow clay once glazed red (Pergamene?). centuries
Graffitoon underside,withinringfoot. (C 14:4).
LateIII-earlyIV cent. 'AAXicov
EarlyRoman ExKOv
Sakos is not attested;perhapsforeign.Or a The name is known (Pape, s.v.) but not in
nicknamefrom the commonnoun? Athens.

F 302 (P 3671). P1.25. Base fragment of red- F 311 (P 16360).P1.26. Amphorapreservedonly


glazedbowl. Graffitoon underside. up to shoulder (=Robinson, Chronology,
L 32). Dipinto in black on shoulder.Context:
EarlyRoman 'AyEp[ early4th century(F 19:1).
PerhapsAgerros. EarlyIV cent. ]aaoli. .a
F 303 (P 6992). P1.26. Shoulderfragmentfrom F312 (P9794). P1.26. One-handledjar (=
large amphora.Graffitoon outside. Context: Robinson, Chronology,M279). Dipinto in
mixed Hellenistic to early Roman (D 11:4). black underhandle. Context:late 4th century
EarlyRoman Ei9p( ) (M 17:1).
F304 (P 15719). P1.26. Shoulder fragment of Late IV cent. ZCOTIKOi
small coarseamphora.Dipinto in black. F 313 (P 13130).P1.26. Shoulderfragmentfrom
Early Roman iepoerTou Atoykv9[u]sTOU large plain pot. Graffito on outside. Found
ODXpoKcpa[o]vs
'Ep.oScbpou with late 4th-centurycoins.
Some letters were no longer visible when Late IV cent. PASINI
finaldrawingwas made.
F 314 (P 2281). P1.26. Rim fragmentfrom small
F 305 (P 18255). P1.26. Shoulder fragment of jug. Graffitoon outside. Found with 4th-cen-
wheel-ridgedamphora.Dipintoin red. turylamps.
EarlyRoman 'HpaoKe7l[ IV cent. E*p( ) (ligature)
50 F. OWNERS' MARKS

F 315 (P 12306).P1.26. Wallfragmentof amphora. LateV-VI cent.


Graffito on outside. Context: 4th century (Cross) EOKapTos (Cross) En ( )
(N 20:3). IE
IV cent. 'IEpcov[ Theiota-epsilonmaybeeitheranabbreviation,
EIP perhapsfor lepe5s,or a number:15.
SeeM 20 for picture.Thelettersin the second F 324 (P 25940).P1.28. Neck of amphorasimilar
line could be a number:115. to Robinson, Chronology,M 333. Dipinto in
red on side of neck.
F 316 (P 15576).P1.27. Shoulderfragmentfrom
amphora. Dipinto in black. Context: 4th V-VI cent. (Cross)
century(U 22:1). 'Av-nr[
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

IV cent. AiArav6o F 325 (P 26090). P1.28. Shoulder fragment of


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

ApOiou one-handledjar similarto Robinson, Chrono-


TroaXatIos logy, M 315. Graffito on outside. Context:
5th-6thcenturies(Q 19:1).
F 317 (P 12836).P1.27. Amphorawith elongated
ovoid body and low ring foot, similarto Rob- V-VI cent. McAihKov
inson, Chronology,M 302. Dipinto in black on The name M&?AiKos is knownin 5th-and4th-
shoulder.Context:4th century(O 19:1). centuriesB.C.Athens(S.E.G.,X, 424, I; Prosop.
IV cent. Eprl( ) Att., no. 9661).
r F326 (P 13365). P1.27. Wheel-ridgedjug with
Severus?Gammamay be number:3. flat bottom and trefoil mouth. Graffito on
shoulder. Context: second half 6th century
F 318 (P 12842). P1.27. Bell-mouthedjug with (S 19:6).
twisted handle and pear-shapedbody on high
Secondhalf VI cent. Ttypt( )
ring foot. Graffito on shoulder in soft clay.
Context:4th century(O 19:1). Neither Tigris nor Tigrios is attested in
IV cent. Athens.
'Erriyovos
F327 (P26595). P1.27. Amphora with ovoid
F319 (P 27211). PI.27. Upper part of Roman
body and rounded bottom. Graffito below
jug. Graffitoon shoulder.Context:4th century handle.Context:6th century(Q 17:7).
(E 29:5).
VI cent. 'Hla ( )
IV cent. STpaTco[
In this period the biblical Elias may be
F 320 (P 11569). P1.27. Small cylindrical am- most likely, although Elianax (Prosop. Att.,
phora(= Robinson, Chronology,M 307). Graf- no. 6403) and Eliades (I.G., II, 1986) are
fito on neck.Context:early5thcentury(M 17:1). knownearlier.
EarlyV cent. 'AKIV.
( ) F 328 (P 22162). PI.28. Neck fragment of am-
Compare F 254. phora.Dipintoin red.
F 321 (P 12351).P1.27. Upper part of amphora Late Roman Q( ) L( ) FUND[
with short neck and sloping handles. Graffito PAT[
on shoulder. (traces)
V-VI cent. 'AvBPEa Line 2: patronus?Line 3: tracesmay be part
of a Romannumeral,since thereis one X and
F 322 (P 13149). P1.27. Wheel-ridgedamphora perhapsanother.
with ovoid body on ring foot. Dipinti on
F329 (P 12158). P1.28. Rim fragmentof large
shoulders,red on one side (a), black on the
other (b). Context: late 5th-6th centuries pot. Graffitojust belowrim.
(0 18:1). Late Roman 'Eprrivea
LateV-VI cent. (a) chi-rho Mapfa Only Herpinikosis attestedin Athens (I.G.,
(b) chi-rho Mapfa III, 1202,3526).
F323 (P 13466). P1.27. Amphora similar to F 330 (P 10181).PI.28. Fragmentof small bowl
Robinson,Chronology, M 328. Graffition upper with flat bottom and keeld rim. Graffitoon
wall. Context:late 5th-6th centuries(P 19:1). outside.
F. OWNERS' MARKS 51

Late Roman Mayfpou X[ Late Roman Ei.orat{ou


The name is not known to us, but the com- M
mon noun may well have been used as a proper 'HpaK7ias
name,nicknameor title. Joint ownership?or producerand city?
F333 (P1992). P1.28. Shoulder fragment of
F331 (P5028). P1.28. Shoulderfragmentfrom
largejar. Graffitoat base of neck.
largeamphora.Dipintoin red. Late Roman 'Epriq[
Late Roman EuKap( ) F334 (P2095). P1.28. Shallow bowl with flat
F 332 (P 1850). P1.28. Neck fragment of large bottom.Graffitoon underside.
coarseamphora.Dipintoin red. Late Roman EOxa( )
American School of Classical Studies at Athens
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

INTRODUCTIONTO PUBLIC OWNERSHIP(Fa, Fb)


Except for the two pieces (Fa 25, Fa 26) which were found in late Roman fill, the finding places of the
delta-epsilon pots may be considered significant. Fifteen (Fa 2-15, Fa 24) came from under the Stoa of
Zeus; sevenothers(Fa 16-21, Fa 23) camefrom the Tholos area;the othertwo camefrom wells about
40 meters(Fa 22) and about70 meters(Fa 1) southwestof the Tholos.
Since both the Tholos and the Stoa Basileios (which presumablyused the well under the Stoa of Zeus
beforethat stoa was built)were seats of governmentalactivity,it is not surprisingthat vesselsmarked
as public property should be practically limited to their neighborhood. (There are also about a dozen
vessels of the 5th or 4th century B. c. which are marked with the two letters delta-epsilon not in ligature.
These come from variousplaces in the Agora and are thereforemore probablyto be interpretedas
abbreviationsof personalnamesbeginningthus.)
Threelater pieces with the ligaturedelta-etashouldbe listed, since de(mosion)would be so written
after the introduction of the Ionic alphabet. All three come from the neighborhood of the Hephaisteion.
(Four pieces inscribed with delta-eta, not in ligature, come from this neighborhood or the Tholos area,
but may again be abbreviations of personal names.)

Fa 1 (P 6139). P1.29. Base fragmentfrom large Fa 5 (P 5121).Graffitoon floor:


open bowl with thin blackglazeinside.Graffito 6(5Gitoiov) (ligature)
on underside,within ring foot. Context:early
5th century B.C.(E 15:6). Fa 6 (P 5123). Graffito on floor:
s8E(6'cov) (ligature)
Early V cent. B.C. E(pO6cnov) (ligature)
Fa 7 (P 5125).Graffitoon floor:
Elevenblack-glazedkylikes or fragments(PI.29), 6E(Oi6cov) (ligature)
all inscribedwith the delta-epsilonligature,were
Fa 8 (P 7575).Graffitoon floor:
found in the wellunderthe Stoa of Zeus (H6:5),
which producedmany other inscribedpots (see 6E(g6C1ov) (ligature)
List of Deposits).The date of bothpots and con- Fa 9 (P 5116).Graffitounderfoot:
text is 470-460 B.c. Hesperia,V, 1936,pp. 333ff. 6E(i.6o'ov) (ligature)
Fa 2=Sparkes-Talcott,no. 436; mentionedthere
also are Fa 3-7, Fa 12, Fa 16-19; Fa 11 is referred Fa 10 (P 5119).Graffitounderfoot:
to underno. 413. 6E(i6o'ov) (ligature)
Fa 2 (P 5117). Graffition floor and undersideof Fa 11 (P 5122).Graffitounderfoot:
foot: 6E(0C16oov) (ligature) E(P.o6alov) (ligature)
6E(Vi6aiov) (ligature) Fa 12 (P 5124). Graffito under foot:
Fa 3 (P 5118).Graffitoon floor: SE(6oalov) (ligature)
8E(P6C7Iov) (ligature) As will be seenfrom the drawings,morethan half
of the examplesuse the continuedleft stroke of
Fa 4 (P 5120).Graffitoon floor: the delta as the top stroke of the epsilon (Fa 2,
68E(I6cov) (ligature) Fa 4, Fa 7-9, Fa 11, Fa 12).
52 G. DEDICATIONS AND CONVIVIAL INSCRIPTIONS

Fa 13 (P 5140). P1.29. Partlyglazed one-handler. side. Context:second quarter5th centuryB.C.


Graffitoon floor. Context: 470460 B.C. (H 6:5). (nearTholos).
Cf. Sparkes-Talcott,
no. 740. Second quarterV cent. B.C. E(QOClnov)
(ligature)
Ca. 470-460 B.C. SE(Coalov) (ligature)
Fa22 (P 10616). P1.29. Half of black-glazed
Theligaturehereis madeup of severalstrokes saltcellar.Graffitoon underside.Context:mid-
so that part of the epsilonappearsto be within 5th century B.C.(near Tholos).
the delta.
Mid-V cent. B.C. (ligature)
8E((6Ci1ov)
Fa 14 (P 5158). P1.29. Small lekane. Graffitoon
underside,within ring foot. Context: 470-460 Fa 23 (P 5458). P1.29. Half of black-glazedsalt-
B.C. (H 6:5). cellar. Graffitoon floor. Context:ca. 470-425
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Ca. 470-460 B.C. B.C. (E 13:1). Cf. Sparkes-Talcott,


no. 912.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

SE(i6Craov)SE(p6oiov)6E(LO6atov) (ligatures) Mid-V cent. B.C. 6&(6o'iov) (ligature)


The thricerepeatedligatureappearsin over- Fa 24
(P 13227).PI.29. Base of black-glazedbowl
lappingconfusion. or stemlesscup. Graffitoon floor. Context:to
Fa 15 (P 5181). PI.29. Shoulderfragmentfrom late 5thcenturyB.C. (underStoaof Zeus).
unglazed amphora. Graffito on outside, side- V cent. B.C. 5E(IO6aiov) (ligature)
ways to pot. Context: ca. 470-460 B.C. (H 6:5).
Ca. 470-460 B.C. &E(l6aiov) (ligature) Fa 25 (P 10422).PI.29. Wall fragmentof black-
glazedkylix.Graffitooutside.
Floor fragments of four black-glazed kylikes
V cent. B.C. 8E(p6caov) (ligature)
of the same type as Fa 2 and all inscribedwith
the delta-epsilonligature (Pl. 29), werefound in Fa26 (P5595). P1.29. Base fragment of small
a rubbishheapfrom the Tholoskitchen (G 12:22). black-glazedbowl. Graffitoon underside.
Graffiti are in each case on the floor. Context: V cent. B.C.
470-460 B.C. SE(Cio6'ov) (ligature)
Fa 16 (P 10813). (ligature) Fb 1 (P 8600). PI.29. Base fragment of black-
8E(6o0OV) glazed bolsal. Graffitoon underside.Context:
Fa 17 (P 10814). 6E(p6rtov) (ligature) 4th century B.C.(E 6:3).
Fa 18 (P 10815). 8E(oL6o'iov)
8E(6cnlov) (ligature) IV cent. B.C. 8rl(cr6cov) (ligature)
Fa 19 (P 10816). (ligature) Fb 2 (P 8611). P1.29. Black-glazedone-handler.
6?(goi6aiov)
Fa 20 (P 10838).P1.29. Floor fragmentof black- Graffito on underside.Context: 4th century
B.C. (E 6:3).
glazed kylix similarto Fa 2. Graffitoon floor.
Context: second quarter5th centuryB.c.(near IV cent. B.C. 86rn(i.6clov) (ligature)
Tholos). Fb 3 (P 6825). P1.29. Neck fragmentfrom un-
SecondquarterV cent.B.C.8E(i06nov)(ligature) glazed amphora.Ligatureincised in wet clay.
Fa 21 (P 10839).P1.29. Foot fragmentof black- Context:1st century B.C.
glazedkylix similarto Fa 2. Graffitoon under- I cent. B.C.? 6rn(p6oiov) (ligature)

G. DEDICATIONS AND CONVIVIAL INSCRIPTIONS

The smallnumberof graffitodedicationsis rathersurprisingin viewof the manysanctuariesknownto


have been locatedin and aroundthe Agora (see Wycherley,pp. 48-125). Besidesthe piecespublished
here there are only a few fragmentson which part of the word aViSTjKE
can be read. Parallelsfor informal
pot-dedicationsof this sort may be found in most sanctuaries;see particularlyE. A. Gardner,Nau-
cratis,London, 1886-88,I, pp. 54-64; II, pp. 62-69; C. Waldstein,The ArgiveHeraeum,Boston and
New York, 1902-1905,II, pp. 185-187; P. Woltersand G. Bruns,Das Kabirenheiligtum bei Theben,
Berlin, 1940-, I, pp. 43-79; B. Graef and E. Langlotz, Die antiken Vasen von der Akropolis zu Athen,
Berlin,1909,II, pp. 114-124;C. Roebuck,Corinth,XIV, TheAsklepieionand Lerna,Princeton,1951,
G. DEDICATIONS AND CONVIVIAL INSCRIPTIONS 53

pp. 131-136; Ch. Dugas, Delos, X, Les Vases de l'Heraion, Paris, 1928; R. M. Dawkins, The Sanctuary
of Artemis Orthia, London, 1929, pp. 371-382.
Drinking cups of the Hellenistic period are not infrequently inscribed with the name of some deity
or some abstract idea, illustrating the banqueting practice attested by Athenaios (XV, 692e) of naming
successive mixings of wine after various gods (presumably in the genitive case; see G 9-11). For some
examples, see Hesperia, III, 1934, p. 339 and the bibliography cited there; also Hesperia, XVI, 1947,
p. 240. The greatmajorityof ypaan-iKa KTrcbLaCrTa probablycamefromthe potter'sshopwith theirin-
scriptions already painted; these belong to the study of Hellenistic pottery. Only the graffiti, or home-
made versions, are included here.
The four pieces (G 1-4) which are dated before the middle of the 5th century B. C. show letters typical
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

of a standard old Attic alphabet (see above, p. 16) with eta as the aspirate, epsilon used for eta and
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

omicron for omega. In the later pieces the regular Ionic alphabet is used, but in G 6 and G 7 omicron
is still usedfor omegawhilein G 6 (but not in G 7) epsilonis still usedfor eta. A lunateepsilonappears
alreadyin G 13 (late 4th-early3rd centuriesB. C.); lunatesigmaas well as epsilonand cursiveomega
appearon G 21 (2nd-lst centuriesB. c.). An attemptat serifs is made on G 16, and broken-barred
alphasappearon G 22 and G 23.
Odditiesin spellinginclude:one of the manyvarietiesof Eileithuia in G 8; an absenceof iota sub-
scriptin G 15 and G 21. Punctuation(threedots arrangedvertically)appearsonly on G 17, but thereis a
word-dividerin G 7.

G 1 (P 12629). P1.30. Fragment from edge of G 3 (P 13754).P1.30. Partof clay ring. Letterson
heavy flat unglazedtile. Graffitoon top, ob- top in blackglaze(a); graffitoon underside(b).
viously written on the sherd. Context: third Context: late 6th century B.C.(U 23:2).
quarter 6th century B.C. (Q 18:1). Hesperia, Late VI cent. B.C. (a) ]KOV
VIII, 1939,p. 259, fig. 15 (no. 9). (b) EiXE[
Third quarter VI cent. B.C. hEpiEi Compare G 2. The motto could be: qpECry
'CayaXpa KcaK6v 'T.The graffitois perhapsthe owner's name.
An informal label on a dedication: "To (The drawingis upsidedown.)
Hermes (someone dedicated) me, a pleasing G 4
(P 24062).P1.30. Small black-glazedkantha-
gift." The inscriptionis complete, so that it ros (= Sparkes-Talcott,no. 627). Graffitoon
looks as if the writer,findingno room for his outerface of one handle.Context:ca. 520-490
name, abandonedthis attemptand looked for B.C.(Q 12:3).
a largerpiece of tile; thus the sherdwas found
"out of context,as far as Hermesis concerned." LateVI-earlyV cent. B.C. 'E'roCvaoos hEpETi
This interpretationis closest to that of Jeffery The nameis not known.
(L.S.A.G.,p.78,no. 33);forothersseetheHesperia G5
referenceabove and H. R. Immerwahr,"Some (P 14676). P1.30. Fragmentaryred-figured
Inscriptions on Attic Pottery," The James pyxis lid. Graffitoon top, aroundglazed band
between central tongue and dot pattern and
SpruntStudiesin Historyand PoliticalScience, outeregg pattern.
XLVI, 1964,pp. 16-19.
Second half V cent. B.C. 'A]V[C]K.oiv
K[cAias
G 2 (P 9634). P1.30. Part of flat clay ring. Letters
in black glaze on top. The name of the dedicator is suppliedexempli
LateVI cent. B.C. ri8sev] gratia.
Oyav
G 6 (P 12336). P1.30. Base fragment of black-
CompareG 3. Thesetwo piecesare included,
even thoughas paintedinscriptionsthey do not glazedpyxis of a type found in the secondhalf
reallybelong, becausethey seem to be unique, 5th century B.C. Graffiti on underside: on
do not fit with any other studyand shouldnot projecting flange (a); within ring foot (b).
go unnoticed. It is assumed here that they Graffitoon floor (c).
servedsome purpose at the festal board (pot Second half V cent. B.C.
stands?)and were inscribedwith appropriate (a) v]eTOvAfa Kai TV 'bVA[rr6AMova
maxims. ]Eoi'TEaalTO
54 G. DEDICATIONS AND CONVIVIAL INSCRIPTIONS

(b) KalTov[ G 11 (P 22484). P1.31. Upper wall fragmentof


VETo[s SA?os black-glazedkantharos,similar to G 9. Graf-
0E6[s fito on outside, going around body. Context:
O
(C) ]K. late 4th century B.C.
Compare B. Graef and E. Langlotz, Die Late IV cent. B.C. 'App[oSiTlsItp]as
antiken Vasen von der Akropolis zu Athen, II,
no. 1445. The oath of the first line of (a) may G 12 (P 27040).P1.31. Neck fragmentfrom black-
have includedone or two other deities;it must glazedmug. Graffitoon outside.
have been followed by a wish that a certain IV cent. B.C.
]TpcoyovT[
person might be avenged or punished. The
second inscription (b) was then added to Since this can only be a participlefrom the
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

includeone more nameddeity and the rest of verb "to eat," it seems likelythat it is convivial
in nature, or a
perhaps maxim suitableto the
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

the Olympiangods. This inscriptionis included


here becauseit has the gods in common with feast. CompareXenophanes,fr. 18 D, line 3:
the convivialand dedicatorytexts. TrfvovrTayXuKuvolvov, vrroTpcbyovTr'PEPivGous.

G 7 (P 12011). P1.30. Rim fragmentfrom large G 13 (P 20424). PI.31. Lower wall fragmentof
open black-glazedbowl of 5th-centuryB.C. largeWestSlopekantharos.Graffitoon outside,
fabric.Graffitoon outside,just belowrim. going around body. Context: late 4th-early
3rd centuries B.C.
Late V cent. B.C. 6 8EivarTo'Hqaicr]
rol &vaOKEv
Late IV-early III cent. B.C. rT]av 8Ea[tv
The proposed restorationis not the only
possibleone, but comparethe roof tile (Agora G 14 (P 16236). P1.31. Rim fragment of West
inv. no. A 891) with a painted dedicationto Slopekantharos.Graffitoon outsidebelowrim.
Hephaistos which was found about 20 meters Context: 3rd century B.C.(N 21:4).
away (Hesperia,VIII, 1939,pp. 214-215). III cent. B.C. piMAi
G 8 (P 19694).PI. 30. Rim and wall fragmentof G 15
lebesgamikosstandwithred-figured decoration. (P 18340).PI.31. Fragmentfrom rim and
Graffitoon outsidebelow rim. upperbody of West Slope kantharos.Graffito
below Context: 3rd B.C.
ivy garland. century
Early IV cent. B.C. 'iXuv i[ III cent. B.C. TrTi KaOKo8Otaiov
Dependingon the case restoredthis may be Perhapshortatorysubjunctive:"let the evil-
eithera dedicationor a "toast." spiritedone drink."This requiresthat the iota
have been omitted, but it is easier than as-
G9 (P 7360). PI.30. Fragmentaryblack-glazed suming a second person singular imperative
kantharosof a type found in the latterpart of (ris) with the adjectivein the vocativecase. An
the 4th century B.C., approximately like Hes-
attempthas been made to erase some of the
peria, III, 1934, p. 320, fig. 5, A 27, A 28. letters.
Graffitoon upper part of body; apparentlyit
ran all aroundthe vase, passingunderexisting G 16 (L 3918). P1.31. Black-glazedlamp
handleand probablystartingand endingat the Howland, no. 626, Type 48A). Graffito on
handle not preserved.Context: late 4th-early eitherside of nozzleand body.
3rd centuries B.C.(E 3:1).
Late III-II cent. B.C. ispos 'ApTErli8os
Late IV cent. B.C.
AtovWiaou
Ati6SXcoT[fpos
It is not possibleto say in whichof the many
pin]Xas sanctuariesof Artemisthis lamp was dedicated.
'AyaeoOA]afliov[os]
'A[y]aefisT<X[ril Its findingplace (some 75 meterssouth of the
G 10 (P 22483). P1.30. Rim fragmentof black- Tholos) might indicate Artemis Boulaia (in
glazed kantharos,similarto G 9. Graffitoon the Tholos precinct:Hesperia,Suppl.IV, pp.
upperpart of body, startingto right of handle 139ff.), but the sanctuaryof Eukleia(thought
and ending behind handle. Context: late 4th by someto be ArtemisEukleia)was also in this
century B.C. generalpart of town (Judeich,Topographie von
Athen,2nd ed., Munich, 1931, p. 399). It is to
Late IV cent. B.C. be noted that G 21, dedicatedto Dionysos and
Ai[ovwo'ou Kal 'AqpoSirqs i]spas Artemis,was found only a few metersto the
CompareG 11. west of the spot wherethe lampwas discovered.
H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS 55

G 17 (P 12664). P1.31. Base fragmentof black- G21 (P 6878). P1.31. Large West Slope krater
glazed bowl of 3rd- to 2nd-centuryB.C. fabric. with figured scene: hunting near sanctuary.
Graffitoon underside. Graffito below painted scene. Context: late
III-II cent. B.C. 'Ayop]a(ouv'Epioui 2nd-early 1st centuries B.C. (D 12:2). Hesperia,
The use of punctuation at this period is VI, 1937, p. 374, fig. 39. Cf. Sparkes-Talcott,
unusual.The findingplace is just south of the p. 24, note 51.
Altar of the Twelve Gods. See Wycherley, Late II-early I cent. B.C.
pp. 102-103 for the ancient testimoniaabout MEvoiAyfs AtovOacoKoa'ApT-p8I
the shrineof HermesAgoraios. CompareG 16.
G18 (P 23205). P1.31. Wall fragmentof West
G22 (P 19179). P1.31. Shoulder fragment of
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Slopeopenvase. Graffitobelowbandof painted small unglazed pot of double conical shape.


checkerboardand crosshatching.Context:3rd-
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

2nd centuries B.C. Graffitoabove angle at shoulder,going around


III-II cent. B.C. ]as
pot. Context:latestHellenistic(D 17:11).
'ApTr4[lt8t
I cent. B.C. ]Eupa Aiov[oCrcp
The ending is presumablythat of the dedi-
cator'sname. Found in the same general area as G 16
and G 21, perhaps pointing to a shrine of
G 19 (P 605). P1.31. Hemisphericalred-glazed
bowl (= Hesperia, III, 1934, p. 371, D 14). Dionysos and Artemisjust off the southwest
cornerof the Agora.
Graffito on outside wall. Context: mid-2nd
century B.C.(H 16:4). G 23 (P 17585). P1.31. Shoulderfragmentfrom
Mid-II cent. B.C. ZEUs unglazedround-bodiedpot. Graffitoon outside.
G20 (P21454). P1.31. Wall fragment of West Context:secondhalf 1st century(B 20:1).
Slopekantharos.Graffitooutside. Secondhalf I cent. 'A]&eva
II-I cent. B.C. iEpov[

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

This groupis dividedinto five sub-groups,of which the first four includevesselswith only one nota-
tion of this sort:capacity(Ha), tare(Hb),date(Hc) andcontents(Hd).Thefifthsub-group(He) includes
vesselswhichcombinetwo or more of thesenotations.In orderto facilitatecomparisonamonginscrip-
tions of one kind,referencesaregivenin the firstfour sub-groups'introductionsto relatednotationsnot
only in He but also in any othercategorylike that of Tax Notations(I).
Dimensionsare includedonly when the vessel preserveseither diameteror height, since no other
measurementsare meaningful.Weightand capacityare noted whererelevantand available.In giving
modern equivalents of ancient weights and measures it has seemed right to use the time-honored and
generally accepted figures like 0.546 1. for the xestes (sextarius) and 327 gm. for the litra (libra), since
variations from these, although developed with much subtlety,are far smaller than the variations imma-
nent in the ancient standardsof capacity and weight as exemplifiedin these common vessels of clay.

INTRODUCTIONTO NOTATIONSOF CAPACITY(Ha)


Notationsof capacityhereincludenot only those whichshow both a unit of capacityand a number
but also those with only a number where the size of the vessel makes that number significantin terms of
some obvious unit. Generally speaking, the notations of capacity may refer either to the amount which
was in the jar at a particulartime or to what it could hold. It is not thereforeright to deduce the size of a
unit by dividingthe measuredcapacityof a vesselby the numbermarkedon it, sincethe notationmay
have beenmadeto recordeithera knownamountbeingpouredin (withoutfillingthe jar) or whatwas
left aftera knownamountwas decantedfroman understoodoriginaltotal.Therefore,onlyif at leasttwo
56 H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

jars (preferablymore) seem to requirea certainsize xestes, for example,will it be right to assumea
differentstandard;otherwise,it is morelikelythatthe notationrefersto somethingless thanfull capacity.
Not includedhere are the followingcategories:(1) many vessels, mostly from the Greek period,
alreadypublishedin Hesperia,XXV, 1956,pp. 1-24; (2) manyvesselswhich show inscriptionssimilar
to the ones presentedhere but which are not measurableand so can add nothing; (3) many vessels which
are include in otherclassesbecauseof othernotations(F 198; Hd 6, Hd 10; He 1-11, He 13, He 14,
He 16, He,17 HeHe, He2, 26, He 29, He 30, He 32-37, He39-44; 5, 10, 12, 18, I 21, 23,
22,
I 24, I 26, I 32). These last are included in the present discussion. For other possible notations of capa-
city, see Hd 1, Hd 5, Hd 15 andHd 16 for singleletterswhichmayindicateeitherquantityor quality.
Except where noted, the capacity was measured to the rim and so is excessive, at least in pots where
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

restoration with modern plaster has not thickened the walls. The rim provides the only consistent upper
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

limitfor fillingsincenecksare of variouslengthsand the transitionfrom shoulderto neckis oftenhard


to define. What may have been the upper limit for filling in the ancient measurementscan occasionally be
determined:in Ha 9 the capacityto the rim is 2.150 1.; the sevenand one-halfkotylesmarkedthereon
should be 2.047 1. or about 95% of the up-to-rim capacity. It would however be too much to expect
consistency from the various measurersover the centuries representedhere.
In the Greek period, that is, before Christ, numbers may be expressed by simple tallying strokes
(Ha 3-7, Ha 11), or by acrophonicnumeralsin the 5th and 4th centuries(Ha 5, Ha 6, Ha 9; He 1-3)
and by alphabeticnumeralsboth in the 5th century(Ha 7) and later(F 198; Ha 14; He 4). Wherechous
and kotyle are counted as units (also staters and mnas), their initial letter is used instead of the simple
strokein acrophonicnumerals(Ha 6, Ha 7, Ha 9; He 1, He 3); similarlyboth 'nliovand es arerecorded
acrophonically( 6, Ha 7, Ha 9, Ha 10; He 2).
Chous is abbreviatedas X (F 198; Ha 2, Ha 6, Ha 10; He 1, He 2) or o( ) (Ha 14), or it is
writtenout as Xos(Ha 8), Xoi<s>(Ha 25) or xo6s (Ha 31). Kotyle is abbreviatedas K (F 198; Ha 7,
Ha 9, Ha 10, Ha 35; He 1) or KO( ) (Ha 29, Ha 40; He 17); other words used for the same unit
may be pE(Tpa)(Ha 19) and Trav(Tava)(He 21). Both units (kotyle and chous) continue to be used
occasionallyin the Romanperiod;on the otherhand, the Romanmodiusbeginsto appearin the 1st
centuryB. C. (He 4). Capacityis also measuredby the mna-weightof the contents(He 3; see also He 5
for mna-weight in the Roman period).
The vessels of the Greek period, largely fragmentary,provide only scanty evidence for the size of the
chousand kotyle,but whatthereis can be reconciledwith the standardkotyleof 0.273 1. and chousof
3.276 1. (F 198; Ha 9), even the "new chous" of Ha 2, whichis only slightlyundersizeand is more
likelyto be a joke than an officialstandard.
In the Romanperiod,exceptfor some tallying(He 16, He 17, He 33),numbersare mostlyalphabetic
(Ha 18, Ha 19, Ha 21, Ha 22, Ha 24-26, Ha 29-31, Ha 33-52, Ha 54-56; He 5-11, He 13, He 14,
He 17, He 21, He 22, He 25, He 26, He 29, He 30, He 32, He 33, He 35-37, He 39, He 42-44; 1 5, I 10,
I 12, I 18, 1 21, I 23, I 26, I 32) with < or c as one-halfand 8" as one-quarter.A few Romannumerals
are also used(He 19, He 20, He 41).
The most frequent unit of capacity in this period is the xestes, which appears both written out in full
(Ha 17, Ha 20, Ha 23, Ha 28) and abbreviatedin variousways:
| (Ha 30, Ha 56)
(Ha37; He36, He44; I5,1I26; K 13)
X (Ha 38, Ha 43, Ha 45, Ha 46, Ha 48, Ha 50-52; He 41; 1 18, I 21, I 23, 45)
Xestes is defined as a sixth (sextarius) of the Roman chous (congius) and thus the equivalent of two
kotylesor heminai.2The standardxestesof the firsttwo centuriesof our era seemsto havebeen0.546 1.3
1
Compare Metrolog. Script., II, xxx.
2
'Hpiva, the alternate word for kotyle in this period, appears only once (Ha 54).
3 Called Roman or Italic in Metrolog.Script.,I, 208. Such a xestes of wine weighed20 ounces (546 gm.).
H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS 57

or twice the old standard kotyle of 0.273 1.: Ha 21, Ha 22. In the third and following centuriesthe most
frequent xestes is one which is larger by one-third, i. e., 0.728 1.: Ha 23, Ha 24, Ha 27, Ha 30, Ha 32,
Ha 34, Ha 45, Ha 50; He 30; I 18. Thisis presumablythe xestesknownas the Hellenicoil xestes(Metro-
log. Script.,I, 208, 213; calledAlexandrine,I, 264) whichhad 24 ouncesor two litrai(654gm.).As long
as wineis beingmeasured,two litrairequirea capacityof 0.654 1., whichis largerthanthe old xestesby
only one-fifth.But sincethe weightof oil is only 9/10 that of wine or water,the new 6/5 wine xestesof
0.654 1. had to be multipliedby 1019to get an oil xestesweighingtwo litrai,whichin capacityhad to be
4/3 theoriginal0.546 1., thatis, 0.7281. Wemayimaginethatthe old winexestesmayhavebeenincreased
by one-fifthfor the sakeof easyconversionto litrai(1 xestes=2 litrai),butit is interestingthatthe number
of our vessels which seem to employ a xestes of 0.654 1. (Ha 47, Ha 52)4 are far fewer than the vessels
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

basedon its companionoil xestes whichweighedthe samebut was 1/9largerin capacity(Ha 23, Ha 24,
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

Ha 27, Ha 30, Ha 32, Ha 34, Ha 45, Ha 50; He 30; 18).


