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- Classroom Mangament Plan
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- unit paper 4 1
- 01-30-14 reflection ii
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- design brief
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October 6, 2015

First Tutoring Reflection (1.5 hours)

Note: At the end of this document, there is a key which defines the subsections of each tutoring

reflection

1. This tutoring session began with the Diagnostic Screening Test: Math (DSTM). Dominic, a

homeschooled 4th grader, completed the test rather quickly. I instructed that he was to

complete what he knew. I told him not to stress if he did not know how to complete a

problem; he could simply skip them. In the end, Dominic skipped a majority of the test. He

correctly completed many of the addition and subtraction problems but he did not know any

of the ones focusing on multiplication or division. After the assessment, we worked on a

worksheet in his math workbook. His lesson was on front end rounding and addition. He did

fairly well; he sometimes forgot to carry the one when adding. For example, if adding 29 and

42, he would write an 11 below the 9 and 2 instead of placing a 1 below and carrying the ten

above the 2 and 4. His solution would be 611 instead of 71. He did not do this every time; he

progressively improved and corrected his mistakes by the end of the session.

2. Dominic was very cooperative and enthusiastic during the session. He was excited to show

me his math work and the methods he used to solve the problems. He tried to solve each

problem on his own; if he was confused or unsure of the next step, he always asked for help.

Dominic worked hard and diligently. He did not goof around or become distracted. He was

attentive and on pace. In addition, if I attempted to show him a different strategy, method, or

tip, he was willing to listen and try it.

3. While Dominic did well with the lesson, he did struggle with some of the carrying and

regrouping aspects. I noticed that he is still using a finger counting method for addition and

subtraction. He has not memorized the number facts or basic addition. From memory, he

easily remembers some statements such as 5+5 and 2+2 but he struggles with statements

such as 7+3 or 6+8. Dominic needs to work on memorization and automaticity. Further, I

noticed that Dominic likes to write his math problems out on paper and check the ones he

completed. I believe that Dominic is a visual, concrete learner.

4. For this introductory session, I followed the workbook that Dominic brought. His father, who

serves as his primary math teacher, indicated the page he was to complete. I asked Dominic

what he normally did with each worksheet. He said that his father reads through it with him,

discusses the problems and concepts, and helps him when necessary. I decided it was best to

continue with and implement the strategies with which he was familiar.

5. Dominic demonstrated learning and achievement within this session. He had a little bit of a

rough start but he steadily progressed and worked through the content. He grasped the

concept of frontend estimation and its relation to adding. He practiced word problems in

which he had to decide if an estimate or exact answer was required. While he did well

overall, he is still relying on finger counting to achieve the desired answer. Dominic is a

visual learner who likes to put the problem down on paper and to talk or think aloud as he

works.

studying. I will help Dominic investigate and work through these as I promote a greater

number sense and automaticity. As we work through his workbook, I will suggest different

strategies or methods for remembering number facts quickly.

7. Dominic and I work in one of the open classrooms here at Franciscan. We find an empty

classroom and push a couple desks together to create workspace. We sit a little towards the

back of the room as to avoid any noise or distractions that may occur outside the door. At

first, I was unsure as to how Dominic would react to working in a college classroom. I feared

that he might be overwhelmed or intimidated. However, Dominic likes the classroom. He

becomes excited because he thinks he is a college student. It is as if he is an advanced student

in a big kid classroom. This helps him focus on his work.

8. For this lesson, there was not a great deal of outside planning for instruction or challenging

activities. As the tutor, I organized, became familiar with, and prepared to give the DSTM.

Otherwise, I followed the instructions sent by Dominics father. I am not personally selecting

a standard to cover. Rather, I am following along with his curriculum and typical learning

pace.

9. Overall, I would consider this tutoring session a success. He did well with the actual

assignment and math concepts. As the lesson continued, he improved upon his understanding

of front-end estimation and its role in addition. Using word problems, he succeeded in

identifying when it was necessary to estimate and when it was better to be exact. Dominic

just needs to work on moving toward automaticity and away from counting on his fingers.

