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ASSESSMENT OF CORAL REEF ECOSYSTEM IN MATUTINAO AND MALHIAO,

BADIAN, CEBU, PHILIPPINES

Group 3
Astor, Alexandra Christine Y.
Bacaltos, Ed Samuel
Cardona, Gabrielle Alistia
Kee, Odyssey
Lugsanay, Jude Antoine
Salas, Kiersty Jo
Sevilla, Donna Maraiah
Teves, Jonalyn
INTRODUCTION
Located in the vast tropical and subtropical marine waters that are barren of plankton
content, coral reefs are considered to be one of the most biologically diverse and productive
ecosystems in the world (Odum & Odum, 1955). These ecosystems usually lie either at a
distance parallel to the coastal lines and are separated from the land by lagoon (barrier
reefs), around the coast (fringing reefs), or on top of subsided volcanic island forming a ring
of islets around a lagoon (atolls) (Smith & Smith, 2012).

Coral reefs have a global cover of only 0.1-0.5% yet these ecosystems provide essential
goods and life-support systems (Dikou, 2010). Almost one-third of the worlds marine
species utilize coral reefs as habitats (McAllister, 1991). These reefs are also grounds for
secondary production and home of other aquatic organisms. According to Smith (1978),
around ten percent (10 %) of the fishes are consumed by humans. At least tens of millions of
the people, from more than 100 countries with coastal coral reefs, have benefitted from
these ecosystems for livelihood and food intake (Salvat, 1992).

Globally, coral reef ecosystems are being rapidly degraded (Osborne, Dolman, Burgess, &
Johns, 2011). The coral decline has been widespread due to the threats of different
stressors and the global climate change is considered to be the greatest cause of the
degradation. Increase in temperature contributes to the coral bleaching, the breakdown of
the symbiosis of coral polyps and zooxanthellae algae (Wiedenmann, 2013). Human
disturbances such as over-fishing, destructive fishing practices, indiscriminate coastal
development, pollution from industries, unsustainable mining and logging that lead to
eutrophication and sedimentation, contribute to the chronic stressors that affect the coral
condition.

In the local setting, Taon Strait especially the seascape in Badian, Cebu where the field
study was conducted is a diverse home of different marine species. It is one the largest
marine protected areas in the Philippines. However, some areas are already degraded and
severely damaged especially those that are near the shoreline. To prevent more imminent
dangers, protection and conservation measures are already taken such as restocking and
removal of underwater debris (Quintas, 2016). However, there is limited recent information
on the state of the coral reefs ecosystem especially in the areas of Visayas (Licuanan &
Alio, 2014).

Among the methods of knowing the condition of the coral reefs, the percent cover of live
coral is the most widely used determinant of the reef condition (Pandolfi et al., 2003).
Universally, it is also used to evaluate the decline of coral reef condition across larger spatial
scales. In this study, the video-transect method was used to document the field stations in
Badian specifically in Matutinao and Malhiao area. The screen printed images from the video
were then analyzed using Coral Point Count with Excel extensions (CPCe) (Kohler & Gill,
2006) to know the percentage cover of the corals. The physicochemical parameters such as
sea water pH, conductivity, salinity, and temperature were also gathered.

This study aims to assess the percent cover of the coral community in Badian, Cebu based
on the category level. Also, this aims to compare the Coral mortality index, live corals and
dead corals cover among the sites in Matutinao and Malhiao. The sea physicochemical
characteristics correlations to the condition of the coral reefs specifically the salinity,
temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), and pH were also studied.
MATERIALS AND METHODS

Location of the Study

The study sites lie between 948'50.0" to 948'50.8" North latitude and 12322'07.0" to
12322'07.2" East longitude. First site was located 60 meters away from the shore of La
Playa Beach Resort, Brgy. Matutinao, Badian and the other side was located in Malhiao,
Badian (Fig 1 and 2). Areas are characterized by reefs which fringe along the Badian
coastline of Taon Strait. Areas are also parts of the Taon Strait. However, these areas are
not part of the protected seascape that has been managed by the Protected Area
Management Board.

Sampling in Matutinao was made last July 5, 2017 at 9 am-12 pm while sampling in Malhiao
was made last July 7, 2017 at 2-5 pm. Human activities and man-made structures were
present near the area such as resorts and recreational sites. Some mangrove plantations
were also present near the area. Morever, the seas were near freshwater sources and
occasional mixing happened between sea and fresh water.