Furthermore, the smaller standard xestes (0.546 1.) seems to continue in use (Ha 44, Ha 45, Ha 48;
He 36, He 39, He 41; 1 5) in the 4th, 5th and 6th centuries.Onejar (Ha 45) even seemsto providea
double standard,giving the number of both the 0.546 1. xestai (24 1/2) and that of the 0.728 1. xestai (19).
The apparentlycontemporaneous use of all three xestai is complicated by the fact that the one which the
metrologicalwritersspecificallylabelan oil xestesis the veryone whichourpot-notationsdesignateas a
wine-measure: not only does the jug (Ha 27) labeled olvnpos8iKoaoshold 0.728 l., but also He 30 holds
18suchxestaiof something"honeyed"whichis almostcertainlywine.Thusthe applicationanddefinition
of standardsseemto be in confusion,but we must rememberhow very scantyour evidenceis and how
large a role chance plays in what has survived.There may have been well-understoodconventions
about the use of differentxestai for differentcommoditiesor in differentkinds of tradingat different
times.And in additionwe are at the mercyof any sharpoperatorwho wishedto cheator any wag who
wishedto fool his neighborby labelinghis oil-measureas a wine-measure.
Thisbringsus to the threevesselswhichappearto be basedon still otherstandardxestai.In the case
of Ha 28, which is labeled O-Trrs 8iKcaos,are we to take the word of some ancientscribblerwhose
motivesareunknownand solemnlyassumea still largerxestes,becauseits measuredcapacityis 0.890 1.?
Orcan we say thathereis a cunningcustomerwho likedto takehis ownjug to the shopsand set his own
standards?Luckily,we have some other evidence:one kotyle is defined(Metrolog.Script.,I, 236) as
being three-fourthsof a standardxestes or 0.409 1.; if anotherxestes was based on such an outsize
kotyle,it wouldbe 0.818 1. andfit reasonablyinto Ha 28. A sextariusof 2/2 litraior 30 ounces(0.8181.)
is also mentionedby one of the Romanwriters(Metrolog.Script.,II, 128).Also, only if the 15 xestaiof
1 21 wereof this size (15x0.818 1. = 12.2701.) wouldtheyfit the measuredcapacityof 12.7501. No one
of these bits of evidenceis particularlyconvincingby itself, but it may be that all togetherallow us to
presumea xestesof 0.818 1. Still one otherxestes,basedon the 71/2ouncekotyle(Metrolog.Script.,I,
216, 235) is 0.409 1. (2 x 712x 27.3 gm. = 0.409 1.) or one-halfof the 0.818 1. xestes.This seemsto be
exemplifiedin Ha 43, which is markedas holding 27/2 (xestai);its measuredcapacityis 11.500 1.,
while27/2 x 0.409 1. = 11.2471. CompareHa 35, whichmayuse this same7'/2 ouncekotyle.
The next most frequentmeasureused in our capacitynotationsof the Romanperiodis the modius,
alwaysabbreviatedto the firsttwo letters(Ha 16, Ha 44, Ha 53; He 4, He 8-11; I 24). Onlyfour of the
nine vessels thus markedare sufficientlypreservedto providemeasurablecapacities,but these give
evidenceof two differentmodii. The firstis the regularRomanequivalentof the Greekhekteus(8 choi-
nikes or 32 kotyles)whichis defined(Metrolog.Script.,I, 203, 205, 258) as both 16 sextariiand one-
thirdof a Romancubicfoot, i. e., 8.736 1.; the vesselsbasedon this modiusareHa 53 (witha measured
capacityof 9.250 1.) and He 8-11, all of which are labeledas holdingthreemodii (that is, one cubic
4 Actually these two vessels could be interpretedas based on the 0.728 1. xestes since the measured
capacity is in both casesless
than 6% under the capacitycalculatedwith the largerunit. But since it is difficultto explain the oil xestes except throughthe wine
xestes, it seems reasonableto see the wine xestes exemplifiedwhereit fits more easily than does the oil xestes.
58 H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

foot) and arecloselysimilarin size and shape;the one measurableone (He 10) is 27.3201. or just about
4% over the calculated3 x 8.736 1. = 26.208 1.
The secondmodiusis the Cypriotemodius,whichis said (Metrolog.Script.,I, 261, 272)to contain17
and a fractionxestai.Thatthe fractionmaybe morecloselydefinedas two-thirdsis shownby one of our
vessels(Ha 44)whichis labeledboth io6(5tos) andiL'p";its measuredcapacityis 9.8001. or less than1%
over the calculated 172/3x 0.546 1. = 9.646 1. Ha 16 has only the modius label, but its capacity of
10.2001. suggeststhat it too is Cypriote.Two otherfragmentsof jars similarin fabricto Ha 44 are also
markedas containing17213 xestai(Ha 36, Ha 42). He 39, also similarin fabric, is marked171/2 and has
a capacityof 9.800 1. Thatthesejars weremadein Cypruson a local standardseemslikely; sincethey
wereto be exported,for example,to Athens,theyweremarkedwiththeirequivalenton a moregenerally
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

acceptedstandard.We may assumethat in the Cypriotemetrologicalsystemthe xesteswas 1/16of the


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modius(9.646 1.) or 0.603 1., that is, about 1/10greaterthan the normalxestes.
It will be noted that both the regularmodiusand the Cypriotemodiuswere based on the 0.546 1.
xestes. It is likely thereforethat Ha 50 with its inscriptionof 171/2(xestai)and capacityof 12.930 1.
(17/2 x 0.728 1. = 12.740 1.) is not a Cypriote modius, especially since the fabric is differentfrom that
of Ha 36, Ha 42, Ha 44 and He 39.
Otherpossiblemeasuresalso are noted on our vessels.Stamnos,variouslyabbreviated,appearson
threejars (Ha54; He 14, He 39), only the last of whichhas a measurablecapacity(9.800 1.); but since
this same vesselis marked171/2and is like the Cypriotemodii noted above in fabricit only confuses
themetrologicalvalueof the stamnos,whichis elsewheredefinedbothas ten andas fourxestai(Metrolog.
Script.,I, 277; II, 102).A possibleknidionis exemplifiedby Ha 15 witha measuredcapacityof 8.400 1.,
but for the other threemeasure-names which appearon these vesselsthere is no evidenceas to the
vessels'capacity:keramion(Ha 18, Ha 56); hydria(Ha 18); medimnos(Ha 55).
The capacity of a vessel was often defined not by the number of standard units it could hold but by
the net weightof the particularcontents.Thatthis practicewas fairlygeneralmay be assumedfromthe
careful way in which the metrological writers (passim) defined the comparative weights of wine (or
water),oil and honey:i.e., the 0.546 1. xestesof wine weighs20 Romanounceswhilethe sameamount
of oil weighs 18 Roman ounces, and the same amount of honey weighs 27 Roman ounces. Thus the
weight of oil is to that of wine as 9:10, and the weight of honey is to that of wine as 13'/2:10. Net weight
is noted on ten of our vessels,twice(He 22; I 32) with an abbreviationof KacSapos,6 presumablyin the
sense of net weight, just as ocrrpaKouindicates the weight of the vessel or tare. Of the other eight, four
indicate the nature of the contents: oil in He 7; honey in He 29, He 33 and He 34. Two of the remaining
four (He 26, He 40) give tare weightin additionto net weight,but in the case of the last two (Ha 26;
He 32) thereis no indicationof whatthe weightrefersto, althoughit is fairlyeasy to guessby hefting
the jar or measuringits capacity.For example,Ha 26 is markedsimply"eightlitrai";6 8 x 327 gm. =
2.616kg. or 2.6161. of wineor water,whichis the measuredcapacityof thejug if the remnantof modern
plasterleft from restorationis discounted.He 32 is marked"ninelitrai"; 9 x 327 gm. = 2.943 kg. or
2.943 1. of wine or water; but because the jar's capacity is ca. 3.300 1. it seems clear that the contents
is oil: 10/9 x 2.943 1. = 3.270 1.7 Thus, in He 7 where the contents is specifiedas 20 litraiand 5 ounces of
oil, the calculatedweightis 20 5/12 x 327gm. = 6.676kg.; to get oil capacitytheformulais 10/9x 6.676 =
7.420 1., which compares neatly with the measured capacity of the vessel (7.400 1.). For further dis-
cussion of net weight, particularlyin connection with honey pots, see the introduction to Tare Notations
below.

6 KOSXapo is writtenin full on Hd 10, which was includedin the Notations of Contentscategoryas a descriptionof the contents,
althoughit is obvious that the litrai which follow give the weight of those contents or net weight.
6 Litrais the Greek form of libra or
pound; the weight is 327 gm. or twelve Roman ounces.
7
CompareHd 6, whichis includedin the Contentscategorybecauseits net weightindicatesthe natureof the contents.
H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS 59

Ha 1 (P 8842). P1.32. Small black-glazedolpe Ha 5 (P 27517). P1.32. Neck and handles of


of late 6th- and early 5th-centuryB.C. type. Chian (?) amphora. Graffito and dipinto on
Graffitoon shoulder.Context:ca. 520-490B.C. one side, with latter spreadingbeyond handle.
(E 14: 5). Cf. Sparkes-Talcott,p. 78, note 12. Contextas of Ha 3.
H. 0.105 m.; D. 0.059 m. Late V cent. B.C. (graffito) r1Tv(-rT) 1111
Early V cent. B.C. Brl-rTpto (dipinto) .ArF
For the eta-epsilon combination compare The graffitoseems to be tally strokes with
I.G., I2, 623, 710; Lejeune,Revue des etudes summation(5) of what the ownerhad poured
anciennes,LI, 1949, pp. llf. For a similar in or out, althoughit is conceivablethat, after
graffito,see ClaraRhodos,III, 1929,111. a five-unitmeasurehad been poured in and
The capacity of the jug is 0.110 1. As the recordedas such, five additionalsingle units
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

inscription suggests, this is not a measure were counted. In the dipinto a fragment of
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

(urTpov),but a middle-sizedvessel (irplov). some sign precedesthe numeral,which may


The well depositin whichit was found contains well give the price of the amphora with its
many examplesof olpes whichmay be roughly original contents of seven or eight choes.
dividedinto three sizes, of whichthis is indeed Compare the seven-chousChian jar costing
the middle. There is a possibility, however, 14 drachmas(He 3 below).
that it is the contents that are designatedas Ha 6
"medium" rather than strong or weak, or (P 27525). PI. 32. Fragmentaryupper part
of Mendean (?) amphora. Graffiti on upper
heavilyseasonedor unseasoned. shoulder,both sides (a and b). Context as of
Ha2 (P21553). P1.32. Black-glazedoinochoe Ha 3.
with trefoil mouth. Graffitoon neck. Context: LateV cent. B.C. (a) 1!!iilil
thirdto fourthquarter5th centuryB.C. (P 8:2). (b) rXXXH
H. 0.24 m.; D. 0.175 m. AE
Fourth quarter V cent. B.C. Kaivi X(ous) The tally strokes of (a) are presumably
The capacity of the oinochoe filled to the recordedformallyin (b), with the additionof a
rim is 3.200 1., somewhatless than the standard final half-chous: -Tr(v'rE)X(6Es)X(oC0)X(oiS)
chous of 3.276 1. So the chous it could reason- X(o0s) i(liaov).This looks like a permanent
ably hold while being carried might not be recordof the jar's capacity(eight and one-half
more than 3.100 1. and so might have been choes), made probably by the owner, whose
"new"-whether in all metrologicalseriousness name may be abbreviatedin the two letters
or as a cynicaljoke; see Agora,X, p. 48. scratchedbelow:AE( ) or r( ).
Ha 3 (P 27513). P1.32. Neck and shoulder of Ha 7 (P 26070).P1.32. Amphorahandle.Graffito
Chian amphora. Graffito on neck. Context: on outerface, fromtop down.
fourth quarter5th centuryB.C. (S 16:1). V cent. B.C. ]II1111IIE KK
Late V cent. B.C. 1111 The seven strokeswith summationby means
Four tally strokespresumablycountedmeas- of the letter zeta (7) representthe numberof
ures as they were poured in. Since Chian choes which the jar would hold. The fractions
of an eighthchousarerepresented by epsilonfor
amphoras ordinarily held more than four two for two
choes, this might not be a permanentrecord aivauand kappas kotyles.For the
of total capacitybut a temporarynote about use of epsilon for aspirated compareC 8.
eta
a smallerquantityput in (or takenout). For similar capacityinscriptionswith tallying,
see Hesperia,XXV, 1956,p. 5.
Ha 4 (P 27515).P1.32. Neck of Chian(?)amphora.
Graffiti on side: (a) vertical; (b) horizontal. Ha 8 (P 26181). P1.32. Fragmentfrom neck and
Contextas of Ha 3. rim of partly glazed chous of late 5th-century
B.C. type. Graffito on neck.
LateV cent.B.C. (a) 111 = 11(irregularly
arranged) Late V cent. B.C. X6s
(b) 1111111
Thesemay be two stagesof tallying,the one Note the three-barredsigma and omicron
for contractedomicron-upsilon.
(a) rough and casual as choes (?) were poured
in, the other (b) a neat permanentrecord.Both Ha 9 (P 18609). P1.32. Small plain amphora
add up to the seven choes to be expected;see with ring foot and ovoid body (= Sparkes-
Ha 5. Talcott, no. 1463). Graffitoon neck. Context:
60 H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

firsthalf 4th centuryB.C. (C 19:5). H. 0.222m.; be used to catch all the water. Comparethe
D. 0.16 m. Hesperia,XXV, 1956, p. 11, no. 47, klepsydrawhich is markedX X for two choes
pls. 2, 6. (Hesperia,VIII, 1939,pp. 274ff.).
Firsthalf IV cent. B.C. F KKH Ha 14 (P 25474).PI. 33. Fragmentfrom neck and
The presentcapacityto the rim is 2.150 1. shoulder of amphora. Graffito on shoulder.
Seven and one-half kotyles, 1rr(?VT)K(o-raai) Hellenistic x6(s) P'
K( ) K( ) tl(plaov),of 0.273 1. wouldbe 2.047 1.
or about 95% of the capacityto the rim. We Ha 15 (P 16723). PI. 33. Amphorawith profiled
may wish to use this percentageelsewhereto mouth and deep ovoid body. Dipinto in black
give us the proportionof our up-to-rimcap- on shoulder.Context:early1stcentury(N 21:1).
acitythat was used by the originalmeasurers. H. 0.465 m.; D. 0.24 m.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Ha 10 (P 24760). PI. 32. Neck of amphora of EarlyI cent. Kv<i>81(ov)


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

Mendean type. Graffiti on neck (a) and on The readingis doubtful.The capacityof the
opposite shoulder (b). Context: third quarter jar is 8.400 1., which is very nearlya modius
4th century B.C.(O 16:4). (8.7361.). The knidionwas knownas a measure
but the only indicationof its size (P. Oxy., XV,
Third quarterIV cent. B.C. (a) TI0
1896, 22; 1951) suggests that it held eight
(b) XXHK[ xestai (4.368 1.) or half a modius. Perhapsa
(a) may be a number:89; (b) may be read: betafor "two"has disappeared.
x(o0s)x(o0s) (viov)K(OT0*X). Ha 16 (P 14117). P1.33. Wide-neckedamphora
Ha 11 (P 25742). P1.32. Neck of large amphora of Ist-centurytype. Dipinto, in red, on neck.
of Naxian type (?). Graffitoon neck. Context: Context: second half 1st century (0 17:1).
third quarter4th century B.C.(A 16:1). PH. 0.62 m.; D. 0.27m.
Third quarter IV cent. B.C. M 11= Secondhalf I cent. o ( ) / ]lriil
Since vertical and horizontal strokes may The capacityof the jar is 10.2001., presum-
represent different units of capacity (cf. Hes- ably a Cypriotemodius;see above, p. 58. The
or
peria,XXV, 1956,pp. 4-6) differentiate as in second line may give the producer'sname or
Mycenaeancounting between tens and units, the contentsin abbreviatedform; easiestwould
severalinterpretations arepossible,e.g.: be f]mrip(viov), i.e., monthly (ration or offering).
p(rTpa):2 large,2 small; See three other jars of this same shape with
1 I(ETrpirls),2 (x6&),2(KorTAa); chi-rhoand phi dipinti(L 28).
ji(vaT)22 (as eithernet weightor tare).
Ha 17 (P 11258). PI.33. Fragmentaryround-
Ha 12 (P 27367). PI.32. Upper part of black- bodied jug, similar to Robinson, Chronology,
glazed oinochoe handle of 4th-centuryB.C. G 182. Graffitoon lower body, upside down
fabric.Graffitoon outerpart of top. to pot. Context: second half 1st century
IV cent. B.C. irTpi(ov) (B 14:3).
CompareHa 1. Secondhalf I cent. <(>tor[rls
8fK[maos
Ha 13 (P 20903). PI. 32. Fragmentfrom profiled Note zeta-formof xi. For restorationcom-
foot of a large open bowl. Dipinto underfoot.
Context:down to 200 B.C. (Q 8-9). pare Ha 28. The jug is too fragmentaryto be
measured.
III cent. B.C. TrTp]oX)(OVV
Ha 18 (P 19491).P1.33. Fragmentfrom shoulder
There is no way of judging the capacityof of large amphorawith inset neck. Dipinti in
the bowl from the foot, but the restoration red on shoulder.
above seems most likely. Since the fragment
was found in a layer over the floor of the I cent. a) ]~
SquarePeristyle,which presumablycontinued b) vSpiati p' f4(itav) i.e., 45? hydrias
the law-courtfunction of its predecessor,it is [
KEp&Wia ? keramia
likely that the bowl was used to receive the It is likely that the inscriptionrecordsthe
waterfroma klepsydra.So thattherewouldnot amountof a whole shipment,of whichthis jar
be wastage or mess, bowls whose capacity was one, sincethe hydriais reported(Metrolog.
could not alwaysbe known at a glancewould Script.,I, 323) to be half an Attic metretesor
be markedso that a large enough one would six choes (i.e., 19.6561.). The keramion,which
H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS 61
is the Romanamphoraof eightchoes(26.6161.), xestes of this size, we must presumea change
must here be used as an alternate(or trans- in standard;see above,p. 57.
lated) summation. The number of keramia Ha 24
should then have been somethingover 34. (P 9919).PI. 33. Smallamphora,Robinson,
Chronology,M 123. Faint dipinto,in black, on
Ha 19 (P 12458).P1.33. Amphorawith cylindrical neck. Context: early 3rd century (M 17:1).
neck and cone-shapedbody. Dipinto, in red, H. 0.336 m.; D. 0.187 m.
on shoulder.Context: late lst-early 2nd cen- EarlyIII cent. s'
turies(N 20:5). PH. 0.48 m.; D. 0.253m.
The capacityof the amphorais 4.350 1. Six
Late I-early II cent. Aa'
(-r(Tpa) xestaiof 0.728 1. (see Ha 23) make4.368 1.
The capacity of the jar, which lacks upper
neck and mouth, is 8.000 1. Thirty-onekotyles Ha 25 (P 14917).P1.33. High-neckedjug, similar
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

of 0.273 1. would be 8.463 1. Evidencefor the to Robinson, Chronology,M 120. Graffitoon


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use of metronas kotyle is not known to me. neck. Context: mid-3rd century (N 17:1). H.
This jar may have been intendedas a modius 0.336m.; D. 0.24 m.
(32 kotyles)and was markedto show its vari- Mid-IIIcent. @'xoO8h<si.e., Xo5(S)8(K<ai>(os)
ation fromthe standard. The capacity of the jug is 6.400 1., almost
Ha 20 (P 17130). P1.33. Fragment from the twice the old standardchous of 3.276 1.
shoulderof an amphora.Dipinto, in black, on Ha 26 (P 9902).P1.33. Round-mouthed jug, Rob-
shoulder.Context:early 2nd century(B 20:1). inson, Chronology,M 169. Dipinti, in black,
EarlyII cent. eo-ras[ on neck (a) and underfoot (b). Context:mid-
The numberof xestai is not preserved,nor is 3rd century (M 17:1). H. 0.256 m.; D. 0.171 m.
it clearwhy the formis accusative. Mid-III cent. (a) Ai(rpat) rl'
Ha 21 (P 19400).P1.33. Amphorawith cylindrical (b) A(Trpai) n'
body, similarto Robinson, Chronology,G 197. The capacityof the jug is 2.500 1. (i.e., 2.500
Dipinto, in black, on neck. Context: early kg. of wine or water). Eight Roman pounds
2nd century (E 17:1). H. 0.445m.; D. 0.26 m. (litrai)of 327 gm. would be 2.616 kg. Some of
the plaster with which the jug was restored
EarlyII cent. K'< was not smoothedaway on the inside and so
The capacityof the jar is 11.070 1. Twenty accountsfor the discrepancyof 116 gm. (From
andone-halfxestaiof 0.546 1. wouldbe 11.1931. the same context there is another similarjug
Some plaster remaining inside from recon- [Robinson,Chronology,M 170] with the same
structionexplainsthe scantnessof the present dipintounderthe foot.)
capacity.
Ha 27 (P 928). P1.33. Small wheel-ridgedjug of
Ha 22 (P 15682).P1.33. Wide-neckedsmall am- mid-3rdcenturytype, like Robinson,Chronol-
phora,similarto Robinson,Chronology, M 77. ogy, M 151. Graffito on shoulder. Context:
Dipinti, in black, on either side of neck. Con- mid-3rdcentury(I 16:1). H. 0.15 m.; D. 0.12 m.
text:secondhalf2ndcentury(S 21:3). H. 0.23m.;
D. 0.17 m. Mid-IIIcent. o[l]vrlp6s 5iKaio[s] i.e., honest
wine-measure
Secondhalf II cent.
(a) 8'< The capacityof the jug is 0.760 1. Oivrpos6,
(b) (illegible) as an adjective,requiresthat a masculinenoun
The capacityof the jar is 2.500 1. Four and be understood.The inscriptionand compar-
one-halfxestaiof 0.546 1. amountto 2.457 1. able shapeand capacityof Ha 23 make it clear
Ha 23 (P 7860).P1.33. High-necked,round-bodied that the wordto be suppliedhereis xestes. For
jug on small ring foot. Graffitoon shoulder. a xestes of this size see p. 57. Note also that
Context:late 2nd-early3rd centuries(D 12:1). the labeling of this vessel as a wine-measure
H. 0.155 m.; D. 0.125 m. might suggest that it would otherwise be
Late II-earlyIII cent. E<Wa>xs thought of as somethingelse; see above,p. 57.
The capacity of the jug is 0.760 1. This is Ha 28 (P 17499).P1.34. Round-bodied jug, similar
largerby some0.200 1. thanthe regular0.546 1. to Robinson, Chronology, M 150. Graffito on
xestes, perhaps representingan increase by shoulder. Context: mid-3rd century (J 18:1).
one-third(from 0.546 1. to 0.728 1., which is H. 0.145 m.; D. 0.132 m. Illustratedin Hesperia,
approximately95 % of the up-to-rimcapacity). XVII, 1948,p. 191,pl. LXIX, 2.
Since severallater inscribedjars also requirea Mid-IIIcent. {orrnsBSKOaOS
62 H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

The capacityof thejug is 0.890 1. to the rim. text: 4th century (C 13:2). H.0.54m.; D.
To explain a xestes so large both absolutely 0.357 m.
and relativelyto the old standardof 0.546 1. IV cent. As' i.e., 35 (xestai)
and to the preservedcontemporaryexamples
holding 0.760 1. (Ha 23, Ha 27) requires The capacityof the jar is 27.040 1. The most
invoking the so-called "georgic" standardof likely xestes will be that of 0.728 1., giving a
Metrolog. Script., I, 236 to authorize a xestes total of 25.480 1., but it is also possiblethat the
of
that is twicethe kotyle that is three-quarters dipinto does not recordthe total capacitybut
the regular xestes: 2x3/4 (0.546) is 0.818 1. merely the amount that was currentlyinside.
See above,p. 57. In this lattercasethe xestescouldbe smaller.

Ha 29 (P 4914). P1.34. Fragmentfrom rim and Ha 35 (P638). P1.34. Small gouged jug like
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

neck of a closed pot. Graffitoon neck. Found Robinson, Chronology, M 293. Graffito on
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

in a layerof the 3rd century. neck. H. 0.175m.; D. 0.125m.


III cent. Ko(rXaat)Alr'< i.e., 38/2 kotyles EarlyV cent. K5[ i.e., K(oTXAai) 8'
The capacityof the jug is ca. 0.800 1., sug-
Ha 30 (P 17867). P1.34. Micaceouspointed jug
similarto Robinson,Chronology,M 240. Graf- gesting the 71 ounce kotyle (0.204 1.) of
fito on shoulder.Context:3rdcentury(M 20:2). Metrolog. Script., I, 235. The dipinto may,
however, be a single number(i.e., 24) with a
PH. 0.44 m.; D. 0.20 m. For example,
varietyof possibleinterpretations.
III cent. F(orrai) r'T 24 weightounces(24x27.3 gm. is 0.655 kg.) of
Filled to the mouth, the jug holds 6.300 1. oil would requirea capacityof 10/9 the same
Eight xestai of 0.728 1. would be 5.824 1. and weight of wine, or 0.728 1.
leave a reasonablemarginfor air and a stopper.
Ha 36 (P 5671). P1.34. Shoulderfragmentfrom
Ha 31 (P 9672). P1.34. Fragmentfrom neck and wheel-ridgedamphoraof same type as Robin-
shoulderof a smallamphora.Dipinto,in black, son, Chronology,M 333. Dipinto, in red.
on shoulder.Context: late 3rd-early 5th cen- Late V cent. qppcoil'1" "I carry 17%" (xestai)
turies(N 18:5).
Apparentlya Cypriote modius. Cf. Ha 44
Late III-earlyIV cent. X6ess' i.e., 6- choes and above, p. 58. Beta with a stroke is the
Ha 32 (P 10556).P1.34. Wheel-ridged regularsymbol for the fraction 2/3 (Metrolog.
jug, similar Script., I, 174).
to Robinson, Chronology,M 219. Graffitoon
neck.Context:firsthalf of 4th century(B 14:4). Ha 37 (P 8050). P1.34. Fragmentfrom shoulder
H. 0.16 m.; D. 0.112 m. of largeamphora.Graffitonear handle.Found
Firsthalf IV cent. 68fKo[i.e., 8fK<ai>o[sorrias] with coins of late 4th and 5th centuries.
The capacityof the jug is 0.760 1. Cf. Ha 23, V cent. (o-rai) Xa' i.e., 31 xestai
Ha 27.
Ha 38 (P 12010).P1.34. Top of storageamphora,
Ha 33 (P 11579). P1.34. Wheel-ridged,round- similar to Robinson, Chronology,M 302. Di-
bottomed amphora, Robinson, Chronology, pinto, in red, on shoulder.
M 273. Graffito on shoulder. Context: late V cent. (orrai) K8' i.e., 24 xestai
4th century(M 17:1). H. 0.59 m.; D. 0.335m.
Late IV cent. l'< i.e., 372 (xestai) Ha 39 (P 21310).P1.34. Fragmentfromthe shoul-
der of an amphora.Dipinto, in red. Context:
The capacityof the jar is 25.740 1., but some 5th century(P 7:4).
plaster remaininginside from the restoration
probablymakes the difference(less than 6 %) V cent. K9s'<8" i.e., 293/4 (xestai)
between the present measurementand the Thejar may well have been of a size to hold
presumedoriginal 27.300 1. (37%x0.728 1.). so manyxestai.
It shouldbe noted that 37% xestai of this size
are equalto 50 xestaiof the 0.546 1. size, which Ha 40 (P 469).P1.34. Fragmentfromthe shoulder
may explainthe ratherodd numberhere. But of a smalljar of 5th-to 6th-centuryfabric.Red
see above,p. 57. dipinto.
V-VI cent. ]you Ko(r*tXaC) 10'
Ha 34 (P 21840). PI. 34. Cylindricalamphora,
similar to Robinson, Chronology,M 273. Con- i.e., 19 kotylesof [contents]
H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS 63
Ha 41 (P 13150).P1.34. Upper part of amphora, Becauseof its weakstatethisjar couldnot be
similar to Robinson, Chronology,M 328. Di- measured;see Ha 45, whichis slightlylarger.
pinti in red on neck (a) and shoulder(b). Ha 47 (P 11558).PI.35. Storageamphora,Robin-
Context: late 5th to 6th centuries (O 18:1).
son, Chronology,M 327. Dipinto, in red, on
LateV-VI cent. (a) 1S' 3"i.e., 14% (xestai) shoulder.Context:early 6th century(M 17:1).
(b) i8' 3" PH. 0.42 m.; D. 0.262m.
See Ha 36 for the fraction. Early VI cent. ITI' 8' i.e., 183/4
Ha 42 (P 13152).P1.35. Upper part of amphora The jar is preservedonly to the beginningof
of sametype as Ha 41. Dipinti,in red, on neck the neck and has a presentcapacityof about
(a) and shoulder(b). Context:late 5th to 6th 12 liters. Since 183/4 xestai of 0.546 1. are
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

centuries(0 18:1). equivalent to only 10.2381., the unit heremust


be a largerxestes, perhaps0.654 1. (x183/4 =
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Late V-VI cent. (a) tL' 3" i.e., 17% (xestai) 12.2621.). But see above,p. 57.
(b) it' ("
Ha 48 (P 9784). PI.35. Small storage amphora,
Cf. Ha 36, Ha 41. Robinson,Chronology, M 324.Dipinti,in black,
Ha 43 (P 13164). PI. 35. Wheel-ridgedamphora, on shoulder, upside down to the pot. Context:
similar to Robinson, Chronology,M 333. Di- early 6th century (M 17:1). H. 0.38 m.; D.
pinto, in red, on shoulder. Context: late 5th 0.215 m.
to 6thcenturies(O18:1).H. 0.49m.; D. 0.253m. EarlyVI cent. ~(oarat)e'< i.e., 9? xestai
LateV-VI cent. (Eorrat) KL'< i.e., 27/2 xestai The capacityof the jar is 5.150 1. Nine and
The capacityof the jar is 11.500 1. Twenty- one-half xestai of 0.546 1. are 5.187 1. The
seven and one-halfxestai of 0.409 1. would be drawing appears in its orientationto the pot,
11.247 1. Cf. Ha 35, and see above, p. 57. hence upside down.
A graffitoalpha may be interpretedvariously. Ha 49 (P 3044). PI. 36. Fragmentfrom shoulder
of early6th-century jar, like Robinson,Chronol-
Ha 44 (P 13463). P1.35. Wheel-ridgedamphora, ogy, M 328. Dipinto, in red.
similarto Ha 43. Dipinti, in red, on shoulder.
Context: late 5th to 6th centuries (P 19:1). Early VI cent. K8' < 8" i.e., 243/4
H. 0.463 m.; D. 0.235 m. The capacityof similarcompletejars of this
Late V-VI cent. (a) ..] typemakesit clearthatthe numberhererecords
a-rt] the jar's capacityin xestai.
at'p'
(b) IJ6(5ios) Ha 50 (P 12695). P1.36. Wheel-ridgedamphora
The capacity of the jar is 9.800 1., a good similar to Robinson, Chronology,M 328. Di-
Cypriote modius of 17% xestai (172/3x0.546 1.= pinto, in red, on shoulder.Context:early 6th
9.646 1.). Cf. Ha 36, Ha 42. century (O 19:1). H. 0.545m.; D. 0.258m.
Ha 45 (P 26598). PI. 35. Amphora, similar to Early VI cent. (Eo-rai)t' < i.e., 17? xestai
Robinson, Chronology,M 327. Dipinti, in red, The capacityof the jar is 12.9301. Seventeen
on neck (a) and in black, on shoulder (b). and one-halfxestaiof 0.728 1. are 12.7401.
Context: early 6th century (Q 17:7). H. 0.55 m.; Ha 51 (P 12157).P1.36. Fragmentfrom shoulder
D. 0.282m. of a closed pot. Dipinto, in black. Context:
Early VI cent.(a) ~(4orrct)K8'<i.e., 2412 xestai O-Q 18-19.
(b) iO' (faded before drawing) VI cent. ~(korai)K.U i.e., 27 xestai
The capacityis ca. 14 1. The two inscriptions Ha 52
(P 14055). P1.36. Wheel-ridgedamphora,
suggestthat this vessel was used in a time of similar to Ha 43. Dipinto, in red, on shoulder.
double standards:241/2x0.5461. = 13.377 1.; Context: 6th century (Q 18:2). H. 0.51m.;
19x0.728 1. = 13.832 1. D. 0.31 m.
Ha 46 (P 26693). P1.35. Amphora, similar to VI cent. o(-rai) KE' i.e., 25 xestai
Robinson, Chronology,M 327. Dipinto, in The capacityof the jar is 17.580 1. Twenty-
red, on shoulder. Context: early 6th century five xestai of 0.728 1. are 18.2001.; twenty-five
(Q 17:7). H. 0.54 m.; D. 0.282 m. xestaiof 0.654 1. are 16.3501. See above,p. 57.
EarlyVI cent. (chi-rho) (The drawing shows only the faded remnant
(crTrat) Ka' 8" i.e., 21 ? xestai of the original letters.)
64 H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

Ha 53 (P 22512). PI. 36. Fragmentaryamphora, Late Roman orr& (vot) s-' ft(ivat) y'
lackingneck. Dipinto,in black,at base of neck i.e., 6 stamnoi,3 heminai
(a) and below one handle(b). Context:6th-7th The stamnos is variously defined as equal
centuries(Q 17:1). PH. 0.40 m.; D. 0.22 m. to fouror tenxestai(heminai)(Metrolog.Script.,
VI-VII cent. (a) illegible I, 277; II, 102).
(b) v6(b6os)
The capacityof the jar (up to the neck) is Ha 55 (P 9318). P1.36. Fragmentfrom rim of a
9.250 1., so that it mightbe eitherthe ordinary verylargepithos.Graffitoon top of rim.
modius (16 xestai = 8.736 1.) or the Cypriote Late Roman .iE(S6wvot) ta'
modius (172/3 xestai = 9.646 1.). It is not the The abbreviationmightalso be completedas
same clay as the Cypriotemodii above (Ha 36,
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

E(TpTrrai).
Ha 39, Ha 42, Ha 44).
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

Ha 54 (P 5663). PI. 36. Fragmentfrom neck and Ha 56 (P 9322).PI. 36. Fragmentfromthe shoulder
shoulderof largeclosedpot. Graffitoat junction of a very largeamphora.Graffitoon shoulder.
of neckand shoulder. LateRoman K(s)p(&(ata) pY' (orai) 8' <

INTRODUCTIONTO NOTATIONSOF TARE (Hb)


Tare,or the weightof the emptyvessel,is inscribedon pots presumablyfor the sake of determining
quicklyand easilythe net weightof contentsfromthe total weightof the filledjar. Thiswouldbe useful
both at the time of the originalsale and in laterre-useof the jar whenit was takento be refilled.These
two differentuses are perhapsreflectedin the two differentkindsof inscription,the dipintotare being
writtenby the merchantand the graffitomorecasuallyinscribedby the householder.In both casesthe
presenceof the tarenotationmakesit evidentthatthe liquidswhichthejarsheldweresoldby weight.
In additionto the 31 tare notationsclassifiedhere,thereare 19 morewhichhave been includedwith
the He group(Combinationsof CommercialNotations)and one morewiththe I group(TaxNotations)
becausethey are only one part of texts whichcombinetwo or more items: He 3, He 5, He 6, He 12,
He 13, He 17, He 22, He 25, He 26, He 28, He 29, He 31, He 33, He 34, He 37-40, He 43; I 7). The
presentdiscussionis basedon these20 as well as on the 31 numberedHb below.
Tarenotationsfromthe Greekperiodarebothfewerandless standardized thanthosefromthe Roman
period. Earliest is He 3 with what is most likely to be both tare and net weight,since this is the only
reasonableinterpretation of two numbers,one precededby aji((popE*S), whichuse mu as the acrophonic
unit, that is: am(phora) - 12 mnas;( ) - 20 mnas.Probably also tareis Hb l's graffitoof acrophonic
numeralswith simpleuprightstrokesas units. Hb 2 and Hb 3 are completelydifferent,the one being
labeled "100 drachmas"and the other "20 ounces," both using alphabeticnumerals.The 650 gm.
weightof Hb 2 probablyconfirmsthe hundred-drachma notation,if we mayinvokethe emporicmna of
654 gm. And Hb 3's use of Romanouncesis paralleledby the appearanceof at least one lead weight
basedon the Romanstandardin a contemporarycontext.Hb 4 introducesfor the firsttime in Athens8
one of the tare-formulas(cf. He 5, He 22) of the Roman period: oxKcoa == "jar", with the weight
specified.
In the Romanperiodtare notationsare of threegeneralkinds: 1) a worddesignatingthe emptyjar,
often in the genitivecase, followedby a weight-unitsymboland a number;2) simpleverticalstrokes
whichseem to be a tally of the numberof weight-units;3) weight-unitword or symbolfollowedby a
number.The first kind declaresthat it is tare. The secondkind is provedto be so in variousways:
Hb 15 andHe 33 both havetheirtalliesreinforcedby notationsof the "emptyjar" sortwiththe number

8 But see pots from the Hellenisticperiod found in Corinthwhich have dipintirecordingsakomafollowed by a ligatureof mu and
nu (certainlythe abbreviationof mna) and so giving tare weight (Hesperia,XVIII, 1949,p. 152, pl. 16).
H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS 65

of weight-unitsagreeing;of the ten vesselswith tallies that are completeenough to weigh (Hb8-10,
Hb16,Hb19,Hb24, Hb25, Hb31; He 17, He 33) only three(Hb16,Hb24, Hb31)haveweightswhichdo
not substantiallyagreewiththetallystrokes,9twoperhapsbecauseof incrustationinside,theotherbecause
the last strokewas inadvertently
finaally, omitted;and sevenof thse jarswithtallies(Hb9, Hb 15, Hb 16,
Hb 24, Hb 25, Hb 31; He 33) areof the samegeneralshape,whichtheysharewithfive of the vesselswith
"emptyjar" weight(Hb14, Hb 21, Hb 22; He 34, He 37), and wereprobablyusedin a similarway over
manygenerations.The thirdkind includesa varietyof texts so that the reasonsfor interpretingthemas
tarediffer:someare obviouslytareweightbecausethey arecoupledwithnotationsof net weight(He 26,
He 29); othersarecompletelyunaccompanied butmustbe tarebecausetheyareconfirmedby the present
of the vessel Hb Hb He 39); othersare uncertainbut seemmorelikelyto be tare
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

weight (Hb5, 18, 29;


than anythingelse (He 6, He 12, He 13, He 38; I 7).
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

Tarenotationsof the firstkind use five differentwordsfor the emptyjar: 1) twelve vessels have 6a-
Tp&Kou (includingone oarparis and one 6aoc-rpaKou) eitherwrittenin full(Hb12, Hb 14, Hb15, Hb21,
Hb 23, Hb 26; He 31, He 34) or abbreviatedto five or six letters(Hb7, Hb 30; He 33; He 37 is incom-
plete); 2) on five vessels the adjectiveKoipiou or its abbreviationKouv( ) appears (Hib22; Hb 11, Hb 28;
He 25, He 28); 3) two show abbreviationsof mKTcbuaaTos of eithertwo or five letters(He 5, He 22); 4)
anothertwo may perhapsbe read as
40read
as,crit(b2
(He He
40,He 43); and 5) one jar is almostcertainlyto be
readas wpinou(Hb6). Althoughthis last occursin the 2nd centuryand the Hellenisticsekomawe have
alreadynoted has its parallelsin the 1st and 3rd centuries,there is no real chronologicaldistinction
among the termsused; for example,ostrakouappearsin the 2nd, 4th, 5th and 6th centuries;kouphou
occursin the 3rdto 6th centuries.The numbersusedin theseinscriptionsare all of the Greekalphabetic
sort; occasionallythe symbolfor theweight-unitis omitted(Hb 15, Hb 30; He 40). The greatmajority
of theseinscriptionsare dipinti;only threeare graffiti(Hb23; He 31, He 43).
Tare notations that are made up of tally strokes,alwaysscratchedand neverpainted,appearon
fifteenvessels(Hb8-10, I-lb13, Hb 15-17, Hb 19, Hb 20, Hb 24, Hb 25, Hb 27, Hb 31; He 17, He 33),of
whichtwo (Hb15; He 33) also have "emptyjar" notations.Twelveof these have only simpleupright
strokes,with occasionallya half strokeor a horizontalstrokefor a fractionalunit, but the othlerthree
(Hb 10, Hb 17, Hb 19) used the Roman sign for "ten." Since these threeare the only ones wherethe
weightis over ten litrai,we shouldperhapsthink that all the tallyingwas done on the Romansystem.
This would be reasonablesince the Greek alphabeticsymbolfor "ten" was a simpleuprightstroke
indistinguishable fromthe "ones."'10
The Roman"ten" also suggeststhat a ten-litraweightwas firstput
on the balanceand notedas such beforethe single-litraweightswereadded.This kind of notationcon-
tinuesfromthe 2nd centuryforward.
Tarenotationswithsimplenumbersappearon the following:Hb 5, Hb 18, Hb 29; He 6, He 12, He 13,
He 25, He 26, He 29, He 38, He 39; 17. The chronologicalrangeis from the firstto the sixthcentury,
and the numbersare all on the Greekalphabeticsystem.
In all the taretextswhereit appearsthe litra is abbreviatedeitherto a simplelambdaor to a lambda
witha diagonalstroke(variouslyplaced)whichmaysometimesbe thoughtof as the followingiota. Ounce
(ouiyKia)appearsas eithergammaenclosingomicron(e. g. Hb 3; He 22, He 39) or omicronsurmounted
by upsilon(Hb22).

