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1

Chapter 2 - Macromechanical Analysis of a Lamina Exercise Set

2.1

The number of independent elastic constants in three dimensions are:

 
 

Anisotropic

21

Monoclinic

13

Orthotropic

9

Transversely Orthotropic

5

Isotropic

2

2.2

 

13.675

6.39

10.846

0 0

0

6.39

6.58

6.553

0 0

0

10.846

6.553

12.316

0 0

0

10.846 6.553 12.316 0 0 0

C =

Msi

0.25

0.05

  • 0 0

0

  • 0 0

0

  • 0 0

0

0

  • 7 0

  • 0 0

2

  • 0 6

0

0.1935

  • 0 0

0

 

0.05

0.3333

0.1333

  • 0 0

0

0.1935

0.1333

0.3226

  • 0 0

0

S =

  • 0 0

0

0.1429

0

0

  • 0 0

0

0

0.5

0

  • 0 0

0

0

0

0.1667

2.3

a)

σ 1 8.269 σ 2 6.731 σ 3 4.423 = 0 τ 23 10 τ 31
σ 1
8.269
σ 2
6.731
σ 3
4.423
=
0
τ 23
10
τ 31
9
τ 12

kPa

b) Compliance matrix -

1 Chapter 2 - Macromechanical Analysis of a Lamina Exercise Set 2.1 The number of independent

1

Msi

1

S =

c)

d)

2.10

2.11

0.5

0.5

0.4

0

0

0

0.5

0.3

0.2

0

0

0

0.4

0.2

0.6

0

0

0

0.4 0.2 0.6 0 0 0 1

1

 
  • 0 0

0

0.25

 

0

0

GPa

 
  • 0 0

0

0

0.5

 

0

  • 0 0

0

0

0

0.667

 
 

E

1

= 2

1 = 2

GPa

 

E

2

= 3.333 GPa

2 = 3.333 GPa
2 = 3.333 GPa
 

E

3

=

1.667 GPa

ν

12

=

1

ν

23

= 0.6667

 

ν

31

= 0.6667

= 0.6667

G

12

= 4

= 4
 

GPa

 

G

23

= 2

GPa

G

=

1.5 GPa

1.5 GPa
 
 

31

W = 3.335 10 2

31 W = 3.335 10 Pa S = 4.902 10 1.127 10
31 W = 3.335 10 Pa S = 4.902 10 1.127 10

Pa

S =

4.902 10 3 1.127 10 3

31 W = 3.335 10 Pa S = 4.902 10 1.127 10
31 W = 3.335 10 Pa S = 4.902 10 1.127 10
 

1.127 10 3

1.127 10 5.405 10

5.405 10 2

1.127 10 5.405 10
 

0

0

 

204.98

4.28

 

Q =

4.28

18.59

 

0

0

 

ε 1

ε 2

=
=

17.35

 

103.59

536.70

µm

γ 12

m

0 0 1.789 10 1 0 0 GPa 5.59
0
0
1.789 10 1
0
0
GPa
5.59

1

GPa

1

  • 2.12 Modifying Equation (2.17) for an isotropic lamina under plane stress -

 

1

ν

0

E

E

 

S

S

ν

1

0

 

E

E

0

0

1

 

G

Inverting the compliance matrix gives the reduced stiffness matrix -

 

E

E

.

ν

0

1

2

ν

  • 1 ν

2

 

Q

Q

E . ν

E

0

 

1

2

ν

  • 1 ν

2

0

0

G

  • 2.13 Compliance matrix for a two dimensional orthotropic material per Equations (2.87) -

 

1

ν 12

0

E 1

E 1

S

S 21 1 0

ν 21

1

0

 

E 2

E 2

0

0

1

 

G 12

Matrix inversion yields -

 
 

1

.

E 1

ν 12

.

E 2

0

 
 
  • 1 ν 21 ν 12

.

 
  • 1 ν 21

.