October 9, 2015

Second Tutoring Reflection (1 hour)

1. For this session, I followed along with the lesson his dad was working on in the last few

days. Dominic showed me that he was working with triple digit subtraction with two

regroupings. An example math problem for this activity is 400-122. Dominic practiced

borrowing from the hundreds then from the tens. He continued thinking aloud through the

steps; he used this strategy to reason why the regroupings needed to occur. I allowed

Dominic to show me how he calculated these problems. I then followed his methods as I

helped him complete his worksheet. He did an excellent job with regrouping and

calculating the correct answer. He answered a majority of the problems correctly without

my help. However, Dominic is still relying on a finger counting method to complete the

subtraction problems.

2. This tutoring session went much better than the first. Dominic was focused and eager to

do his work. I believe he warmed up to me more than he did in our initial meeting; I think

he is growing comfortable with working on math with me in a college classroom. We

took small breaks from the worksheet in which I tried to show him some strategies for

memorizing facts and moving from finger counting to automaticity. While he was more

than willing to listen and try the strategies, the concepts seemed too abstract for him. He

often said that they were confusing and he did not fully understand them. At the end of

the session, Dominic enthusiastically pointed to more triple digit with two regrouping

problems on another worksheet; he said he wanted to save them to do together the next

time.

3. Dominic is doing very well with the actual content of the lessons; he can clearly and

easily explain how to do the problems on the worksheet. Dominic needs help with

mastering math fluency/automaticity. While his finger counting method works, he needs

to develop more abstract, mental math. He will struggle with more advanced math

concepts if he continues to rely on finger counting.

4. As with the previous lesson, I followed the strategies and methods that he indicated. I

want to build a positive, productive relationship with him before I try to use new

strategies and tips with which he may be unfamiliar. We primarily used paper and pencil

as our tools. I did not use any specific manipulatives or technologies for this session.

Although I recognize the need to move away from finger counting, I allowed him to

continue to use this as his primary strategy. I wanted to observe him in order to develop

and plan a session that may benefit his specific needs. I also want to engage him in

conversation as we work to determine his interests; I want to incorporate these into the

sessions.

5. Dominic is making progress with his math workbook. He showed me the test he took on

front end rounding and addition (the lesson from our first tutoring session). He did well

on this test; if I remember correctly, he earned a high A. Within this session, Dominic

worked independently most of the time. I was more of a supervisor and aid for when he

struggled. He confidently and efficiently completed the worksheet. He demonstrated a

clear understanding of triple digit subtraction with 2 regroupings. During this session, I

did provide a tip that Dominic immediately picked up. I noticed that, if subtracting, he

counts on his fingers twice. For instance, if calculating 15-6, he first starts with 6 then

uses his fingers (starting with his thumb) to count upwards, 6...7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14,

15. He then counts how many fingers he has up, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. To speed this

process along, I asked him, How many fingers do you have on one hand. He said five. I

then asked, Well if all your fingers are up, how many is that? He said five. Dominic

then realized that, when counting and if all the fingers of one hand are extended, he can

start with 5 and move on from there. This shortens the second time he counts on his

fingers. It is not a perfect solution but it is a step toward recognizing numbers and

improved automaticity.

6. I will continue to suggest and demonstrate strategies for automaticity and math fact

fluency as we work through his workbook. I want to focus one more lesson on his

workbook alone before I try any manipulatives or technology. I want to further establish

a comfortable rapport with Dominic as I observe his current understandings, abilities, and

skills.

he is a college student. This environment is conducive to his learning. Dominic is a

bright, lively young boy. He is very imaginative and likes to joke around. For some

reason, he thinks I am Spiderman. He even asked me if I was Spiderman. When I asked

him why he thought that, he said, I dont know. I just think you look like you would be

Spiderman. I gave a nonchalant answer, neither confirming nor denying. I think this

makes him even more excited to come to the tutoring sessions. He often asks questions

aimed at getting me to admit I am Spiderman.

8. Once again, I am not personally selecting or following a standard within the session. I am

merely using his pre-existing curriculum and following his workbook. Before I came to

this session, I reflected on the previous one. I tried to analyze what seemed to work and

what he responded well to.