9It is understood that the weight-unitis the Roman litra since the only two mna-weightsbelong to the early part of the first
century (Hb 5; He 5).
10In the capacitynotations of the Greek
period the acrophonicnumbersystem allowed tallyingof this sort (with delta for "ten")
for a differentpurpose. The whole shift in the use of tallyingfrom measuresto weights is interestingand suggeststhat commodities
began to be sold more and more by weight.
66 H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

Hb 1 (P 9753). PI. 37. Neck of coarse amphora. pinto, in red, on neck. Context:early 1st cen-
Graffitoon neck. Context: late 4th-early 3rd tury(G 8:1).
centuriesB.C. (B 13:8). Hesperia, XXV, 1956, EarlyI cent. pv(ac)ia' i.e., 11 mnas
p. 17, no. 73.
The jar at present weighs 8.150 kg. and must
IV-III cent. B.C. AA111III i.e., 26 (mnas)
originally have weighed somewhat more. The
For the interpretationsee He 5; 26 mnas mna used heremust be that of 150 coin drach-
are less than 11 kg. and a reasonableweight mas, that is, the commercial mna of 654 gm.;
for such an amphora.Tare seems to be the cf. Hb 2 above. Eleven such mnas are 8.194 kg.
right interpretationon two grounds:weightof
contents is comparativelyuseless except in Hb 6 (P 17129). P1.37. Upper part of unglazed
conjunctionwith tare; a capacityof 26 choes is amphoraof 2nd-centurytype, like Robinson,
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

not possible. Chronology, G 197. Dipinto, in black, on


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

shoulder.Context:late Ist-early2nd centuries


Hb 2 (P 5792). P1.37. Small amphora. Graffito (B 20:1).
on shoulder.Context:3rdcenturyB.C.(E 14:1).
PH. 0.315 m.; D. 0.157 m. Early II cent. ei'
priwovX(iT-rpa)
i.e., (weight)of empty:15litrai
III cent. B.C. 6X(Kal)p' i.e., 100 drachmas
The fragmentarystate of the jar makes its
The present weight of the amphora,which presentweightirrelevant.
lacks one handle and the rim, is 650 gm. The
completejar may have been equal to a mna Hb 7 (P 23389). PI.37. Fragmentfrom the wall
(100 drachmas, like Pernice, Gr. Gewichte, of a closed pot. Dipinto, in black. Found with
Berlin, 1894, nos. 598, 599, 605) on the com- potteryof the 1st and 2nd centuries.
mercial standardwhich made up a mna of II cent. 6]o-rp(KOU)A(iTpaI) 0'
150 coin drachmas(150x4.36gm. - 654 gin.). i.e., (weight)of jar: 9 litrai
See also Agora, X, pp. 19f. This commercial
mna is not, however,attestedbefore the 2nd Hb 8 (P 10469). P1.37. Small wheel-ridgedam-
centuryB.C. phora; handles, mouth and some wall pieces
Hb 3 (P 5929).P1.37. Shoulderand neck of small and most of neckmissing.Graffitoon shoulder.
Context:mid-3rdcentury(M 18:4).PH. 0.24 m.;
amphora. Graffito beside base of handle. D. 0.19m.
Context:3rdcenturyB.C. (E 14:1).
III cent. B.C. K' o(*)y(Kiai) i.e., 20 ounces Mid-IIIcent. I1111- i.e., 5 (litrai),1 (ounce)
The use of the Roman ounce at this period The weightof the jar in its presentfragmen-
in Athensmay also be seen in Agora,X, p. 31, tary state is 1.235 kg. The recordedweight is
no. 70. It is impossibleto tell from the graffito 1.662kg.
itselfwhetherit refersto capacity(20 ounces= 1 Hb 9 (P 26602). P1.37. Small amphora, intact,
xestes) or to the weight of the jar, but the like Robinson,Chronology,M 238, but earlier.
presenceof a tarenotationon Hb 2 in the same Graffitoon shoulder.Context:early4th century
deposit suggests that it might be the latter. (Q 17:7). H. 0.425m.; D. 0.20 m.
Althoughonly a small part of the jar survives,
comparison for size with Hb 2 suggests a EarlyIV cent. (a) Ai (written in soft clay
with bluntinstrument)
possibleweightof about 546 gm. or 20 ounces. (b) 111111111
i.e., 9 (litrai)
Hb 4 (P 16404). P1.37. Rim and wall fragment (a) may be either number or abbreviation.
of wide-mouthedcoarsejar. Dipinto, in black, (b) The jar weighs 3.065 kg., about 4% over
justbelowlip. Context:1stcenturyB.C. (F 19:3). the 2.943 kg. recorded.A non-solubledeposit
I cent. B.C. oCXKCOp[ inside may account for the discrepancy.(The
For sekoma(sakomain Doric) as weight of first of the tally-strokesis shorterthan the rest
the vessel,cf. He 5, He 22, and also pots from and somewhat separatedfrom them.)
Corinth(Hesperia,XVIII, 1949, p. 152, pl. 16, Hb 10 (P 9881).PI. 37. Amphorawithlip andsome
15-17) where the writingis very similar.The of neck missing,Robinson,Chronology, M 232.
meaning"jar"is attestedin P. Oxy.,XVI, 1896, Graffitoon shoulder.Context:early4th century
19. (M 17:1). PH. 0.452 m.; D. 0.298 m.
Hb 5 (P 3467). PI.37. Early Roman amphora, EarlyIV cent. =
XIII111
lacking much of mouth and one handle. Di- i.e., (litrai),2 (ounces)
16
H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS 67

The present weight of the jar, without the EarlyIV cent. (dipinto) oo-rpaKou s'
lip and part of the neck, is 5.030 kg. The re- i.e., (weight)of jar: 6 (litrai)
cordedweightis 5.287kg. (graffito) '11111
Five strokes tallying for the first five litrai,
Hb 11 (P 10267).PI. 37. Unglazedamphora,mis- with a sixthstrokeslantwise.
sing handlesand lip, of early 4th-centurytype,
like Robinson, Chronology,L 31. Dipinto, in Hb 16 (P 12825). PI. 37. Wheel-ridgedamphora
black, on shoulder.Context:early 4th century of late 4th-centurytype, between Robinson,
(M 18:4). PH. 0.46 m.; D. 0.257 m. Chronology,M 238 and M 305. Graffito on
Early IV cent. K.[oU]qp(ou)
shoulder.Context: late 4th century (O 19:1).
W(i-rpat)
ty' H. 0.308 m.; D. 0.214 m.
i.e., (weight)of empty:13litrai
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

The presentweightof thejar, withouthandles Late IV cent. 111111 i.e., 6 (litrai)


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

and lip, is 3.935 kg. The recordedweight is The jar, which lacks only a part of the lip,
4.251 kg. now weighs 2.180 kg. or 10% more than six
litrai(1.962kg.). It is possiblethatit wasmarked
Hb 12 (P 25170). PI. 37. Amphora with narrow underweightby a merchant who wished to
neck,verticalhandlesand a bodylike Robinson, give shortweighton the contents.Or theremay
Chronology,M 236. Dipinto, in black, on be a considerabledepositinside.
shoulder. Context: Q 17:4. H. 0.54 m.; D.
0.195m. Hb 17 (P 7884). PI. 37. Fragmentfrom neck of
amphora.Graffitoon neck. Found in a layer
EarlyIV cent. 6ocrpaK'ns XA(Tpac)<0'> withpotteryand coins of the 4th century.
i.e., (weight)of jar: 9 litrai <
IV cent. X!I!i111 i.e., 17/2 (litrai)
The present weight of the completejar is
2.870 kg.; the recorded weight is 2.943 kg. Hb 18 (P 14110).P1.38. Smallamphoraof earlier
The number,which must be taken as theta, date but same type as Robinson, Chronology,
looks like a rectangularepsilon, which is most M 324, M 325. Graffitoon shoulder.Context:
unlikelyto occurat thisperiod.Theform6o'rp&Ki 4th century (O 19:1). PH. 0.40 m.; D. 0.22 m.
is not attested. IV cent. Xr(Tpat) U' i.e., 7 litrai
Hb 13 (P 11193).P1.37. Upper part of amphora, The presentweightof the jar, which lacks a
of a type related to Robinson, Chronology, mouth and is partly restored in plaster, is
L 31. Graffito on shoulder. Context: early 2.075 kg.; sevenlitraiare 2.289kg.
4th century(C 14:4). Hb 19 (P 14113).P1.38. Amphoraof 4th-century
EarlyIV cent. 111111 i.e., 6 (litrai) type,like Robinson,Chronology, M 230. Graffito
The jar is too fragmentaryfor its present on shoulder. Context: 4th century (O 19:1).
PH. 0.46 m.; D. 0.28 m.
weight to be significant.Others of this type
weighabout six litrai. IV cent. ]XI1111< i.e., 15/2 (litrai)
The presentweight of the jar, which lacks a
Hb 14 (P 11194). P1.37. Upper part of wheel- mouth and has been partlyrestoredin plaster,
ridged amphora of 4th-century type, like is 4.750 kg.; 15/2 litrai are 5.068 kg.
Robinson, Chronology,L 55 and M 238. Di-
pinto, in black, on shoulder,very faint. Con- Hb 20 (P 26114). P1.38. Amphora top, com-
text: early 4th century(C 14:4). PH. 0.299m.; parableto Robinson,Chronology, L 54. Graffito
D. 0.224m. on shoulder.Context:Q 19:1.
EarlyIV cent. OtaKKOU X(iTpai) U IV cent. 11111111 i.e., 8 (litrai)
i.e., (weight)of jar: 7 litrai The fragmentarystate of the jar makes its
The preservedupper two thirds of the jar presentweightirrelevant.
weigh 1.710 kg.; seven litrai are 2.289 kg. Hb 21
(Some letters had faded completelybefore the (P 10710). P1.38. Wheel-ridgedamphora,
finaldrawing.) missing neck and handles,of 4th-centurytype,
like Robinson,Chronology, L 55, M 238. Dipin-
Hb 15 (P 11197). PI. 37. Shoulder fragment of to in black on shoulder. Context: 4th-5th
small wheel-ridgedamphora like Hb 14. Di- centuries (E 15:5). PH. 0.34 m.; D. 0.20 m.
in
pinto, black, and on
graffito shoulder.Con- IV cent. 6O]rTpaKouX(irpai) U'
text: early4th century(C 14:4). i.e., (weight)of jar: 7 litrai
68 H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

The presentweightof thejar withouthandles V cent. oCrpOKovXi(Tpat)ip3'


and lip is 2.025 kg.; sevenlitrai are 2.289 kg. i.e., (weight)of jar: 12 litrai
Hb 22 (P 16079). PI.38. Small amphoraof 4th- The present weight of the jar, with several
centurytype,like Robinson,Chronology, M 238. pieces missing, is 3.410 kg.; twelve litrai are
Dipinto, in black, on shoulder.Context: 4th 3.924kg.
century (F 15:1). PH. 0.38 m.; D. 0.215m. Hb 27 (P 14016). P1.38. Small amphoratop of
IV cent. KoV<Kp>ou X(Trpal)s'/ oO(yKiai)y' 5th-to 6th-centuryfabric.Graffitoon shoulder.
i.e., (weight)of empty:6 litrai,3 ounces Context:3rd to 6th centuries(M 18:4).
The present weight of the jar, which lacks V-VI cent. 111111 i.e., 6 (litrai)
mouth,one handleand has beenpartlyrestored
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

The fragmentarystate of the jar makes its


in plaster,is 1.910kg.; six litraiandthreeounces irrelevant.
are 2.043kg. The use of pi for phi was in earlier presentweight
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

times a barbarism; in the Roman period, Hb 28 (P 12914). P1.38. Narrow-bodiedjug of


spellingslike oAXixKios and 'Aqpiav6sfor Sul- 6th-centurytype, like Robinson, Chronology,
picius and Appianus(Meisterhans2, p. 60) sug- M 315.Dipinto,in veryfaintblack,on shoulder.
gest that therewere some individualsto whom Context:5th-6thcenturies(P 18:1).H. 0.595m.;
phi and pi soundedalike. Comparewhat seems D. 0.203m.
to be the reverseconfusionon 1 19.
VI cent. KO.Ip(ov)A(iTpai)i'
Hb 23 (P 26699).P1.38. Fragmentfrom shoulder i.e., (weight)of empty: 10 litrai
of small ribbedamphora.Graffitoand dipinto, The weightof jug, completeexceptfor minor
black.Context:4th century(Q 17:7). fractures,is 3.120 kg.; ten litrai are 3.272 kg.
IV cent. (graffito) AX(Tpai)0'
6cr]TpaKou
Hb 29 (P 12936).PI. 38. Amphoraof 6th-century
i.e., (weight)of jar, 9 litrai
(dipinto)illegible type,like Robinson,Chronology, M 325.Dipinto
in black, on shoulder.Context: 5th-6th cen-
Hb 24 (P 11355). PI.38. Wheel-ridgedamphora turies(P 18:1). H. 0.451m.; D. 0.205m.
of early 5th-century type, like Robinson, VI cent. A(iTpal) e' i.e., 9 litrai
Chronology,M 305. Graffitoon shoulder.Con-
text: 4th-5th centuries(E 15:5). H. 0.396m.; The completejar weighs2.935 kg.; nine litrai
D. 0.216m. are 2.943 kg. (Sincethe dipintohad completely
faded beforethe final drawing,this was copied
EarlyV cent. 111111 i.e., 6 (litrai) from the original reading, which bears little
Restoredwith plasterand with some plaster relationto whatwas seenby me in 1960.)
the
inside, jar now weighs 2.315 kg., more than
one litramorethanthe recorded1.962kg. Com- Hb 30 (P 13464). PI. 38. Body of amphora,
pare Hb 16; but here it is possiblethat as each lackingmost of shoulder,neck and handles,of
litra weightwas addedto the balancea stroke 6th-centurytype, like Robinson, Chronology,
was made on the jar until the last, which was M 325. Dipinto,in black,on shoulder.Context:
forgotten in the bustle of removing weights 5th-6thcenturies(P 19:1).
andjar alike. VI cent. oaTpaxK (ou) s'
of
i.e., (weight) jar: (litrai) 6
Hb 25 (P 13472).P1.38. Small amphoraof 5th-
centurytype,like Robinson,Chronology, M 305. The jar is too fragmentaryfor its present
Graffito on shoulder. Context: 5th-6th centu- weight to be of significance.
ries (P 19:1). H. 0.333m.; D. 0.173m. Hb 31 (P 14056). PI. 38. Amphora of the 6th
V cent. 11111 i.e., 5 (litrai) century,a later exampleof the type of M 305,
The present weight of the jar, with some M 306 in Robinson, Chronology.Graffitoon
plasterrestoration, is 1.615 kg.; five litrai are neck. Context: 5th-6th centuries (Q 18:2).
1.635kg. H. 0.44 m.; D. 0.23 m.
Hb 26 (P 13477).PI. 38. Amphora,lackingmouth, VI cent. 11111111 i.e., 8 (litrai)
one handle and wall pieces, of 5th-century The present weight of the completejar is
type, like Robinson, Chronology,M 302. Di- 3.330 kg.; eight litrai are 2.616 kg. See Hb 16
pinto, in black, on shoulder.Context:5th-6th and Hb24 for possible explanationsof the
centuries (P 19:1). H. 0.505 m.; D. 0.26 m. discrepancy.
H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS 69

INTRODUCTIONTO NOTATIONSOF DATE (He)


Of all the categoriesof commercialnotationsdates are the least satisfactoryand convincing,largely
becausethey are far more relativeto and dependenton a temporalcontextthan are the notationsof
capacity,tare and contents.Indicationsof time appearon the 26 vesselsincludedin this category,"1 on
sevenwhichare classifiedwith CombinedNotations(He 4, He 18, He 23, He 24, He 37, He 41, He 42),
and on one with Owner'sMarks(F 250), and on three(I 17, I 23, I 44) of the Tax Notations,over and
above the indictiondateswhich appearregularlyin that series.Nineteenof these 37 give datesby era;
12 dateby magistratesor emperors;fivegivemonthdates;the one remainingis a possibleindictiondate.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Greek alphabeticnumeralsare used throughout,but in some consulardates the Latin languageand


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

alphabettake the place of Greek.


Most of the datesby era consistof simplya number;the particularera is a matterof interpretation.
Eight examplesmay be assignedwith a fair degreeof certaintyto the Actian era: Hc 10-14, He 16,
He 18, Hc 19. Four of these (H 10, H 16, 16, H 18, H 19) are on wheel-ridged jars of darkmicaceous
clay with one handleand high-collaredringfoot like the 25 examplespublishedas "DatedJarsof Early
ImperialTimes" (Hesperia, XXIV, 1955,pp. 277-285).Only Hc 19 has any remnantof the era desig-
nationwhichappearedon two of the piecespublishedearlier: (eTOS) Ni(Kms), but all four have numbers
whichgive datesin the Actianera that fit well into the largergroup.The otherfour notationswhichare
hereinterpretedas Actianera datesaremorevarious:two dipinti(He 11, He 12) andtwo graffiti(He 13,
He 14). In the case of all four thereseemsto be no othereasyexplanationfor the number;for two of the
vessels (He 11, He 12) the ceramicdate agreeswith the assumedActiandate; the othertwo are frag-
mentstoo smallto be assigneda dateon ceramicgrounds,andtheyhaveno datedcontext.
Of the 11 otherdatesby era, three(F 250; He 17, He 25) seemto be Seleucid,four may be basedon
Diocletian'saccession(He 22, He 23; He 37; I 44), one appearsto be Christian(He 24) and threeare
uncertain(Hc 26; He 23, He 24). Thebasesfor theseassignmentsareoutlinedin the individualcatalogue
descriptions.
The 12 dates by magistratesor emperorsincludetwo of the Greekperiod(He 1, He 2), six consular
dates(He 3, He 4, He 6-8; He 4), two imperial(He 5, He 15)andtwo uncertain(He 20, He 21). Ordinari-
ly in the Greekperiodjars weredatedby stampson the handles;thesetwo, withincisionin the soft clay
on one and dipintoon the other, are unusual.Jarswith consulardatesin both Greekand Latinhave
long been knownin Pompeiiand Rome (C.L.L.,IV, 2551ff.,5510ff.,9313ff.;XV, 3636ff.).Of the two
which use Touvs,one continuesin Greek(He 4) with the abbreviatedname of Gaius Cassius,while
the otherseemsto continue,althoughmuchis lost, in Latin,endingwith the regularLatinabbreviation
for consuls(He 7). Both of these, like three of the four purelyLatin texts, are dipinti.The exception
(He 6), being lightlyand casuallyscratchedjust below the handle,may well have been the work of an
Athenianownerratherthana foreignshipperor seller:Druso et Crispino(9 B.C.).He 3 andHe 8 can not
be readwellenoughto givedefinitedates,but He 4 is clearlyassignableto 17B.C.(C. Furnio).
The two imperialdates are given as the sixth (year)of Augustus(He 5) and the fourteenthyear of
Hadrian(Hc 15).12The two uncertaindatesof this sort (He20, He 21) are incomplete,one usingthe Erii
formula, the other ?TOS.
The five month dates are as follows: July (He 9), nones of August (He 18), June 17 (He 41), first
month(I 17), and the sixthday of the sixthmonth(I 23). Possiblereferencesto months also occur on
He 5 and He 11. The one possibleindictiondate seems to combinea day "beforethe Ides" with an
indictionyear(He 42).

11All textsidentifiable(even
tentatively)as datesare included,even whenthe magistrateor era on whichthey are basedis not clear.
12Or the fourteenth year from the visit of Hadrian to Athens. Cf. P. Graindor,Athines soIus Hadrien,Cairo, 1934, pp. 15ff.;
Kubitschek,Real-Encyclopadie, Suppl. III.
70 H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

As far as abbreviations areconcernedthe usagewithregardto etos shouldbe noted:of nineexamples,


the four (Hc 4, He 7, He 15, He 21) which are dated earlierthan the late 3rd centuryshow the word
writtenin full; the five datedto the late 3rdcenturyand laterabbreviatethe wordto its firsttwo letters
(Hc 22-24; He 23, He 24). Thewordfor month(li'v) is abbreviatedeitheras p( ) (Hc 9; 1 17) or Upj( )
(He 41; 123).

He 1 (P 7699). PI.39. Toe of plain amphora, He 5 (P 9670).P1.39. Chianamphora(= Robin-


neatly profiled. Letters incised on underside son, Chronology,F 92). Dipinto in black on
while clay was soft. Context:late 4th to early shoulder. Context: 1st century B.C. (N 19:1).
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

3rdcenturies B.C. (E 3:1). PH. 0.86 m.; D. 0.309 m.


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

Late IV-early III cent.B.C. irr 'A.woroo5cbp(ou) I cent. B.C. Avyoicr(Tou) S'
The writingis crampedand changesorienta- [.(rjv6s)'ApT(Eepuoou)
tion. An archonof this name servedin Athens The sixth year of Augustuswould be 21 B.C.
in the year 319/18B.C.,but eitheranotherpro- The readingof the secondline is uncertain.
venienceor anothermagistracyis a possibility. Hc 6
The fact that the inscriptionwas made before (P 16206). P1.39. Micaceous one-handled
firingsuggeststhat this date servedone of the jar, similar to Robinson, Chronology,F65.
Graffitounderhandle.Context:firsthalf of 1st
purposesof the stampusuallyfoundon handles. century(N 20:1). PH. 0.47 m.; D. 0.265m.
He 2 (P 9754, P 9755). P1.39. Chian amphora. Firsthalf I cent. DRUSO ET CRISPINO
Dipinti in black on shoulder (a) and inside That is, 9 B.C.
handle(b). Context:late 4th-early3rdcenturies
B.C. (B 13:8). PH. 0.79 m.; D. 0.355 m. Hc 7 (P21791). PI.39. Ovoid amphora with
shortwide neck, hornedhandlesand shorttoe.
Late IV-early III cent. B.C. Dipinti in black on shoulder. Context: early
(a) nIrlNIK'rTOV / [&]pXovros 1st century (R 10:1). H. 0.533m.; D. 0.28 m.
(b) ToAXuvoio N
EarlyI cent.
If the archon is Athenian, there are two e1Tous[ ]BA ( ) COSS
possible years: 332/1 or 225/4 B.C.The name
underthe handlemaybe thatof potter,producer Perhaps6 B.C.:D. LaeliusBalbus,C. Antistius
of contents,middlemanor even owner. Vetus. Or A.D. 22: D. Haterius Agrippa, C.
SulpiciusGalba.
He 3 (P 8108). P1.39. Amphoraof Roman type.
39. Micaceous one-handled
Dipinto in red on neck. Context: late 2nd He 8 (P 16199). PI.
centuryB.C. (C9:7). H. 1.017m.; D. 0.291m. jar, similar to Robinson, Chronology,F 66.
Dipinto in black below handle. Context:
Late II cent. B.C. COS [ first half of 1st century(N 20:1). H. 0.46 m.;
D. 0.245m.
Obviously a date by consulship, but the EarlyI cent. NERONEBO..
dipintois now too fadedto be drawn.Another (traces)
jar of this type (Agora inv. no. P 8105) found
in the same context has an inscriptionwhich If this is datingby consul, the possibledates
has surviveda little better but gives less imme- are: 13 B.C. (Ti. ClaudiusNero, P. Quinctilius
diate sense: ] B-C [ (presumably an abbreviated Varus); 9 B.C. (Nero Claudius Drusus, T.
name endingin "b" followedby the abbrevia- Quinctinus Crispinus); 7 B.C. (Ti. Claudius
tion for consul). Nero II, Cn. CalpurniusPiso). The word
begining "bo. ." is uncertain both in reading
Hc 4 (P 3215).P1.39. Shoulderfragmentof small and interpretation.
jar. Dipinto in brown. Found with much He 9
Hellenisticmaterialand a littleLate Roman. (P 15559). P1.39. Upper part of amphora
with collaredrim.Dipintoin blackon shoulder.
I cent. B.C. 'T0oS F(aciou)Kacaa(ou) Context:1stcentury(R 21:2).
(illegible)
I cent. 'IovuMov
1i.(rlv6,)
A Gaius Cassiuswas consul in 124, 96 and
73 B.C. Sincethe colleagueis not herepreserved, He 10 (P 24853). P. 39. Shoulder fragment of
it is impossible to determinewhich is meant. brown micaceous jar, similar to Robinson,
H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS 71

Chronology,M 125. Graffito below handle He 16 (P 25464).P1.40. Upper part of micaceous


attachment.Context:late 1st century(B 13:2). one-handledjar similarto Robinson,Chronol-
Late I cent. pKa' ogy, M 125. Graffitobelowhandle.
Year 121 of Actian era = A.D.91. II cent. pop'
Year 172of Actianera = A.D. 142.
He 11 (P 10048).P1.40. Upper part of amphora
(- Robinson, Chronology,M 102). Dipinti He 17 (P 13599). PI.40. Upper part of one-
in black on shoulder(a) and underone handle handled jar. Dipinto in black on shoulder.
(b). Context: second half of 2nd century Context: second half of 1st century to 2nd
(M 17:1). century(N 19:2).
IIcent. (a) EP( ) i' II cent.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

SE]XWK( ) pB'
Year 502 of Seleucidera (from 312/1 B.C.)
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

(b) o'oS would be ca. A.D. 190, perhapstoo late for this
Year 139 of Actian era = A.D. 109, whichis context.
perfectlysuitableto the jar itself, which finds Hc 18
its nearestparallelsin late 1st and early 2nd (P 21631).P1.40. Fragmentfrom shoulder
centuries(Robinson,Chronology,G 197, H 20). of micaceous one-handledjar similarto Rob-
Its later context date is unexpectedbut not inson, Chronology, M 125.Graffitoon outside.
Context: 2nd to early 3rd centuries(U 22:1).
impossible.The firstpart of (a) might be inter-
pretedin two ways: as a monthdate (Hermaios II-earlyIII cent. ce'
15)or as tare(ipilou 15). (b) The jar is sound? Year 229 of the Actian era = A.D. 199.
He 12 (P 5774). P1.39. Neck and shoulder of He 19 (P 22211). P1.40. Fragment from the
small amphora. Dipinto in red on shoulder. shoulder of a micaceous one-handled jar,
Context: second half of 1st century to 2nd similarto Robinson,Chronology,M 125. Graf-
century(F 13:2). fito on outside.
II cent. pv III cent. TrosN] i(Krls)apIa'
ATO2[ Year 241 of the Actian era = A.D. 211.
The number is likely to be a date in the
Actianera, i.e., A.D. 120. He 20 (P 7785). P1.40. Shoulderfragmentfrom
largeplainamphora.Dipintoin black.
He 13 (P 11545).P1.39. Wall fragmentof closed
vessel.Graffitoon outside. Roman rTriZauX[
AIATTA[
Roman pV?'
What magistrateof what city is here used
Year 155 of Actian era would be A.D. 125. for datingis obscure,as is the word or phrase
The nu is writtenin reverse. in the secondline.
He 14 (P 2518). P1.39. Shoulderfragmentfrom He 21 (P 11752). P1.40. Top of amphora. Di-
a large unglazedvessel. Graffitoon outside. pinto in black on shoulder.Context:3rd cen-
EarlyRoman pv[ tury(K 18:3).
Presumablyan Actian date, ca. A.D. 120-130. III cent. a[
He 15 (P 7583). P1.39. Amphora(= Robinson, The incompletenessof the inscriptionmakes
Chronology, J 5). Dipinto in black on shoulder. any conjectureof emperoror era difficult.
Context: mid-2nd century (C 12:1). PH.
0.549 m.; D. 0.295 m. He 22 (P 3140). P1.40. Shoulder fragment of
Mid-II cent. ETousSt' 'ASpiavoO largeamphora.Dipintoin red.
Eviaucrtiaov Late Roman
Whetherthe date was based on Hadrian's ET(Os)

accessionor his firstvisit to Athensis uncertain; (chi-rho)


cf. Kubitschek, Real-Encyclopadie,Suppl. III, Ka[
cols. 28-29. The word in the secondline presu- Year 21 based on the era of Diocletian
mablyrefersto the age of the contents, prob- would be A.D. 305. Ginzel (Handbuch der
ably wine. mathematischen und technischen Chronologie,
72 H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS
II, Leipzig, 1906, pp. 229-231) notes that this A.D. 532 and known to be in use before this
era was used in private documentsin Egypt time (Bickerman,pp. 74, 81).
throughoutthe 4th and 5th centuries.But the Hc 25 (P 25054). P1.40. Small
kappa-alphamay begin a word like Kaisaros. decoration similar to Robinson, jug with gouged
Chronology,
Hc 23 (P 14093). P1.40. Round-bottomedcylin- M 361. Graffito on wall near handle. Context:
drical amphora (= Robinson, Chronology, 6th (-7th?) century (Q 17:4). H. 0.175m.;
M 333). Dipinti in red on shoulder.Context: D. 0.13 m.
VII cent. '
5th-6th centuries (P 18:1). H. 0.495m.; D. t,-
0.211m. The year 964 of the Seleucidera is A.D.642.
V-VI cent. 'rT(os) (The Seleucidera continuedin use in various
placestill nearmoderntimes;cf. Ginzel,op.cit.,
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

pv'
TA I, p. 263.) The context date need not militate
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againstthe assignmentto A.D.642 sincethe jug


Perhapsyear 150 of the era of Diocletian wasfoundnearthe top of a wellwhichcontinued
(A.D. 434)? into the 8th century.
Hc 24 (P 9660). P1.40. Round-bottomedam- Hc 26 (P 3457). P1.40. Shoulderfragmentfrom
phora (- Robinson, Chronology,M 372). Di- amphora.Dipintoin red on neck,insidehandle.
pinto in black on shoulder. Context: late 6th Context:6th-7thcenturies(L 14:2).
century (M 17:1). H. 0.467 m.; D. 0.148m. VI-VII cent. Xp(O6vos) 1i'[
LateVI cent. ET(OS) Trp( )[
e<os) What era or emperorthe year refers to is
If only one number (from alpha through perhaps not worth conjecturing.The abbrevia-
theta) is lost at the beginning, this may be 58? tion in the secondline may be eitheran addition
in the Christian era, which was "invented" in to the date or someotherkindof notation.

INTRODUCTIONTO NOTATIONSOF CONTENTS(Hd)


In additionto the 23 texts groupedtogetherhere, contentsis specifiedin the followingnotations
classifiedelsewhere:one in Dates (He 15); 19 in CombinedNotations (He 7, He 13, He 15, He 17,
He 18, He 21, He 23, He 24, He 26, He 27, He 29, He 30, He 32-34, He 36, He 40, He 41, He 44); and 12
in Tax Notations(I 10-12, I 16, I 19, 120, 125, I 29, 14042, I 45). The presentdiscussionconcernsall
55 texts.
Wineis apparentlythe most importantsinglecommoditysincereferenceis madeto it on 27 vessels,
if we includethe nine occurencesin Tax Notationsof one abbreviatedword(a&pivv) whichcan perhaps
best be interpretedas a kind of wine.13OTvosalone, withoutmodification, is used only once (Hd 13),
perhapsto distinguishthe winejug fromjugs used for othercommoditiesand not necessarilywashed
in betweenor perhapsto indicatethat this was a winemeasureratherthanan oil or honeymeasure(see
Ha 27: oivpos 8SIKcoS). Thatthis notationis graffitoratherthandipintois an indicationof its informal
natureand incidentalpurpose.All otherwine notationsindicateparticularkindsof wine and all except
one (Hd 23) are dipinti and may be thoughtof as labelingthe originalcontents.The kinds of wine
rangefrom a cheapo6os(vinordinaire)of the 5th centuryB.C. (Hd 1) to the wine madefrom the finest
Aminnaeangrapes(Pliny, N. H., XIV, 4, 21, PrincipatusdaturAminaeisfirmitatemproptersenioque
proficientem vinieiusutiquevitam.)of the 5th and6th centuriesof our era(1 10,1 16, etc.). Mostfrequent
in appearance,afterthe Aminnaean,if abbreviationsare correctlyinterpreted,is -rrcaaov(raisinwine):
Hd 9 (writtenin full); Hd 12 (abbreviatedto firstthreeletters);He 13, He 40 (firsttwo letters).Next in
frequency,with the sameprovisoaboutabbreviations, is Pramnianwine:Hd 5 (writtenin full); Hd 17,

13Since the tax-notationpots all seem to serve the same purpose, the conclusion that some held a specifickind of wine makes it
likely that all held wine but that only specialkinds werenoted "on the label." See Introductionto Tax Notations below.
H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS 73

He 26 (first three letters). Honeyed wine is noted twice: olvovupenT-iVOv (He 21); (IiArIT( ) (He 30).
Falernianappearsonce (He 27). Threeother kinds of wine may be indicatedby three abbreviations:
(Hd 7); &pco(iaaT-Tis)(Hd 15); Spiv(Si-ms)(Hd 23).
Kav(-SapiThs)
Wine is described in somewhat differentterms on four other vessels: Kasapou as an indication of net
weightratherthan of purity(Hd 10); Fviaucaaiov (Hc 15), and iTep(uariv6s)
(Hd 20) seemto indicatethe
age of the wine; vin(um)saec( ) car ( ) vil(la?)Terg(estina?)
seemsto indicateuse (?) and provenience
(He 18). See also belowfor miscellaneousand uncertain
contents whichmightbe wines.
Four of the above wine notationsare accompaniedby single letterswhich may perhapsbe most
readilyexplainedas indicationsof quality:alphaon Hd 1 and Hd 20; gammaon Hd 15; deltaon Hd 5.
Perhapssimilarin significanceis the &*r-tposwhichappearsalongwitha pricemarkon He 15.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Six vesselsare markedas containingoil. Threeo e inscriptionsare graffitiand indicatemerely


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

that the contentswas oil: Hd 2 fromthe 4th centuryB.C. seemsto say that the oil is for externalrather
thaninternaluse; Hd 4 and Hd 18, of the 1stand 3rdcenturiesrespectively,havethe sameabbreviation,
inai(ov). The three dipinti, on the other hand, indicate the kind or quality of the oil: on He 7 pamrpl(avE-
Aaiov)or radishoil, weighing20 5/12 litrai(6.676kg.), is equatedwith27 kotyles(7.3711., of whichthe
oil weightis 9/10 or 6.655 kg.); on He 15 the priceis givenfor what may be secondqualitywhiteoil;
on He 32 oil-leesor Tpu(yla),weighingnine litrai(2.943kg.), occupiesa vessel of ca. 3.300 1. capacity
(oil weightof a 3.276 1. chousis 9/10 or 2.943kg.).
Fivejarsaremarkedas honeypots, eitherimplicitlyor explicitly.Implicitin the combinationof Hd 6's
weightnotationwith its capacityis the fact that its contentswas honey:that is, the 14 litrai(4.578kg.)
indicatedon the shouldercouldbe containedin the ca. 3.200 1. capacityonly if the contents'weightwas
4/3 that of wine(4/3 x 3.052 = 4.578).Honey is explicitlynotedas contentsof threeotherjars: sufficient
tracesof the word Hymettosappeartwice on He 29 and combinewith the noted net weightto confirm
the natureof the contents.On He 33 and He 34 the genitiveof honey(iX1iTos) is followedby the weight
in litrai.Somewhatdifferentis He 36, whichnotesthenumberof xestaiof "tawnyhoney"(tavS9oupLArtos).
Thevarietyof miscellaneouscontentsis great,rangingfromfish-sauce(garumn) to milk(yaXa).Perhaps
most certainare the threejarsmarkedas containingItalianmillet:He 23, He 24 (iEEI6'v(oS) --= AivoS =
p0ivr%, LSJ); He 41 e?Aivns. Two vesselsprobablycontainedgarum:Hd 3 reads coc(tum)ab Auso( ),
employinga formulaelsewhereusedfor fish-sauce(C. L.L., IV,2576,2643, 5671ff., 9418f.);the ligature
of Hd 8 may be reasonablyresolvedas yap(ou).Preparationsof a medicalnaturemay perhapsbe seen
in Hd 11 ("20partsdarnelto four partsasparagus")and Hd 21 ("diuretic").MorepuzzlingareHd 14,
a cookie-jarshapewiththe inscription-rafyvia,presumablyin the senseof "goodies,"andHd 19 which
readsSEarac(thingsput up? that is, preserves?).The Sacrra of Hd 16 are most likely liquids,and the
inscriptionis to alertthe readereitherto the fact that dry materialsare elsewhereor that the measure
(30 units)is wet ratherthan dry. Hd 22 readsy6Aa, a clearand unambiguouslabel in contrastto the
generalizedKaprrou of He 17.
Four other vessels show notationswhich may well be of contents,but certainidentificationis not
possiblesincethe abbreviationsare difficultto resolve.TheKopl( ) of He 44 maybe somethingflavored
with coriander.The ycovo( ) and C&Ti() of I 11 and I 12 seemto parallelthe &dilvv() whichappears
in nine otherTax Notation texts and so mightbe wine. No expansionof 'covo( ) suggestsitself, but
either i&-aTov or arT-nris is possible for I 12. On 142 pev[ ]/vEXi[ (either or both) could also be wine:
honeyed Mendaean.
It is possiblethat in Miscellaneous(K) and Unclassified(L) Notationslurk otherindicationsof con-
tentswhichhavenot beenrecognized.For otherpossibilitiessee Ha 1, Ha 16 andHa 40.
74 H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