ν 12

Q

Q 21 . 1 1 . 2 0

ν 21

.

E 1

1

.

E 2

0

 
 
  • 1 ν 21

.

ν 12

  • 1 ν 21

.

ν 12

 

0

0

G 12

 

Compliance matrix for three dimensional orthotropic material per Equation (2.70) -

1

 

1

ν 12

 

ν 13

 

0

0

E 1

E 1

 

E 1

 

ν 21

1

ν 23

 

0

0

E 2

E 2

 

E 2

 

ν 31

ν 32

1

0

0

 

S

3

E 3

E 3

 

E 3

 
 

0

0

0

1

0

 

G 23

 

0

0

0

0

1

 

G 31

 

0

0

0

0

0

 

Matrix inversion yields -

 
 
  • C 11

 
1
1
 

ν 32 ν 23

.

 

ν 21

.

ν 12

ν 21

 
1
1
  • C G 12

66

 
 

Proving Q 11 C 11 and Q 66 = C 66 .

 

2.15

2.15
 
2.15

E

  • 1 = 5.599

Msi

,

E

2

=

1.199 Msi

 

ν

12

= 0.2600

 
1 12 13 0 0 1 1 1 21 1 23 0 0 2 2 2
 

G

12

= 0.6006 Msi

 

0

0

0

0

0

1

G 12

ν 32 ν 23

.

32 23 .

.

ν 32 ν 13

.

ν 31

.

ν 12 ν 23

.

31 13 .

ν 31 ν 13

.

.

E 1

2.16

σ 1 = σ 2 τ 12
σ 1
=
σ 2
τ 12
9.019 10 1 5.098 2.366
9.019
10 1
5.098
2.366

MPa

2.17

ε 1 2.201 = 3.799 ε 2 3.232 γ 12
ε 1
2.201
=
3.799
ε 2
3.232
γ 12

µin

in

2.18

1

2.19 S 11 0 S 16
2.19 S 11
0
S 16

S 22

29.06 40.40 19.50 Q = 40.40 122.26 61.21 GPa 19.50 61.21 41.71 6.383 10 2 2.319
29.06
40.40
19.50
Q
=
40.40
122.26
61.21
GPa
19.50
61.21
41.71
6.383
10 2
2.319
10 2
4.195
10 3
S
=
2.319
10 2
3.925 10 2
4.676 10 2
4.195
10 3
4.676
10 2
9.063
10 2
S 12
S 12
0
S 26

1

GPa

  • S 11

  • S 66

The values of c and s are interchanged for 0° and 90° laminas. The values of S 11 and S 22 are interchanged also since the local axes for the 0° lamina are rotated 90°.

2.20

A) ε x 196.4 µm = 126.0 ε y m 348.6 γ xy σ 1 9.800
A)
ε x
196.4
µm
=
126.0
ε y
m
348.6
γ xy
σ 1
9.800 10 2
=
6.098
MPa
σ 2
6.340
10 1
τ 12
ε 1
7.36
µm
=
329.73
ε 2
m
113.40
γ 12
c)
Principal normal stresses produced by applied global stresses -
2
σ x
σ y
σ x
σ y
2
σ
= 6.162 MPa
σ max
τ xy
max
2
2

1

σ min

σ x

σ y

2

1 min x y 2 x 2 y 2 2 xy σ Orientation of maximum principal

σ x

2

σ y

2

2

τ xy

σ

Orientation of maximum principal stress -

θ pσ

  • 1 atan

.

2

2

.

σ x

.
.

τ xy

σ y

180

π

. °
.
°

Principal normal strains -

ε max

ε min

ε x

ε y

2

ε x

ε y

2

ε x

ε x

2

ε y

2

2

ε y

2

2 γ xy 2 2 γ xy 2
2
γ xy
2
2
γ xy
2

θ

ε

ε

Orientation of maximum principal strain -

θ pε

  • 1 atan

.

2

.
.