Figure 1. Malhiao site map


Figure 2. Matutinao site map

Coral Assessment

A transect tape was used to set a 25m transect line parallel to reef crest. The transect tape
was inserted between the rocks to make sure that it located near the corals.

Video Transect Method was used to assess the coral population. An underwater camera
was attached to a monopod to take a video 1 meter above the coral reef parallel to the
transect line. A video of slate board with the name of the sampling site, transect number and
trial number was taken before the camera was pointed towards the corals. The video was
taken by swimming slowly (1m/s) from the beginning to the end of the transect. This was
repeated three times. The trial with the best quality from the video was selected and 20
frames were taken by using print screen, making sure that no frames were overlapping. The
screenshots were saved as jpg. file. The photos were opened in CPCe (Coral Point Count
with Excel extensions) and were processed by using a 50x50 cm border with 20 random
overlayed points. The organisms within each point were then labelled according to their type
with the help of an attached code file. The organisms for each point in each frames were
collated in an excel spreadsheet to calculate for the percent cover by biotic and abiotic
factors. Corals were also categorized by formations.

Water samples from both ends of the transect were collected to measure the pH, dissolved
oxygen and salinity with PASCO.
Statistical analysis

Coral mortality index (CMI) was used to classify the health of the coral reef ecosystem using
the formula : MI=dead corals cover/(live corals cover+ dead corals cover). The Shapiro-Wilk
test was used to test the normality of distribution of the data. To compare the CMI, live and
dead corals covers from both sites, the parametric one-way analysis of variance (One-way
ANOVA) test was used. To assess the correlation between the physicochemical parameters
between the CMI condition of the reef, the parametric Pearson correlation test was
conducted.
RESULTS
Benthic composition

In Matutinao site, coral composition had 44.87% mean cover and it is considered to be the
most dominant within the vicinity. It is followed by abiotic components which comprised
32.37% of the benthic components. Other coral types were not found in this site.

On the other hand, in Malhiao site, abiotic component of the ecosystem had the most mean
percentage cover which is 14.54%. Coral composition with a percentage cover of 12.34%
followed next. The same with Matutinao reefs, no other coral types were in the site.

There was more coral percentage cover in Matutinao comparing to Malhiao. Dead coral
percentage cover was greater in Malhiao with 11.76% than Matutinao with 5.80%. Both
biotic and abiotic environmental components were greater in percentage cover in Matutinao
than in Malhiao.

Calculating the Coral Mortality Index (CMI) for Matutinao and Malhiao, the values obtained
were 0.23 and 0.39, respectively. Figure 3 shows the average percentage cover of biotic and
abiotic components of the ecosystem from both field areas.

These biotic components were composed of the live coral, dead coral, other coral, octocoral,
invertebrates, algae, and seagrass. Abiotic components consisted of non-aquatic objects,
noncoral rock, sand, and silt.
Matutinao
Malhiao
50
45
40
35
Percent Cover

30
25
20
15
10
5
0

Major Category
Figure 3. Mean relative composition of benthic components of all transects in
Matutinao and Malhiao.
Predators of corals such Acanthaster planci, crown-of-thorns starfish was present in the
area. This kind of starfish shows preferences on hard corals. However, this was not
documented in the video transect method.

Test for normality was used for live coral cover, dead coral cover, and coral mortality index
beforehand to know what analysis should be used. Since the p-value of all data were
p>0.05, one-way ANOVA can be used. Using the one-way ANOVA test, we compared both
sites CMI, live coral cover, and dead coral cover. For the CMI, both sites were not
significantly different (F=-0.866, p=0.386). However, the assessment for the index still
deduced that the Malhiao reef was considered as unhealthy reef.

In terms of live corals and dead corals cover, both sites were not significantly different. Both
dependent variables had p>0.05 (Tab. 1).

Table 1. Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test for Coral mortality index, live corals cover, and
dead corals cover in Matutinao and Malhiao.

Live coral Dead coral Coral mortality


cover cover index
F 3.213 0 0.796
Sig. (p-value) 0.123 0.996 0.407

Dominant coral growth forms in Matutinao were submassive, massive, and branching.
Columnar and table were the least number of coral growth forms in the area. No mushroom
types of corals were found in the area. Dead corals had 3.48% cover while dead corals
covered with algae had 0.88% cover. Coral rubbles in Matutinao reefs had 5.69% cover.