9. In the end, this was a very successful session. Dominic was extremely focused, eager, and

willing to work. He was excited to do the math and was diligently working throughout

the entire session. He was well prepared prior to coming and able to show me what kind

of problems he was learning and how to solve them. Dominic excelled at the procedures

of triple digit subtraction with two regroupings. He needs to continue to develop math

facts and automaticity.

October 13, 2015

Third Tutoring Reflection (1.5 hours)

1. Today was more disorganized than the previous sessions. The majority of the math page

we were working on the last time was completed. All that was left was a small section of

word problems that dealt with triple digit subtraction with two regroupings. After

completing those, he asked me to simply create some problems for him to do.

2. Dominic was less focused today. He was more energetic than normal; he wanted to talk

and make jokes. I believe he was trying to be funny and make the math session fun.

Although he was more distracted, he still completed the activity in his book and any

problem I gave him. I think because he did not have a specific math worksheet full of

problems or a particular activity, he thought today could be more relaxed.

3. After working with and observing Dominic over the last three sessions, I realize that

Dominic is bright, imaginative, energetic, and happy. He is eager to learn and wants to do

well. I realize that Dominic has an interest in soldiers, superheroes, and sports; he has all

the typical interest of a nine-year-old boy. Further, Dominic has a tendency to count on

his fingers when adding and subtracting. I also noticed that he writes down everything on

paper and likes to put a checkmark next to a problem to show he finished it. From these

two observations, I gathered that Dominic is a visual, tactile/concrete learner. He likes to

use physical objects or representations to do math equations. Dominic needs to move

from the concrete to abstract; he needs to improve his mental math abilities and skills.

4. This tutoring session was no different than the previous two. I did not use any specific

manipulatives or technologies beyond paper and pencil. My goal was to observe and

engage Dominic in order to evaluate his abilities, skills, and current needs or areas for

improvement. In order to do this, I allowed Dominic to indicate what he needed to do or

complete. This may have been an error on my part; he nearly finished his current

worksheet and lesson. He only had a small word problem section containing no more

than 6 questions. After completing these, I had two options: create problems for him to

do or begin a new lesson all together. I did not want to begin a new lesson because I am

not sure of his fathers planning or schedule. I did not want to jump too far ahead.

Therefore, I created problems by using equations from his worksheet. For instance, if

number one stated, 506-379 and number two stated, 804-467, I had him calculate

506-467, 804-379, and 804-506. Dominic willing solved the equations however the

disorganization of the lesson may have fueled his desire to be goofy and funny.

5. Dominic is learning. As in previous tutoring meetings, he completed his math work and

demonstrated the ability to solve the given equations. Through his think alouds, I hear

that Dominic can reason as to why two regroupings are necessary. While he continues to

use finger counting, Dominic remembered the method I showed him during the last

meeting. When subtracting, he counts on his fingers twice. However, in the second round

of counting, if one hand has five fingers stretched, he recognizes it as five. He counts

from five onward to reach his answer. Although this is a very small improvement, it

demonstrates that Dominic is listening and trying the concepts or tips presented to him.

6. Now that I have worked with and observed Dominic over three sessions, I discussed his

progress with his mother. I asked if it was all right for me to work with Dominic on

automaticity and math facts rather than his workbook. She was very enthusiastic and

supportive of this. In the next session, I want to try a manipulative. I found a set of

Cuisenaire Rods in my house. It provided examples of how to use the rods for addition

and subtraction. I want to try this in the next tutoring session in order to move Dominic

from counting on his fingers to another physical manipulative.

am Spiderman or wants to believe that I am. He still asks questions as if he is fishing for

a confirmation. For instance, at the end of this session, I told him that we will meet again

the following Friday for tutoring. I asked him if that was okay and if he wanted to come.

He excitedly said yes. But then said in a somewhat suspicious tone, I can come to

tutoring on Fridayunless you have to fight crime. Once again, I gave a nonchalant

answer. I think his vivid imagination fuels his desire to come to tutoring and engage the

content.