ε y

γ xy

ε x

1 min x y 2 x 2 y 2 2 xy σ Orientation of maximum principal

180 . °

π

θ

d) Maximum shear produced by applied global stresses -

τ max

1 min x y 2 x 2 y 2 2 xy σ Orientation of maximum principal

σ x

2

σ y

2

2

τ xy

Orientation of maximum shear -

θ s τ

  • 1 atan

.

2

σ x

2

.

.
.

σ y

τ xy

1 min x y 2 x 2 y 2 2 xy σ Orientation of maximum principal

180 . °

π

Maximum shear strain -

γ max

2

.
.

ε x

2

ε y

2

γ xy

2

2

τ

θ

γ

Orientation of maximum shear strain -

θ s γ

  • 1 atan

.

2

.
.

ε y

ε x

180

π

γ xy

. °
.
°

θ

min

=

0.1623 MPa

= 0.1623 MPa
= 0.1623 MPa

pσ

=

35.78

 

°

max

= 339.0

= 339.0
 

µm

m

min

=

16.64

min = 16.64

µm

 
m

m

pε

=

39.30

p ε = 39.30 °

°

max

= 3.162 MPa

= 3.162 MPa

s τ

= 9.22

°

max

= 355.7

= 355.7
= 355.7
 

µm

m

s γ

= 5.70

°

1

2.21

θ = 34.98

θ = 34.98

°

2.22

2.23

E

ν

m

E

m

G

x

= 2.272

= 2.272
 

Msi

xy

= 0.3632

x

=

0.8530

0.8530

y

= 3.696

 

Msi

y

= 9.538

= 9.538
 

xy

=

1.6

Msi

The maximum value of G xy occurs at θ = 45°

G = 26.54 GPa xy θ 3 The minimum value of G xy occurs at θ
G
= 26.54 GPa
xy
θ 3
The minimum value of G xy occurs at θ = 0°
G
= 20.00 GPa
xy
θ 1

Displayed graphically -

28 26 24 22 20 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Ply
28
26
24
22
20
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Ply Angle (°)
Engineering Shear Modulus (GPa)
  • 2.24 a) Graphite/Epoxy lamina

b) Aluminum plate

ε

a

=

11.60 %

1 2.21 θ = 34.98 ° 2.22 2.23 E ν m E m G x =

1

ε

b

= 0.36

1 ε b = 0.36 % 2.25 2.26 2.27 Given a) Elastic modulus in x direction

%

2.25

2.26

2.27

Given

  • a) Elastic modulus in x direction per Equation (2.112) -

 

G

=

10.10 GPa

= 10.10 GPa
 

12

  • b) Elastic modulus -

12 b) Elastic modulus -
 
 

E

x

=

13.4 GPa

13.4 GPa
 

E

x (

30 . °

)

 

= 4.173

 

1

2

.

ν 12

Only

G 12

E 1

 
 

E

2

<

E 1

Msi

  • b) can be determined, G 12 and ν 12 cannot be determined individually.

Yes, for some values of θ, E x < E 2 if

E 1

E 1 E 2
E 1
E 2

and

G

  • 12 <

    • 2 .

ν 12

2.28

Yes, for some values of θ, E x > E 1 if

G

  • 12 >

E 1

2

. 1 ν 12
.
1
ν 12

2.29

Basing calculations on a Boron/Epoxy lamina

The value of ν xy is maximum for a 26° lamina. Displayed graphically –

1

2.30 Given Tabulation:
2.30
Given
Tabulation:

LWR

ζ

E1 x (Msi)

 
  • 2 1.504E-1

2.629

 
  • 8 1.803E-2

2.275

 
  • 16 4.724E-3

2.245

 
  • 64 2.998E-4

2.235

Graph of ζ as a function of Length-to-Width ratio -

0.3 0.2 0.1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Zeta
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Zeta

Length-to-Width Ratio (L/W)