The Malhiao sites dominant coral growth forms were encrusting, branching, and
submassive. Columnar, table, and digitate were the coral growth forms with the lowest
percentage cover in the site. Dead corals with algae were more dominant than dead corals
without any algal assemblage. These components had 3.72% and 0.83% cover,
respectively.

In both areas, fire corals and gorgonians were not documented. Comparing both sites, there
were more forms of coral growths in Malhiao than in Matutinao. However, Matutinao had
higher percentage cover of hard and soft corals than Malhiao. Coral rubbles, which were
compositions of dead corals, were dominant in Malhiao area.

16
Matutinao
14
Malhiao
12
Percent Cover

10
8
6
4
2
0

Coral category

Figure 4. Mean relative composition of corals of all transects in Matutinao and


Malhiao.

Physicochemical measurement

Physicochemical parameters were measured in the field sites such as salinity in parts per
thousand, pH, temperature in degrees Celsius, and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration.
Table 2 and Table 3 show the readings of the physicochemical parameters that were
measured in all transects of Matutinao and Malhiao area, respectively.

Table 2. Results of the physicochemical parameters measured on Matutinao.


Parameters Transect Transect Transect Transect 4 Mean
1 2 3
Salinity (ppt) 36 37.5 31 25.24 32.44
pH 7.57 7.74 6.92 7.63 7.47
Temperature 28.85 29 29 30.13 29.25
(C)
DO (mg/L) 7.40 7.34 7.06 7.43 7.31
Table 3. Results of the physicochemical parameters measured on Malhiao.
Parameters Transect Transect Transect Transect 4 Mean
1 2 3
Salinity (ppt) 33.34 26.99 31.87 30.55 30.68
pH 8.1 7.65 8.03 7.9 7.92
Temperature 31.5 30 26 30 29.38
(C)
DO (mg/L) 7.18 7.18 7.28 7.20 7.21

The salinity of reef water had a mean of 32.44 ppt in Matutinao and 30.68 ppt on Malhiao.
According to Fujita (1992), the optimal range for salinity is between 34 to 37 ppt. Salinity
values from both sites were lower than the optimal range salinity suitable for coral growth.

Optimal range for reef pH is 7.6 to 8.1 (Trotter et al., 2011). Matutinao mean reef pH of 7.47
was not within the optimal range. Malhiao reef pH of 7.92 fell within the acceptable range.
Temperatures optimal range for suitable coral reef ecosystem is from 23 C to 28 C. Both
temperatures from both sites were higher than upper limit of the range.

The average DO concentration in Matutinao reef water was 7.31 mg/L. Malhiaos reef water
DO concentration was 7.21 mg/L.

Before testing the correlation of the physicochemical parameters, a test for normality was
conducted. All the data were normally-distributed since the p-value is p>0.5. Using the
parametric Pearson correlation test, the parameters were correlated to the CMI regardless of
the sites. In every parameters correlation (salinity, pH, temperature, and DO) to CMI, the
statistical analysis concluded that there was little to no significant association between the
variables. The CMIs correlation to salinity gave a low significant association (p=0.204).
However, the Pearson correlation suggested that the variables were almost decreasingly
monotonic because of the relatively high negative correlation (correlation=-0.502). This
implicated that as salinity increases, CMI decreases.

The statistical analysis indicated that the correlation between pH and CMI had low
magnitude of relationship of the values between variables and low correlation (p=0.630,
correlation=0.203). Thus, the values suggested that pH and CMI had low positive
correlation.
Temperature to CMI correlation had low correlation and low magnitude of relationship
between variables but positive in trend. (p=0.785, correlation=0.116).

The DO to CMI correlation also indicated a low correlation and low magnitude of relationship
between variables. The values suggested that as DO becomes higher, the CMI decreases
(p=0.986, correlation=0.008).