Hd 1 (P 11021).PI.41. Upperpart of 5th-century Sincethe jar holds 3.200 1., the contentscan
B.C.type wine amphora.Dipinto in black on weigh 14 litrai (4.578 kg.) only if it is honey,
shoulder. Context: last quarter 5th century whichis four-thirdsthe weightof wine or water.
B.C. (B 15:1). Hesperia,XVIII, 1949, p. 336, Four-thirdsof 3.200 gives only 4.264 kg., but
no. 102,pls. 97, 98. it seems likely that althoughthis was only a
Last quarterV cent. B.C. 06rXosA i.e., 6Oos scant chous (properly3.276 1.) it was thought
of as six xestai,whichmay have been indicated
Sigma-chifor xi is found also on ostrakaof in the largelyfaded second line. Six xestai of
Kallixenos; see Hesperia,XIX, 1950, p. 387, wine were ten litrai; six xestai of honey would
no. 22. Alphamayperhapsbe takenas a number be 13% litrai, which might in turn have been
indicatingcapacity(one amphoraor metretes) called 14 litrai. Thereis no questionof the 14
or quality. litraibeing the weightof the jar, whichis only
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

1.100kg.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

Hd 2 (P 20294).PI.41. Partof shoulderand upper


wallof small black-glazedolpe. Graffitowritten Hd 7 (P 3058). PI.41. Upper part of amphora
vertically. like Robinson, Chronology,G 197. Dipinto in
IV cent. B.C. T-r]O TO
roOr4([sial& 1
oTi black on shoulder. Context: Ist-early 3rd
Tfi T]aXafrT[pas century(J 12:1).
Restorationis not certain but for example I-II cent. KV ( )
only. PerhapsKcxv&apirls olvos,but other possibili-
ties exist: owner'sname;Kav(Sliov) for KviS8ov;
Hd 3 (P 7529). PI.41. Amphora of late Koan etc.
type, like Robinson,Chronology, F 93. Dipinto
in black on shoulder.Context:late 1st century Hd 8 (P 13601).P1.41. Amphorapreservedonly
B.C. to early 1st century (D 11:1). H. 0.72m.; to shoulder.Dipinto in red on shoulder.Con-
D. 0.275m. text:mid-lst to mid-2ndcentury(N 19:2).
Late I cent. B.c.-earlyI cent. Mid-Ito mid-IIcent. (ligature) y&p(ou)
coc(tum)ab Auso[
Probably(garum)coc(tum)ab Auso[ . This Hd 9 (P 21381). PI.41. Neck and shoulder of
use of the participleis not knownto me from plainamphora(=Robinson, Chronology, H 20).
elsewhere,but the ablativeof agencywithfac- Dipintoin blackon shoulder.Context:firsthalf
turnis familiarfrom Pompeii;e.g., C.I.L., IV, 2nd century(P 8: 1).
5671ff.: g(arum)f(actum)ab Umbricio. Firsthalf II cent. (illegible)
(illegibleov
Hd 4 (P 15380). P1.41. Small jug with rounded (illegible)
body, narrowneck and ridgedhandle.Graffito
on shoulder. Context: 1st century (R 21:2). Thatis, raisinwine.Cf. C.LL.,IV, 5594.
PH. 0.15 m.; D. 0.129 m.
Hd 10 (P 10064). P1.41. Upper part of wide-
I cent. .at((ov) mouthedamphora.Dipintoin blackon shoulder.
Context: 2nd century (M 18:1). PH. 0.37 m.;
Hd 5 (P 9671). P1.41. Top of small coarse am- D. 0.25m.
phora, like Robinson, Chronology,G 197. Di-
pinto in black on shoulder.Context: lst-2nd II cent. KaOapo9u X(iTpa)[
centuries(M 18:1). Thatis, weightof contentsnet.
Late I-earlyII cent. npa.v[
A Hd 11 (P 963). P1.41. Wide-mouthedjar, similar
to Robinson, Chronology,M 118. Dipinto in
That is, Pramnianwine. The isolated delta black on shoulder. Context: late 2nd-early
may relateto capacityor quality. 3rd centuries(I16:1). H. 0.23m.; D. 0.18m.
Hd 6 (P 12373). P1.41. Wide-mouthedamphora LateII-earlyIII cent. aipco(v)K'
similarto Robinson,Chronology, M 41. Dipinto a&orapayou8'
in black on side. Context: late Ist-early 2nd Apparentlya decoctionof herbsmade up of
centuries (N 20:5). H. 0.195m.; D. 0.188m. 20 parts of darnelto four parts of asparagus.
Late I-earlyII cent. Xi(rpai)18' Cf. Dioscorides,II, 122, 152for uses of the two
(orai) herbsseparately.
H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS 75
Hd 12 (P 965). P1.41. Fragmentfrom neck and Hd 18 (P 5717). PI.41. Shoulderfragmentfrom
shoulderof a largeamphora.Dipintoin red on storage amphora. Graffito. Context: dumped
shoulder.Context:late 2nd-early3rd centuries fill going into 3rdcentury(E 14:1).
(I 16:1). III cent. cat(ov)
Late II-earlyIII cent. racr(craov) rro( )
Hd 13 (P 17894). PI.41. Small wheel-ridgedjug The significanceof the second abbreviation
like Robinson,Chronology,M 122. Graffitoon is obscure.
shoulder.Context:late 2nd to mid-3rdcenturies
(C 20:1). H. 0.201 m.; D. 0.128 m. Hd 19 (P 11198). P1.42. Neck and shoulder
Late II-mid-III cent. o7vou fragment of amphora with short neck and
rounded rim. Dipinto in black on shoulder.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Hd 14 (P 9918). P1.41. Wide-mouthedjar (= Context:late 3rd-early4th centuries(C 14:4).


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

Robinson, Chronology,M 118). Dipinto in Late Ill-early IV cent. e0~iaTa


black below lip. Context: early 3rd century
(M 17:1). H. 0.217 m.; D. 0.165 m. Preserves?
EarlyIII cent. irrayvia Hd 20 (P 1027). P1.42. Small storage amphora
(illegible) like Robinson, Chronology,M 237. Dipinto
Cf. Ephippus,fr. 24 (Kock) for this word in black on shoulder. Context: 5th century
listedamongothergood thingsof the table. (I16:1). H. 0.57 m.; D. 0.19 m.
Hd 15 (P 12359). P1.41. Shoulderfragmentof Late IV cent. A
wheel-ridgedamphora. Dipinto in black on TEPp(uVaVO6S)
neck behind handle, running down. Context: If the dipintorefersto the contents,the word
early3rdcentury(N 20:5). suggestedabove is most probable.The isolated
EarlyIII cent. &pco( ) alphamay referto quantityor quality.
r
Hd 21 (P 8001).P1.42. Neck and mouth of small
Perhaps &pco(panTis oTvos); cf. C.I.L., IV,
amphora. Graffito on lower part of neck.
5583: aroma( ). The gamma may refer to Found with coins of late 4th and 5th centuries.
qualityor quantity.
IV-V cent. Sioup(rnTlKOv)
Hd 16 (P 13605).P1.41. Upper part of amphora
withthickroundedlip, narrowneckand sloping Hd 22 (P 14086). P1.42. Amphora preserved
shoulder.Dipintoin blackon shoulder.Context: only up to shoulder,with squat plump body
firsthalf of 3rdcentury(P 19:1). and rounded bottom. Dipinto in black and
Mid-IIIcent. Sa'-ra graffitoon shoulder.Context:5th-6thcenturies
(P18:1). PH. 0.43m.; D. 0.38m.
V-VI cent. (dipinto) y?6a
Thatis, liquids:30 (probablylitrai).
(graffito) p[
Hd 17 (P 25195). PI.41. Amphora with pointed
toe similar to Robinson, Chronology,M 236. Hd 23 (P 7985). P1.42. Fragmentfrom neck and
Dipintoin blackon shoulder.Context:mid-3rd shoulderof plainamphora.Graffitoon shoulder.
century (Q 17:4). Late Roman 6&pv( )
Mid-IIIcent. TTp&(pveos olvos) Perhapsolvos&tiveOirisor atiovd&iveivov.

INTRODUCTIONTO COMBINEDNOTATIONS(He)
For the most partthese44 texts are madeup of notationsof capacity,date and contentsand so have
alreadybeen discussedalong with those categories.Thereare two chief exceptions:notationsof price;
and propernames,perhapsproducers,sellersor owners.
The threepricesfromthe Greekperiodarefairlyconsistentand are expressedin knownterms:about
two drachmsor one didrachm(stater)for eachchousof wine(Ha 5; He 1, He 2). The six possibleprices
fromthe Romanperiodare moreuncertainboth as readingsand with regardto unitsand values.Three
seemto employthe asterisk-shaped symbolfor denarius(He 16, He 17, He 38), but the threepricesfor
76 H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

amountsof commoditiesaveragingabout two choes are two, fifteenand fifteendenarii.The firsttwo


both date from the 2nd centurywhilethe thirdis fromthe 4th-5th centuries,but the commoditiesmay
be differentin eitherkind or quality,so that no real indicationof pricefluctuationexists. Some con-
firmationof the higherpricemay be found in another2nd-centuryprice (He 15): 16 drachms14 for a
smalljar (probablynot morethan two choes)of oil. It may be notedthat in the Edictof Diocletianthe
price-rangesfor wine and oil are similarto each other.
The two otherpossiblepriceinscriptionsare evenless certain:200 poMXeis (if doubledphi may be so
taken)for six choes(He 35,4th century);500keratiafor an uncertainamount(He 25, 3rdcentury).The
4th-centuryfollis is variouslyequated(Mattingly,RomanCoins,p. 229) with twenty-four,ten or four
denarii,makingpossiblepricesper chous of 800, 333 or 133 denarii.Thekerationis equatedwiththe
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siliqua(100denarii)so thatthe priceper chousfor the possiblecontentsof He 25 (perhapsthreechoes)


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

wouldbe a highlyimprobable16,666denarii.Furthermore,the date of this vessel seemsto be earlier


than the Constantinian introductionof thesiliqua,so thereis somepossibilitythatkerationwas usedfor
denarius(Metrolog.Script.,1,274),inwhichcasethepriceperchous(at500denariiforthreechoes)wouldbe
about166denarii.Thecumulativeuncertainties of readings,equationsandcommoditiesmaketheseprice-
indications(if suchthey are) of little value.Forwhatmayalsobe price-notations seeK 8, K 16-18;L 20.
Thenameswhichoccuron someof thesevesselshavelittlein commonwitheachotherbut canperhaps
be groupedas follows:personalnames,eitherabbreviatedor in the genitivecase,whichbeingpaintedon
are most likelyto be originaland so produceror sellerratherthan owner(He 6, He 11, He 12, He 14,
He 25, He 26, He 28); place-names(?), mostly abbreviated,which may give the provenienceof the
commodity(He 14, He 18, He 23, He 24). In addition,there are other notationswhich may be serial
numbers(He 8-10, He 19, He 20), one Christianmonogram(He 39) and one text whichmay add to the
amountdeliveredan amountstill owed(He 30).

He 1 (P 11382).P1.42. Mouth and neck of Men- 400-390 B.C. (Q 15:2). Hesperia, XXV, 1956,
daean-typeamphora. Graffito on either side p. 17, no. 71, pl. 4.
of neck. Context:thirdquarter5th centuryB.C. Early IV cent. B.C.
(R 13:4). Hesperia,XXV, 1956, p. 10, no. 44. (a) a&(cpopcos)(vaot)8(iKa) A(v&)(v&)
Third quarter V cent. B.C. (b) I(vaT)8(ka) (vaT)8(WKa)
X(6ES) 6(6Ka) K(o *Xn) K(OT,XTi) The two weightsshouldbe tare and net. On
58(Ka) r(T'rcrfipEs) a goods-mna of 457 gm.15 the jar will have
A combination of capacity and price: 10 weighed5.484kg. and the contents9.140 kg. If
choes, 2 kotyles; 10 staters. the contentswas wine, the capacitymust have
been less than three choes (9.828 1.); if oil,
He 2 (P 2366). P1.42. Chian amphora. Graffito rather more (three choes of oil would weigh
on neck, running downward.Context: third only 8.845 kg.); the breadthof the shoulders
quarter5th century B.C. (R 13:4). H. 0.79 m.; makesa dry materialless likely.
D. 0.31m. Hesperia,IV, 1935, p. 496, fig. 17,
no. 86; p. 516, fig. 28; XXV, 1956, p. 12, no. 58. He 4 (P 21792). P1.43. Body of large cylindrical
amphora,missing bottom, handles and neck.
ThirdquarterV cent B.C. Dipinto in black on shoulder.Context: early
TrVTr)?(s) E(Ys)X(s) 1st century(R 10:1). PH. 0.652m.; D. 0.305m.
8EKarrTrapEs
Late I cent. B.C. MO(DII) 8'
Both the capacity(sevenchoes) and the price C. FURNIO COS.
(14 drachms)appearon this jar. In the Chian ANTEA
dialectthe aspiratewouldbe omitted. A combination of capacity and date. For
He 3 (P 23948). PI.42. Upper part of amphora the oppositecombinationof Greekletterswith
with spreadinglip and broad shoulder.Graffiti RomannumeralsseeHe 19,He 20. Themeaning
near base of neck on both sides. Context: of anteain this contextis not readilyapparent.
Cf. H. Mat-
14 The Attic drachmsmay still at this time have been equatedwith the denarius,or at least valued at three-quarters.

tingly, RomanCoins,London, 1960, pp. 104, 196f.


16 I.e., 105 coin-drachmsof 4.36 gm. Cf. Agora, X, pp. 2-4.
H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS 77

He 5 (P 21788). P1.42. Upper part of large Thejar is too weakto be measuredfor capacity,
amphorawith angularhandlesand profiledlip. but cf. He 10. The numberon the other side
Dipinti between handles on both shoulders. might possibly be a date on the Actian era
Context:early 1st century(R 10:1). (i.e. A.D. 116), but the doubtfulfirst letter and
Early I cent. (a) o'i(KCOiaa)u(vcT)i?'<
the comparablenotations on He 9-11 suggest
that it mightbetterbe takenas a serialnumber.
Xcop..
(b) af(Kco0a) I?'< (val) 1E' He 9 (P 12468). P1.44. Amphora of late Koan
Tare is written on both sides; what must type similar to Robinson, Chronology,F 93.
be capacity(xcdbpima ?) appears on only one side, Dipinti in red on shoulder(a) and on body
and the amount(?) is largelyillegible. below handles (b). Context: second half 1st
century(N20:2). H. 0.893m.; D. 0.28 m.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

He 6 (P 21789).P1.43. Amphorawith ovoid body,


short neck and angularlip. Dipinto in black Late I cent.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

on shoulder.Context:early1stcentury(R 10:1). (a) e' (no longervisible)


PH. 0.438 m.; D. 0.338 m. (b) (one side) i6(Siol) y' (monogram)
(otherside) ,aacs'
EarlyI cent. li(Trpai)rl|'
AlOWcrvUOVu For drawingof monogram,see He 8, He 10,
He 11; see the same for capacity.The second
inscription on the body might be a serial
The weight of the jar, whichlacks the lower number(1246).
thirdof the body, is 4.235kg. or about 13 litrai;
18 litrai are 5.886 kg. Dionysiusis presumably He 10 (P 12469).P1.43. Amphoraof late Koan
the nameof produceror seller;for assimilation type like He 9. Dipinti in red on shoulder(a)
of the vowel to the ending, cf. Meisterhans2, and on body below handles (b). Context:
p. 22. Theta, which is no longer visible, may second half 1st century(N 20:2). H. 0.915m.;
give the capacity:nine (choes). D. 0.25 m.
He 7 (P 21793). P1.43. Ovoid amphora with Late I cent.
long narrow neck, vertical handles and ring (a) (one side) 8'
foot. Dipinti in black on both shoulders. (otherside) o'
Context:early1stcentury(R 10:1).H. 0.447m.; (b) (one side) pO6(S6oi) y' (monogram)
D. 0.217m. (other side) ,iu8o'
EarlyI cent. Compare He 8, He 9, He 11 for capacity.
The second inscriptionon the body (with the
(a) iaTrp(avcXatov) X(Txpai)K'o()y(Kiai) e'
horizontal stroke above the first two letters)
(b) ]K' might be a very large number(10,474) or an
The lower part of the kappa in (a) is lost in abbreviationof the name (?) which appearsin
the break; the abbreviationof ounce is an the same position on He 11. The capacity of
angular C-shapedgamma with omicron. The thejaris 27.3201.; threemodiiare26.2081.
jar holds 7.400 1. Twenty-sevenkotyles of
0.273 1. (as in the second inscription) are He 11 (P 12471).P1.43. Amphoraof late Koan
7.371 1.; oil of this amount would weigh type, like He 9. Dipinti in red on body below
6.633kg., or somethingover 20 litrai(20 x 327 handles. Context: second half 1st century
gm. = 6.540 kg.). (N 20:2). H. 0.92 m.; D. 0.285m.
Late I cent. (one side) O6(Stio)y' (monogram)
He 8 (P 12361). PI.43. Amphora of late Koan
(other side) 'hEpoV8ou
type with hornedhandles(= Robinson,Chron-
ology, M 54). Dipinti in red on shoulder(a) CompareHe 8-10 for capacity.The second
and on bodybelowhandles(b). Context:second inscription mightbe a name,not knownto me,
half 1st century (N 20:2). H. 0.775m.; D. or an abbreviation: 'ICpoV 5OV(?ou).
0.305m. He 12 (P 13617).P1.44. Upperpart of late Koan
LateI cent. (a) (one shoulder) E' amphora, similar to Robinson, Chronology,
(othershoulder) U' F 93. Dipinto in red on neck inside handle.
y' (monogram) Context:late 1st century(P 19:1). PH. 0.44 m.;
(b) (oneside)1o6(81ot)
(other side) .ps"' D. 0.23 m.
The letters epsilon and zeta are probably Late I cent. Aiav( )
numbers.The monogrammay be read as the X(irpai) Ks"'
numberthree and the abbreviationof modius. Combinationof personalname (?) with tare.
78 H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

He 13 (P 3297). P1.44. Upper part of large early The next sign is certainlythat for denarius,
Roman amphora with neck tapering toward with two strokes following presumablyindi-
top and handles ribbed. in
Dipinti green on catingthe price.
neck (a) and shoulder (b). Context: lst-2nd He 17
centuries(F 11:1). (P 10067). P1.44. Amphora similar to
Robinson, Chronology,L 31 but fuller and
I cent. (a) T'(oc(aov) earlier.Dipinto in black on shoulder;graffito
(b) ]>' o(U)y(Kiat) i' on neck above. Context: lst-2nd centuries
The first notation is here taken as contents, (M 18:1). H. 0.346 m.; D. 0.225 m.
i.e., raisin wine; there are obviously other II cent. (dipinto) Kp.a ouv*lE'
possibilities(e.g., TaAcai6s, for which compare i.' Ko(riXat)K6(a6os)
in
vet(us) C.LL., IV, 5526, 5536-8, etc.). The (graffito) 'Ill!i
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weight (40 litrai, 10 ounces) in the second The price of the contents is 15 denarii;the
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

notationmay be either tare or net weight; no capacity,now measuredas 5.500 1. to the lip,
similarjar survives completeto be measured. is just over 191/6kotyles of 0.273 1. (5.233 1.).
He 14 (P 12460).PI.44. Ovoidjar preservedonly The weightof the vessel is 2.185 kg., or some-
over six litrai (1.962kg.), as the six and
up to shoulder.Dipinto in black on shoulder. thing one-half (?) tally strokesindicate.(If it is 151/6
Context: early 2nd century (N 20:5). PH. must be half of 0.728 1. xestes
0.28 m.; D. 0.25 m. kotyles they
[l51/, x 0.364 1.- 5.520 1.].)
Early II cent. orra(pvoi)KOX?ou 'Epeveas
He 18 (P 7925). P1.44. Shoulderfragmentfrom
hold six and seven
between
'lar
jars an amphora.Dipinto in black. Context: late
Similar jars hold between six and seven 2nd-early3rdcenturies(D 12:1).
liters so that these three stamnoi of Kyllos of
Ereneiamight be like those reportedby Epi- Late II-earlyIII cent. Aug(usti)N(onae)
vas stig(matum)
phanius (Metrolog. Script., II, 102) to hold vin(um) saec( ) car( )
four xestai each. Twelve xestai are 6.552 1.
Whether Kyllos made jars or wine is un- vil(la) Terg(estina)
certain.The name,not attestedat Athens,may The expansionsof the abbreviationsare not
be a meaningful nickname. certain but seem to give date, contents and
provenience.
He 15 (P 17128). PI.44. Rim and neck of an He 19
(P 11992).PI.44. Large Roman amphora
amphora. Dipinti in black on shoulder (a) with pear-shapedbody like Robinson,Chronol-
and base of neck on other side (b). Context:
early2nd century(B 20:1). ogy, 14 but longerbodyand almostno neck.
M
Dipinti in red on neck (a) and below (b).
Early II cent. (a) &/pyi/e?( ) Context:earlyRoman(R 19:2).
IS' &pyuvpicov II-III cent. (a) X X V (see drawing)
(b) BaerEpos (b) 01 (writtendown
The first letters may be &pyti&(atov) or the side)
white oil, a word not attested but analogous For Romannumeralswrittenin this fashion
in form with &yptiAaosand in meaningwith see J. Egbert,Introduction to the Studyof Latin
apyf-rosXAaiou.The price is apparently 16 Inscriptions,New York, 1923, p. 75. It is
drachms;for &pyupisas drachm, see Hera- unlikely that the number indicates capacity,
clidesLembicus,frag.6. The secondinscription which can not be measuredbecausethe jar is
may describethe qualityof the contentsor the both weakand very large,since25 choes is too
positionof the jar in some series. muchand 25 xestaitoo little. It is most likelya
He 16 (P 11634). P1.44. Amphora (=Robin- serialnumber.The secondinscriptionmay be a
son, Chronology,M 90). Graffitoon shoulder. trade mark, kind of wine, or even a number.
Context: second half 2nd century (M 17:1). Cf. He 20.
H. 0.36 m.; D. 0.254 m. He 20 (P 12991).P1.44. Large Roman amphora
Secondhalf II cent. (see drawing) like He 19. Dipintiin red on neck(a) and body,
runningdown the side (b). H. 0.95 m.; D. 0.40 m.
Since the capacityof the jar is 7.000 1., it is
possible that the first two strokes stand for II-III cent. (a) X X I I I
two choes (6.552 1.) and the two crossed (b) AO
strokes for two additionalkotyles (0.546 1.). Cf. He 19.
H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS 79

He 21 (P 10247). PI.44. Ovoid jar with one The name in the genitive may be the pro-
handle, short neck and projectinglip ridged ducer; the tare of 15 litrai is possiblebut can
on top. Dipinto in red on shoulder.Context: not be demonstratedbecause of the jar's
3rd century(B 14:1). H. 0.362m.; D. 0.255m. presentstate. It may be that the thirdline gives
the price:500keratia(see above,p. 76).
Mid-III cent. Trav(Tracva) Ky'olvou
pjeAtrirvov He 26 (P 9675). PI.45. Amphora with ovoid
(two lines illegible) body taperingto ring foot. Dipintiin black on
The inscriptioncombinescapacity(33 ravwra- shoulder(a) and body (b). Context: 3rd cen-
vai = TprpAilaor kotyles)and contents(honeyed tury (N 18:5). PH. 0.425m.; D. 0.26 m.
wine).The capacityof the jar is 8.250 1. to the III cent. (a) A / Mf(Tpai),u'
base of the neck, which is broken above; 33
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

X(Trpat)Iy'
kotylesof 0.273 1. are 9.009 1. (b) Up&(vvEos)
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

He 22 (P 9897). P1.44. Small amphora(= Rob- TT]oXuKn()


inson, Chronology,M 199). Dipinto in black The capacityof the jar is ca. 13 1.; if the jar
on shoulder. Context: late 3rd century(M 17:1). held wine, the net weightwould be just about
H. 0.295m.; D. 0.188 m. 40 litrai (13.0801.). The secondweightmust be
tare; 13 litrai is 4.251 kg.; the jar, without
LateIII cent. mouth and handles, now weighs 4.550 kg.;
X{(Tpat) y' o(O)y(Kiat) rI'
0M7'KC0i(arTOS) presumablythere is considerablenon-soluble
Kaeap(ou)Xi(Tpai)i' depositinside.The identificationof the contents
The vessel weighs 1.116 kg.; three litrai and is uncertain,as is the nameof produceror seller.
eightouncesare 1.199kg. Thecapacityis 3.3001. He 27
to the lip; ten litrai of wine or water would (P 9676). PI.45. Upper part of amphora,
similar to He 26. Dipinto in black on shoulder.
weigh3.270kg. and havea volumeof 3.270 1. Context: 3rd century (N 18:5). PH. 0.375m.;
He 23 (P 26599). P1.45. Amphora,lackingneck, D. ca. 0.28 m.
with slender ovoid body and pointed toe. III cent. (DaEApv(6s)
Dipinto in black on shoulder. Context: late (see drawing)
3rd century(Q 17:7). PH. 0.51 m.; D. 0.238m.
The secondline is veryobscure.
Late III cent. ET(os) p95'
&rroMecco( )
,EsATiv(os) He 28 (P 17799).P1.45. Upper part of amphora
with handles from shoulder to mid-
This and the following are writtenin differ- neck.arching
Dipintoin blackon shoulder.
ent hands but have the samedate. The context
date of the jars is late 3rd century,so that the III cent. Oeo9 ( )
era on which the date is based must have its KOl?p(oU)di(Trpa)Q'
beginningin the secondhalf of the 1st century. Combinationof name and tare, if reading
Unfortunately,the name of the persons or is correct.
places from which the millet comes are so
uncertainthat the era can not be localized. He 29 (P 11195). P1.45. Fragmentaryamphora
similarto Robinson,Chronology, L 31. Dipinto
He 24 (P 26601). PI.45. Amphora with ovoid in black on shoulder; graffito near handle.
body, tall neck and vertical handles; bottom Context: 3rd-4th centuries (C 14:4). PH.
missing. Dipinto in black on shoulder. Con- 0.336 m.; D. 0.223 m.
text: late 3rd century (Q 17:7). PH. 0.54 m.; III-IV cent. (graffito) A((Tpai) AP3'
D. 0.235m. (dipinto) ] Xi(-rpac)6'
Late III cent. Tr(os)p96' ] Xi(rpai) Ky'
&Tr6TpwKcop( )
IE]XATv(os) ] ...TTOU
CYP.TCO
tI.AT]OS
See He 23.
Presumablythe graffitogivesthe total weight
He 25 (P 7405). PI.45. Upper part of amphora of jar and contents(32 litrai).The first line of
similar to Robinson, Chronology,K 112. Di- the dipinto must be the weight of the jar (9
pinto in blackon shoulder. litrai)and the secondthe weightof the contents
III cent. TRAivfov (23 litrai). The presentweight and capacityof
KOVT( ) X(irpa) iE' the jar provide some confirmationfor these
K?( ) q' figures although it is very much restored in
80 H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

plaster(whichis lighterthan clay) and still has He 33 (P 11301).PI.46. Upper part of small
no mouth. The jar weighs 1.935 kg. (instead amphora, similar to Robinson, Chronology,
of 2.943kg.) andholdsca. 5.5001. Evenwithout M 238.Dipintoin blackandgraffition shoulders.
the two words which may be most convinc- Context:4th century(G 11:2).
ingly restored as 'YI-rITTO,we should have IV cent. (graffitoon one shoulder) 1illl
known that the contentswas honey, since the (graffitoon othershoulder) illIllI
metrologicalwriters emphasizethe fact that (dipinto, now largely illegible) OM
honey weighsheavierby a thirdthan an equal 6oarp(xKou)Ai(rpal)s.'<
quantityof wine or water. Twenty-threelitrai IAlITOSAi(Trpa)K5'<
of honey (7.521kg.) will fit into a jar which
holds three-fourthsof 7.521 1. or 5.640 1. Both tallies and the dipintoindicatethat the
weighedsix and one-halflitrai.The contents
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

(The jar could not be located for the final jar


drawing,whichis thereforebased on an earlier weighed 24? litrai;and sinceit was honey,the
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

sketch.) capacity must have been only three-fourthsthe


amountof wateror wine neededto weighthat
He 30 (P 26119).P1.45. Amphorawithovoidbody (241/ x 327 gm. = 8.010kg. x 3 = 6.006 1.).
and pointedtoe. Dipinto in blackon shoulder.
Context: 4th century (Q 19:1). H. 0.56 m.; He 34 (P 27220). P1.46. Small wheel-ridgedam-
D. 0.30m. phorasimilarto Robinson,Chronology, M 238.
LateIII-earlyIV cent. Dipinto in black on shoulder. Context: 4th
pEAtT(fvou)l' / 65px.(a) e' century (E 29:5).
The capacityof the jar is 14.1001.; eighteen IV cent. 6arrpKou v i(rpai)[(nowpartlyillegible)
xestai of 0.728 1. are 13.1041. It is likely that IiArTOSA(Trpat)[
the contents is honeyed wine (pe^(TIvoSolvos) The numberof litrai is no longer legible on
rather than honey; cf. He 21. The above eitherline, but compareHe 33.
interpretationof the second line is somewhat
speculativeand assumes that the contents of He 35 (P 16728).P1.46. Shoulder fragmentfrom
this jar are part payment only of a debt or large amphora. Dipinto in black. Context:
shipment of which the greater part is still 4th century(N 21:1).
owing. IV cent. ]c ca'
He 31 (P 9806). P1.45. Amphora(= Robinson, ]X(?s) s'
Chronology,M 230). Graffiti on shoulders, If the doubled phi stands for qoACTIs, the
front (a) and back (b). Context: early 4th pricefor six choes (of wine?)will depend theon
century(M 17:1). H. 0.44 m.; D. 0.285m. particularvalueassignedto thefollis; see above,
EarlyIV cent. (a) 6ca<>Trp6Kou A(Trpal) IE' p. 76.
(b) &v.( )11111 He 36 (P 25175). P1.46. Amphora similar to
The presentweight of 5.125 kg. is somewhat Robinson,Chronology, M 234. Dipintoin black
heavierthan the calculated weight of 15 x 327 on shoulder. Context: 4th century(Q 17:4). H.
gm. = 4.905 kg., probably because of large 0.42 m.; D. 0.22 m.
amountsof pitchinsidethe jar. IV cent. 7T(AXpcowta) gav.6oU Xr-TosE(orrai) ty'
He 32 (P 12841). P1.46. Tall narrow amphora The expansion of the first letter is only
with handles from shoulder to below rim. tentative.The jar holds almost exactly7.098 1.
Dipinto in red on neck. Context:4th century or 13 xestaiof the 0.546 1. capacity.
(O 19:1). H. 0.542m.; D. 0.17 m.
He 37 (P 124).PI.46. Neck and shoulderfragment
Second half IV cent. A(i{rpat)0' of a small wheel-ridgedamphora similar to
Tpuv(yia) Robinson,Chronology, M 238. Dipintoin black
on lower neck and shoulder, now almost
The weight is not tare, since the jar weighs completelyfaded.
only 2.480 kg., or only about seven and one- IV-V cent. 6o-p[&aKov
half litrai. The capacity,however,is just about
ikTpa) s'
one chous (3.300 1.), and althoughone chous
of wine weighs ten litrai, one chous of oil
weighsnine. Hesychios(s.v.) providesevidence The inscription combines tare, capacity,
of the use of rpuyyiafor oil as well as for wine. and perhapsa date in the era of Diocletian:
The phi is unexplained. 139 =A.D. 423.
H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS 81

He 38 (P 11357). P1.46. Upper part of small LateV-earlyVI cent.


wheel-ridgedamphora. Graffiti on shoulders. (a) (orTal) XXV
Context:4th-5th centuries(E 15:5). (b) wIEXivns
IV-V cent. (one shoulder) e'< (c) PTi(v6s)'IouvlouiZ'
(othershoulder) IE' 'rr6Tro wTp9eOTco Tro
EcoS
(see drawingfor othersigns) The capacity is 14.530 1., very close to
The jar is smallenoughso that five and one- 25 x 0.546 1. (13.460 1.). The contents was
half (litrai) may represent tare; the other apparentlymillet. The date of the month is
inscriptionmay be either price or the weight perfectlyclear,and the line below seemsto be a
of the contents. command:"Let him put it up for sale from
this (time) until the ...." Perhaps the line
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

He 39 (P 12866). P1.46. Wheel-ridgedamphora which appears to connect the ecows


TOUto the
similar to Robinson, Chronology,M 333. Di-
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

date is to convey that June 17 is the terminal


pinti in red on shoulder(a) and inside handle date; in that case &rr6-TO0 must be "now." It
on neck (b); graffito on neck. Context: 5th is also possible that the dipinto has been lost
century(O 19:1). H. 0.464m.; D. 0.235m. at the end.
V cent. (dipinto)(a) (chi-rhomonogram)
o-raTvo( ) / IL'< He 42 (P 1567).P1.47. Shoulderfragmentof am-
(b) (almostillegibleand phora similarto Robinson,Chronology,M 333.
not drawn) Dipinti in red on shoulder(a) and on neck
(graffito) t' o(*)y(K(ai)5' behindhandle(b).
Despite what is apparentlythe name of the VI cent. (a) ] \i' 3"
jar (stamnos),this is certainlya Cypriotemodius (b) rp(6) i5[cov
of 17 plus xestai(Metrolog.Script.,I, 263, 272), EnTv(tEi.aEcos).
i.e., 9.646 1.; its capacityis 9.800 1. to the lip.
The almost illegible dipinto (b) might be the For the capacitysee He 39. For the date by
abbreviation for TriVEwpiIEcos;
cf. He 42. The indiction year see Tax Notations (I 1-45); here
present weight of the jar (somewhat light howeverits useappearsto be different.
because restored in plaster) is 3.165kg.; ten
litraiand four ouncesare 3.383kg. He 43 (P 4618). P1.47. Amphoraneck. Graffito
and dipintoin red.
He 40 (P 26104).PI.47. Miniatureamphorasimi-
lar in shape to Robinson, Chronology,M 306. Roman (graffito) (rra]oe(lbs) Ai(Tpa) iy'<
Dipinto in black just above toe ring. Context: (dipinto) KpI
4th-5th centuries (Q 19:1). H. 0.24 m.; D. The first gives tare, carelesslyscratchedby
0.115m. the owner, and the second gives capacity,
V cent. oc(a90o6s) o(O)y(kiai)X'
P' &rra(ao'aov) formally painted by producer or seller. The
The actual weight of the jar is 648 gm. or presumedsize of the amphorais compatible
very nearly two litrai (654 gm.). The capacity with a weight of 131/2 litrai and a capacityof
is 0.830 1. or slightlyover 30 ounces(0.818 1.). 22 xestai(12.0121.).
The abbreviationtaken here as contentsmight
be somethingelse. Particularlynotable is the He 44 (P 22833). P1.47. Wall fragmentof am-
location of the dipinto, suggestingthat it was phora.Two dipintiin black.
to be read while the jar lay undisturbedon a Roman Kov[
shelfwith only the toe visible. Kopi( ) g((orat) O'
He 41 (P 12707). P1.47. Amphora with ovoid The first line might be the producer'sname,
body similarto Robinson, Chronology,M 235. but since it is in a differenthand it might be
Dipinto in red on neck (a); in blackbelow (b); the contents of second use: e.g., KovSeITOv.
in black on shoulder (c). Context: late 5th- The second must give contents,whethersome-
early 6th centuries (O 19:1). H. 0.482 m.; thing flavoredwith corianderor a tradename
D. 0.293m. like Corinthian.
82 I. TAX NOTATIONS