Graph of Engineering modulus for Finite LWR as a function of ζ -

1

3.5 3 2.5 E x 2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Young's modulus
3.5
3
2.5
E x
2
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Young's modulus for Finite L/W (Msi)

Length-to-Width Ratio (L/W)

2.32

G

  • 12 = 0.0488 GPa

1 3.5 3 2.5 E x 2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Young's
  • b) From 35° ply data, one can find S 11 and S 12 for the lamina. However, for Equations (2.101a) and (2.101b), there are four unknowns: S 11 , S 12 , S 22 , and S 66 . Therefore, one cannot find S 66 nor, in turn, the shear modulus, G 12 . Although the same is true in the case of the 45° ply, no manipulation of Equations (2.101a) and (2.101b) will allow S 66 to be expressed in terms of S 11 and S 12 for the 35° ply.

2.33

Elastic properties of Boron/Epoxy from Table 2.2 -

U

1

U

2

U

3

U

4

  • V 1

  • V 2

  • V 3

  • V 4

=

12.72

= 12.72 Msi
= 12.72 Msi

Msi

=

13.52

Msi

= 3.493

= 3.493 Msi
= 3.493 Msi

Msi

= 4.113

Msi

= 3.046 10 1

= 3.046 10

=

1.695

1.695
 

10 1

=

1.014

1.014

10 1

=

1.091

1.091

10 1

1

Msi 1 Msi 1
Msi
1
Msi
1

Msi

1 3.5 3 2.5 E x 2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Young's

1

Msi

1

2.35 Given Failure Criterion Magnitude of Maximum Positive Shear Stress Magnitude of Maximum Negative Shear Stress
2.35
Given
Failure Criterion
Magnitude of Maximum
Positive Shear Stress
Magnitude of Maximum
Negative Shear Stress
Off-axis Shear
Strength
Maximum Stress
134
MPa
70.44
MPa
70.44 MPa
Maximum Strain:
134
MPa
68.99
MPa
68.99 MPa
Tsai-Hill:
62.24 MPa
62.24
MPa
62.24 MPa
Tsai-Wu (Mises-
139 MPa
59.66
MPa
59.66 MPa
Hencky criterion)
2.36
The maximum stress failure theory gives the mode of failure. The Tsai-Wu failure theory is a unified
theory and gives no indication of the failure mode.
2.37
The Tsai-Wu failure theory agrees closely with experimentally obtained results. The difference between
the maximum stress failure theory and experimental results are quite pronounced.
2.38
Given
.
Maximum Strain:
249.9
MPa
σ Mε
.
Tsai-Wu (Mises-Hencky criterion):
259.9
MPa
σ TWMH
The maximum biaxial stress that can be applied to a 60° lamina of Graphite/Epoxy is conservatively
estimated at -249.9 MPa.
2.40
Given the strength parameters for an isotropic material
2
2
2
2
.
.
.
σ
6.25
1.
<
1
σ 2
τ 12
σ 1 σ 2
σ T
2.41
Given the strength parameters for a unidirectional Boron/Epoxy system -
2
.
Since H
<
H 22 the stability criterion is satisfied.
12
H 11
2.42
The units for the coefficient of thermal expansion in the USCS system are in/in/°F. In the SI system the
units for the coefficient of thermal expansion are m/m/°C.
2.43
ε C1
0
µm
=
1200
ε C2
m
0
γ C12

1

∆T = 54.30 °C 2_Offset 2.44 µin α x 10.403 in = 6.653 α y °F
∆T
=
54.30 °C
2_Offset
2.44
µin
α x
10.403
in
=
6.653
α y
°F
6.495
α xy
2.45
T he units for the coefficient of moisture expansion in the USCS system are in/in/lbm/lbm. In the SI system
the units for the coefficient of moisture expansion are m/m/kg/kg.
2.46
m β x 0.4500 m = 0.1500 β y kg 0.5196 β xy kg
m
β x
0.4500
m
=
0.1500
β y
kg
0.5196
β xy
kg