Table 4. Pearson correlation coefficient and p-value of different relationships


between CMI and physicochemical parameters.
Parameters Correlation coefficient p-value (2-tailed)
Salinity -0.502 0.204
pH 0.203 0.630
Temperature 0.116 0.785
DO 0.008 0.986
DISCUSSIONS

Benthic composition

According to Gomez & Yap (1988 in Edinger & Risk, 2000), in most southeast Asia, the coral
reefs are usually evaluated using the line cover method to know the percentage cover of the
corals. Reefs with 75% cover of live corals are considered to be excellent in condition. Live
corals percentage cover of 50-75% indicates that reef is in good condition, 25-50% cover is
fair condition, and below 25% is poor condition. The Matutinao site with 44.87% live coral
cover is in fair condition, while Malhiao site with 12.34% coral composition is in poor
condition. This poor condition of Malhiao site also coincided with the assessment of reef
condition using Coral mortality index.

The Matutinaos fair and Malhiaos poor condition signify that the coral reef ecosystem within
the area is degrading. This can be associated to anthropogenic factors such as human
activities within the area.

Malhiaos poor reef condition can also be caused by the algal turf. Algae percent cover was
higher in Malhiao than in Matutinao. Algal turf is assemblage of multiple species of benthic
filamentous algae such as cyanobacteria and microalgae that are less than one cm in height
(Swierts & Vermeij, 2016).

The abundance of algal turf can negatively affect the effective photochemical efficiency of
neighboring corals despite the nutrient and herbivore conditions in the area. Turf algae and
corals are competing with each other for space in reef areas (Swierts & Vermeij, 2016). As
algal turf abundance increases, corals will be outcompeted since these benthic algae serve
as refuges of coral pathogens and sources of food for pathogenic bacteria that degrade
corals (Kline et al., 2006).

Encrusting corals were also the most interactive colony forms with the algal turf according to
(Cetz-Navarro, Quan-Young, & Ezpinoza-Avalos, 2015). These colony forms were also
found dominant in the Malhiao site. These turf algae grow along the borders of the
encrusting corals blocking zooxanthellae from harvesting sunlight that penetrates the sea.

The abiotic components had 32.37% cover in Matutinao and 14.54% cover in Malhiao.
These abiotic factors in the ecosystem aid in the development, growth, and abundance of
the reef (Porter, 1987). These abiotic components composed of sand, silt, rocks, and other
non-aquatic objects. These hard abiotic components can be used by the polyps as
substrates for growth and development. Substrates are essential for the complex formation
of the corals.

With the calculated Coral Mortality Index, reef with index value of greater than 0.33 is noted
as non-healthy reef. This suggests that the Malhiao site with mortality index of 0.39 was not
healthy. This assessment is correlated to the low percentage cover of corals.

The one-way ANOVA test indicated that there was no significant difference on CMI, live
corals cover, and dead corals cover. This can be associated to the low amount of samples
and the variations of the values from the different transects in Malhiao and Matutinao.
Nevertheless, when it comes to frequency, live corals were more abundant in Matutinao and
Malhiao. Physicochemical factors can affect the conditions of the cover of corals in the area.

Physicochemical measurements

The coral reefs ecosystem should have suitable environmental conditions in order to thrive
and harbor in the marine ecosystem. These requirements include conditions for temperature,
pH, salinity, and dissolved oxygen concentration.

In the area, man-made activities and structures were present. These factors can also affect
the condition of the coral reefs in Matutinao and Malhiao.

Temperature is vital for the reef condition. The optimal range of temperature is from 23 C to
28 C (Wijgerde, 2009). Coral reefs are composed of organisms that obtain high productivity
through the presence of their dinoflagellate symbionts zooxanthellae (Hoogenboom et al.,
2012). Zooxanthellae are photosynthetic algae that live in the tissues of reef-building corals.
The corals and algae have mutualistic relationship. The coral polyps, through cellular
respiration, produce carbon dioxide and water that can be used by the zooxanthellae to carry
out photosynthesis. Sugars, lipids, fats, and other metabolic compounds produced by the
symbionts then are used by the corals.

Temperature that exceeds the range can negatively affect the reef condition. According to
Hoogenboom et al. (2012), when the temperature exceeds, the photosystem II is susceptible
to thermal stress and the reaction is disrupted. This will lead to symbiont ejection and will
degrade the symbiosis between the polyps and the algae. In both sites, temperatures went
beyond the optimal range of temperature that is suitable for the growth and development of
corals. These conditions can be associated to the events of coral bleaching manifested in
the areas of Matutinao and Malhiao.