I. TAX NOTATIONS

Thetypicaltextin this grouphas two elements:an indictiondateandan estatename.Oneor the other


elementis missingon somevessels,perhapsbecauseit was wornawayor becauseof a missingfragment,
1 1 both wereoriginallypresent.In almosthalf of
but it is both possibleand probablethat on all except
the texts somethingfurtherhas been addedto the two elements,but since these additionsare far less
uniformandconstantthanthe indictiondateand estatename,theymaybe consideredseparatelybelow.
Theindictiondateis most oftenexpressedby an abbreviation of
rirwpiouatsl andan alphabeticnumber.
Of the 37 textswhichpreservethe datein wholeor in part35 showthis form;the two variantsseemto
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

use the Latinwordspelledwith Greekletters,i. e.,l TvSu bvwith alphabeticnumerals(I 12, 44). The
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

abbreviationof brtvrivnrislis most?irivE(


often ) with the epsilon suspendedover the nu; next most
frequentis -rriv() with or withouta strokeover the nu. Thereare two exceptions:an earlytext gives
(I 4); a late and laconic one gives (rri)ve( ) (I 27). The numbers from ia to iEare most
Trr( ) EK&rris
oftenwrittenin this order,but theyare reversedin fourexamples(I 17, I 24,
I 39,143). Forthe chronol-
ogy of indictioncycles,seeKubitschek,pp. 106ff.;it is not possibleto identifythe particularcyclesto
whichthe yearsinscribedon the jars belong.
of
The estatenameis most oftenprefacedby an abbreviatedformXcopiov. Of the 33 textswhichseem
to use this formula,27 showa chi witha suspendedomega;fourlackthis partof the text (9,I 10, I 23,
1 38); the variantsare Xcop(rov) (I 45). Anotherformulaappearson threevessels
(I32) and X(co)p(fou)
a Trowiththe genitiveplural(14) or withabbreviations
fromthe early4th and 5th centuries: I 12).
( 11,
Often the estate names with Xcpiou too are abbreviated,but those given in full are all in the genitive case
(15, 119,110,119,120,123-25,127-29, 31,132,134,36-38,140,141). And since some of these are
adjectives, it may be right to assume that Xcopiouitself is in the genitive case. Concerning estate names
generallythe best sourcesare.LG., II112, 2776 and the cadastralinscriptionsfrom Lesbos (I. G., XII 2,
76ff.), Astypalaia(.L G., XII 3, 180ff.), Thera(L.G.,XII 3, 343ff.), Kos(L. G. R. P., IV, 1083),Tralles
(B. C. H., IV, 1880, pp. 336-338) and Magnesia (0. Kern, Inschriften von Magnesia am Maeander,
Berlin,1900,no. 122).Estatenameson thesejars, like those in the cadastralinscriptions,seemto be of
variouskinds.Most have referenceto naturalfeaturessuch as a spring(127), or hills (14,I 5), the sea
(133,I 35), kinds of trees (119,I 34,I 45) or some more generalaspectof the scene (118, I 36, I 37,
I 40,I 41,I 43). A few are known by the namesof persons(120,I 25), officials(19), nearbyshrines
(128,I 29,131) or a relevantplacename(123). Manyaretoo abbreviatedor uncertainto be categorized.
The combinationof indictiondatesand estatenamesof the sortfoundin the tax registersmakesclear
the originalfunctionof thesevesselsas containersfor taxesin kindpaidin varioustax yearsby various
estates.It was Diocletianwho institutedthe systemof annualpaymentsin kind based on elaborate
censusrecordsof the sortwe havefromLesbos,etc., but the actualbeginningof the fifteen-yearindiction
cyclescame only in A. D. 3121 so that it is no coincidencethat our earliesttax notationsdate from the
early 4th century.2
Not only do the inscriptionson thejars indicatethat they representthe paymentof taxesin kindbut
also the remarkableconcentrationof the inscribedjars in and aroundone buildingsuggeststhe use to
whichthe contentsmusthavebeenput. Twenty-fiveof thejarsbelowwerefoundin wellslocatedin four
squaresof the Agora grid(0-P 18-19);3fifteenmore were found in squareseitheradjacentor one re-

1 For a general discussion of indictionesor annual levies in kind see A. H. M. Jones, The Later RomanEmpire,Oxford, 1964,
pp. 61ff., 448ff.
2 1 is included in this
group because it employs the estate abbreviation,but the differentform of the vessel and its late 3rd-
centurydate set it apart from the rest of the series.
80 18: I 17-19, 123,124,128-34 P 18: I 35-37, 141
019:15,16,115 P 19:19,120-22,125,126
I. TAX NOTATIONS 83

moved.4Thebuildingin questionis a LateRomanstructuremostlyin squares0-P 18-19with some out-


lyingpartsin adjacentsquares.Thelargesize of the buildingmakeslikelya publicfunction;its domestic
features(wells, courtyards)suggestthat it was no tax collector'swarehouse;and the presenceof so
manyinscribedjars in the wellsmay indicatethat they wereemptiedon the spot. Somekind of official
householdwith a largeresidentpopulationis likely,eithercivil or military,to whom the taxes in kind
could have been issuedas rations.
Of the other notationson these jars the most frequentis probablythat indicatingcontents.Nine
vessels(I 7, I 10, I 16, I 19, I 20, I 25, I 29, I 40, I 45) show some form of 'ALcvaos,5
a wine so called
fromthe veryspecialvines(Pliny,N. H., XIV, 4, 21) originallygrownin Aminaea,a regionin Picenum,
but later grown everywhere(loc. cit., 4, 36). The presumptionis that only special wines were labeled, but
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

that all these similarvesselshad wine as theircontents.The otherabbreviationswhichmightbe special


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

wines are: a&wr() (I 12); irpap( ) (I 13); pev[ ] pEXt[


(I 42).
Capacityor net weightis notedon 15,110, I 12,118,121,123,124,126,132. Tareappearsonly on
17, wholenotationsof date occuron I 17, I 23, I 44. All these are discussedin the introductionsto the
appropriatecategories.Additionaland unexplainednotationsarefoundon 1 8,111,124.
The jars on which all these inscriptionsappearare of four main types; only the first and the last
(I 1, I 45) are demonstrablydifferent;threeothers(18, I 10, I 14) are too fragmentaryto be classified.
Withinthe generaluniformitythe variationsin fabricandin the thin-glazewashandthe slightdifferences
in the treatmentof feet and handlesseemto indicatea varietyof provenienceswhichcoincideswell with
the interpretationof thesejars as paymentof taxes in kind from variousestatesin a fairlylargearea.
The largestgroup(TypeI)6 is made up of tall jars with narrownecksand one handle.Next most nu-
merousarethejars(TypeII)7withtwo handlesandovoidbodynarrowingsharplyto a smallpointedtoe:
thesebelongto the late 5th and 6th centuriesand seemto havereplacedthe thirdtype.Thejars of Type
III8are similarto those of Type II exceptthat they have a smallring foot. Fewestof all are the two-
handledjars (Type IV)9of soft orangeclay with wheel-ridgedbody taperingalmost withouta curve
from the shoulderto the toe. Becauseof the generaluniformitynot only of shapesbut also of contexts
for thesevessels,it seemsunnecessaryto give individualcontextdates.Instead,the type as in the above
classificationis given.
All inscriptionsarewrittenon the shoulderof thejar withblackpaintunlessindicatedotherwise.

I 1 (P 9681). P1.48. Rim and wall fragmentof 1 3 (P 9808). P1.48. Amphorawith ovoid body
pithos. Dipinto in black on upper wall. Con- on false ring foot (= Robinson, Chronology,
text: N 18:5. M 233).TypeIII. Context:M 17:1. H. 0.466m.;
Late III cent. Xco(piou)
P9[ D. 0.271m.
1 2 (P 12261).P1.48. Amphorawith ovoid body, EarlyIV cent. frrl(VEPoC?os)1'
similarto Robinson,Chronology,pl. 40, P 16704. I4 (P10265). P. 48. Narrow-neckedovoid jar
Early variant of Type II. Context: N 20:5. with one handle and small flat bottom, pre-
H. 0.515 m.; D. 0.254m.
decessor of Robinson, Chronology, M 315.
Early IV cent. E'
wnMv(Elacrscos) Type I. Context: M 18:4. PH. 0.54 m.; D.
(traces) 0.26 m.

4 M 17: I3 N 18: I1 Q 17: I27,139,140,144,145


M 18: I4,I16 N20:1 2, I17 Q 19:I43
N21: I10-12
5 Various forms: 'Avivvios(Ed. Diocl., 2,4); 'AgvvaTos(Diosc. 5,19); 'ApivaTos (Hesych. s.v.); 'AlpivaTos(Geoponica,VIII, 22,1).
6 1 4, 1 5, 17, I 25-40. See Robinson, Chronology,M 315 for a late example.
71 20-24, I 41-43. For early variants
(I 2, 1 9) see Robinson, Chronology,pl. 40, P 16074; M 236.
8 3, I 6, I 13,
1I 15-19. See Robinson, Chronology,M 233, M 302, M 324.
9I 11,1 12. See Robinson, Chronology,M 334.
84 I. TAX NOTATIONS

EarlyIV cent. &oT6


TptKoXcbvcov Late IV-V cent. e[Tnv(E1direcos)]8'
?7r(IVE|jirCOS) SEKOTTis S'
EXAscO[Vo]vErTv(q.e?aecoS)
The variantforms of both estate nameand It is not clearthat anythinglike xco(piou)or
indictiondatemarkthis out as an earlyexample,Tor6was writtenin front of the wordfor "stew-
perhapsbefore standardization."Threehills" ards." It mightbe that the jar was markednot
seemsa possiblenamefor an estate. with its proveniencebut with its prospective
users-a specialvintagetoo good for ordinary
I 5 (P 12874). P1.48. Narrow-neckedovoid jar rations.
with one handleand small flat bottom, similar
to 14. Type I. Context: 019:1. H. 0.562m.; I 10 (P 15766).PI.49. Walland shoulderfragment
D. 0.228m. of amphorawith ovoid body. Context:N 21: 1.
EarlyIV cent. ]trr]w(Fioicos) Pouvo-v EarlyV cent. [xco(piou) ---]avcov'A!uiv(vaTos)
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

y' Xco(piou)
E(aoTai)1S' 0'
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

IKE'E t13'
Gamma is probably right for the date, lv(E?4o'6COs)
althoughit is obscuredby a diagonal stroke, The beginning of the estate name, which
which may indicatethat the previousword is seemsto be genitiveplural,is lost. The contents
abbreviatedor that the gamma itself is a follow on the same line. In the secondline the
number.For the estatename,cf. BouvvsEvBapOp number27 seems to be too large for capacity
from Tralles(B.C.H.,IV, 1880,pp. 336ff.) and (27 xestai are 14.742 1.) or tare (27 litrai are
Bouviov(Kern, Inschriftenvon Magnesia am 8.829kg.); it couldbe the weightof the contents
Maeander,no. 122); the referenceis obviously (i.e., 8.829 kg. would be about 16 xestai of
topographical.The jar now holds 7.800 1.; wine). The theta betweenthe lines is probably
14 xestaiof 0.546 1. are 7.644 1. the numbernine, but its applicationis obscure.
I 6 (P 12827).PI.48. Amphorawith ovoid body I 11 (P 15784).PI.49. Tall amphorawith wheel-
and smallringfoot, similarto 1 3 but plumper. ridged body taperingto pointed bottom, like
Type III. Context: 0 19:1. H. 0.47m.; D. Robinson, Chronology,M 334. Type IV. Con-
0.308m. text: N21:1. H. 0.59 m.; D. 0.20m.
LateIV cent. Xco(piov)Trr() Ka( ) EarlyV cent. i]-rrv(e6icr?cos) ca'ycovo( )
Note that the dots above upsilonand kappa arr6 OUIK ( ) AA
mayindicateabbreviations. It is unclearwhether The word after the indiction year might be
the estatenameis made up of two words,e.g., expectedto give the kind of wine but seemsnot
uvnr6Ka(XXipp6Ov) or whetherthe secondelement to be otherwiseknown. For the abbreviated
might be a number, e.g., Xco(piou)Cr(&rou), estate name cf. BtKtavos at Magnesia on the
21, perhapsindicatingcapacity. Maeander(Kern, loc. cit. [I 5]). The reading
and interpretationof the followingtwo letters
1 7 (P 12262). P1.48. Narrow-neckedovoid jar are uncertain.
similarto I 4. Type I. Context: N 20:5. PH.
0.465m.; D. 0.238m. I 12 (P 16679). PI.49. Upper part of amphora
IV cent. bivs(lio'aEcos)E''Apuv(valos) like I 11. TypeIV. Context:N 21: 1.
XE(iTpat)1p' EarlyV cent.
The jar, which lacks mouth and bottom, Xf(Tpai) K' aTr( ) 18'
v58(1<KTicvos)
&rr6NoT( )
weighs2.950kg. The 12 litraiof the secondline,
if this readingis correct,are 3.924kg. (graffito) OY
Line 1: the numberafter the abbreviationis
1 8 (P 3002). P1.48. Shoulderfragmentof jar of uncertain; a similarjar (I 11) holds about 20
coarse grayish clay. Found with pottery and litrai. The contents may be &rdiTnrs (pear-wine)
coins of 4th century(Q 15). or nrrta-rov (wine flavoredwith celery).(From
IV cent. (traces) this same well came shoulderfragmentsof two
]TroT( ) 'Tv(e?VCoos) 8' other amphorasof this shape and fabric with
The word abbreviatedbefore the indiction inscriptions in black paint, now illegible:
yearmay be the estatename. P 16677,P 16678.)
1 9 (P 13590).P1.49. Amphorawithtaperingbody 1 13 (P 3754). P1.49. Upper part of amphora,
and pointed toe, like Robinson, Chronology, similar to Robinson, Chronology,M 302, but
M 236. Early variant of Type II. Context: with narrow mouth. Type III. Context: late
P 19:1. Roman(I 15:1).
I. TAX NOTATIONS 85

EarlyV cent. Xco(piou)wAx( ) 1939-71, p. 204) must have influenced even


(traces) Attic purists.
The ways in whichthe estate name could be 1 20 (P 13433).P1.50. Amphorawith ovoid body
completed are various; cf. L 43. The traces and short rounded toe. Type II. Context:
below might be TTp...(vEios). P 19:1. H. 0.385 m.; D. 0.215 m.
I 14 (P 5623). P1.49. Neck fragmentof narrow- LateV-VI cent. Xco(piou)
lTacrxrrou
mouthedjar. Context:N 13:1. r)'
'Ag,vv(aTos)krrivE(pn?oaEcoS)
V cent. XCo(p(ou).&rrop[ The estate is apparentlythat of Pasippus;
for the single instead of the double consonant
The indiction year may have been written in this periodsee Meisterhans2,
below. p. 73.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

1 21 (P 13468).P1.50. Amphora,similarto 1 20.


I 15 (P 12710).P1.49. Amphorawith ovoid body
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

Type II. Dipinti in both black and red. Con-


similar to 1 17. Type III. Context: 0 19:1. text: P 19:1. H. 0.47 m.; D. 0.28 m.
PH. 0.368 m.; D. 0.237 m.
LateV-VI cent. (black) Triv(6Eio'Ecos)
ti3'
V cent. Xco(piou)0 ( ) Tnve(VrioEcos)
cs'
Xco(p(ou)[
The first part of the line could as well be (red) (koarat)ie'
x6(Es)0' from the palaeographicalpoint of The capacityis 12.7501., whichis somewhat
view, but the certaintyof the indiction date morethan15xestaiof the0.7281.size(10.9201.).
may make the estate interpretationeasier. The (Dipintinow barelyvisible.)
estate may have been known by a number
ratherthan a name. 1 22 (P 13474).P1.50. Amphora,similarto 1 20.
Type II. Context: P 19:1. PH. 0.42 m.;
1 16 (P 14018).P1.49. Amphorawith ovoid body D. 0.275m.
and false ring foot, similar to I 17. Type III. LateV-VI cent. rtlvE(aicrcos) is'
Context:M 18:4. PH. 0.37 m.; D. 0.23 m.
Traces of letters on the broken edge above
Late V-VI cent. ]TrtV(E^Ecrecos)IE''Agtvv(aTos)
may be the remnantsof the estatename.
Only indiction year and contents are now
visible. I 23 (P 13160). P1.50. Upper part of amphora
like 1 20. Type II. Context:0 18:1.
1 17 (P 13178).P1.50. Amphorawith ovoid body LateV-VI cent.
and small ring foot, similar to Robinson,
6WtV(EPIsco) iE'
Ir)(vO6) KT-eioUs'
Chronology,M 324. Type III. Context:0 18:1. [Xoo(piou)]MEOivrns t'
g(Eorat) o(u)y(Kaa)y
H. 0.456 m.; D. 0.26 m.
A completejar of similarshapeand approxi-
LateV-VI cent. IA(rlvos)
a' nrrve(Iji'aooS)El' mate size (I 20) holds 6.500 1., so that the
I 18 (P 13148).P1.50. Amphorawith ovoid body, presentxestai might have been either size: 10
similar to 1 17. Type III. Context: 0 18:1. and 3/20 x 0.546 1. = 5.542 1. or 10 and
H. 0.407 m.; D. 0.24 m. 3/20 x 0.728 1. = 7.362 1.
Late V-VI cent. FwmvE(QcEcos) I' I 24 (P 13147). P1.50. Upper part of amphora,
X&)(piou)cyopi(ou) similarto I 20. Type II. Dipinto in red. Con-
(eorTa) t' text: 0 18:1.
The estate may be oyop<ai>ou;see Meister- LateV-VI cent.
hans2, p. 27 for the spelling. The jar holds O6(ios)
7.800 1., whichwouldbe slightlymorethan ten XC)(piou)[.]vouthS rTIVcs(i:aEos) yi'
of the 0.728 1. xestai(see above,p. 57). AtOKA( ) AapoKpaTrOS
1 19 (P 13158).P1.50. Amphora,similarto I 17. Both the reading and significanceof the
Type III. Context: 018:1. PH. 0.39m.; D. third line are uncertain.
0.24 m. 1 25 (P 13465).P1.51. Tall taperedjar with one
Late V-VI cent. 'Alvtvv(aTos) handle, like Robinson, Chronology,M 315.
Xco(piou)Outcovos Type I. Context:P 19:1. H. 0.51 m.; D. 0.205m.
The estate name shouldprobablybe read as LateV-VI cent. Xco(plou)MoXrrou 'Ati(vvaios)
<TT>ucovos since in this period the frequent ia'
Trtv(6E'cEscos)
interchangeof phi and pi in Egypt and Asia The last word in the first line seems to be a
Minor (E. Schwyzer, Gr. Gram., Miinchen, shorterthan usualabbreviationof 'Algvvaios.
86 I. TAX NOTATIONS
1 26 (P 13467). P1.51. Tapered jar, similar to Late V-VI cent. Xco(piou)Batcov
125. Type I. Context: P 19:1. PH.0.535m.; Cf. xco(piou)Batasin Magnesia (Kern, loc. cit.
D. 0.198m. lI 51).
a'
LateV-VI cent. Trnv(e?fircos)
ai'
E(o'rrat) I 35 (P 12863). P1. 52. Tapered jar similar to
125. Type I. Context: P 18:2. PH. 0.555m.;
The capacity is 6.210 1.; 11 x 0.546 1. = D. 0.231 m.
6.006 1.
0'
VI cent. ErivE?(fcrEcos)
1 27 (P 25064).P1.51. Taperedjar, similarto I 25. (traces)
Type I. Context: Q17:4. PH.0.505m.; Xco(piou) 'rapa,iou
D. 0.205m. (traces)
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Late V-VI cent. Xco(piou)-rrniyis The traces in the second and fourth lines
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

(mI)vE(6or?os) Y look like earlier(more faded) versionsof the


firstand thirdlines.
1 28 (P 13182).P1.51. Taperedjar, missingneck
and mouth, similarto 1 25. Type I. Context: 1 36 (P 13063).P1.52. Mouth and neck fragment
0 18:1. PH. 0.432m.; D. 0.225m. of jar like 1 25. Context:P 18:2.
Late V-VI cent. rin[ VI cent. Xco(piou)Kevfis E[tv(EixaEco5s)
xco(piou)p( ) MfOpou Cf. 1 18.
PerhapsKaivqs?
The betain the secondline may be a number,
e.g., the secondfield of Mithras,or an abbrevi- 137 (P 13065). P1.52. Tapered jar like 1 25.
ation of popeioSor pcoi6osor pouvoXstov. Type I. Context: P 18:2. PH. 0.465 m.; D.
0.205 m.
1 29 (P 13188). P1. 51. Shoulder fragment of jar
like 1 25. TypeI. Context:0 18:1. VI cent. xco(piou) xSv E?hiv(Eraorcos)
18'

LateV-VI cent. rw[iv(Eao?cos). 'A]i]v(vacos) 1 38 (P 1461).P1.52. Wall and shoulderfragment


Xco(pio)p( ) Miep[ou of jar like 1 25. Type I. Context: mixed fill
(G-H 16-17).
I 30 (P 13170). P1. 51. Shoulder fragment of jar
like 1 25. TypeI. Context:0 18:1. VI cent. ]Eou
bE]tv(~iE(?os) 8'
Late V-VI cent. xco(piou)Tlpia[ e.g., nlpiaxrEou
I 39 (P 25048). P1. 52. Tapered jar like I25.
1 31 (P 13171). P1. 51. Shoulder fragment of jar
like 1 25. TypeI. Context:0 18:1. Type I. Context: Q 17:4. PH. 0.555 m.;
D. 0.20 m.
Late V-VI cent.
ta' VI cent. Xco(piou)rrpoK( )
Xco(pfou) lepoUkrIVE(l6a?wcoS)
MlVe?(pJ JCOS) El'
I 32 (P 13151). P1.51. Shoulderfragmentof jar The estate name might be anything from
like 1 25. TypeI. Context:0 18:1. to TTp6KAou.
TrrpoKEiEvoV
ta'
Late V-VI cent. hrTv(EgncrEcoS)
1 40 (P 26691). P1.52. Tapered jar like 1 25.
Ka0(apoO)o(O)y(Kiai) o'
Type I. Context: Q 17:7. PH. 0.47 m.; D.
Xco(pfou)'AXco( ) &ypou 0.21 m.
The capacity of similar jars is about 5?/2
VI cent. ?TrvE?(ji6cEcos)Iy'
liters, which would give a net weight of 200
ounces (5.460 kg.) or 10 xestai of wine. For a Xco(piou) oVKO6Aou
'Aiuv[vcTios
personal name (?) with &ypou as an estate or oruyKo?.os?
PerhapsayK AXos
namecf. Tralles(B.C.H.,IV, 1880,pp. 336-338).
1 41 (P 13064). P1. 53. Upper part of amphora
1 33 (P 13157). P1.52. Shoulderfragmentof jar similarto 1 20. TypeII. Context:P 18:2.
like 1 25. TypeI. Context:0 18:1. VI cent. Xco(piou)[N]?Epv
LateV-VI cent. Xco(pfou) Eca[ e.g., Eixou S'
'A[tv]v(caos)iTnve(l~fq|o~os)
iTrv(e6aoecos) 0'
1 42 (P 12152). P1.53. Shoulder fragment of
I 34 (P 13169). PI. 52. Shoulder fragment of jar amphora similar to 120. Type II. Context:
like 1 25. TypeI. Context:0 18:1. Late Roman.
J. CHRISTIAN INSCRIPTIONS 87

VI cent. Mev[ Year 239 of Diocletian was A.D. 523; the


third year of the appropriateindiction cycle
xco[ began in September A.D. 524. This might be an
(traces) error?Or the number has some other signi-
PerhapsMendaeanwine with honey? ficance?
1 43 (P 26083). P1.53. Amphorasimilarto I 20, 145 (P 26690). P1.53. Amphora with wheel-
with more elongatedbody. Type II. Context: ridgedcylindricalbody and round bottom like
Q 19:1. H. 0.42m.; D. 0.18 m. Robinson,Chronology, M 333. Dipintiin black
VI cent. + and red on shoulder. Context: Q 17:7. H.
Xco(pfou)&Kev() mTnv?(uiaoscos)
pt' 0.47 m.; D. 0.27 m.
The cross may be Christian.The estatename
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

VI cent.
maybevariouslycompleted,e.g.6o&crpos,acxaivn. (black) rTiv?(E(7?ecos) ty' x(co)p(ou) 'Axpa( )
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

1 44 (P 26694). P1.53. Amphora of same fabric pouvaios .. ..ivios


as I 11 and of same generalshape but shorter (red) (fainttracesof abbreviationfor xestes)
and with small flat base. Type IV. Context: This jar, as the only one of its kind with an
Q 17:7. H. 0.43 m.; D. 0.128m. indictiondate, was probablyre-used.Presum-
VI cent. iv8(iKTrcovos) y' ably an alternatespelling of 'Amivvcaos and a
(writtenvertically)eAX' specialvintagefrom the hills.

J. CHRISTIAN INSCRIPTIONS

Includedhere are vesselswhichhave Christianinscriptionsonly. Symbolsthat are most easilyinter-


pretedas Christianalso appearin companywithothernotationson F 322-324,Ha 46, Hc 22, He 39, I 43.
For parallelsand generaldiscussionsee C.L.L.,XV, 4889ff.andF. CabrolandH. LeClerq,Dictionnaire
d'archeologie chretienne et de liturgie, Paris, 1924-53, s.vv. amphores, chrisme, inscriptions. For the
specificproblempresentedby X M r, see W. K. Prentice,Cl. Phil., IX, 1914,pp. 410-416,who argues
for XpiorosMapiasyivva in preferenceto XpiarosMiXa?A9 rappiiA. J 7, J 8 below give support to
Prentice'sview, since or
Se(oi) $(Eo0)is for
substituted the mu.

J 1 (P 7544). P1.53. Fragmentof small amphora EarlyV cent. (chi-rhomonogram)


preservingpart of rim, neck and shoulderwith rTiS Tiapeevou
one handle. Dipinto in black on shoulder.
Foundwith coins of 4th-5th centuries. J 5 (P 9756). P1.53. Amphora neck. Dipinto in
red. Context: 5th century(B 14:1).
IV-V cent. '1q](chi-rhomonogram)aou
V cent. XMr
J 2 (P 9766). P1.53. Amphoraneck and shoulder
with plain thickenedrim. Dipinto in red on J 6 (P 12713). P1.53. Amphora like Robinson,
shoulder.Context:4th-5th centuries(K 18:1). Chronology, pl. 40, P 16074.Dipintoin blackon
shoulder. Context: 5th century (O 19:1).
IV-V cent. X Mr H. 0.503m.; D. 0.246m.
J 3 (P 16313). P1.53. Wall fragment from tall V cent. M
one-handledjar like Robinson, Chronology, eoss pon)e6s
M 315. Context: 4th-5th centuries (K 18:1). The mu might stand for 40 (kotyles) or
IV-V cent. XMF (verticalto jar) "modius"; both measureswould be possible.
Orit mightbe for contents,e.g., pEAl.
J 4 (P 25133).P1.53. Small ribbedpitchersimilar J 7 (P 13060).P1.54. Small amphorawith cylin-
to Robinson, Chronology,M 291. Graffitoon drical wheel-ridgedbody and short narrow
shoulder.Context:early 5th century(Q 17:4). neck. Dipinti in red on neck (a) and body (b),
H. 0.175 m.; D. 0.13 m. Hesperia, XXV, 1956, (c). Context: 5th-6th centuries(P 18:1). PH.
b.
p. 54, pl. 14, 0.49 m.; D. 0.202 m.
88 K. MISCELLANEOUS NOTATIONS

V-VI cent. (a) Xr J 10 (P 3756). P1.54. Shoulder fragment from


e(oO) small amphora.Dipinto in black on shoulder.
(b) Tp.( ) Late Roman X Mr
(c) xaaTrTo( )
J 8 (P 13087). P1.54. Fragmentfrom neck and J 11 (P 15075). P1.54. Neck and shoulder of
shoulderof amphora.Dipinto in red on neck. amphora.Dipintoin blackat base of neck.
Foundwith potteryof 6th century. Late Roman X Mr
VI cent. Xe r
J 12 (P 15560).P1.54. Shoulderfragmentof am-
J 9 (P 10564). P1. 54. Tall one-handled jar (=
phora.Dipintoin red.
Robinson, Chronology,M 315). Graffito on
Late Roman X Mr
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

wall. Context: late 6th century (D 15:2).


H. 0.52m.; D.0.183m.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

LateVI cent. (chi-rhomonogram)

K. MISCELLANEOUS NOTATIONS

Includedin this grouparetextswhichcan be readand interpretedbut whichdo not belongto one of


the largerclasses. Probableprices (K 8, K 16-18)1are more numerousthan anythingelse. Numbers
withoutdefinitionarealso frequent(K9, K 14, K 15, K 19). Othersareone or two of a kind:vesselname
(K 1, K 10); message(K2, K 3); signature(K 4, K 6); gamecounter(K 12); equation(K 13, K 14). All of
thesecan be most convenientlydiscussedunderthe individualitems.

K 1 (P 18276).P1.54. Wellhead.Graffition side VI cent. B.C. dyoVI9Ov wT6po[v


wall, outside. Context: second quarter 6th Perhapsa mascotpreparedby a boy entering
centuryB.C.(A 17:1). Hesperia,XVIII, 1949, a contest:"agonisticresource."
p. 119.
Second quarterVI cent. B.C. K 4 (P 12181).P1.54. Wall fragmentfrom thin-
walled vessel, with brownishglaze inside and
(a) (upsidedown) icr[e]Oiov<q(>paT(os)out. Graffito on outside.
(b) EnAes
"Neck of well." The Greekterm is perhaps Late VI-early V cent. B.C. ]s gypa[gcrs
more sensiblethan our "wellhead."The name Presumablysignatureof owner, since it is
may be of the owner. incised.
K 2 (P 4233). P1.54. Black-glazedfragment,per- K 5 (P 16791). P1.54. Fragmentfrom base and
haps from lower wall of skyphos. Graffitoon floor of black-glazedstemlessbowl. Graffitoon
outside. Found with 6th- to 5th-centuryB.C. inside, almostcertainlywrittenwhen the vessel
pottery. was wholesinceit followsthe curveof the wall;
VI cent. B.C. Ele]iyois 9*Tr[pas subsequentlybrokenin half and chippedaround
theedges.Context:late 6thcenturyB.c. (G 15:1).
Compare C.L.G., I, 545: Kr<pioopro&vTos i Cf. Sparkes-Talcott,no. 446.
Koxtl- eav 6e TISKararn SpaXi,iv TrroTE'itar.
Ca. 500 B.C. ]ot ypap[
Scopovov Trapa=evo ... Also Kretschmer, p. 91:
Bu' 6PEACA Kal E OeiyEiswith commentary by Perhaps to be restored as rTOIyp&ovT-r and
D. A. Amyx, University of California Publica- used as a tag, or -rot ypaqpvypaqpovoi "to
tions in ClassicalArchaeology,I, 8, Berkeley and the prosecutor."
Los Angeles,1941,pp. 179-206. K 6 (P 15108). P1.55. Upper part of amphora
K 3 (P 27724). P1.54. Wall fragment of large with bulbousneck and verticalhandles.Graf-
black-figuredamphorapreservingcentral part fito on neck and shoulder. Context: second
of a shield with whirlingradii. Graffitostarts half 5th century B.C.(E 19: 5).
at centerand goes out and around. Second half V cent. B.C. avriy/pa,[e 6oeliva
1 For other prices see Ha 5; He 1, He 2, He 15-17, He 25, He 35, He
38; L 20.
K. MISCELLANEOUS NOTATIONS 89
The second line is written retrograde."So Not a statementof capacity but a note of
and so checkedthe account"? equivalence: one chous equals six xestai.
Perhapswrittenon the sherd.
K7 (P 25909). P1.55. Fragmentfrom floor of
black-glazedbowl. Graffitoon inside. K 14 (P 19861). PI. 55. Fragmentfrom neck of
V cent. B.C. XEX largeamphorawith profiledlip. Dipinto in red
"You pour" (x?ts)is perhaps more proper on neck.
but less sensible than Xia((a), whether as Late Hellenistic ]IE'
expletiveor definitionof the vessel'suse. XL]V
K 8 (P 19389).P1.55. Part of flat-toppedrim and Obviously Greek and Roman numerals,
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

shoulderof a large pithos. Graffitoon upper perhapsequated.


surfaceof rim.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

K 15 (P 21773). P1.55. Fragmentfrom neck of


IV cent. B.C. I!11 111' large amphorawith profiled rim. Dipinto in
Tallyingand price: nine drachmas(and one redon neck.Context:early1stcentury(R 10:1).
obol?). EarlyI cent. XXXV[
K 9 (P 20373). P1.55. Shoulder fragment from CompareHe 19 for the method of writing
jug. Dipinto in black. Found with sherds of the tens.
4th-3rdcenturiesB.C.
IV-III cent. B.C. A KY K 16 (P 12478). P1.55. Amphora similar to
Robinson,Chronology, M 12. Dipinto in black
Presumablya number, but since the last on shoulder. Context: first half 1st century
sign might be seen either as upsilon (400) or (N 20:5). H. 0.395 m.; D. 0.28 m.
the drachm-symbol, the readingmightbe either
"424" or "24 drachms." Firsthalf I cent. 8rl(vapta)p[
Presumablyprice,probablyof contents.
K 10 (P3983). PI. 55. Amphora with almost
cylindricalbody and small toe. Lettersincised K 17 (P 10268).PI. 55. Amphorasimilarto Rob-
beforefiringat base of neck. Context:3rd-2nd inson, Chronology,M 234. Dipinto in black
centuriesB.c. (G l: 1). PH. 0.615m.; D. 0.314m. on shoulder. Context: 4th century (M 18:4).
III-II cent. B.C. &a(qopeCis)AtorTiou H. (restored)0.53 m.; D. 0.27 m.
The part of the handles where a stamp IV cent. cr'
vo({faac-raT)a
might have been is missing,but the inscription See Metrolog. Script., I, p. 253 for equi-
made beforefiringmay give the potter'sname. valencebetweennomismaand denarius.
K 11 (P 17070). P1.55. Amphora handle. Graf-
fito on top. Foundwith Hellenisticsherds. K 18 (P 11307). P1.55. Fusiform wheel-ridged
jar with one handle,like Robinson,Chronology,
Hellenistic ap(opEOs) M 240. Dipinto in black beneath handle.
Perhapsthe other handlecarriedthe potter's Context:4th century(G 11:2).
name; cf. K 10. The abbreviationmight be IV cent. KaAwTr(os)
expandedin otherways. e'Bp(axvait)
K 12 (P 22976). P1.55. A roughly circulardisc This form of the word is more frequentthan
cut from the wall of a pot, glazed inside and either KaXAiri
or Ka&XTros.
The inscriptionpresu-
out. Graffition both sides. mablyrecordsthe priceof the jar.
Hellenistic (inside) /
'HpaAsoous 'ApEos
(outside) Mouacov / NiKcov K 19 (P 7628). P1.55. Neck and shoulderof one-
handledjar similar to Robinson, Chronology,
Piece for a game like checkers?Cf. British M 315. Graffition eitherside of shoulder.
Museum, Guide to the ExhibitionIllustrating
GreekandRomanLife3,London, 1929,p. 203. VI cent. XII
K 13 (P 5506). P1.55. Fragment from base of
Thenumberis givenin both Latinand Greek;
largeamphoraneck. Graffitoon outside.
why the Greek should be largerby one-halfis
Late Hellenistic xoJs ~(o-rat)s' obscure.
90 L. UNCLASSIFIED NOTATIONS

L. UNCLASSIFIED NOTATIONS

Littlecan be saidof thisgroupas a wholesincethe variousitemshaveonlytheirobscurityin common.


is only relativeto the reader'sunderstanding,
But becauseunintelligibility it has seemednecessaryand
worthwhile to include them in the hope that some at least will come clear.