8. Like the other tutoring hours, I did not choose a specific standard or activity to cover. As

previously stated, I wanted to build a strong rapport with Dominic as I observed his

learning styles, needs, and knowledge. As with previous sessions, I reflected on what

worked and what did not in order to improve my pedagogy and approach. After this

session, I also contacted my sister-in-law, who is a fourth grade teacher in Kentucky. I

asked her if she had any suggestions or tips for working with Dominic and moving

toward math fact fluency. She sent me an email with many helpful resources. One

resource was for timed drills of math facts. I will use these in later sessions; I want to first

work with physical math manipulatives before I move to paper and pencil applications.

9. Overall, Dominic did not do as well this session. He accurately completed any problems

presented to him but he was not as efficient or focused. Dominic demonstrated learning

the concepts within the math worksheet and incorporation of the tip I showed him from

the previous meeting. However, he did not demonstrate any significant improvement with

automaticity or math fluency.

October 16, 2015

Fourth Tutoring Reflection (1 hour)

1. I decided to approach this tutoring session differently. Dominic brought his math

workbook and a notebook; he was ready to do his normal coursework. However, with his

mothers permission, I deviated from this. We never once looked at his math workbook.

Instead, I prepared an introductory activity for using Cuisenaire Rods and a pair of dice. I

wanted to practice addition and subtraction using these manipulatives; my goal was to

provide another concrete, visual representation for numbers through which Dominic

could calculate equations. My hope was that Dominic would not use his fingers to count

and add. For this lesson, we began by investigating how many each rod represented.

Then, we used the rods to do simple addition statements. Dominic did extremely well

with this activity; he used finger counting only once or twice.

2. When Dominic arrived for tutoring, his mother told him that I had a special activity for

him today. He was visibly excited but a little concerned. I think he was a little confused

as to why we were not working with his math book. However, he quickly caught on to

the point of the Cuisenaire Rods. Within ten minutes, he told me that this activity was fun

and that he really liked it. Throughout the entire lesson he was active, motivated, and

focused. He seemed happy when I suggested that we use the rods for future activities.

3. As stated in previous reflections, Dominic relies on finger counting when adding and

subtracting. He does well with each assignment but is behind in this one aspect. Because

of this, I decided to use our tutoring sessions to move away from his main coursework. I

wanted to provide him with an alternate physical representation for numbers and adding.

I want to transition him from concrete learning to semi-concrete and finally to abstract.

With his parents permission, I will treat each tutoring session as a mini-lesson on back to

basics. Although he is moving on to more complex math equations such as triple digit

subtraction, I want to go back to simple math concepts in order to develop the abstract,

mental math that is essential for future learning and success.

4. Before this session, I talked with my sister-in-law, who teaches fourth grade, about

strategies and methodologies to help Dominic. She gave me many helpful tips,

suggestions, and resources to use. She emailed me links for worksheets, math games, and

teacher resources. While I plan to use each of these, I first want to work on more basic

concepts; some of the online math games are timed. One has to be quick and ready to

correctly answer an equation in order to win the game. While Dominic will love these

games, he does not have enough math fluency or automaticity yet. My sister-in-law also

suggested using Dominoes as a manipulative for recognizing numbers and adding. While

looking for our set of Dominoes, I stumbled upon a set of Cuisenaire Rods that my

parents bought me when I was a little kid. I forgot all about them. After reading the back

of the box and some online websites, I decided to give them a try. I decided to follow the

simple instructions for addition that appeared on the back of the box.

5. Without a doubt, Dominic demonstrated learning. We began the Cuisenaire Rod activity

by discovering how many each rod represented. For example, one tan cube represents the

number one. We then used the small tan cubes to find out what each represented; we

placed as many tan cubes along the bottom of a larger rod as were required to equal the

length of that rod. For instance, we discovered red equals two by placing two tan cubes

along the bottom of a red rod. Dominic quickly figured out each rod:

1 Tan=1

1 Red=2

1 Light Green=3

1 Purple=4

1 Yellow=5

1 Dark Green=6

1 Black=7

1 Brown=8

1 Blue=9

1 Orange=10

Once we figured out the number representation of each rod, we made some simple math

problems. I placed two rods together and asked Dominic to solve. For example, I placed a

red and light green rod side by side and asked Dominic how much it equaled. I instructed