In the Pearson correlation analysis, there is a low but positive trend of correlation between
CMI and temperature. As temperature increases, the CMI also increases. This statistical
analysis suggests that increasing temperature is detrimental to the coral reef health.

A suitable pH for the reef water is also needed by the corals. Lower pH makes the coral reef
more susceptible to the decline of coral reef calcification. Acidification, usually caused by
high amount of dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) in the seawater, can negatively affect the
coral reef. CO2 in water would break down to carbon and hydrogen ions. These hydrogen
ions bond with carbonate ions forming bicarbonate. This state reduces the carbonates that
are important for the calcification of corals (Uthicke, Furnas, & Lnborg, 2014). The results
indicated that the Matutinao average reef pH did not fall within the optimal range of 7.5-8.4.
Malhiao mean reef water pH, nevertheless, fell within the range.

Reduction of skeletal formation and growth due to ocean acidification is evident to corals
especially the heavily-calcified ones such as the reef-building corals (Rodolfo-Metalpa et. al.,
2011). The decreased in calcification of corals is likely to affect their functional ability within
the ecosystem. Decreasing events of calcium carbonate production, coupled with increasing
calcium carbonate dissolution rate, will diminish benefits provided to other organisms by the
reef formations. This will also impose adverse effects to biodiversity of species living in the
reef, reduce breakwater that protect coastal and shore areas and organisms inhabiting in the
area, among others by reducing the structural complexity of the corals (Kleypas & Yates,
2009).

The statistical analysis, on the other hand, did not strongly prove that pH affected the
abundance of corals within the area. With a p-value which was greater than 0.05 and yet
positive correlation, a weak but positive trend of correlation was obtained between CMI and
pH. This analysis is different from the aforementioned effects of pH to corals that as pH
decreases, corals will be more susceptible to harm.

Salinity to CMI correlation suggested that there was low correlation but high decreasing
monotony between variables. This proved that as salinity increases, CMI decreases.

Salinity is also a factor that could affect the condition of the reef. The appreciable amount of
salinity that can make corals thrive should be not lower than 35 ppt. Both sites salinity
values, nevertheless, were lower than the above mentioned value for corals. Lower salinity
of the water could be associated to the river near the open sea of Matutinao and Malhiao.
Mixing of fresh and sea water is happening in the areas.

Greater changes in salinity, either decreasing or increasing, can cause detrimental effects to
corals by decreasing their metabolic and photosynthetic rates. The changes in the rate are
proportional to the magnitude of the change of salinity. Dramatic changes are expected in
terms of severely reduced amount of biodiversity and complex reef builders (Fabricius et al.,
2011).

Oxygen saturation in the seawater can also influence the calcification rates of corals. The
oxygen is an important substrate for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis and it a
requirement for the energy-driven calcification (Al-Horani et al., 2007). However, there is no
optimal range for the dissolved oxygen indicated yet in any study.

In the Pearson statistical analysis, the correlation between DO and CMI was the weakest
obtained correlation value among the measured physicochemical parameters. Though it was
positive, it trend was still not reliable because of the near to zero correlation.

Coral reefs are usually found in the euphotic zone where light can penetrate and autotrophs
thrive. There is the presence of higher amount of dissolved oxygen due to the
photosynthesis and aeration from waves. DO level in reef areas usually fluctuate from 4-15
mg/L. The DO level usually remains, nevertheless, around 5-8 mg/L. DO level cycles
between day production and night respiration (Measuring dissolved oxygen, n.d.).