L 1 (P 14670). P1.56. Wall fragmentsof pithos Context: fourth quarter5th centuryB.C.(B 13:5).
with incised decoration,similarto Brann,no. Fourth quarter 5th cent. B.C. ]EIE
609. Graffito on outside. Context: early 5th
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

]H2HZ;
century B.C. (G 3:1). The letters are very uncertain.Perhaps a
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

VII-VI cent. B.C. ]. EAIHA namein the vocativewith a negativecommand,


]ANIA e.g., ji/ Sillycn~s.
L 2 (P 24998). PI. 56. Roughly oblong piece cut L 7 (P 12965). P1.56. Rim fragment of large-
from the side wall of a large pot (wheelmarks mouthedvessel with broad shoulderand short
verticalrim. Graffitoon shoulder.
visible) while the clay was still soft. Letters
incised outside, also in soft clay. Context: Late V cent. B.C. U]-rraieplos6p3oA6[S
mid-6th century B.C.(Q 13:5). But why a "spit in the open air"? A cook-
Mid-VI cent. B.C. AE out?Or is it ivrraiOepo
6 P6Bos?
Was the piece cut out and fired with the L 8 (P 17125).PI. 56. Black-glazedskyphos.Graf-
intentionof usingit as a plug?Oris it a counter? fito besidehandle.Context:late 5thcenturyB.C.
If so, why is it cut from a pot? (A 20-21:1). Hesperia,XVI, 1947,p. 212.
Late V cent. B.C. Tr<v)>T-E a(i&nlca)
L 3 (P 7867). P1.56. Part of ring foot of black-
glazed bowl. Graffito on reserved resting L 9 (P 14703). P1.56. Fragmentof black-glazed
surfaceof foot. kylix base. Graffitoon underside(a) and on
VI cent. B.C. ]A! HOAIBYZT top (b).
Possible readings: 6 Apuoar[iK6s,i.e. the V cent. B.C. (a) ]I[
]OKOSK[
Libyan (bowl, boy, wine?); 681 puor[iK6s,i.e. ]u:
this saving(drink?). (b) (retrograde)
A namelike Demodokos?
L4 (P7820). P1.56. Wall fragment of heavy
lekane with black glaze inside. Graffitoinside. L 10 (P 23130). PI. 56. Wall fragmentof lekane.
Graffito on inside, probably written on the
VI cent. B.C. ]ETAe[ sherd.Foundwith 5th-centuryB.C. pottery.
Not apparentlypart of a name. Perhapsa V cent. B.C. TnOY lnE
phrase, e.g., I-ra e6cov?Or a fragment of a The scoredtriangleabove (see drawing)may
spelled-outabecedarium:zeta eta theta? have been a letter?
L 5 (P9483). P1.56. Rim fragmentfrom large L 11
kraterdecoratedwith slantingpalmetteband. (MC 1011).P1.56. Small terracottaplaque,
brokenat one end; daubof clay ddedto other
Graffitiin reservedbands above (a) and below end. Graffitoon backface.
(b) band of palmettes.Context: mid-5th cen-
tury B.C. (C9:6). Hesperia, Suppl.V, p. 142,
V cent. B.C. JIVIKt
fig. 69, 30; 70,b. Dative for a tag? E.g., rTC(oliVIKI?
Firsthalf V cent. B.C. (a) (see drawing) L 12 (P 9986).P1.56. Partof base of heavyblack-
(b) (see drawing) glazedskyphos.Graffitoon underside.
Apparentlymeaningless.They may represent V cent. B.C. Tacr( ) 6 'lC[aL]i<o>vi(lKrs)
practicelettersfor formalinscriptionselsewhere
on the pot, some of whichwereretrograde. Probablytwo inscriptions,because of differ-
ent depths of incision. Perhapsthe owner's
L 6 (P 9994).PI. 56. Partof black-glazedsaltcellar ligature,with the epithetaddedby anotheras a
with concave sides. Graffito on underside. joke?CompareC 5.
L. UNCLASSIFIED NOTATIONS 91
L 13 (P 8203).P1.56. Threefragmentsfrom upper L 19 (P 23274). P1.56. Fragment of plain lid
wall of black-glazedskyphos, one (a) with with flat-toppedknob. Dipinto in black near
tracesof handleattachment,and two (b,c) with rim.
rim. Graffito on outside. Context: second Hellenistic &p.vco[v
quarter4th centuryB.C. (B 12:5).
SecondquarterIV cent.B.c. Al[ ].IQ[ ]ENEIA[
Perhaps cover of vessel containingvarious
Manyrestorationsare possible,e.g., Ai[oviOacp kindsof fish (cf. Ath., VII, 306c).
X,a]fco[veii]EvEda. Even the order of the pieces
is uncertain. L 20 (P 15741).P1.57. Mouth and part of neck
of amphorawith heavy profiledrim. Dipinto
L 14 (P 6904). P1.56. Base of black-glazedbowl in blackon neck.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

with ring foot. Graffitoon underside,circling


around. Found with 5th- to 4th-centuriesB.C. II-I cent. B.C. (monogram) Spa(X,ali)y'
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

pottery. L 21 (P 15200).P1.57. Fragmentfromflat bottom


IV cent. B.C. cvo<p>)oifrs ir&pos-rT of heavycoarsepot. Graffitoon underside.
The writer did not finish the inscription, Late Hellenistic IXTA[
probably because he had come almost full PIAX[
circle and there seemedto be no room for the
object of the verb. Lettersare not orientedin Perhapsan imperativeof !o-rrill?
any consistent direction; generally the work L 22 (P 20839).P1.57. Neck fragmentof amphora.
looks incompetentenough to suggestthat the Blackdipintoat base of neck.
syntax might be so too. a
Perhaps message
hoping that the addresseemight restore the Late Hellenistic Eu6upa&vou[s
fragmentsof the pot as before! (illegible)
L 15 (P 18420). P1.56. Base of black-glazed Name of producer seller?
or
skyphos.Graffitoon underside. L23 (P 20657). PI. 57. Upper part of amphora
IV cent. B.C. (see drawing) with rolled rim and vertical handles. Dipinto
in red on neck (a) and upper shoulder (b).
Perhapsto be read as Tro( ) and the sign Context:last quarter1st centuryB.C. to early
for two drachmswrittentwice. The sherdmay
have been used as a tag or label on a shipment. 1st century(R 13:2).
Late I cent. B.c.-earlyI cent. (a) tp'
L 16 (P 19124). P1.56. Rim fragmentof black-
pla'
glazedkantharos.Graffitoon outside.
IV cent. B.C. ]VXuo[ (b) TEI

It is temptingto inventa proverb,e.g.,yXuKo6si


6 8pi'us,butbothcouldbe goodAtheniannames, Almost certainlynumberin (a); perhapsthe
e.g., Epilukosand Mus. 12thday of 111thyear(Actianera?),5thmonth.
The obscurityof (b) is less suggestive.
L 17 (P 21714). P1.56. Half of foot and part of
lower wall of black-glazedbowl. Graffiti on L 24 (P 21776). P1.57. Ovoid amphorawith tall
outside,on lowerwall (a) and insidefoot (b). vertical handles and pointed toe. Graffition
IV cent. B.C. (a) ]BE shoulder.Context: early 1st century(R 10:1).
(b) ]NHOX EarlyI cent. (a) (see drawing)
See drawing.The lettersare too uncertainto (b) ]KOINOAI
allow of easy restoration. (a) Possibly a number?(b) Perhapsthis jar
L 18 (MC 961). P1.56. Fragmentfrom the rim was heldin common(KoItvS) or heldwine(olvos)?
of a bandedplate(?).Graffitoon underside. L 25 (P 16202).P1.57. Amphorasimilarto Rob-
IV cent. B.C. hrri inson, Chronology,F93. Dipinto in black
rav ( ) on shoulder. Context: first half 1st century
Theinscriptionmaynot be complete.Whether (N 20:1). H. 0.73m.; D. 0.30 m.
the word in the second line is completeis ob- Firsthalf I cent. &puv[
scure. 0eo[
92 L. UNCLASSIFIED NOTATIONS

Perhaps &upvorip,a liquid measure. The EarlyIII cent. OYA2


second line might be a personal name or a ETCOV
y'
month.
PerhapsGreeklettersfor Latin vas?And age
L 26 (P 4480). PI. 57. Shoulderfragmentof large of jar?or contents?
storage amphora.Dipinto in black. Context: L 32 (P 16700).P1.58.
1st century(F 11:1). Amphorawith tall cylin-
drical neck and elongatedovoid body, small
I cent. 2TPA spur on top of handle. Dipinto in black on
AMIN[ shoulder.Context:early 3rd century(N21:1).
Possible that some letters of an original PH. 0.58 m.; D. 0.19 m.
6o-rpoKou i(-rpat)have faded completely. It is EarlyIII cent. KipliKfs
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

possiblethatthe secondline mightbe 'Altvvcaos. Cf. Hesychios, KapiKil'&OcVETOS,


Kalia6IrEAos.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

L 27 (P 26675).P1.57. Part of neck and shoulder Or KapuKrl?


of amphora.Dipintoin redon shoulder. L33 (P 14077). P1.58. Upper part of small
Firsthalf II cent. pa( ) amphorawith short neck and plain thickened
6?( ) lip. Dipinto in black on shoulder. Context:
6oosfor cheapwine? P 18:2.
L 28 (P 16703, P 16706, P 19401). P1.57. Three Firsthalf III cent. ]plvias y'
similar amphoras with tall cylindricalneck, Uncertainreading:Corinthianmeasures?
angular ridged handles, body which tapers L34
sharply to small concave foot. Large dipinti (P 12314). P1.58. Small amphora similar
in red on either side of neck. Context: to Robinson, Chronology,M 177. Dipinti in
red shoulder.Context:3rdcentury(N 20:3).
on
early 2nd century(N 21:1; E 17:1). Average H. 0.41 m.; D. 0.195 m.
H. 0.55 m.; D. 0.26 m.
Mid-IIIcent. rp( ) air' or rparr( )
EarlyII cent. (chi-rhomonogram)
See drawing.The abbreviatedword may be
Too early for Christianuse of chi-rho, so followedbynumbers.Ora two-letterabbreviation
may have been expanded to four: TpaCrilTos?
perhapsabbreviationof producer'sname or of
contents (e.g., Xpuvaorrri6ovotvov,XpTila).The L35 (P 3218). P1.58. Shoulder fragment from
secondinscriptionmightalso be eitherof these. largeplainamphora.Dipintoin black.
Many other possibilitiesmight be imagined, EarlyRoman ]AIHA
for example,qcfKxc xXpfcos:"owed to the Trea-
sury."For 01 see also He 19. ]ANIi
L 29 (P 18434). PI. 57. Fragmentfrom shoulder L36 (P7525). P1.58. Upper wall fragment of
of large plain amphora. Dipinto in black. plainpot. Graffitoon outside.
Context:2nd century(C 18:2). EarlyRoman ]TAPA.AH
II cent. ]ap( ) Fcal( ) Tri iy' L 37 (P 7843). P1.58. Neck fragment of wide-
Perhapsa date: 13thday of Gamelion. mouthedjar; profiledrim with piecrust dec-
oration on lower side. Lettersincised in soft
L 30 (P 17113).P1.57. Neck and upper shoulder clay belowrim.
of amphora. Dipinto in black on shoulder.
Context:2nd century(B 20:1). Early Roman viyliea]SEvE[a
]E6[
II cent. KIXHTOY
AP vU' Wordin genitivecase restoredexempligratia.
86 i3at ,LEai 6 tipa- L 38 (P 11991).P1.58. Amphorawithnarrowneck
Cf. Hesychios, KIXrTT6OS
Thesecondlinemaynot be "57drachms"
vcoTr6s. and elongatedovoid body on ring foot. Dipinti
but it is likely that the last letter at least is a in black (charcoal)on shoulder.
number. EarlyRoman XX X X V
L 31 (P 25218).P1.58. Amphorawith tall narrow TOA
neck and body tapering to small ring foot. Cf. L 39, which also has Roman numerals
Dipinto in red on shoulder. Context: early which do not apparentlyrelate to capacit or
3rd century(Q 17:4). H. 0.485m.; D. 0.243m. weight.Perhapsserial numbersin a shipment.
L. UNCLASSIFIED NOTATIONS 93

An abbreviatedname seems most likely for TrcalXi6 but the only similarlytemporalparallel
the second line, e.g., Tolmides or Tollios for Irllwould be irvilaios.(Drawing includes
(Tullius). only samples.)
L39 (P 17883). P1.58. Amphora similar to L44 (P 11119). P1.59. Shoulder fragment of
Robinson, Chronology,K 114. Dipinti in black small wheel-ridgedjug similar to Robinson,
(charcoal)on shoulders. Chronology,M 266. Graffitoon shoulder.Con-
Early Roman (see drawing) text: 4th century(B 14:2).
XIL IV cent. TIPB
Uncertainletters might be Greek or Latin.
If the second line is supposedto be a Roman L45 (P12837). P1.59. Amphora similar to
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

numeralthe orderof numbersis peculiar.(The Robinson,Chronology, M 234. Dipintoin black


two lines are reversedin the drawing.) on shoulder. Context: 4th century ( 19:1).
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

H. 0.455 m.; D. 0.275 m.


L40 (P 14725). P1.58. Wall fragment of large
amphora.Graffitoon outside, verticalto pot. IV cent. TrpoBij.lAfvou
Foundwith earlyRomanpottery. Perhaps imitation Bybline wine; for the
EarlyRoman ]S1 spellingsee Hesychios,s.v.
]pi' Buoio(u) e'
L 46 (P 12870).P1.59. Body of ovoid amphora.
Line 2: perhapsan era date firstand then the Dipinto in black on shoulder. Context: 4th
Delphi month name seems to be writtenover century (O 19:1). PH. 0.345 m.; D. 0.272 m.
tracesof the Attic monthBoedromion.
IV cent. AipEpa
L 41 (P 22293). P1.58. Part of tall narrow am-
Perhaps a Latin adjectivein Greek letters
phora neck with flaringrim and heavy ridge used as a name?But the blurredletters could
below. Dipintoin red on neck. as well be AtOepa.
EarlyRoman S [E
DFC L 47 (P 13585).P1.59. Tall one-handledjar, an
earlierform of Robinson, Chronology,M 315.
Perhapssepulchral:s(itus) [e(st)]/ d(e)f(un)c- Dipinto in black on shoulder. Context: 4th-
[tus]. early 5th centuries (P 19:1). H. 0.60 m.;
L 42 (P 26120). P1.58. Ovoid wheel-ridgedam- D. 0.245m.
phora with ridged handles and narrow neck. IV-V cent. '
Dipinto in black on shoulder. Context: 3rd- Pa&p(os)
4th centuries(Q 19:1). H. 0.48 m.; D. 0.26 m. Perhaps better as yap(ou) with the last
"letter"taken as the sign of abbreviation?
Late III cent. (see drawing)
]TrvoS L 48 (P 27050). P1.59. Rim fragmentof shallow
L 43 (P 9800, P 11582,P 11583,P 22009,P 11590, dish of Late Roman red ware. Graffito on
P22008, P 11584, P 11594). P1.59. Eight jars inside,belowrim.
or fragments of jars with fusiform bodies IV-V cent. (see drawing)
(= Robinson, Chronology,M 256, M 278, Uncertainscratchingsof which only a few
M 259, M 258, M 242, M 257, M 255, M 241). look like letters.Unreadable.
Dipinti in black under the handle of each.
Context: M 17:1. Average H. 0.49 m.; average L 49 (P 1026).P1.59. Rim fragmentof amphora
D. 0.19 m. with heavyrolledlip. Dipinto in black on neck
IV cent. (a) rrpo( ) just below rim. Context: 5th century(I 16:1).
(e) Trca( )
(b) rrpo( ) (f) TrA( ) V cent. AAEON
(c) Trp[ (g) rA( )
(d) Trpo( ) (h) la( ) L50 (P 2097). P1.59. Fragment of coarse lid.
Letters incised in the soft clay. Context: 5th
The abbreviationsall seem to be writtenby
the same hand. Unfortunately,the range of century (H-I 7-8:1).
possibilities is too large to allow any con- V cent. ]orum[
of
vincingcompletion the abbreviations.If, as ]tuis a[
seems likely, the abbreviationsrefer to con- ]ciri[
tents, rrpoand irca might be and
rrpowrrEpvolv6s Perhaps a proverb or motto.
94 M. PICTURES

L 51 (P 1944).P1.59. Upperpart of smallgouged L 54 (P 481). P1.59. Rim fragmentof open bowl.


jug, similar to Robinson, Chronology,M 359. Graffition top of outturnedrim (a) and outside
Graffitoon neck. on wall belowrim (b).
VI cent. ANKZB[ Late Roman (a) ]HA<BE[
(b) ]ENHOHTO[
L 52 (P 7507).PI. 59. Neck of amphorasimilarto
Robinson, Chronology,M 333. Dipinto in red
An illiterateattemptat an abecedarium?
on neck below handle.Found with 6th-century
coins. L 55 (P 3076). P1.59. Shoulderfragmentof un-
glazedamphora.Graffitoon outside.
VI cent. TYTTA
Late Roman a5( ) ?Ep( )
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

L 53 (P 7638). P1.59. Shoulderfragmentof large


amphora.Dipintoin red. L 56 (P 25852). P1.59. Shoulderfragmentfrom
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

Roman closedpot. Graffitoon outside.


]APENrE[
ZOY Late Roman xrru( ) VE( ) Ur'r[

M. PICTURES

Commentary seemssuperfluous,sincethe picturesspeakbestfor themselves.It is possibleto speculate


on the motivesbehindeachdrawing,but suchspeculationis likelyto be moreproductiveof amusement
than of profit.

M 1 (MC907).P1.60. Pyramidalloomweight(Al). M 7 (P9889). P1.60. Wall fragment of black-


VIII-VII cent. B.C. (horse and rider) glazedkylix of 6th- to-5th centuriesB.C. fabric.
Graffitoon inside(a) and outside(b). Hesperia,
M 2 (P 1001).P1.60. Black-figuredskyphoswith XV, 1946,p. 278, underno. 30.
lotus-budpatternon reservedband at handle VI-V cent. B.C. (a) (two figures facing left
zone. Graffito on inside wall, upper part. and a tree)
Context: first half 6th century B.C. (116:4). (b) (small round holes and
First half VI cent. B.C. (fish) theta)
M 3 (P 24999).P1.60. Wall fragmentfrom black- M 8 (P 7103).P1.60. Fragmentfromrimandbody
glazed kylix of "komast" shape. Graffito in of small semi-glazedkrater. Graffito inside.
reservedhandle zone. Context: mid-6th cen- Hesperia,XV, 1946,p. 273, no. 16.
tury B.C.(Q 13:5).
Early V cent. B.C. Koa7ij/xJv[o]s
Mid-VI cent. B.C. (grotesque head) (headwith wreathand beard)
M 4 (P 3533). P1.60. Wall fragmentfrom black- An ostrakon.
glazedkylix. Graffitoon outside. Context:6th
century B.C. M9 (P 27698). P1.61. Half of hemispherical
VI cent. B.C.
(head) black-glazedstand(C 15). Incisedbeforeglaing
and firing.
M 5 (P 16789).P1.60. Wall fragmentfrom black-
SecondquarterV cent. B.C. (act of sodomy)
glazed skyphos. Graffitoon outside. Context:
6th centuryB.C.(G 15:2). Hesperia,XV, 1946, For the verbaltext see C 15.
p. 278, underno. 30.
M 10 (P 10352). P1.60. Fragment of black-
VI cent. B.C. (ithyphallic satyr) glazed lid with incised tendrilborder.Graffito
M 6 (P 2714). P1.60. Fragmentaryblack-figured on upper surface.Context:fourth quarter5th
skyphos.Graffitoon outside lower wall. Con- centuryB.C.Cf. Sparkes-Talcott, no. 1261.
text: late 6th-early 5th centuriesB.C.(G 6:3). Fourth quarterV cent. B.C.
Hesperia,XV, 1946,p. 278, no. 30. (at right,pygmyfighting;
Late VI-early V cent. B.C. (head) at left, partof crane)
M. PICTURES 95

The drawingseems to have been done with III cent. B.C. (head)
a fine point before the glaze was applied, so
that the head and upper body of the crane, PerhapsKairos, with hair in front and bald
behind.
which were too lightly drawn, are no longer
visible.The tendrilpatternwas done in the same M 17 (P 14323).P1.60. Rim fragmentof Megarian
way. bowl. Graffitoon outside.Context:Hellenistic.
M 11 (P 19312).PI. 60. Wall fragmentof black- III cent. B.C. (head)
glazed skyphos (?). Graffitoon outside. Con-
text: late 5th century B.C. M 18 (P 3817). P1.61. Fragment from large
Late V cent. B.C. Pergameneplate.Graffitoon inside.
(head)
I cent. B.C.-I cent. (costume-design?)
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

M 12 (P 23242). P1.60. Neck and shoulderfrag-


ment of red-figuredoinochoe. Graffitoon out- M 19 (P 9880). P1.61. Wheel-ridgedjug. Graffito
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

side of neck. Context: late 5th century B.C. on shoulder.Context:1st century.


Late V cent. B.C. (swastika) I cent. (boukranion?)
M 13 (L 2450).P1.61. Nozzle and partsof rim of M 20 (P 12306).P1.61. Wallfragmentof amphora
black-glazedlamp (= Howland, no. 176 ( = F 315). Graffito outside. Context: 4th
C 30 above).Graffitoon top of nozzle.Context: century(N 20:3).
4th century B.C. (E 6:3).
IV cent. (somethingwith headandwings)
Late V-early IV cent. B.C. (phallus)
For verbaltext see F 315.
For verbaltext see C 30.
M 14 (L 4212).P1.60. Black-glazedlamp(= How- M 21 (P7048). P1.61. Wall fragment of large
land, no. 267 = F 177 above).Graffitoon sides unglazed pot. Graffito on outside. Context:
of body and top of nozzle. Late Roman.
Late Roman (uncertainletters;dolphin)
IV-early III cent. B.C. (boukranion)
For verbaltext see F 177. M 22 (P 9873). P1.61. Base of low-footedbowl.
Graffiti inside and outside. Context: Late
M 15 (P 20374). P1.60. Shoulderfragmentfrom Roman.
unglazedamphora.Graffitooutside and side-
ways to pot, probably drawn on the sherd. Late Roman
Context:4th-3rdcenturiesB.C. (inside)(head with helmet?)
IV-III cent. B.C. (herm) (outside)(letters,perhapsalphabeta gamma)
M 16 (P 23231). P1.60. Wall fragmentof West M 23 (P 15343). PI. 61. Wall fragmentof large
Slope plate or saucer, with checkerboard unglazed pot. Graffito on outside. Context:
pattern inside. Graffito on outside. Context: Late Roman.
Hellenistic. Late Roman (face)
DEPOSITS
Theletterandfirstnumberof eachdepositgivethe grid-squareof its location(see P1. 62). The second
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

numbergivesits serialpositionwithinthat square.Sincethe datingof depositshaslargelybeenthe work


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

of specialistsin the particularperiods,the indicationgivenhere is only a briefsummaryof fullerdes-


criptionsappearingin relevantAgoravolumes,whichare listed in each case, or of study-notesby ex-
cavatorsand othersin the Agora. Wheredepositsconsist of severalfillings,ordinarilyonly those in
which objectsfrom this volume were found are included.The cataloguedobjectsare listed for each
depositor partthereof,exceptthat in the case of those stratifiedover centuriesno attemptis made to
list chronologically,but the usualclass and numericalorderis retained.Differencesin contextdescrip-
tionshereandunderindividualitemsarethosebetweenthe generalandimmediatecontext.
Abbreviationsused include:POU, use filling,or Periodof Use; L, M, U, dumpedfillings,Lower,
Middleand Upper.

A 16:1 BronzeCastingPit (Agora,XII) Third quarter4th century B.C. Ha 11


A17:1 Well (Agora,IV, VIII, XII) Second quarter 6th century B.C. D 13; K 1
A 18:6 Pit Late 4th to early 3rd century B.C. F 184
A 18-19:1 Ostrakonfill (Agora,IV, XII) First and second quarters5th centuryB.C. F 56
A 20-21:1 Drainfill (Agora,XII) Fourth quarter 5th century B.C. L 8
A-B 21-22:1 Terracefillings(Agora,XII) Ca. 420-390 B.C. E 5; F 99-101
B 11:l Channelmouth Late 2nd into early 1st cent. B.C. F 233
B 12:5 Well (Agora,IV, XII) Ca. 380-350 B.C. L 13
B 13:1 Cisternshaft(Agora,V, VII, XII) Fourth quarter 3rd cent. B.C. (L) F 202, F 203
B 13:2 Well (Agora, V) Late 1st to early3rdcent. (POU)Hc 10
B 13:5 Well (Agora, XII) Fourth quarter 5th cent. B.C. L 6
B 13:8 Well (Agora,IV, XII) Ca. 325-300 B.C.(POU) F 163
Ca. 300-275 B.C.(U) Hb 1; Hc 2
B 14:1 Well (Agora, V, VI) Mid-lst to early3rdcent. (POU) He 21
5th cent. (U) J 5
B 14:2 Well (Agora, V, VI, VII) Late 1stto late 2nd cent. (POU) F 269,F 276
4th cent. (U) L 44
B 14:3 Cistern (Agora, IV, V, VII) Secondhalf 1stcent.F 255,F 256; Ha 17
B 14:4 Well Firsthalf 4th cent. (POU) Ha 32
B 15:1 Well (Agora,IV, VIII, XII) Fourth quarter 5th cent. B.C. F 91; Hd 1
B17:1 Destructiondebris(Agora,VII) Mid-3rdcent. F 296
B 18:7 Well (Agora, IV, XII) Ca. 350-325 B.C.(POU) F 154
B 18:10 Well (Agora, IV) First quarter 6th cent. B.C. D 10
B 19:7 Constructionfilling(Agora,IV, XII) Ca. 430-410 B.C. F 90
B 19:9 Well 1st cent. B.C. to 1st cent. F 250
B 20:1 Well (Agora, V, VII) Second half 1st to mid-2nd cent. (POU)
F 267, F283; G 23; Ha20; Hb 6; He 15;
L30
B 20:2 Cistern(Agora,XII) First half 2nd cent. B.C. F 227
BB 17:1 Well First half 4th cent. B.C. F 145
C9:6 Constructionfilling(Agora,IV, XII) Ca. 450B.C. C14; F72,F73; L5
C9:7 Cistern Late 2nd cent. B.C. F 228; Hc 3
C 12:1 Well (Agora, V, VI, VII) Mid-2ndto early3rdcent.(POU) B 18;He 15
C 12:2 Well (Agora,IV, VIII, XII) Ca. 375-325 B.C. F 149
DEPOSITS 97

C 13:2 Well (Agora, XII) Late 2nd to 4th cent. (POU) F 170; Ha 34
C 14:1 Cistern Hellenistic F 193
C 14:2 Cistern(Agora,VII) Thirdquarter3rdcent. F 298
C 14:4 Well (Agora,IV, VII) First half 2nd to second quarter 4th cent.
(POU) F 310; Hb 13-15; Hd 19; He29
C18:2 Well (Agora, V) Second half 1st to early 3rd cent. (POU)
F 257; L29
C 18:4 Constructionfilling(Agora,IV, XII) First half 5th cent. B.C. F 76
C 18:7 Constructionfilling(Agora,XII) Second quarter 5th cent. B.C. C 23
C18:11 Drain (Agora, XII) Ca. 490-480 B.C. F 51
C 19:5 Housefillings(Agora,XII) a) Secondhalf 5th cent. B.C. B 8; F 110
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

b) Late 5th and firsthalf 4th cent. B.C. E 12;


F 146; Ha9
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

C 19:9 Well (Agora,IV, XII) Ca. 425-400 B.C. (POU) F 97


Ca. 400-390 B.C. (U) F 128
C 20:1 Well (Agora,V, VI, VII) Early2nd to mid-3rdcent. (POU) Hd 13
D 10:2 Channel 3rd to 2nd cent. B.C. F 185
D11:l Well (Agora,IV, V, VI, VII) Late 1st cent. B.C. to mid-lst cent. Hd 3
D 11:4 Cistern(Agora,IV, XII) Middle filling: mixed late Hellenisticto early
Roman F 303
D 12:1 Well (Agora,IV, V, VI, VII) Bottom filling 3: late 2nd to mid-3rdcent.
Ha 23; He 18
D 12:2 Cistern(Agora, IV) Late2ndto early1stcent.B.C. (L) G 21
Late Hellenisticto early Roman (M) F 234
D 15:2 Well (Agora,V, VII) 6th cent. (POU) J 9
D 15:3 Cistern(Agora,IV, XII) Ca. 375-330 B.C. C 33
D 17:3 Cistern(Agora,IV, XII) Ca. 300-290 B.C. F 195
D 17:11 Well 1st cent. B.C. (L) G 22
D-E 8-9:1 Cistern(Agora,XII) Ca. 330-305 B.C. D 43; F 165, F 166
E2:3 Foundrypit (Agora,IV, XII) Ca. 375-350 B.C. F 142-144
E3:l Cistern(Agora,IV, X, XII) Late 4th to early 3rdcent.B.C. F 182,F 183;
G9; Hcl
E6:3 Cistern (Agora, X, XII) Ca. 375-310 B. . C 30 (M 13); F 135, F 136;
Fb 1,Fb 2
E 11:2 Well (Agora, IV, V) Lowerfilling:1st cent. F 259
E 13:1 Well Ca. 470-425 B.C. C 26; F 58;Fa 23
E 14:1 Cistern(Agora,IV, V, VI, X, XII) a) Late 4th and 3rd cent. B.C. F 199, F 200;
Hb 2, Hb 3
b) Late 1st cent B.C. E 16
c) Dumpedfillingof 3rd cent. Hd 18
E 14:2 Well (Agora,IV, V, VI) 1st cent. (POU) F 258
E 14:3 Cistern (Agora, IV) Mid-lst cent. B.C. (M) F 243
E 14:5 Well (Agora,IV, XII) Ca. 520490 B.C. F 14, F 15; Ha 1
E 15:1 Well (Agora, V) Constructionfillingin 1st cent. F 251
E 15:3 Cistern (Agora, IV) Late 2nd to early 1st cent. B.C.(POU) F 230
E 15:5 Well 4th and 5thcent.(POU) Hb 21, Hb 24; He 38
E 15:6 Well (Agora,IV, XII) Ca. 500-480B. c. F 27;Fal
E 17:1 Well Earlyto late 2nd cent. (POU) Ha 21; L 28
E 19:5 Pit Second half 5th cent. B.C. K 6
E 29:5 Well Early4th cent. F 319; He 34
F5:1 Cistern(Agora,IV, XII) 3rd to 2nd cent. B.C. F 210
F 11: Well (Agora,V, VI, VII) 1st and early2nd cent.F 268; He 13; L 26
F 11:2 Well (Agora, IV, XII) Second half 4th cent. B.C. (POU) E 13
F 12:3 Well (Agora,IV, XII) Second half 4th cent. B.C. B 13
F 12:5 Well (Agora,IV, VIII, XII) 7th cent to ca. 570 B.C.D 2, D 8
F 13:2 Well(Agora,IV, VI, VII) Secondhalf 1stcent.to end of 2ndcent.(POU)
Hc 12
98 DEPOSITS

F 15:1 Well (Agora, V) 4th cent. (POU) Hb 22


F16:1 Cistern(Agora,IV, XII) Ca. 350-310 B.c. F 164
F 17:3 Well (Agora, XII) End of 4th cent. to ca. 225 B.C. (second POU)
F 206, F 207
F 19:1 Well(Agora,V, VI, VII) Late 3rdand 4th cent. (POU) F 311
F 19:2 Cistern(Agora,IV, XII) Ca. 375-340 B.c. A 6; B 10
F 19:3 Well 1st cent. B.C. Hb 4
F 19:4 Well (Agora,IV, XII) Ca. 490-450 B.C. B7; C24; D39; F57,
F 65, F ,F68, F69
F 19:5 Well(Agora,IV, XII) Ca. 520-480 B.C. F 31
F 20:1 Filling(Agora,XII) 4th cent. B.C. F 150
F-G 12:1 Road levels(Agora,IV, VIII, XII) 7th and 6th cent. B.C.D 4, D 32; F 3
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

G3:1 Pit (Agora,IV, XII) Ca. 500-470 B.C. L 1


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

G6:3 Rock-cutShaft(Agora,IV, X, XII) Ca. 510-480B.C.(U) A5; B2; F23, F24;


M6
G8:1 Well (Agora,IV, VII) 1st cent. (POU) Hb5
G11:l Cistern (Agora, V) Early 3rd to late 2nd cent. B.C. (POU) K 10
G 11:2 Well(Agora,V, VI, VII) Late2nd to early6thcent.(POU)D 44; F 291,
F307; He 33; K18
G 12:22 Pit (Agora,IV, XII) Ca. 470-460 B.C. Fa 16-19
G 12:23 Pit (Agora,IV, XII) Ca. 375-350 B.C. F 141
G 13:5 Well First quarter4th cent. B.C. (U) F 139
G 14:2 Well (Agora,IV, X, XII) Early 4th into 2nd cent. B.C. F 152, F 229
G15:1 Well (Agora,IV, X, XII) Ca. 500 B.C.(POU) D 28; F 16; K 5
G 15:2 Well (Agora,IV, XII) Ca. 550-525 B.C.(POU) M 5
G 18:1 Well (Agora,IV, XII) Ca. 425-400 B.C.(with some earlier) F 74, F 96
H 5-6:1 Fillings(Agora,IV, XII) Early 5th cent. B.C. F 42
H6:5 Well (Agora, XII) Ca. 470-460 B.C. C 16-22; E2; F 59-62;
Fa 2-15
H6:9 Pit (Agora,IV, X, XII) End of 4th cent. B.C.(L) F 160
2nd cent. B.C. F 190
H7:3 Constructionfilling(Agora,IV, XII) Ca. 375-350 B.C. F 140
H 10:2 Pit (Agora,IV, VIII, XII) Ca. 575-525 B.C. D 18
H 12:6 Well (Agora,IV, VII, XII) Ca. 425-400 B.C. F92,F93
H 12:11 Well (Agora,IV, XII) Ca. 410-390 B.C.(POU) F 127
H 13:5 Pit Ca.480B.C. B6; C13; D38
H 16:3 Cistern(Agora,IV, XII) Ca. 320-275 B.C. F 179, F 180
H 16:4 Pithos(Agora,IV, XII) Ca. 150 B.C. G19
H 17:5 Filling(Agora,IV, XII) Ca. 375-340 B.C. F 148
H-I 7-8:1 Filling (Agora, VI) 5th cent. L 50
19:1 Drain(Agora,IV, VIII) Secondandthirdquarters6th cent.B.C. D 14
110:1 Well First half 6th cent. B.C. D7
115:1 Well Late Roman 1 13
I15:2 Filling Third quarter 4th cent. B.C. F 159
I116:1 Well (Agora,V, VI, VII) Late 1stto mid-3rdcent. (POU)F 286;Ha 27;
Hd 11, Hd 12
4th and 5th cent. (POU) Hd 20; L49
16:4 Well (Agora,IV, XII) Ca. 600-540 B.C.(POU) F 8; M 2
I16:5 Cistern (Agora, IV) 2ndcent.B.C.with somelaterintrusions F 288
I 16:7 Settlingbasin Late 5th to early 4th cent. B.C. F 138
117:1 Well (Agora, XII) Ca. 450-425 B.C. F 85
J11:1 Filling(Agora,XII) Ca. 400-340 B.c. F 158
J12:1 Well (Agora,V, VII) Late 1st to early3rdcent. (POU) Hd 7
J 13-14:1 Drain (Agora, XII) Fourth quarter 5th cent. B.C. B 9
J18:1 Well (Agora,V, VI, VII) 3rd century before A.D.267 (POU) Ha 28
J 18:4 Pit (Agora,IV, XII) Mid-6th centuryB.C. (lower fill) B 1; C 4;
F 12, F 13
DEPOSITS 99
I K 18:1 Well(Agora,V, VII) Late 1stto early2nd cent. (POU) F 260-262;
M 19
4th to early5th cent. (POU) J 2, J 3
11lthcent. (POU) G 2
IK 18:3 Cistern Dumpedfillingof 3rdcent. Hc 21
IL 14:2 Well 6th and 7th cent. He 26
IM 11:3 Well (Agora,IV, VIII, XII) Second half of 7th cent. B.C. F 6
IM 17:1 Well (Agora,IV, V, VI, VII, XII) Mid-lst to late 6th cent. (POU)B 17; F 285,
F 312, F 320; Ha 24, Ha 26, Ha 33, Ha 47,
Ha 48; Hb 10; He 11, He 24; Hd 14; He 16,
He22, He31; 13; L43
M 18:1 Well(Agora,V, VI, VII) 1stand2ndcent.(POU) F 277; Hd 5, Hd 10;
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