Dominic to read the statement aloud (I hoped the repetition of saying the equations would

support automaticity). In this case, he would say, 2 (red) plus 3 (light green) equals 5

(yellow). Dominic said the numbers, not the colors. Often, Dominic did not know the

sum. This was not surprising as he relied on finger counting and did not have advanced

automaticity. Most often, Dominic looked at the rods and counted in his head instead of

on his fingers. This method was remarkably quicker than finger counting. I also

encouraged Dominic to do a guess and check. He was often right or off by one. Pretend

that in the above example Dominic said, 2 plus 3 equals 6, instead of the correct

answer. I encouraged Dominic to check by placing the dark green (6) rod along the light

green (3) and red (2). In this way, Dominic saw that the dark green rod was too long. He

often recognized that it was longer by one because one more tan cube could fit alongside

the light green and red. Dominic then knew that the yellow rod (5) was the correct

answer.

I also used such equations to show that the rod order could be reversed and the same sum

reached (commutative property). Continuing with the same scenario: I showed that a red

(2) and light green (3) equaled yellow (5) in the same way that a light green (3) and red

(2) also equaled yellow (5). Through this, I showed Dominic that 2+3=5 and 3+2=5.

After completing these facts, I verbally drilled Dominic. I rapidly stated an equation and

its reverse many times as Dominic quickly answered. As we covered more and more

equations, I switched which addition statement I wanted him to answer.

Further, every time Dominic answered an equation, I asked him to check his answer,

even if I knew he was right. My goal was for him to repeatedly state the equations as he

worked through the problems. This also supported his habit of thinking aloud. Dominic

talked through the process. He reasoned as to why an answer is correct.

Eventually, I placed two cubes side by side and Dominic would almost immediately

answer. Each time I asked him how he knew the answer. I asked, Did you count in your

head? At times, he said, Im not sure. I think I did. This may be an early sign of

increased math fluency. There are three possibilities: A) Dominic is counting in his head

so fast that he did not realize he did it B) He is memorizing the colors and the

combinations needed to make another color (light green and red make yellow) C) He is

starting to have an automatic recall in which he looks at light green and red and

immediately thinks 3+2=5. Each and every time, I had Dominic check to see if his

answer was correct.

Finally, toward the end of the session and after we worked through many combinations of

rods, I took out a pair of dice. First, I had Dominic roll one die and say the number that

appeared. He did this very well and stated that he quickly counted the pips to know which

number he rolled. I then had Dominic roll two dice and use the results to create an

addition problem. For instance, Dominic rolled a 6 and 1. I had Dominic read the

statement and say the answer (6+1=7). Almost every time, Dominic said the correct

answer right away. We then used the Cuisenaire Rods to check our answer.

6. I am going to continue this activity in the next session. First, I want to verbally quiz

Dominic in order to see if he recalls any of the math facts. I then want to use the rods like

we did in this session. However, this time, I want him to write the statements on a sheet

of paper. For instance, if the light green and red rod are placed side by side, I want him to

write down 3+2=. Then, Dominic will solve. We will continue to randomize the

equations by using the dice.

In future lessons (after using the rods and writing on paper), I want to use flashcards,

worksheets (timed drills), and online games.

7. I tried my best to make this activity seem like a fun game. I wanted Dominic to be

comfortable and relaxed. I encouraged him to guess and check and not be afraid if he was

wrong. As we worked, I asked Dominic about himself. I attempted to incorporate his

interests and listen attentively when he spoke. I want to support Dominic in any way I

can.

After this session, I purchased a set of flashcards to use in the future. I actually found a

set of flashcards that are Spiderman themed. Dominic loves superheroes and villains; I

hope that this will make him excited to do flashcards and work toward automaticity.

8. Because I am creating and conducting each session according to Dominics needs and his

parents requests, I am working with a variety of math concepts. After talking with

Dominics mother, my new focus with these sessions is to increase math fact

fluency/recall. While I am willing to do any worksheet his parents send, I want to help

Dominic increase his math knowledge and skills. I am focusing on a third grade Common

Core Standard. I am using the following standard under the number and operations in

base ten domain: 3.2 Fluently add and subtract within 1000 using strategies and

algorithms based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship

between addition and subtraction.