Both sites were measured at different time and different day. Field work for Matutinao was
conducted last July 5, 2017 from 9 am to 12 pm. Malhiaos survey was done last July 7,
2017 from 2 to 5 pm. These were several reasons of the variation of the measured
physicochemical parameters.
CONCLUSION
An assessment of the coral reef ecosystem was made in Matutinao and Malhiao, Badian
was conducted last July 2017. Comparatively, Matutinao area had more live coral cover
than Malhiao with 44.87% and 21.76%, respectively. Also, cover of dead corals was greater
in Malhiao. With the calculated Coral mortality index (CMI) which is 0.23 for Matutinao and
0.39 for Malhiao, it indicated that Malhiao coral reef ecosystem was already unhealthy. The
poor and degrading condition of the reef in Malhiao were possibly caused by the high
coverage of algal turf present in the area. This algal turf tends to compete with corals for
space in substrates and harms the coral by reducing the efficiency of the photosynthetic
zooxanthellae. However, using the one-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) test,
both sites cover of live, dead corals, and CMI were not significantly different. In the
physicochemical parameters, majority of the parameter values did not fall within the optimal
range. The one-way ANOVA also proved that there was no significant difference to all the
physicochemical parameters to both sites. Through Pearson correlation test, the correlations
between the physicochemical parameters and CMI regardless of the sites were statistically-
derived. Salinity had the lowest significant value and nearest to absolute one value which
indicated that the magnitude of salinity in the field areas had strong and almost significant
correlation. This means that as salinity increases, the CMI tend to decrease. Other than
these physicochemical parameters, man-made structures and activities were present near
the areas. The area was not also part of the protected seascape of Taon Strait. These were
possible limiting factors of the growth and development of corals in the area.
RECOMMENDATION
It is recommended to make thorough assessment and survey in the area. Species of corals
should also be indicated to relate diversity to the condition of the ecosystem. In terms of
physicochemical parameters, more samples should be taken and there should be more
sensitivity to variations of values especially that these are affected by the conditions of the
reef. Due to the declining coverage of corals in the area, monitoring, information, and
education program should be conducted for the townsfolk to obtain knowledge and
awareness about the coral reef ecosystem.
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http://www.fondriest.com/environmental-measurements/equipment/measuring-water-
quality/dissolved-oxygen-sensors-and-methods/
Quintas, K. (2016, February 8). In Taon strait: Coral reefs still in good state - DENR-7.
The Freeman. Retrieved July 19, 2017, from http://www.philstar.com/cebu-
news/2016/02/08/1550951/tanon-strait-coral-reefs-still-good-state-denr-7
APPENDIX
Appendix Table 1. Physicochemical parameters of Matutinao transect 1
Sites Salinity pH Temperature DO
(ppt) (C) (mg/L)
Start 36 7.65 28.93 7.36
End 36 7.48 28.77 7.43
Mean 36 7.565 28.85 7.395

Appendix Table 2. Physicochemical parameters of Matutinao transect 2


Sites Salinity pH Temperature DO
(ppt) (C) (mg/L)
Start 37 7.7 29 7.33
End 38 7.78 29 7.35
Mean 37.5 7.74 29 7.34

Appendix Table 3. Physicochemical parameters of Matutinao transect 3


Sites Salinity pH Temperature DO
(ppt) (C) (mg/L)
Start 31 6.91 29 7.06
End 31 6.93 29 7.06
Mean 31 6.92 29 7.06

Appendix Table 4. Physicochemical parameters of Matutinao transect 4


Sites Salinity pH Temperature DO
(ppt) (C) (mg/L)
Start 21.267 7.47 30.16 7.63
End 29.22 7.78 30.1 7.23
Mean 25.2435 7.625 30.13 7.43

Appendix Table 5. Physicochemical parameters of Malhiao transect 1


Trials Salinity (ppt) pH Temperature (C) DO (mg/L)
1 water sample 1 8.1 7.04
2 water sample 1 34 8.1 33 7.15
3 water sample 1 8.1 7.2
1 water sample 2 8.1 7.26
2 water sample 2 32.67 8.1 30 7.2
3 water sample 2 8.1 7.24
Mean 33.335 8.1 31.5 7.1817

Appendix Table 6. Physicochemical parameters of Malhiao transect 2


Trials Salinity (ppt) pH Temperature (C) DO (mg/L)
1 water sample 1 7.6 7.22
2 water sample 1 27 7.7 30 7.19
3 water sample 1 7.7 7.17
1 water sample 2 7.7 7.22
2 water sample 2 26.971 7.6 30 7.15
3 water sample 2 7.6 7.1
Mean 26.9855 7.65 30 7.175

Appendix Table 7. Physicochemical parameters of Malhiao transect 3


Trials Salinity (ppt) pH Temperature (C) DO (mg/L)
1 water sample 1 8.1 7.3
2 water sample 1 31.867 8 26 7.3
3 water sample 1 8 7.24
1 water sample 2 8 7.33
2 water sample 2 31.867 8.1 26 7.29
3 water sample 2 8 7.24
Mean 31.867 8.03 26 7.283

Appendix Table 8. Physicochemical parameters of Malhiao transect 4


Trials Salinity (ppt) pH Temperature (C) DO (mg/L)
1 water sample 1 7.9 7.22
2 water sample 1 30.545 7.9 30 7.26
3 water sample 1 7.9 7.29
1 water sample 2 7.9 7.16
2 water sample 2 30.545 7.9 30 7.17
3 water sample 2 7.9 7.12
Mean 30.545 7.9 30 7.203
Appendix Table 9. Test for Normality in the live coral cover, dead coral cover, and CMI in
different sites.