He 17
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

M 18:4 Well 3rd to 6th cent. (POU) F 309; Hb 8, Hb 11,


Hb27; I4, I16; K17
M 18:10 Well (Agora,XII) Hellenistic ca. 200 B.C. F 208
M 18:11 Pit 5th cent. B.C. E 9
M 19:1 Cistern(Agora,V, VII) Firsthalf of 2nd cent. F 280, F 281
M 20:2 Well (Agora,VI, VII) 3rdcent. Ha 30
M 21:1 Cistern(Agora,IV, V, XII) Late 3rdand early 2nd cent. B.C. F 212, F 213
N 7:3 Well (Agora,IV, XII) Ca. 460-440 B.C. F 77, F 79-83
N 11:6 Well (Agora,VIII) Late 8th into early 4th cent. B.C. A 1 (M 1)
N 13:1 Well (Agora,V, VII) 5th cent. (POU) 114
N 17:1 Well (Agora,V) Mid-3rdinto 5th cent. (POU) Ha 25
N 17:2 Well (Agora,V, VII) Mid-lst to mid-2ndcent. (POU) F 270-275
N 18:5 Well (Agora,V) Late 3rdto 4th cent. Ha 31; He 26, He 27; I 1
N 19:1 Cistern(Agora,IV, V, VI, VII, XII) Secondquarterto end of 1st cent. He 5
N 19:2 Well (Agora,IV, V, VII) Mid-lst to first half of 2nd cent. (POU)
F278; Hcl7;Hd8
N 20:1 Well(Agora,IV, V, VI, VII,XII) Firsthalfof 1stcent.(POU) He 6, He 8; L 25
N 20:2 Cistern(Agora,V) Secondhalf of 1stcent. He 8-11
N 20:3 Well (Agora,V, VII) 3rd cent. before A.D.267 (POU) L 34
4th cent. (POU) F 315 (M 20)
N 20:4 Cistern(Agora,IV, V) Second quarter 1st cent. B.C. F 242
N 20:5 Well (Agora,IV, VI) First half of 1st to early 3rd cent. (POU)
F282, F 292-294; Ha 19; Hd6, Hd 15;
He 14; K 16
4th cent. 12, 17
N 20:7 Cistern(Agora,IV) Second half of 3rd cent. B. c. F 197
N 21:1 Well (Agora,V, VI, VII, XII) Early 1st to 5th cent. (POU) F 287; Ha 15;
He 35; 1 10-12; L 28, L 32
N 21:4 Cistern (Agora, IV, XII) 3rd cent. B.C. F196; G 14
N-P 20:1 Streetpacking(Agora,XII) a) Late 6th to early5th cent. B.C. F 30
b) Fourthquarterof 5th cent. B.C. F 94
07:10 Pit (Agora,XII) Ca. 450-425 B.C. F 88
O 12:1 Well (Agora,IV, VIII, XII) Third quarter 7th cent. B.C. F 4
0 16:1-2 Constructionfilling(Agora,XII) Third quarter 5th cent. B.C. F 89
O 16:3 Well Second half of 3rd cent. B.C. F 198
O 16:4 Pit (Agora,XII) Ca. 350-325 B.C. Ha 10
0 17:1 Cistern(Agora,V, VII, XII) Secondto fourthquarter1st cent. Ha 16
0 18:1 Well (Agora,V, VI, VII, XII) 4th to 6th cent. (POU) F322; Ha 41-43;
I 17-19, I 23, 1 24, 1 28-34
O 19:1 Well (Agora, V) Early 4th to 6th cent. (POU) F 317, F318;
Ha 50; Hb 16, Hb 18, Hb 19; He 4, He 32,
He39,He41; 15, I6,I115; J6; L45, L 46
0 19:4 Well (Agora, XII Fourth quarter 5th cent. B.C. (POU) E6;
F95
100 DEPOSITS

P7:4 Well (Agora, VII) Late 5th to early6th cent. Ha 39


P8:1 Filling(Agora,V, VI, VII) Firsthalf of 2nd cent. F 284; Hd 9
P8:2 Pit (Agora,IV, XII) Third quarter into fourth, 5th cent. B.C. Ha 2
P 14:3 Depositover floor(Agora,XII) Ca. 470-460 B.c. E4; F70, F71
P18:1 Well (Agora,V, VII) 5th to 6th cent. (POU) Hb 28, Hb 29; Hc 23;
Hd22; J7
P 18:2 Well(Agora,V, VI, VII) Firsthalf of 3rdcent. (POU) L 33
4th to 6th cent. (POU) I 35-37, I 41
P 19:1 Well (Agora,V, VI, VII) Late 1st cent. (POU) He 12
Early 3rd to 6th cent. (POU) F 295, F 323;
Ha 44; Hb 25, b 26, Hb 30; Hd 16; 19,
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

1 20-22, 25, I 26; L 47


Q8:1 Pit (Agora,IV, XII) Third quarter 5th cent. B.C. (into fourth)
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

F 111
Q 10:4 Well Late 5th cent. B.C. F 123
Q 12:3 Well (Agora,X, XII) Ca. 520-490 B.C. F 19, F 52; G 4
Q 13:2 Cistern Dumped filling of 6th cent. B.C. D 19; F 32
Q 13:3 Footing-trench(Agora,VII) 5th cent. B 21
Q 13:5 Well (Agora,VIII, XII) Ca. 575-540 B.c. L2; M3
Q 15:2 Well (Agora, XII) Ca. 420-390 B.C. C31; E 10; F 131-134;
He 3
Q 17:1 Well 6th and 7th cent. Ha 53
Q 17:4 Well (Agora,V, VI, VII) Early 1st to 6th cent. (POU) F 266, F290
Hb 12; He 25; Hd 17; He 36; I 27, 1 39;
J4; L31
Q 17:7 Well (Agora, VI) 3rdto 6th cent. (POU) F 327; Ha 45, Ha 46;
Hb9, Hb 23; He23, He24; 140, 144, 45
Q 18:1 Well (Agora, IV, XII) Ca. 550-525 B.C.(POU) G 1
Q 18:2 Well 5th and 6th cent. (POU) Ha 52; Hb 31
Q 19:1 Well 3rdto 6th cent. (POU) F 299, F 325; Hb 20;
He30,He40; 143; L42
Q 19:2 Pit 3rd cent. B.C. E 15
R8:2 Well (Agora, IV, VIII, XII) Third into fourth quarter7th cent. B.C. F 5
R 10:1 Well (Agora,IV, V, VII) Early 1st cent. F 252, F 253; Hc 7; He 4-7
K15; L24
R 12:1 Well (Agora, IV, VIII) Ca. 520-480 B.C. C 7; F 33-41
R 12:3 Well (Agora, XII) Ca. 525-500 B.C.(POU) F 11
R 12:4 Well (Agora, XII) Ca. 520-480B.c. C 5; F28,F29
R13:1 Well (Agora, IV, V, VII, XII) Late 1st cent. B.C. to mid-lst cent. F 254
R 13:2 Well (Agora, IV, VII) Late 1st cent. B.C. to early 1st cent. L 23
R 13:4 Well (Agora,IV, XII) Ca. 440-425 B.c. He 1, He 2
R 17:5 Well (Agora, VIII) Second quarter 7th cent. B.C. C 1; F 2
R 19:2 Drain EarlyRoman He 19
R21:2 Cistern (Agora, IV) 1st cent. Hc9;Hd4
S16:1 Well (Agora, XII) Fourth quarter 5th cent. B.C. F 104, F 105;
Ha 3-6
S 19:6 Well Secondhalf 6th cent. F 326
S21:2 Well (Agora,IV, VIII,XII) Ca. 600-570B.C. D 11, D 12; F7
S21:3 Well (Agora, IV, V, VI, VII) Firsthalf 1stto firsthalf3rdcent. Ha 22
T 18:2 Well (Agora, XII) Ca. 575-550 B.C. D 17
T18:3 Filling (Agora, XII) Ca. 600-550 B.C. D 23
T 19:3 Pit or well (Agora, IV, VIII, XII) Later 8th to mid-7th cent. B.C. D 3; F 1
T27:1 Filling Second quarter 1st cent. B.C. F 241
U22:1 Well a) 2nd to early3rdcent. Hc 18
b) 4th cent. F 316
U 23:2 Well(Agora,IV, XII) Ca. 525-500 B.C. (POU) G 3
CONCORDANCE
Inv. No. Cat. No. Inv. No. Cat. No. Inv. No. Cat. No. Inv. No. Cat. No.
P8 F43 P 2022 B9 P4233 K2 P 5458 Fa 23
P13 D 16 P 2029 F 10 P4480 L 26 P5506 K 13
P83 F126 P2030 D6 P4498 F268 P 5595 Fa26
P103 F 107 P 2041 D 24 P 4618 He 43 P5623 I 14
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

P 119 F 190 P 2095 F 334 P 4627 D 32 P 5663 Ha 54


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

P124 He 37 P 2097 L 50 P 4663 F3 P 5671 Ha 36


P133 F167 P2145 A 10 P4664 D4 P5717 Hdl8
P136 F 189 P 2228 F 300 P 4666 F 26 P 5726 F 243
P137 F44 P2272 F 249 P 4696 D 35 P5738 F 230
P195 F9 P2281 F 314 P 4723 F 244 P 5774 Hc 12
P199 F 168 P 2366 He 2 P 4791 D 41 P 5792 Hb2
P226 E3 P 2518 Hc 14 P 4794 D8 P 5820 F 199
P266 F 160 P 2610 F 23 P 4899 B 14 P 5828 F 226
P410 C 12 P2707 A5 P4909 E7 P5838 F200
P416 F191 P2714 M6 P4914 Ha 29 P5918 F201
P469 Ha 40 P 2759 F 24 P 4915 F 245 P 5925 F 199
P481 L 54 P 2841 F 127 P5009 F46 P 5929 Hb 3
P526 F 229 P 3002 18 P5012 F 45 P 6034 F 231
P580 F 179 P 3044 Ha 49 P 5028 F 331 P 6067 D 14
P605 G19 P3058 Hd 7 P5109 F84 P6074 A2
P633 F 180 P 3076 L 55 P 5116 Fa 9 P6128 F209
P638 Ha 35 P3140 Hc 22 P5117 Fa 2 P6139 Fa
P770 F288 P3143 F251 P5118 Fa 3 P6153 C33
P772 F 85 P3144 (F 251) P 5119 Fa 10 P 6173 F27
P897 F 164 P 3163 F 216 P 5120 Fa 4 P 6349 E 16
P928 Ha 27 P3215 Hc 4 P 5121 Fa 5 P 6578 D2
P963 Hd 11 P 3218 L 35 P 5122 Fa 11 P 6717 F 235
P964 F 286 P 3272 A2 P 5123 Fa 6 P 6799 D 43
P965 Hd 12 P 3285 F 217 P 5124 Fa 12 P 6825 Fb 3
P989 F8 P 3289 B 16 P 5125 Fa 7 P 6864 F 234
P 1001 M2 P 3297 He 13 P 5128 C 16 P6867 F 228
P1026 L 49 P 3446 F 218 P 5133 E2 P 6873 F 238
P1027 Hd 20 P 3457 Hc 26 P 5137 F 59 P 6876 E 14
P1206 F 16 P 3467 Hb 5 P 5140 Fa 13 P 6878 G 21
P1265 B2 P 3512 E 13 P 5144 C 17 P 6889 F 161
P1444 F147 P3533 M4 P5157 C 18 P6903 F 169
P1458 F 148 P 3534 D5 P 5158 Fa 14 P 6904 L 14
P1461 I 38 P 3549 F 301 P 5160 C 19 P6992 F 303
P1493 F 181 P 3629 D P 5164 C 21 P 7048 M 21
P1504 A7 P 3671 F 302 P 5167 C 20 P 7058 F 53
P1538 F 181 P 3721 F 140 P 5168 F 62 P 7063 F 289
P1567 He 42 P 3736 F 109 P 5169 C 22 P 7082 F 233
P1850 F332 P3754 I13 P5174 F60 P7103 M8
P1870 F 108 P 3756 J 10 P5175 F 61 P 7140 F63
P1881 F 215 P 3784 B 13 P 5181 Fa 15 P7247 A3
P 1944 L 51 P 3788 F 219 P 5203 F 115 P 7254 F 116
P1992 F 333 P 3817 M 18 P 5206 F 17 P 7360 G9
P1993 D 19 P3983 K10 P 5449 C 26 P7405 He 25
P2004 B 21 P 4232 F 25 P 5453 F 58 P 7502 F 149
102 CONCORDANCE

Inv.No. Cat. No. Inv.No. Cat. No. Inv.No. Cat. No. Inv.No. Cat. No.
P7507 L52 P9753 Hb 1P 10775 D44 P 12212 D 15
P 7525 L 36 P 9754 He 2 P 10778 F 291 P 12214 E1
P 7529 Hd 3 P 9755 Hc 2 P 10779 C 25 P 12225 B3
P 7544 J1 P 9756 J5 P 10803 F 92 P 12257 F 308
P 7575 Fa 8 P 9766 J2 P 10805 F 64 P 12261 12
P 7583 He 15 P 9784 Ha 48 P 10809 D 37 P 12262 17
P 7607 F 193 P 9794 F 312 P 10810 B 12 P 12306 F315, M20
P7628 K 9 P9800 L43 P 10813 Fa 16 P 12314 L34
P 7638 L 53 P 9806 He 31 P 10814 Fa 17 P 12317 E6
P 7670 F 170 P 9808 13 P 10815 Fa 18 P 12336 G6
P 9835 P 10816 Fa 19 P 12351 F 321
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

P 7690 C6 F280
P 7699 Hc 1 P 9873 M 22 P 10838 Fa 20 P 12352 F 292
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

P 7740 F 182 P 9878 F 260 P 10839 Fa 21 P 12354 F 293


P 7785 Hc 20 P 9880 M 19 P 11021 Hd 1P 12357 F 294
P7820 L4 P9881 Hb 10P 11119 L44 P 12359 Hd 15
P 7843 L 37 P 9889 M7 P 11142 F 269 P 12361 He 8
P 7860 Ha 23 P 9897 He 22 P 11193 Hb 13 P 12373 Hd 6
P 7867 L3 P 9902 Ha 26 P 11194 Hb 14 P 12396 F 141
P 7884 Hb 17 P 9907 (Ha 26) P 11195 He 29 P 12458 Ha 19
P 7925 He 18 P 9918 Hd 14 P 11196 F 310 P 12459 F 282
P 7957 F 254 P 9919 Ha 24 P 11197 Hb 15 P 12460 He 14
P7977 F 135 P 9922 B 17 P 11198 Hd l9 P 12468 He 9
P7985 Hd 23 P 9925 F281 P 11202 F 203 P 12469 He 10
P7994 F 259 P 9986 L 12 P 11249 F 255 P 12471 He11
P8001 Hd 21 P 9994 L6 P 11256 F 256 P 12478 K 16
P8037 F 202 P 10032 F 261 P 11258 Ha 17 P 12510 F98
P8040 F 298 P 10035 F 262 P 11301 He 33 P 12629 G
P8046 B19 P 10040 F285 P 11307 K18 P 12664 G 17
P8050 Ha 37 P 10048 H ll P 11355 Hb24 P 12695 Ha 50
P8105 (Hc 3) P 10064 Hd 10 P 11357 He 38 P12707 He 41
P8108 Hc3 P10067 He 17 P11382 Hel P12710 I15
P8120 F117 P 10151 F P 11392 F32 P 12713 J6
P8203 L13 P 10159 D22 P 11545 Hc 13 P12825 Hb16
P8341 B18 P 10181 F330 P 11558 Ha 47 P12827 I6
P8600 Fbl P 10247 He 21 P 11569 F320 P 12836 F 317
P8611 Fb 2 P 10265 I4 P11579 Ha 33 P12837 L45
P8621 F136 P10267 Hbll P11582 L43 P12841 He 32
P8813 F14 P 10268 K17 P 11583 L43 P 12842 F318
P8826 F15 P 10352 M10 P11584 L43 P 12863 I35
P8842 Ha P10422 Fa25 P 11590 L43 P 12866 He 39
P9055 F 18 P10447 F276 P 11594 L43 P 12870 L46
P9177 E8 P 10466 F75 P 11634 He 16 P 12874 15
P9318 Ha 55 P 10469 Hb 8 P 11752 Hc 21 P 12914 Hb 28
P9322 Ha 56 P 10511 B5 P 11763 B20 P12936 Hb29
P9482 C14 P10512 F118 P11798 F145 F12965 L7
P9483 L5 P10537 F91 P 11991 L38 P12991 He 20
P9513 F 277 P 10556 Ha 32 P 11992 He 19 P13060 J7
P9634 G2 P10564 J9 P12010 Ha 38 P13063 I36
P 9645 F 171 P 10613 F 307 P 12011 G7 P 13064 141
P 9660 Hc 24 P10616 Fa 22 P 12030 F94 P 13065 137
P9670 Hc5 P10618 C29 P12100 F242 P13087 J8
P9671 Hd5 P10634 F246 P 12152 142 P13099 F95
P 9672 Ha 31 P 10710 Hb 21 P 12157 Ha 51 P 13130 F 313
P9675 He 26 P 10712 F258 P 12158 F329 P 13147 I24
P9676 He 27 P 10717 D34 P 12181 K4 P 13148 I18
P 9681 I P 10729 F 210 P12200 F220 P 13149 F 322
CONCORDANCE 103
Inv. No. Cat. No. Inv. No. Cat. No. Inv. No. Cat. No. Inv. No. Cat. No.
P 13150 Ha 41 P 14131 B4 P 15784 I1 P 17826 F 13
P 13151 132 P 14323 M 17 P 15867 F72 P 17827 C4
P 13152 Ha 42 P 14566 F 221 P 15868 F73 P 17867 Ha 30
P 13157 133 P 14622 El1 P 15990 F68 P 17883 L39
P 13158 19 P 14623 F 263 P 16024 F69 P 17894 Hd 13
P 13160 123 P 14636 F 142 P 16079 Hb 22 P 17898 F 78
P 13164 Ha 43 P 14644 F 143 P 16199 He 8 P 17902 F 173
P 13169 134 P 14658 F 144 P 16202 L25 P 17961 F 90
P 13170 I30 P 14670 L1 P 16206 He 6 P 17971 F78
P 13171 131 P 14676 G5 P 16236 G14 P 18003 F 146
P 13178 117 P 14687 D 11 P 16295 F 196 P 18009 F 184
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

P 13182 128 P 14691 F7 P 16313 J3 P 18248 All


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

P 13188 129 P 14693 D 12 P 16360 F 311 P 18255 F 305


P 13227 Fa 24 P 14703 L9 P 16391 B 10 P 18264 F 223
P 13248 D26 P 14705 F 150 P 16404 Hb4 P 18271 D 13
P 13251 D27 P 14710 C10 P 16585 F 21 P 18276 K1
P 13282 A4 P 14725 L40 P 16594 F 248 P 18284 F 250
P 13307 F 247 P 14917 Ha 25 P 16679 112 P 18325 B8
P 13322 C2 P 14938 F 119 P 16700 L32 P 18337 F 76
P 13333 D9 P 14943 Cll P 16703 L28 P 18340 G 15
P 13360 D 18 P 14950 F 31 P 16704 F 287 P 18342 D 10
P 13365 F 326 P 14960 F 186 P 16706 L28 P 18420 L 15
P 13386 F241 P 15075 J 1 P 16723 Ha 15 P 18434 L29
P 13433 120 P 15108 K6 P 16728 He 35 P 18435 F 257
P 13462 F30 P 15200 L21 P 16789 M5 P 18499 C23
P 13463 Ha 44 P 15208 B7 P 16791 K5 P 18609 Ha 9
P 13464 Hb 30 P 15209 D39 P 16812 D28 P 18610 E 12
P 13465 125 P 15217 F 96 P 16865 D42 P 18619 F 154
P 13466 F 323 P 15218 F66 P 16869 F 22 P 18620 F 97
P 13467 126 P 15224 F 57 P 16903 F 99 P 18625 F 188
P 13468 121 P 15225 C24 P 16904 F 100 P 18756 F 213
P 13472 Hb 25 P 15296 F 270 P 16905 F 101 P 18952 F 128
P 13474 122 P 15302 F271 P 16981 E5 P 19007 F 265
P 13477 Hb 26 P 15303 F 272 P 17005 F 264 P 19124 L16
P 13585 L47 P 15304 F 273 P 17043 F 227 P 19170 F 192
P 13590 19 P 15305 F 274 P 17059 F 130 P 19179 G22
P 13599 Hc 17 P 15307 F 275 P 17070 K1 P 19203 F 296
P 13601 Hd 8 P 15343 M 23 P 17113 L30 P 19287 D 36
P 13602 F 278 P 15347 F 65 P 17123 C27 P 19312 M 11
P 13605 Hd 16 P 15348 F 65 P 17125 L8 P 19389 K8
P 13615 F 295 P 15379 C9 P 17128 He 15 P 19400 Ha 21
P 13617 He 12 P 15380 Hd 4 P 17129 Hb6 P 19401 L28
P 13655 D3 P 15397 F 187 P 17130 Ha 20 P 19403 C28
P 13754 G3 P 15446 F162 P 17133 F 283 P 19491 Ha 18
P 14016 Hb 27 P 15555 C8 P 17139 F 120 P 19555 F 110
P 14018 I16 P 15559 He 9 P 17144 F 267 P 19694 G8
P 14024 F 309 P 15560 J 12 P 17380 F6 P 19861 K14
P 14055 Ha 52 P 15576 F 316 P 17425 F 222 P 19956 F 151
P 14056 Hb 31 P 15664 D 25 P 17463 F 67 P 19958 F 121
P 14077 L33 P 15682 Ha 22 P 17499 Ha 28 P 20019 F 122
P 14086 Hd 22 P 15693 D29 P 17585 G23 P 20089 F 50
P 14093 Hc 23 P 15694 D30 P 17677 F 56 P 20191 F 204
P 14110 Hb 18 P 15707 F 74 P 17794 F 172 P 20216 F 194
P 14113 Hb 19 P 15719 F 304 P 17799 He 28 P 20283 F 155
P 14117 Ha 16 P 15741 L20 P 17824 B1 P 20294 Hd 2
P 14130 D 33 P 15766 I 10 P 17825 F 12 P 20329 F 205
104 CONCORDANCE

Inv.No. Cat. No. Inv.No. Cat. No. Inv. No. Cat. No. Inv.No. Cat.No.
P 20361 F 239 P 22293 L 41 P 24935 F 198 P 26693 Ha 46
P 20373 K9 P 22483 G10 P 24998 L2 P 26694 I44
P20374 M 15 P22484 G1 P24999 M3 P26699 Hb23
P 20422 F 51 P 22512 Ha 53 P 25048 139 P 26866 F 114
P 20424 G 13 P 22709 F4 P 25054 Hc 25 P 26945 F 159
P 20657 L 23 P 22833 He 44 P 25064 127 P 27040 G 12
P 20719 F252 P 22836 F224 P 25133 J4 P 27050 L48
P 20757 F 33 P 22914 F 153 P 25170 Hb12 P 27211 F319
P 20761 F 36 P 22976 K 12 P 25175 He 36 P 27220 He 34
P 20768 F37 P 22998 F86 P 25195 Hd 17 P 27314 F 104
P 20785 F38 P 23045 F 232 P 25218 L 31 P 27353 F 105
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

P 20787 C7 P 23130 L 10 P 25224 F290 P 27367 Ha 12


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

P 20788 F34 P 23163 F236 P 25245 F266 P 27513 Ha 3


P 20789 F39 P 23205 G 18 P 25464 Hc 16 P 27515 Ha 4
P 20790 F 35 P 23227 F 237 P 25474 Ha 14 P 27517 Ha 5
P 20791 F40 P 23231 M 16 P 25475 F306 P 27525 Ha 6
P 20792 F 41 P 23242 M 12 P 25742 Ha11 P 27566 F 138
P 20839 L 22 P 23272 F 137 P 25816 F 240 P 27690 F 70
P 20846 F 174 P 23274 L 19 P 25822 F 124 P 27692 F 71
P20848 F 195 P 23283 F 89 P 25852 L56 P 27694 E4
P20903 Ha 13 P 23309 B 15 P 25886 E9 P27698 C15, M9
P20987 F156 P 23389 Hb7 P25892 F125 P27724 K3
P21220 F123 P 23452 F5 P 25909 K7 P27741 D7
P21290 F77 P23523 F225 P 25922 F20 P27844 D38
P21310 Ha 39 P23690 Bll P25940 F324 P27848 C13
P21373 F82 P23693 C3 P25983 E15 P27850 B6
P21374 F80 P23821 F131 P25998 F206
P 21381 Hd 9 P 23835 F 132 P 26004 F207 L535 F 152
P 21393 F 284 P 23837 C 31 P 26070 Ha 7 L 1096 F 42
P21399 F79 P 23872 F 133 P26083 I43 L2019 F185
P21400 F81 P23873 E10 P26090 F325 L2122 F211
P 21404 F 83 P 23874 F 134 P 26104 He 40 L2229 F 183
P 21454 G 20 P 23948 He 3 P 26114 Hb 20 L 2450 C30,M13
P 21553 Ha 2 P 24024 F 139 P 26119 He 30 L2653 F103
P 21583 D40 P 24062 G4 P 26120 L 42 L3042 F 163
P 21631 Hc 18 P 24126 F52 P 26127 F299 L 3077 F214
P 21694 F88 P 24265 F111 P 26179 F48 L 3088 F 93
P 21714 L 17 P 24274 F 54 P 26180 F 47 L 3269 F 113
P 21773 K 15 P 24668 F 28 P 26181 Ha 8 L 3293 F197
P 21776 L 24 P 24691 F 112 P 26192 F 49 L3653 F 178
P 21777 F 253 P 24698 F 87 P 26262 F208 L 3773 A6
P 21788 He 5 P24727 F11 P 26389 (F 120) L3918 G 16
P21789 He 6 P24735 F55 P 26410 F297 L4134 F 129
P 21791 Hc 7 P 24745 D 20 P 26420 F 2 L4194 F 212
P 21792 He 4 P 24746 D 21 P 26424 F 102 L4212 F 177, M 14
P21793 He7 P24760 Hal P 26452 C1 L4414 A9
P 21840 Ha 34 P 24774 F 106 P 26539 D 23 L 5298 C 32
P 22008 L 43 P 24853 Hc 10 P 26595 F 327
P 22009 L 43 P 24859 F 176 P 26598 Ha 45 MC216 F165
P 22104 F 175 P 24882 F 19 P 26599 He 23 MC 224 F 166
P 22110 A8 P 24910 C5 P 26601 He 24 MC483 C34
P22116 F158 P24911 F28 P26602 Hb9 MC907 A1,M1
P 22162 F328 P 24912 F28 P 26618 D 17 MC961 L18
P 22211 Hc9 P 24917 F 29 P 26675 L 27 MC 1011L 11
P 22218 F 157 P 24922 F 28 P 26690 I45
P 22234 F279 P 24923 F 28 P 26691 1 40 A 2498 D 31
INDICES
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Includedin the Index Nominumare only those items that are certainlynames of men, women or
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

divinities.The Index Verborum lists all otheritems,includingsome whichmay be eitherplace namesor


even personalnames;this servesto keep all the "estate"namesof the Tax Notationstogether,since
those names range from simple geographicaldescriptionsthrough proper place names to possible
owners'names. Both the IndexNominumand the Index Verborunare dividedinto Greekand Latin
sections.The Greekheadingsarein the Ionicalphabet,withthe actualspellingof the texts givenwhereit
differsfromthe heading.At the conclusionof eachsectionof bothindicesarelistedbrokenforms.
The IndexNumerorum, whichincludeseverythingthat is numberedwhateverthe unit may be (e.g.,
measure,coin,year),is in numericalorder,startingwith one-halfand goingup; fractionsare givenonly
in context(e.g., 17 2/3), not separately.Singlelettersor two- and three-lettercombinationswhichmight
be eithernumbers(alphabeticor acrophonic)or abbreviations maybe listedin bothIndexVerborum and
IndexNumerorum. The IndexSigillorumincludesonly those notationsfor measuresand such that are
not primarilyalphabetical;abbreviationswhichuse lettersappeareitherunderthe appropriatewordin
the Index Verborum or as acrophonicunitsin the IndexNumerorum.
All referencesare to cataloguenumbers.

INDEX NOMINUM
Greek

'Appco( ) or 'Appcb
F 227 'AuaKtioevS:F 26 'A]XKtouoi[vos
'AyoftasF 271 'A?dcovF 310
'Ayaeovfis: F 179 'Ayaeo9og[u]s 'Aua( ) F 60
'Ay5ccov:F 199'AycOcovos 'A"ppovuXos: D 39 'Al4pipoXos
'Aya( )F 21 F48 'AvaKss:G 5 'A]v[a]K.ov
'Ayep[ F 302 'AvsoKISTis:B 5 'AvBoKt[o
'Aypu( ) F 20 F 321 'AvSpFo
'AvSp&as:
'ASpaar( ) F 241 (monogram) F 131 'AvSpioKo;
'AvSSptlros: F 132 'A[v6]polco
'ASpiav6s:Hc 15 'ASplavoi 'AvSpi( ) F 97 F 237
'AeQva:G 23 'A]eOva5 D 3 'AvplTros
'Avirpltos:
AXItav6sF 316 'AvOv,.:C 3 'AvOeE
D 33 A]loaXav;E 3 Aloyxia;F 65
AlarXkas: 'AvrTiPos:B 5 'Avnrp[fo]
Altoeio C 32
'Av-riTKEi5is
Alaxt( ) F 119 'Avrfi.aXos:F 290 'AvwrfiaXos
Alox[ C 3 C 32
'AvTritUSlir
F 250 A]lacIoTro
Alrcowrros: 'Avrip[ F 324
'AKiV( )F 254 'AiroM6Scopos:F 58 'A-TroXo6po;
He 1
'AKIV.()F 320 'ArroMoScbp(ou)
'AKU( )F260 'Ar6TAcov:G 6 'A[rr6Sova
'AAKaios:C 19 'A?AKaios;C 20 'AAKai(ou); 'Apyefrins: 25 'ApyE[LSs
D
C 22 'A7]Kdaos 'Apiis: K 12 "ApEos
'AXK?( ) F 299 'Apio-rcSris:D 23 'ApiorefS(es)
'AhKiasC 32 'Apaoricov:D 22 'Apia-crov;F 16 'Apicrriov
F 146 'A]?KinTro
"AAKtrrros: 'Apiori( ) F 80
106 INDEX NOMINUM

'Apioarolvris:C 26 'Aploaro[ves A^itos:F 127 Arifo(u),Arl( ); see Ailos


'AploLOArls: D 42 'Apr)lTOT[ Atav( )He12
'Apiorvu[F 149 Alta-riqs:D 27 Atac-r&ES
F 238
'Aptorrcov AitS( ) F 189 (ligature)
'Apiacr() F 153 Ale( ) F 14 (monogram)
'Apic( ) F 81 Aly( ) F 206
'Api( )F 219 Aioyvrls: F 304 Aioykvo[u]s
C 32
'ApKErfcias Aloye[ F 232
B
'Apxcritos 7 Ato,ifis: F 177 AtoKhous
'Apo( )F194 AioKX( ) I24
'Apr( ) F 281 AtOKA[F 130
G 16 'ApT-riSos;G 18 'ApTr[iStl;
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

"AprTEpiS: Aiov1tios F 150; F 209 F 233 Alovwuiou;


G 21 'ApT-riSt He 6 Atovvoa'ou
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

'ApTi( ) F 148 Ao6vuos; G 9 AIovCmou; G 10 Ai[ov*rou;


'Ap( ) F 159; Hc 5 'ApT(Elafiou) G 21 Aiovaoco;G 22 Aiov[*crcp]
F 205 'A]pXiTnro[u
"ApXrwrros: Al6Tin.L: K 10 AtOTrflouv
'Ap( ) F 112 (ligature) Aio( ) E 15
'A( ) F 208 AipiXos:F 152 Atpi(aou),AtliXou
'Aacr( )F280 Apa:l'rflisF 93
'ATrTaia:F 4 'ATTrafas Ap*ios:F 316 Apptou
F 7 ]6owr[o]s
'ATrpO61Tros:
'Arv( ): see ATr( ) EtAEios(lXos): F 276 Ei?Eoy
AOyovrros:Hc 5 AOyoi(orrou) Eli7tlva: G8 'IAuv0e[ai
AO( ) F 89 (ligature) Elp( ) F 120 F315
AOT( ) F 52 (monogram) ('Icrfcopos):F 291 Eloi[8]copos
EicriSwpos
'Appoitria: C 11 ['Apqpo]Staia 'EKi( ) F 265
G 10 ['Aqpo8iTris];
'Aqpo8iTrl: G 11 'Acpp[o8iTrs 'EAXrri(): F 108 'E]jATir()
'Appo( )F 151 F 85 'ExacrKov
'Eoancov:
'AXE()F293 'Eqrl( )F53
'A( ) F 87; see also IndexNumerorum 'E6pTtos:D 13 'EopT[; F 22 'Eop( )
'Ewayca6s:F 292 'ESrayaoou
B7A( )F 17 D 38 'EwtyvbFs;
'ETrlyivyjs: F 223 'Ermyvous
or BXcoaus:D 29 BA6avs
BA6ovus 'E'rryovosD 44 F 287 F 318; F 282 'Ei]Ifyovos
'Eirty( ) F 110
raFos:He 4 r(aiou) 'ETrnTK[ F249
racifisF 230 'ETorvacosG 4
rFv( ) F 210 'Eppatcos:F 270 'Eppaiou
rfpus:F 142 rfipuos 'Ep,fis: G 1 G 4 heppte; G 17 'Ep.po
raCxos: B 9 F1aiKot 'Epnrl[ F333
!rau( ) F 114 'EpLto[ F 226
rv6ecov:B 5 rv[&ecvos "Epi'rrnos:F 198 'Eppinrro
rva( ) F 102 'Ep6ocopos:F 304 'ppiobpou
rov( )F239 'Epp[ F253
FopyiasD 6; F 64 ropyio 'EprTrivtaF 329
rpaCmKos:F 256 rpa<lKou 'Epco( )F247
Eorr( ):F57 hEa( );F68 hrr( )
Aafilcv: G 9 A]caiov[os Epil( )F 186
Aoaicea:D 31 Aanotl[s Ernl( )F236
AaloKprls: I 24 AaooKp&orous EepoviSris:F 43 E]ebpovi?[o
F 135
Aewvias E0euivris: D 12 .E8.OV6s
Akios: F 136 AEi(o[ EOvuvwvris:L 22 E0OvStvo'[s
AEp( ) F 41 EvKaprros 323; F 323 EVK( ); F 331 EKap( )
F
Arii'.evEa: D 8 Aeiwvdia EnKfiiC 24 K I EQ?S
F 165 AqrlTyrpias
Aqli,Tnrpia: B 7 EO,ef{S
EiOnATi{:
Arl.ln( )F 95 EuvoCos:F 272 Ev(( );F 275 E*v61tou
AqoqtliAosF 187; D 14 AE?l6piaos Euvo( ) F 229
AT|o( ) F 261 .F_rro[ F 266
INDEX NOMINUM 107

D 7 Ernrpaxcris
Eirnrpaots: I: see Et
EOpuvp[F 284 'lavOiSTis(or 'laveIs):C 10 'lavei6[
EpOTnr:D 10 EpiOre 'IEpoK[F 218
EOp( ) 314
F 'IEpoSi6rs:He 10 'I(Epo),So(u); He 11 'IEpo86ou
EOicrrtos:F 332 .E.o-raofov 'Ieprbvuios:B 18 ['I]epoov[]pico
EUrEK[F 10 'IEpcy[ F 315
EOTruXia:F 165 EOrvuxf[as 'I|<oo0S:J 1 'Ilq]-C0U
ECrruxiav6s:F 295 EOruxtavou He 9 'louAiou
'loAilos:F 308 'louXAo(u);
E*cpp6vios(EOvpcov?): D 15 Et<(>po[ 'Irrra( ) F 217
E1p( ) F 303 ('IrroXOyr .?): D 16 'lqIoAOyE
'I<pooX*yq
E?xa( ) F334
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Exe[ G 3 F 214 (monogram); cf. F 166


KcAMias
EOVpXlos: F 297 EOuXfiov M 8 KaAAcfXav[o]s
KcMiAevos:
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

E0( )F89 Koaicrrp&ri: D 39 KaAicrrprrr


"EqEaaF 257 Kd6Acov:D 17 K&Aovi
'ExKpaCriSas:F 157 'ExEKpaT-i6a F
KaiAnr 176
'Ecov( ) F 155 Kacr( )F 166
'E( )F98 Kapa( ) F162
Kp-ros: F 286 K&pwou
F 306 K.apqvifas
Kapqpvica:
?): Hc 20 Zac.A[ou
ZaOAos(aAOXos
Zes G 19; G 6 Afa; G 9 Ai6s K&anoos:He 4 Kacrai(ou)
F 307 Zcocarlou;
Zcbacnios: F 309 Z[cba]tlpos Ka[F 285
F 312 ZcoTIKOV
Zco'rK6s: KKpo[F 101
Kep( ) F 105
Kepa[ F 161
'Hyicrrparos:C 8 'Eyarpa-ros; C 9 'Eyar(p>- Ke( ) F 73 (monogram)
aTos KrS( ):F 45 KE( ) (monogram)
'Hy?iravSpos:F 116 'Hy'crSv[Spou K9l( ): F 66 KEp( )
'Hyiacirrros:F 168 'Hyatrr( ) F 262 KiKKou
KiKxos:
'HAia( ) F 327 K{icov:D 41 Kf]gov
'HpaAeiE[F 305 Kiooaos:D 30 Kfono[s
'HpaKqs: K 12 'HpaKiAous B 6 KAEi<To>pov'n
KAl-rToqcv:
'HpavAita:F 332 'HpcAfcas KAe( )F29 F74
F
'HpK( ) 294 K?npiov:F 76 Kkepiov
'HPaToros:G 7 ['Hpat]CrToi KAia( )F88
'Hqal( ): F 54 'Eal( ) Kpr( )F15
'H4qa( ) F 183 Kpe( ) F 197
H2EF 191 F 192 D 12 9uSiiaX[os
KuSiiiacXos:
H[ C 14 F225 He 14 K*AXou
KOXAos:
Kutrp6o8aos:F 67 (Cypriote syllabary)
OaXfs:D 41 [O]acfis Kv( )F242
Eaef: see T-roT F 123 KOE
Kcb&is:
OalvvES:B 1 [eOalvE]u;F 12 F 13 eOavios KGvos:D 4 Q98o[s;F 212 Kc&ou;F 213 Kcb(.ou)
6eppias:F 3 Oapio K( )F173
eioBoaoiaC 33 K[G5
GOElcopn6rs: F 259 OEIoScopiSou
OEoyEfToov:F 220 OEoyEdTCo[ Aai( ) F 207
soyl[: F 55 Oeroyi[ Aapta( ) F 137
eEopvrns:F 231 eEotvou(s) E)OG<e>
( ) Aagia: F 182 Aagfas
EEop( )He 28 A?( )F47 Fll
C 17
OECrnrtis Aeco[ F 128
&covF 185 AE( )Ha6
eQptKvfis:C 21 OsplKMS Afrrapos:F 63 [A]ir&po
D 11
Ooupli&tsx A6Kpos:D 18 A69po
epa( ) F 32-37; F38 e[; F39 ep; F40 e AuK6paaXos:C 10 AuK6la)x[os
epaaOvcovF 231 AUVK[ D34
e( ) F185 Avaias: D 20; F 267 Aucrio
108 INDEX NOMINUM