9. Overall, this lesson was a huge success. Dominic was very active and engaged. He stated

that he loved the Cuisenaire Rods and thought the session was fun. I noticed a shift away

from relying on finger counting. He only used it a handful of times when we tried an

addition statement with a solution over ten. However, I tried to stick to smaller equations.

Dominic did count in his head but this mental math was quicker than his finger counting.

Moreover, I believe Dominic showed early signs of automaticity toward the end of the

lesson. Dominic needs to continue to practice his math facts and fluency. Cuisenaire

Rods will be used in future tutoring sessions.

October 20, 2015

Fifth Tutoring Reflection (1 hour)

1. This tutoring session was a continuation of the previous lesson in which we used

Cuisenaire Rods to practice simple addition and subtraction facts. Dominic began by

reviewing the value of each rod by placing them in a sequential staircase. We then

continued forming and solving simple addition statements using the rods. To facilitate

and randomize the formation of the equations, dice were used. Dominic would roll one

die while I rolled the other. We would then use the result to form an addition statement.

My goal and hope is that Dominic would move away from finger counting and toward

automaticity. Dominic was focused and attentive to the lesson and activity. While he

occasionally used finger counting, he widely stayed away from it. He focused on using

the rods to calculate the answers.

2. Dominic was extremely enthusiastic and willing to work and use the Cuisenaire Rods. In

fact, as we walked to the classroom, he excitedly asked if I brought the rods with me. He

said he wanted to use them again because they were super fun. Dominic was motivated,

focused, and actively participating throughout the session. He did not want to stop. He

asked to do another hours worth of tutoring. I was not able to stay for another hour. In

addition, his mother told him he had language arts tutoring with someone else within the

hour. He immediately slumped his shoulders and complained he was too tired; he simply

could not tutor any more.

3. Dominic is still behind with adding and subtracting automaticity. He does not have his

facts memorized; he relies on a finger counting method that is no longer developmentally

appropriate. In the previous tutoring write-up, I mentioned that I want to move Dominic

from concrete to semi-concrete and finally to the abstract standard algorithm. At the time

of this tutoring session, Dominic is not ready to make a complete transition to the

abstract. I decided to continue using the rods for this session. Dominic is a very animated,

energetic boy. He likes to imagine and pretend during the sessions. Dominic seems to like

the rods because he can visually see and manipulate a physical representation of the

equation. He sometimes makes up stories or phrases for using the rods.

Unlike the last session, I provided a sheet of paper and instructed Dominic to record most

of the statements and subsequent answers. I want him to write the numbers associated

with each prompt, roll of the dice, or use of the rods in order to familiarize him with the

structure of the standard algorithm.

4. Before this session, I reflected on the previous meeting in which I introduced Dominic to

the purpose and function of Cuisenaire Rods. Dominic was immediately drawn to them. I

knew I wanted to continue to use this manipulative. I also reflected on the use of the dice

as a facilitator and randomizer for creating equations. Dominic liked rolling the dice; I

think he saw it as a game instead of rigorous math work. Overall, this lesson will be

conducted in the same way as the previous.

5. Dominic is clearly learning. In this session, he continued to answer correctly with

relatively little prompting. There were very few instances in which he asked to use finger

counting instead of mental math or the use of the Cuisenaire Rods. To begin, I made a

series of equations using the rods; when Dominic calculates and solves, I have him read

the statement and answer aloud. My goal is to involve him in repetitive readings of the

numbers and operation to increase automaticity. For example, I verbally asked Dominic,

What is two plus seven? If he did not immediately provide the answer or he made a

guess, I encouraged him to use the rods to check for correctness. In this case, Dominic

chose the red rod and the black rod, placed them side-by-side in a train, and compared it

to the orange rod (he guessed ten as the answer). Once he saw that the orange rod was too

long, he selected the next smallest rod. He then saw that the correct answer was nine.

After a few more problems, I repeated this equation. I again asked, What is two plus

seven? Dominic immediately answered nine. When I asked how he knew that so

quickly, he replied that he remembered from a few moments before.