Tests of Normality

Site Kolmogorov-Smirnova Shapiro-Wilk

Statistic df Sig. Statistic df Sig.

Matutinao .261 4 . .909 4 .475


Live coral cover
Malhiao .179 4 . .985 4 .931
Matutinao .230 4 . .951 4 .724
Dead coral cover
Malhiao .312 4 . .907 4 .467
Matutinao .293 4 . .839 4 .191
Coral mortality index
Malhiao .296 4 . .855 4 .242

a. Lilliefors Significance Correction

Appendix Table 10. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) between the sites in terms of live
coral cover, dead coral cover, and CMI.

ANOVA

Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.

Between Groups 1067.913 1 1067.913 3.213 .123

Live coral cover Within Groups 1994.149 6 332.358

Total 3062.062 7
Between Groups .002 1 .002 .000 .996
Dead coral cover Within Groups 683.942 6 113.990
Total 683.945 7
Between Groups .051 1 .051 .796 .407

Coral mortality index Within Groups .381 6 .064

Total .432 7
Appendix Table 11. Test for Normality in CMI and physicochemical parameters

Tests of Normality

Kolmogorov-Smirnova Shapiro-Wilk

Statistic df Sig. Statistic df Sig.

Coral mortality index .182 8 .200* .904 8 .313


Salinity .154 8 .200* .970 8 .895
pH .244 8 .176 .882 8 .196
Temperature .261 8 .114 .884 8 .205
DO .179 8 .200* .952 8 .727

*. This is a lower bound of the true significance.


a. Lilliefors Significance Correction

Appendix Table 12. Test for Normality in the CMI, live coral cover, and dead coral cover in
different sites.

Tests of Normality

Site Kolmogorov-Smirnova Shapiro-Wilk

Statistic df Sig. Statistic df Sig.

Matutinao .293 4 . .839 4 .191


Coral mortality index
Malhiao .296 4 . .855 4 .242
Matutinao .240 4 . .930 4 .592
Salinity
Malhiao .230 4 . .950 4 .714
Matutinao .362 4 . .801 4 .103
pH
Malhiao .211 4 . .929 4 .591
Matutinao .410 4 . .731 4 .025
Temperature
Malhiao .354 4 . .856 4 .247
Matutinao .326 4 . .813 4 .128
DO
Malhiao .333 4 . .763 4 .051

a. Lilliefors Significance Correction


Appendix Table 13. Pearson correlation test CMI and among physicochemical parameters.

Correlations

Coral mortality Salinity Temperature DO pH


index

Pearson Correlation 1 -.502 .116 .008 .203

Coral mortality index Sig. (2-tailed) .204 .785 .986 .630

N 8 8 8 8 8
Pearson Correlation -.502 1 -.213 .116 .130
Salinity Sig. (2-tailed) .204 .612 .785 .760
N 8 8 8 8 8
Pearson Correlation .116 -.213 1 -.160 .029
Temperature Sig. (2-tailed) .785 .612 .705 .946
N 8 8 8 8 8
Pearson Correlation .008 .116 -.160 1 .295
DO Sig. (2-tailed) .986 .785 .705 .479
N 8 8 8 8 8
Pearson Correlation .203 .130 .029 .295 1

pH Sig. (2-tailed) .630 .760 .946 .479

N 8 8 8 8 8

Appendix Table 14. One-way ANOVA among physicochemical parameters between sites.

ANOVA

Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.

Between Groups 6.108 1 6.108 .321 .592

Salinity Within Groups 114.315 6 19.053

Total 120.423 7
Between Groups .414 1 .414 4.699 .073
pH Within Groups .529 6 .088
Total .943 7
Between Groups .034 1 .034 .011 .918
Temperature Within Groups 17.747 6 2.958
Total 17.781 7
Between Groups .019 1 .019 1.231 .310

DO Within Groups .093 6 .015

Total .112 7