AucyiSrloS:F 9 Av]atSigo NIK( )Ell


C 7AuVaCKAe
AucIKAijs: NiK[C 15
Avaiuorp&.l:F 158 Avauorp[[x]Trls Nov( ) F 156
Au( )F28 F296 N( )F245

M&yipos:F 330 Mayipou -ave0js: D 39 Eav9es


McLaeos: F 274; F 271 F 278 M[Lca(8os) -av( )F 106 F 109
MA.IKOS:F 325 MaCiKoU -a( ):F42Xoa( )
MapiaF 322; F 258 Mapfas; J 2 J 3 J 5 J 10-12 EEV6&pavTosF 141
M(apfas) -Evoq>Sv:F 145 -VO.,opS(vros)
Map( )F87
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

ME1i( )F 98 MOvaros:B 5 'Ova[ro


K( F 129
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

MEKI( )or ME( D 19 'O]veyiipj[os


F 46 McAa<y>K6pa 'Ovrilcrpios:
MENsayyK,6iaS: F
D 32
MeXavel's 'Oviicig[ 215
D 37 MeAa[ ]8es
MEXavrlnrrrls: 'Ov-aiipopos:F 268 F 269 'Ovrlnq6pov;F 279
M?his:C 19 MfIT-r ['Ov]rlcpq6pou
D 39 MEvi8SEIos
MEvi&ISlo5: 'Opiv( )F49
C 7 M[EvE]Kp&ASs
MIEvEKp-rqS:
D 2 ME]vECOSI
MevE?Co&: nav5r( )F 147
F 202 MvrT)TOS
Mkvrns: TTavraocovC 31
G 21
MEvoKhyis TTapuL() F 193
MvcovF 164; F 163 Mvcovos,Mivco(vos), Tap( ) F69
F 273 nIlxrniTlKO
aTTlrrlitKos:
M(bvcovos)
MEv( ) F 190 (monogram) D 26 Trauoafas
nlauvaas:
Mr0i|rlF 184 nlau( )F27 F30
MrTryE[F 171
D 9 lhpacla8[
Tlipaia6rSs:
Mn( ) E 12 TTliforrpaTros: D 1 rihCcr<T>pcrros
Mi(as: F 180 Mifou D 39nh rapopre
evrapiorrTl:
Mi6EcvF 78 F 284 nefpptq
rTEpipos:
Miepas:I 28 Mifpou;129 Miep[ou] fie( )F31
MIKa( ) F 195 TlTr()F 133
Mtiicov F 72 F 224
1TAavTrrlos
MiXcov: F 56 MfiAcvos MAa( )F173
Mip( )F175 He 25 RTAviou
lTTivios:
F 167 MloAvui(Trou)
TToAXKrros:
MvralIcaXos:F 92 Mvrlicnt&Xo
Mv[C 25 He 26 [Tl]oXuW
TnoiQufis: ( )
MoCacr:K 12 Movurov TloXopaos:He 2 TloXv6io(v)
Mo( ) F 112 F 285
TnoiSEs
MupTrc:D 20 Mupr6 nPAI( ) D 26
MUsF 204 tnpaciasC 32
MfNOF 86 D 10 TIpaXa<i>vw
ppaCXivvi:
M( ) F332 TTp&Ecov:C 21 np<A>XCvos
TTPE() F 221
NEIKOV
F 252 C 31 lpocroria
Tpocrooucra:
D 32 NEoK(<A>o(s)
NEsoKAfi: nlpoa( ) F 255
npcbTrapXos: D 39 Tlp6TapXos
Nrcr( )F 196
Nty( )F235 Tpco( )F248
NtK&vcop:E 3 NIK&vop fnve6copos:C 19 nue6iopos
NiK<acr[ 172
F nTTOcov:see Tnp&Ecov
HC2 NuK<jTou
NK'pTraS: nupoeouptiSrlsD 11
NiKI: K 12 NtKCov D 37 rlupp[ ]5s
nTvppovf6rls:
NIKT( ) F121 TTOppos: 11, see text; D 21 rlopos
D
NIKI( )F200 TTvppcb:D 11, see text
Nti6Xaos:F 245 NIKoA&OU F
TTpcov: 138lnlpov
NiKoa[:F 75 NtKccwa[
NiKcbF 188 F 263 'PoOpov
'PoOqxos:
INDEX NOMINUM 109

EaL( ) F 178 F 304 OlxoKpp[Tro]us


(tXoKp&rrls:
X&KOS:F 301 26xKO PiXo( )F51 F90
atrrpa[ F 169 (DAcov:F 2 DiXovos
actrpa: F 113 EaTcrpas OiA( ) F 126
EaTm( )F 180 Op*vcov:D 28 Opivov
EPqrl( )F317
6EA?UK(): Hc 17 [ZX]AVK( ) Xatp( ) F 240
eE'vios: 125 Yeevto
F Xai( ) F 174
EIKCaC 27 Xapi&v&r: F 24 Xapl&[v]Os
Eipzcas:F 183 lfi{a Xapfas D 39
F 107 I(lo
fipoS: XappiiSrs:C 21 XappfieS
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

ZlUv( )F91 Xap( )F61


Xfiiov:F 86 Eico0vos Xot( )F25
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

Zt'ciJpppr:F 84 []'Jio~<<>Ppes Xpfocros:F 243 Xpcr-roU


ZKI( )F70 Xpicr( ) F 244
EKvea( ) F 79 X(pto-r6s)J2 J3 J5 J7 J8 J 10-12
EzuIKpvos:F 23 IEIlKpiVQo F 201 XpvuT[f]Tnlou
Xpio'inrrros:
Trparcov D 43 X( )F 182 F230
F
XTrpaTco[ 319 X[ C14 F330
IZpa( ) F 222
D 6 .vp&pios
X61papis: 'Q29(pE(): F 59 'Oq9E
EuvSpo6aXos C 23
Euv( )F 19 ]ayv( ) F 122
l0pos F 170; F 203 Srpou ]alrs: D 40 ]aiES
Ecoofias:C 18 oacias ]cqKtT9[ D 35
2cao'tvecs:B 9 SoafvEo(S) ]aX.ta[ F 124
EcoaX[F 134 ]aoalK.uEaF 311
cbcrrparTo:F 143 2aooTrp&TO ]as G 18
Ecorlp: G 9 2coT[filpo ]aTafrlF 117
F 150
coyppovaS ]aTos:F 94 ]&-rT
]6atos: F 144 ]6afou
TaTr:F 11 Eaei ]Bt6Kos:D 5 ]St59os
Tiypi( ) F 326 D 24 ]eSEs;F 115 ]eio8
]EiBrIs:
TtI6Evos: C 16 C 21 TtIg6Xovos;F 160 ].v( ) D 24
T]tpcov[ou ]?SC 12
Tilo( ) F 71 ]Eupa G 22
TiTas C 5 ]qlcov: F 140 ]^ovos
Tpfpacxos:F 62 Tpfplaos ]icrcov:D 25 ].kcov
Tp6XtXos: F 104 TpoxiXo ]fas F 63
Tp'rrls D 4 ](vaBoS:F 234 ]va&Sou
F 44
Tupcrav6s ]iv( )F82
G 9 TX[rIs
T*Oix: ]ios C 14
F 216 ]tIcrT5ou
]tcrri86rs:
F 77 Oatacrrfo
OaifoTios: ]kov: C 14 ]fov
B 2cOac6[veo
ODcXavOos: ]Kaio8[D 36
OaviAXrl:F 8 OavAXs ]A&TlXOs F1
F 6 Oaaov
Oa&ccov: ]oous: 5 ]Mos
F
OeiSorrpacros: F 181 ]?1i6oo0Tp(&rov) ]XvT C 29
$fiXA:F 277 0[qiXl ]XXosF 131
OiSfas:F 246 Ot619u ]AcXvios:F 264 ]?coviou
D 41 [$]fDAT
fAnrl: ]papiTrl:D 16 ] oaprTE
OtLXrilcov:D 44 OXiXAovoS ]v( )F194 F224
OiXTr[ F 300 ]rlvo[ D35
OlAxrMnr B 17; F 103 OlAhr1s ].OHT.[ F171
OfcXiAros F 225; B 17 OlAirc ]ovTos F 82
O?iAt( ) F 211 ]o B 5 C15
C 32; F 50 OIXopi]ot
OcAt68rlljoS: F 18
]OTOS
110 INDEX VERBORUM

[.rTraaD 40 ]aoos:F 118 ]cro


]..PKEF 96 ]o'rparos C 28
]sD42 F117 F209 K4 ]nKrcop:F 118 ]Kncopos
]aa C 14 ].pcovo[s F 289

Latin
AusQ[Hd 3 Furmius:He 4 Furnio
Ba( ) He 7 Gemmnianus: F 298 Gemmiano
C( ) He4 L( ) F328
Cn( ) F 288 Marinus:F 251 Marini
Co( ) F 228 Nero: He 8 Nerone
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Crispinus:He 6 Crispino Pasinus:F 313 Pasini


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

Dom( ) F 283 Pat[ F 328


Drusus:He 6 Druso Q( )F328
Fel( ) F 277 Se( ) F 228
Fund[ :F 328 Q. L. Fund[ Titius: F 288 Titio

Non-Greek(possiblyCarian?)
AITZKPI
F 99 APXAH?O: F 100

INDEX VERBORUM
Greek
&yaO6s:G 9 [&yaouo],&[y]aOfis An L34
G1
cycAula &pyliA(aov)He 15
OyavG2 dpyupis:He 15 &pyvpi6cov
ayopcaos:G 17 [3yop].dou; I 18 &yopl(ou) a&peva:L 19 d&ppivy[v
&ypos: 1 32 &ypou &pva[L 25
dycoIK,6S: K 3 cyoviQ96v &pXcov:He 2 I[]pxovrTo
B B 18
&8EXp6s: 17 &Sr^&:C; &5sp[Co],[t&]8&)p[Cv] &pco(l.rrTirs)
Hd 15
AA L 55 'Acra:B 11 'Aaias
Ad [B8 itpayo: Hd 11 ao ,iap6you
&du
AOL2 &otrB9
alpa: Hd 11 atpcov ATOZHe 12
Al F 163 AO He 20
&KEv( )I43 'AXPO()I45
B 19 KU( )
&KuXos: 'AXc( )I32
aXXos: 2 &hos;G 6 [IAos]
B &nlv(e{Tts)Hd 23
AAEONL 49 'A[...][vios I 45
AAI 11 A( )F87 F170 Hdl Hd20 He26
AMINL 26 A[ Hc 21
'Amgv( ) 17 110 116 I19 I20 I25 129 I40
I41 I 34 Batcov
B&aai:
K 10 K 11; He 3 &4(qpop&os)
&3(q9opaVs): L 47 P&p(os)
P&pos:
avOT-rfeil:G 7 &vfKEiv P3rT&Vov: B 12 Paiv(a)
&v8( )He 31 pev&~ppiov:B 21 [.. .]a ppi( )
ANKZB[L51 L
PiLpAivos: 45 Plu1pAvou
dvope6co:L 14 &vo<p>eoils pIVt3: C 2 VE[EqC; C 14 4[v,Tro], er*[o]
d&vrypa&co:K 6 &wvrTypcx[e Borip6lllov L 40
AN F 103 oqe6s J 6
&rrm() I12 Boi( )F65
rr6He23He 24 He 41 I4 I11 I112 pouvcaosI 45
rrroSifcoUt:B 17 drr66os PovvUs:I 5 .ouvoi
&frroq[I 14 Po[ I1
INDEX VERBORUM 111
Bartos:L 40 Bvoio(v) Tro'WrrXo: B 9 I-ctu ve
B( )F65 F233 128 129 brnirpacrItov: B 13 r1TrpaCrrfi[a
it[ B 10
y&ia Hd 22 'Epevefa:He 14 'Eppvdis
FraI(iXtov)L 29 EprTlos:Hb 6 :pfllou
y&pov:Hd 8 yap( ); L 47 ydpgy? ppI[B 10
y(ev...)J2 J3 J5 J7 J8 J10-12 EP( )Hc11
yiyvoiati: B 10 .yEv1irn ros[Hc 19] Hc 21; He 4 He 7 Hc 15 hrous;
yp&qco:C 18 yp&coaas;K 4 gypa[9oe; K 5 L 31 T-rOv;He 22-24 He 23 He 24 fr( )
ypa(p[ EOC 33
r( )F317 Hd15 fcosHe 41
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

E( ) F98; He 2 (s)
86: B 10 6' E[B 10
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

58(a): see Index Numerorum


SEKaTiCapEs He 2 lalrrlov: L 8 la(i&6rna)
86aTos: I 4 SEK&xTn
8&irrpos He 15 fKco: B 7 hiK[E]
8rl6Criov: Fa 1-26 S(ii6noov);Fb 1-3 'rl(6o'tov) hfltva:Ha 54 Jg(lvai)
8Tlv&piov:K 16 8q(vapla); see also Index Sigillorum fflo-rrov: B 14 t(lo'r(a)
lATnA [ Hc 20 fi.oUv:Ha 18 fill( ); see also IndexNumerorum
6Kcatos Ha HaHa
28; Ha 17 8IK[ ; Ha 25 8Ke(os); fillxa B 15
Ha 32 6iKEo[S fplfXous:B 12 'fiXouv
iKaxicosF 131; F 94 8tK[ ; fXi1:1 37 fX5ov
F 132 [81]Kacos;F 139 [St]iKacos;
F 154
[6S]Kafco[s Oe&: G 13 Oea[Tv]
81oupil-rK6s: Hd 21 Stoup(1rTK6v) i,ga: Hd 19 0icpara
8i( )Hb9 WE6s: J 6; J 7 0(ou); C 21 eiol; G 6 C6[s]
(ace.)
8i[ L13 Oco[ L25
SoK&o:C 3 [8o]KEI;C 10 [8]oET;C 19 Somt lyyT&vco: K 2 [e0]yois
86XAXOs: B 16 8oAfXou e0pa: B 1 eOpas
Spaxpi: E 9 [6pax]pov; E 16 K 18 L 30 8p ( ); e( )I15 J8
L 20 bpa( ); see also Index Numerorum
A( )F162 F282 Hd5 16( )He 42
A[B3 lipeiS:F 262 Ieprios
lipoer*Ts:F 304 itpoOirov
!6 B 10 i?p6sG 16; I 31 kpou; G 10 G 11 lepas; G 20
'
tycb: C 8 poi; G 1 lepov[
el: K 2 [ei] iE( ) F 323
Elpt (variouslyspelled and preserved) F 3 F 5 lv8(tKnTIv)I 12 1 44
F12 F13 F18 F32 F56 F58 F63 F 65 IN( )F82
F 94 F 107 F 115 F 131 [F 1321 F 144 F 177; 'loAtoos:He 9 'lovfou
Hd 2 [o-ri] 'lovtios: He 41 'louvfou
EtS:B 9 es; B 20 Is raeItov: K 1 T[eO]iov
Ets:see Index Numerorum L 12 'lCO[l]t<o>)vi(Kns)
'Clor0toviKrs:
Eibcros:I 23 KcrTeou IETA[ L21
ecalov: Hd 4 Hd 18 MAai(); Hd 23 [ciatov]
EMF 177 Kaeap6s: Hd 10 oKaapQu;He 22 KaOap(ou);
gv8ecrpov:B 9 fvSeoaT(v) 132 Kac(apou)
Evrxa:L 37 v?K[a Kaoeflql:B 1 Kd&sO
1viavuiaTos:He 15 &viarcrlaiov Kai:C7 C14 C34 G6 [G101 G21
iac[ 133 Kaiv6s:B 2 Ka<i>v6s(ace.); Ha 2 Katv; 1 36 KEviS
-rrfHc 1 Hc 2 Hc 20 L 18 L 29 KaKoBafplovG 15
Trrie?lpa:B 13 1rrlfipa(Ta) KtaCrrro( ) J 7
rlfiwvlov: Ha 16 []rrmlfi(vwov) KaX6sC7 [C 10 C13 C 15-17 C19 C21 C 28
rlvi,rtocn:(in variousabbreviations)He 42 2-5 C 31; C 3 C 11 KCai; C 29 C 31 KaiA
1 7-11 15-18 I 20-29 1 31-33 I 35-41 I 43 K 18 KaXrr!8(os)
KAcTris:
I45 L 19
KdAvppra
112 INDEX VERBORUM

KCav()Hd7 uia:He 33 He 34 He 36 XAi-ros;


He 29 [OhtT]os;
B 12
[Kd&p6]oroS I 42 AIt[
L
mKaplK': 32 Kaplifis gEi{vr: He 41 ieXivris
KaprroS:He 17 K&perou He 21 eXi-rivou;
IEi-riTvoS: He 30 ITrr()
KaTaTrtycovC24 [C261; C5 C18 C22 C25 MEv[alTos]I 42
KarraTrOyov;C 27 KaaTanry(alva) 9EP( )L55
Ka( )F297 16 paCos:B 12 fooit
Ka[B 10 F 103 F 285 Mecp( )He 23
KE!( )L23 Trpios:Ha 1 Utr'rpto; Ha 12 iTpi(ov)
I 36 KEVjs(see Katv6s)
KEvri: 6Trpov:Ha 19 He 37 e'(Tpa)
KEV[B 10 Pe( ) Ha55
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Kep6alov:Ha 18 ipalina; Ha 56 K(E)p(qiala) P4I:C 19 P


KEpatos:E 5 KEpa0os G 2 [lrQ8v]
n6E?is:
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

KE( )He 25 !wv: He 41 1 23 nl(v6s); He 5 He 9 1 17 lr(qv6s)


K1Tros:B 1 Krro Prl( )L43
KIXHTOY
L 30 Iicryco:C 8 liaoyT
KA'TTS: F 199 vA-rTT[OU C 1 I{CErTOS
IoIrcTOS:
KMaois:D 18 [K]XSais iva: Hb 5 pv(al); He 3 He 5 n(vai)
Klivrfip: B 2 KA[ivT-p]as p6(8ios) Ha 16 Ha 44 Ha 53 He 4 He 8-11 1 24
Kvi6iov: Ha 15 Kv<i>B)(ov) MoA6rTO: 1 25 MoXrroO
Koivos:F 83 Koivai M( )F332 Hall J6
Ko6KKAos: C 30 KOKKOA(oi) [[ Hd22
KOV( )He44
Kopitv[ B 10 B 20 vaoAou
vcSXAoS:
Kopi( ) He 44 va[ B10
Ko'rXTA:Ha 29 Ha 40 He 17 Ko( ); B 21 F 198 vlJios:I 41 [N]Eclv
Ha 7 Ha 9 Ha 0OHa 35 He 1 K( ); see also VE( )L56
Index Numerorum vti: G 6 vE
Koopoos:Hb11 Hb22 Hb28 He 25 He 28 vf(K:B 16 VlKal;He 19 [N]i(KrS)
KcjaeoS:
He 17 Kv(a0os) v6jiicaa: K 17 vo({ioacrr)a
D 44
KuSaOrivalwis B 19 [v]opirr
vopOqn:
Ko<vos:B 20 KCbvco[v NoT( )I12
K( ) F173 vUvB 10
K<L9 N( )F206 Hc7

(av6os: He 36 aav0oui
AcKa.lco:C 33 XaiK&8e[t
(in various spellings or abbreviations):
cTrrlTs
AalKao-rpia C 34;
C 33 X(atcic-rpta)
Ha 17 Ha 20 Ha 23 Ha 28 Ha 30 Ha 32 Ha 37
C 23 AcxKK6OTp[o]TroS
AaKK6rOTrpcOKOS: Ha 38 Ha Ha4Ha46 Ha:Ha50-52
4
B 11 Xeyo[
WAyco: Ha56 Hd6 He 36 He4 e44 15 118 121
XixKuosB 12 123 126 145 K 13; see also Index Sigillorum
Afpepa L 46 EHETYAPL 5
L 3 Atlpucr[IK6s]
Apvuo-r.K6s:
Mieos:B 16 Aieo<u> 6,, ,6: C C1 4 C 18 C 23 D 6 L 3 ho; L 126;
AiTpa:(variously abbreviated) Ha 26 Hb 6 Hb 7 Hd 2 T6; B 1 B 2 F 304G 6 G 13 He 41 J 4
Hbll Hb12 Hb l4 Hb 18 Hb21-23 Hb26 K 5 L 14 (various oblique cases)
Hb28 Hb29 Hd6 Hd10 He6 He7 Hel2
He22 He25 He26 He28 He29 He31-34 6opeAas:B 12 [6]peial; B 14 [6]p-hima
6poA6sL 7
He43 17 112 6e: Hd 2 [Tr]68;L 3 ho5i
AoTra6rrB 14
olKosB 10
Aoxr&atov:B 12 XoTr&dia
A7fco:B 10 aOIcaTo oivrpos Ha 27
olvos: Hd 13 He21 otvou; B20 olvov; (understood
onHdl5 Hd17 Hd23)
Jiyca: B 14 iey&Xrn 6OAK:E 15 6AK(ai);Hb 2 6A(Kai)
MOievn:I 23 MeOfvnrs C 5 'OhAu<i>i)
'OAuITri6vtKoS: t6v[t]K.os
I 9 Hex2c[VjO]V
AESCvosVOS: OM He 33
vehMiv(os)He 23 He 24 6v&piov:B 106vO'pia
INDEX VERBORUM 113

o6os:Hd 1 8o'xos;L 27 5( ) rrpo( ) L 43


6S,aWiov:B 20 60i[,[aca] iTp( )Hc26
B 19
O'rTOV mrvyaTio: C 121ruy[
6carp6aK:Hb 12 6orTp6cns lnvcbv, see Ouvcbvv
Hb7 Hbl4 Hbl5 Hb21 Hb23 Hb26 mru( )L56
o6rrpaKov:
Hb 30 He 31 He 33 He34 He 37 d&rrpd&ou H( )J3
(variouslypreserved,spelled,abbreviated)
&OTB 11 He 7
OarrRr(avcXaov)
OTInB 8 pa L27
OYAEL 31 (vas?) PIA[ L 21
oVyK{a: B19 Hb3 Hb22 He7 He 13 He 22 B 12 5oclta
poqpeTov:
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

He 39 He 40 1 23 1 32 (variouslyabbreviated) purTlK6S:L 3 pOcrr[lK6S


o866s:B 1 ho85i
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

OUIK()I 11 onYKcola:Hb 4 q6C<KCo[;


He 22 arlcKCj(aTos);
oiros: B 8 rTaTa;B 10 TraOIrv He 5 ( )*
OY 1 12 MOYL 53
6cpicna:He 30 6oAl(pia) crr[B 10
6y&piov: B 20 6oapEi(ou) araOei6s:He 40 ar( ); He 43 [ora]e(ci6s)
arT&uvos: B 18 [co-r&]vos;B 17 -r[a]v]lov;
rraiyviov: Hd 14 rraiyvia Ha 54 crrt((voi); He 14 crr&( ); He 39
'raTs: C 1 C 4 Tratis];B 2 Trat crrlvo( )
F 316
rroacat66 (-rcarip)E 3 He 1
Hd 2 [Tr]aAaCfT[pas]
TraAaIo-rpa: ETPAL 26
rroa( )I 13 L43 ovyye[ B 10
wrav( )He21 L18 aryKo?Aosor oarycoaos:I 40 ovvK.6Xou
B 18 [Tra]p&
-rrap&: He 11
cosS
'rapxAios:I 35 nrapaAfov
TTAPAMYNQTOX
F 91 B7
rT&Xos
J 4 rrapeEvou
rrap0Nvos: TEI L23
L 14
rrapoS T-rTprpXoUs:Ha 13 [TrTp]6cXovv
I 20 naoaarrov
a&no'rrTros: rTivco:G 6 TrdiiTro
r&caaov:
Hd 9; Hd 12 Trar(oov);He 13 He 40 T-Xaco: C 23 T-r?A
Tra(r(aoov) TOA L 38
Tracr()L12 see L 34
Tpacrr(rrir6s):
TrrVTE:
Ha 5 Trv(-rE);
L 8 -rrT<V>Tr TptK6XCOvoS:I 4 TpIlKOcbvcOV
B 20 'rrEpai
irrEpriS: 'rplKcop( ) He 24
TEp(uoav6s)Hd 20 rTppA3iov B 12
TrE( ) F 65 L 10 Tpu(yia) He 32
'rrriy:I 27 TrrlyiS rTpcyco:G 12 rpcoyovr[
'rivat:B 12 TrivaKES TYnA L52
irivco:G 15 Trrir Tcb:C 19 'r6
IIPBL 44
rr(Aipcotia) He 36 68pfa:Ha 18 0Spiat
B 10TrO
TroXAs: 9i; L 10 rro(<>) 06cop:Hd 16 0'Sa-ra
B 10
Tr9gvrpos He 29 ]..rTTou,c'Y.rTC
'Yiirr6IOS:
K 3 or6po[v
TropoS: L7
U]'rrcaipios
'rroTIlptov:B 12 rrOT-rlpa;F 3 'rro-rptOV Hd 2 rrrCa[XAtica]
T'rrr&AElca:
-rov( )L10 B 5 [iTr]?p
Trrrp:
7ro( )Hd18 L15 0TrEpaB 19
Hd 5 TTpacxiv[
TTPa&VEIOS: ;Hd 17 He 26 Tpa( ); imrOB 1 htrro
I 13 npa.( ) iTr( )1 6
Trp.I( )J7 vcar[ L56
rrpia[ 1 30 Y.rTA L 5
rrpicov:B 1 Trpiov(a)
rrp6L 45; He42 Trp(6) He 27
O)aAEpv(6S)
rrpoK( ) I 39 ipco:Ha 36; C 19 9ps
'rpOTrie01i:He 41 wp9Ogerco C 18 (cnvtv
1fprli:
114 INDEX VERBORUM

OH .....AA L 48 ]ENHGHTOL54
qlfa G 14; G 9 [pl]Aas ]soi G6
qpAosC 7 ]eo 1 38
qniAoTioov:C 6 [pli]oTroaov ]EP-T[B4
pi( )He19 L 28 ]es C12
B 19 cpovoU
qpotv6s: ]ETA.[ L4
9opCo: B 2 4p6pE? ]? Ha 18
K 1 'TpaXT(oS)
pp&ap: ]HA(SBE[L 54
I 19 Ou(vovos
Ou$cbv: ]HXHI L6
00 He 35 ]f5es B 15
0( )He32 ]ITorcov B 10
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

]IVlKt L 11
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

F 199 XCAKci ]InE[ B4


Xa(KouS: ]IPE B3
X&PTTs: B 14 [X1&p'r[s]
XE K 7 ].If[ L 13
2 ]KOINOAX L24
Xois K 13; Ha 8 xo; Ha 31 X6s; F 198 Ha
1 35
Ha 6 Ha 14 Ha 25 He He 2 He (variously ]K,ov G3
abbreviated;see also IndexNumerorum) ]KoS G6
B 18 [Xp]no-r'r
Xprlcrr6s: ]Xipas B 10
Xp(6vos)Hc 26 ]A.[ B 12
Xrarpa:B 13 Xrrpas; K 2 9JrT[pas] ]A.KE! L23
Xcop.. He 5 ]AUO[ L 16
B21
XC(p(ou)I1 I 5 16 113-15 118-21 124 125 ]A( )L 16
127-37 1 39-43; 1 45 X(co)p( ) ]uacr
X( )F 182F230F330 ] L4L9
]NHOE L17
]veov B 10
TA He 23
B 20 yc(fco[v
Wcoifov: ]NN![ B4
]voulrls 1 24
wcovo()I 11 ]v.ra B 10
].N F 194
cvfi F 199 ]KOS L9
bs:C 18 hos; B 7 6s ].OM[ B3
].02o B 10
]A[ B10 ]os C2
]a E4 ]TrrTl() Ha 16
]A! L3 ]hrop( ) 1 8
]AMA2 B11 ]piveias L 33
]AMME[B4 ]EIE L6
]ANIA L ].I L40
]ANI L35 ]oEv9os B 10
I 10
]&vcov ]XOnOA[B 4
]APENrE[L53 ]ZX[ B 10
]ap( ) L29 ]EQT[ B 10
]AXHAL 35 ] B 10 K4 L37
]BE L17 ][ B 10
]you Ha 40 ]TAPA.AHL 36
].EAIHA L 1 ]TA5AIIt1EMAXB 11
]ei8[ L 37 ]TA Bll
]EI.[ B3 B15 ]Tuqos L 42
]E! B5 ]u L9
]ENEIA[L 13 ]qnQP() B 21
INDEX NUMERORUM1 115
Latin

ab Hd 3 N(onae) He 18
antea He 4 saec( ) He 18
Aug( ) He 18 s(itus) L 41
a[ L50 stig(matum)He 18
bol Hc 8 Terg( ) He 18
car( ) He 18 tuus: L 50 tuis
coc(tum) Hd 3 vas He 18 (see L 31 OYAX)
co(n)s(ul)Hc 3 He 4 vil(la) He 18
co(n)s(ule)sHc 7 vin(um)He 18
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

d(e)f(un)c(tus)L 41
[e(st)] L 41 Iciri L 50
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

e, Hc 6 ]orum L 50
mo(dius): He 4 mo(dii)

INDEX NUMERORUM
one-half:Ha 21 ( thirteenplus: He 43 ty'<
one:B141; E13 F-;F87 F170 117 126a' fourteen: He 2 &xa CrLapEs;Hc26 Hd6 15 112
one plus: E4 4- 1 37 iS'; Hb 9 Hcl15 Si'
two:B 12 B 14 1
He16 1l; L151I; Ha7 He KK; fourteen plus: Ha 41 tS'P"
F198 Hal4 Ha25 HaS6 He40' fifteen: F323 Hcll He5 Hel17 He25 He31
two plus: Hal1OXXHK[;Ha 1l II= He38 116 121-23 ie'; Hb6 1 17 139 El'
three: F 317 Ha 54 Hb 22 He 8-11 He 14 He 22 fifteen plus: Hb 19 XIIIII<;He 5 IE'<
IS 123 127 144 L20 L31 L33y' sixteen: Ha 5 ].APF; He 15 is'
four: B12 Ha31111; B21 F162 F282 Ha35 sixteen plus: Hbl1O XIIIIII=
Hdll1 He 4 He 10 He 39 I 8 19 1385S' seventeen: He 41 iL'
four plus: E 4 F+FFICKT>; Ha 22 Ha 56 S'< seventeen plus: Ha 50 He 39 i<'(; Hb 17 XIIIIIII<;
five:Ha 5 Hb25 He 31 11111; B 12 He 2 P; E 3 IF; Ha36 Ha42 Ha44 He42 iL'13
B21 He7-9 12 17 K18 L23 L40e' eighteen: E 14 APF-l-; He 6 He 30 irl'
five plus: Hb 8 11111-; F 65 PE; He 38 e'< eighteen plus: Ha 47 tri'KSB
six: Hbl3 HblS Hbl6 Hb24 Hb27 111111; nineteen: Ha 40 Ha 45 He 17 tO'
E 9 F1-F-F-; F 104 Ha 24 Ha 31 Ha 54 Hbl5 twenty: B 12 E 12 AA; He 3 AA; Hb3 Hd ll
Hb 22 Hb 30 Hc 5 He 35 He 37 115 I 23 141 He7 I12 L24K'
K13 L 47 s" twenty plus: Ha 21 K'<
six plus: He 17 He33 iIIIII; He 33 s`<; E 6 PHFCTtwenty-one: F 285 (?) F 297 Hc 22 (?) 16 (?) Kc'
seven: Ha 4 1111111; He 2 PEE; B 19 F104 Hb 14 twenty-one plus: Ha 46 Ka'S"
Hbl 8 Hb21 He8 L' twenty-two:Ha 11 II=; He 43 i'zB
sevenplus: Ha 7 1111111 IEKK; Ha 9 PIKKH twenty-three: E 8 AAIII[;E 7 AAFL-F[;He 29 Ky';
eight: Ha6 Hb2O Hb3l B13
11111111; Pill; Ha26 He 20 XXIII
Ha30 He22 13 120 if twenty-four: Ha 38 KS'
eightplus: Ha 6 [mXXXH twenty-four plus: Ha 45 He 33 YB'<;Ha 49 KS'<5'
nine: Hb9 111111111; E9 PH-H-; Hb7 Hb12 twenty-five: Ha 52 iE'; He 19 He 41 XXV
Hb23 Hb29 He6 He28 He29 He32 He44 twenty-six: Hb 1 AAIlIlll; He 12 ics"
I 10133 135 0' twenty-seven: Ha 51 He 7 10 KUK
nine plus:K8 IIIIIIIIIPl-I-H-;
Ha 48 O'< twenty-sevenplus: Ha 43 KL'<
ten: B 12 A; He 1 AA$; Hb28 He 13 He22 twenty-nine: F 250 Ke'
He39 1 18 123 i' twenty-nine plus: Ha 39 Ke'<S"
eleven: F198 Ha55 Hb5 Ill I25 131 132 thirty:Hdl16 He 40 A'
ta'; 1 26 at' thirty-one:Ha 19 Ha 37 ?a'; Ill rL'
twelve: He 3 AMM; Hb 26 17 I 10 121 L23 tn'; thirty-two:He 29 Ap'
143 Pt'; K19 XII thirty-three:He 21 Ay'
twelveplus: K 19 tp'< thirty-five:Ha34; K 15 XXXV
thirteen: B 21 Hb 11 He 26 He 36 1 40 1 45 L 29 thirty-six:E9 AAAPI-
ty'; 1 24 yt' thirty-sevenplus: Ha 33 VL'<
116 INDEX SIGILLORUM

thirty-eightplus: Ha 29 Xq'< 15?: He 14 pv[


forty: E15 F332 He13 He26 I' 172: He 16 pop'
forty-five:E5 AAAAP[;K14 s'[XL]V;L38XXXXV 194: He 23 He 24 p96'
forty-five plus: Ha 18 IE'fi(icv) 200:He35 132 K17 a'
forty-seven: B 19 Ii'; L 40 ]Pi' 210:Ell HHA[
fifty: E 10 F 130 FA; E 16 AAAAA; F252 rF, v' 229: Hc 18 oxe'
fifty-seven: L 30 vl' 230: L 23 acr'
sixty:E 13 PA; He30 ~' 239: I 44 0ha'
sixty-one: L 39 XIL 241: He 19 caa'
seventy: He 10 L 24 o' 329: F 250 KOr'
eighty: J 3 rr' 424: K9 SKv'
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

eighty-one: L 34 air' 500: He 25 q'


eighty-nine: Ha 10 eir' 502: He 17 qpP'
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

100:Hb2 K16 p' 580: He 24 'rr


111: L23 pia' 701: He 23 pa'
115: F 315 Eip' 964: Hc25 F86'
121:He 10 pKa' 1246: He9 ,acrls'
139:Hc 1 He37 pAO' 9975: El PXXXXPIHHHHraAAP
146: He8 ppis' 10474: He 10 ,tv8o'
150:Hc12 Hc23 pv' 11100:E2 MXH
155: He 13 pve'

INDEX SIGILLORUM

(half):see IndexNumerorum (xestes): Ha 30 Ha 56


(denarius):He 16 He 17 He 38 (?) F (ounkia): B 19 HIb3 He 13 He22 He 39
K (drachm):K 9 (?) see IndexNumerorum He40 I23132
A (litra): Ha26 IHb2 Hb18 Hb21-23 K (ounkia):He 7
Hb 26 Hd 6He 6 He 22 He 26 He 28 He 29 + (cross):F 323 F 324 143
He31 He33 He34 He43 112 -P (chi-rho):F322 Ha 46 He 22 He39 J1
(xestes): Ha37 He36 He 44 K13 J4 J9 L28
(xestes): Ha 38 Ha 43 Ha 45 Ha 46 Ha 48 xer (see text):J 8
Ha 50-52 He 41 118 21 23 1 45 XMr (see text):J 2 J3 J5 J 10-12
American School of Classical Studies at Athens
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

Plates
American School of Classical Studies at Athens
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

A4

A7
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American School of Classical Studies at Athens

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PLATE2

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B15

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PLATE 3
American School of Classical Studies at Athens
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

PLATE 4

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American School of Classical Studies at Athens
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

PLATE 6

C25
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C30

C33
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1:2
C26

C32
C31

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A~7
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American School of Classical Studies at Athens
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D1

D 11
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D16
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PLATE 7
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For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

PLATE 8

D27
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For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

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PLATE 9
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PLATE 10

E 15
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PLATE 11

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F4
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F 61 1:4

F63
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PLATE 14

F94
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F 97 1:2
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