Dominic is also demonstrating automaticity through his doubles fact. He immediately

provides the answers for any doubles that are presented in the lesson. In fact, Dominic

gets excited when a double comes up. He proudly answers and then rings of a list of his

known facts. For instance, if 5+5 was asked, he exclaims, Ten! And 6+6=12, 7+7=14,

8+8=1611+11=22.

Finally, like the previous tutoring meeting, I used dice to add a variety to the

mathematical statements. Dominic liked rolling the dice, selecting the appropriate rods,

and completing the math problems. After so many rolls, Dominic did not need to use the

rods to provide the correct answer.

6. In our next meeting, I want to begin by using the flashcards. I want to see if Dominic

recognizes any of the addition facts from this session. After doing this bell ringer type of

activity, I want to continue using the Cuisenaire Rods and dice. Dominic responds so well

to them that I believe their continuation will be beneficial to his learning and progression

toward automaticity. I also want to introduce subtraction via the manipulatives.

In future lessons, I will use timed drills and online games.

7. Although this is the same lesson content and structure from the previous session, I tried to

make it upbeat, interactive, engaging, and fun. I have grown to have a fun friendship with

Dominic. I can tell that he enjoys our tutoring sessions. He smiles, laughs, and listens

intently when I say something. We have a stream of jokes that we continue and build

upon session after session. We talk about super heroes, super villains, and soldiers (three

of his interests).

8. Because this lesson is a continuation of a previous tutoring session, the same standard

will be used. This standard is the following from Common Core: 3.2 Fluently add and

subtract within 1000 using strategies and algorithms based on place value, properties of

operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction. My current goal is

to move Dominic toward automaticity. After mastering this standard, we will move on to

more advanced operations and equations.

9. Overall, this lesson was successful. Dominic is steadily improving in his automaticity as

he shifts away from finger counting. The use of the Cuisenaire Rods seems appropriate

because Dominic is a visual learner who is creative, imaginative, and likes manipulatives.

In order to keep the activity relevant and exciting, I will introduce the concept of

subtraction via the Cuisenaire Rods. In addition, in the next session, I will use the

flashcards that feature Spiderman and corresponding villains. I hope Dominic will find

this fun and stimulating.

October 23, 2015

Sixth Tutoring Reflection (1 hour)

1. Like the previous two tutoring sessions, the main activity centered on Cuisenaire Rods.

However, this activity differed in that I began with the flashcards as way of drilling and

assessing Dominics progress and learning. As with most of these tutoring sessions, the

goal is to move Dominic toward automatic recall for addition and subtraction facts. After

using the flashcards, we formed and solved many addition statements using the

Cuisenaire Rods and dice. We then used these tools to do simple subtraction problems.

Finally, we finished with the flashcards as a closing activity and assessment of the

session.

2. Dominic was ecstatic about using the Cuisenaire Rods again. He asked about them as

soon as we sat down to begin tutoring. Dominic was also pleasantly surprised by the

Spiderman themed flashcards. He was focused on the problems and drawn to the pictures

of the heroes and villains. Dominic was willing to work; he again asked to extend our

time together after the hour was over.

3. While Dominic has no yet mastered automaticity for addition or subtraction, he has made

small and steady improvements. He does not use finger counting in our sessions

anymore. Instead, he utilizes the Cuisenaire Rods and does mental math and counting.

Through the use of the flashcards and by writing the math problems, Dominic is slowly

associating the verbally stated math equations with the standard, written algorithm. After

showing Dominic how to solve a subtraction problem using the Cuisenaire Rods, he

actively created his own problems and incorporated the dice. Dominic continues to

benefit from the visual, hands-on nature of the Cuisenaire Rods.

4. I utilized the flashcards I bought many days before this lesson. I specifically bought the

themed flashcards to tutor Dominic. I wanted to use them as an informal introductory and

concluding activity. Prior to the main activity, I wanted to gauge Dominics current level

of automaticity. I wanted to see if he improved from the previous sessions. I planned to

use the flashcards again at the end of the lesson to gauge his new level of knowledge and

automaticity.

5. Dominic continues to make distinctive advances in his automatic recall. When I drilled

him with the flashcards, Dominic got many of the answers right. He clearly memorized

his doubles and uses them to calculate the answer to many questions. For instance, if

presented with 6+7, Dominic would say the answer of 13. When asked how he got the

answer, he explained, Well, I know 6 and 6 make 12. And 7 is one more than 6 so the

answer is one more than 12. That means the answer is 13. He used similar thinking for

calculating subtraction problems using the dice and Cuisenaire Rods.

For subtraction via the dice, Dominic rolled one die while I rolled the other. Dominic

then subtracted the two numbers (always subtracting the smaller number from the

bigger). I also asked Dominic to add the two numbers before rerolling the dice. To make

this into more of a game, Dominic selected his answer from the selection of rods. For

example, if subtracting 9 and 5, Dominic picked the 4 (purple) rod to show his answer. In

this way, Dominic demonstrated the ability to compute both addition and subtraction

statements. If Dominic was unsure of an answer or wanted to guess, we used the rods as a

check.

Finally, Dominic ended the session with another drill. I shuffled the flashcards and

presented both addition and subtraction problems. Dominic quickly answered many of

the problems. When I asked how he knew the answers, he said that they were doubles,

easy problems (for example, 1+2), or he simply remembered. It was this last explanation

that was desired. Dominic is beginning to develop automatic recall for his addition and

subtraction facts.

6. In our next meeting, I want to continue this activity and set-up. I want to continue to use

the dice, rods, and flashcards to build upon automaticity. However, I do not want to

overuse these manipulatives and tools. Soon, I will transition from the rods to another

activity. I want to try timed worksheets and some online games. In this way, Dominic

will not be reliant on the rods and may demonstrate his knowledge through different

mediums. I think Dominic will be excited to play some online games.

7. In this lesson, I attempted to foster Dominics interests and vivid imagination. Dominic

loved the flashcards. I nonchalantly took them out and showed him our new tool. He

immediately noticed the Spiderman theme. He asked if I bought Spiderman ones on

purpose; I pretended to have no idea what he was talking about. While using the

flashcards, Dominic pointed out all the villains and characters he recognized and loved.

He was very focused on the flashcards.

Further, Dominic likes to make the rods into a challenging game for the two of us. As

explained above, Dominic likes to choose the rod that represents his answer. For instance,

he selects the black (7) rod for 3+4 or the orange (10) and red (2) rods for 6+6. He

demands that I close my eyes so I do not know the choices he makes. Dominic then

closes his eyes and tells me to answer the question. We then reveal our choices at the

same time. Sometimes, I purposefully answer incorrectly in order that Dominic can

explain to me why I am wrong and he is right.

8. As with many of the previous tutoring sessions, the same third grade Common Core

standard is being used. This standard is the following: 3.2 Fluently add and subtract

within 1000 using strategies and algorithms based on place value, properties of

operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction. My continuing

goal is to master this standard before moving on to different operations and more

complex equations.

9. Overall, this lesson was another success. Dominic made noticeable improvements since

the last tutoring session. He was focused, actively engaged, and enthusiastic the entire

time. Dominic did well with the content; he never used finger counting in this lesson.

Instead, he used the rods, mental math, and think-aloud reasoning to solve the equations

and provide the correct solutions. He is showing signs of automaticity for addition and

uses his addition facts, skills, and strategies to solve subtraction problems. The flashcards

appeared to be effective as a warm-up to get him ready for the main activity and as a

cool-down to wrap up the days work. Dominic is transitioning to the semi-concrete

stage.

1. Submit detailed write-ups tutoring sessions based upon the strengths and

weaknesses identified in the DST: Math.

2. Indicate the willingness and cooperation of the student in developing math

concepts.

3. Know and understand childrens characteristics and needs in mathematics.

4. Develop and plan actual tutoring sessions that include manipulative,

technology based upon the childs math knowledge.

5. Analyze if the child is learning and how he/she is learning, related to his/her

characteristics and needs.

6. Provide suggestions and ways to assist the student for further sessions.

7. Develop a healthy, respectful, and supportive learning environment.

8. Using learning standards, design, implement, and evaluate meaningful,

challenging tutoring sessions.

9. Indicate the overall success of each session and if the students learned the

math concept(s).

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