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### Chapter 2 - Macromechanical Analysis of a Lamina Exercise Set

 2.1 The number of independent elastic constants in three dimensions are: Anisotropic 21 Monoclinic 13 Orthotropic 9 Transversely Orthotropic 5 Isotropic 2 2.2 13.675 6.39 10.846 0 0 0 6.39 6.58 6.553 0 0 0 10.846 6.553 12.316 0 0 0 C = Msi 0.25 0.05 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 2 0 6 0 0.1935 0 0 0 0.05 0.3333 0.1333 0 0 0 0.1935 0.1333 0.3226 0 0 0 S = 0 0 0 0.1429 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.1667 2.3

a)

σ 1
8.269
σ 2
6.731
σ 3
4.423
=
0
τ 23
10
τ 31
9
τ 12

kPa

b) Compliance matrix -

1

Msi

1

S =

c)

d)

2.10

2.11

 0.5 0.5 0.4 0 0 0 0.5 0.3 0.2 0 0 0 0.4 0.2 0.6 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0.25 0 0 GPa 0 0 0 0 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.667 E 1 = 2 GPa E 2 = 3.333 GPa E 3 = 1.667 GPa ν 12 = 1 ν 23 = 0.6667 ν 31 = 0.6667 G 12 = 4 GPa G 23 = 2 GPa G = 1.5 GPa 31 W = 3.335 10 2 Pa S = 4.902 10 3 1.127 10 3 1.127 10 3 5.405 10 2 0 0 204.98 4.28 Q = 4.28 18.59 0 0 ε 1 ε 2 = 17.35 103.59 536.70 µm γ 12 m
0
0
1.789 10 1
0
0
GPa
5.59

1

GPa

1

• 2.12 Modifying Equation (2.17) for an isotropic lamina under plane stress -

 1 ν 0 E E S ν 1 0 E E 0 0 1 G Inverting the compliance matrix gives the reduced stiffness matrix - E E . ν 0 1 2 ν 1 ν 2 Q E . ν E 0 1 2 ν 1 ν 2 0 0 G 2.13 Compliance matrix for a two dimensional orthotropic material per Equations (2.87) - 1 ν 12 0 E 1 E 1 S ν 21 1 0 E 2 E 2 0 0 1 G 12 Matrix inversion yields - 1 . E 1 ν 12 . E 2 0 1 ν 21 ν 12 . 1 ν 21 . ν 12 Q ν 21 . E 1 1 . E 2 0 1 ν 21 . ν 12 1 ν 21 . ν 12 0 0 G 12

Compliance matrix for three dimensional orthotropic material per Equation (2.70) -

1

 1 ν 12 ν 13 0 0 E 1 E 1 E 1 ν 21 1 ν 23 0 0 E 2 E 2 E 2 ν 31 ν 32 1 0 0 S E 3 E 3 E 3 0 0 0 1 0 G 23 0 0 0 0 1 G 31 0 0 0 0 0 Matrix inversion yields - C 11 1 ν 32 ν 23 . ν 21 . ν 12 ν 21 1 C G 12 66 Proving Q 11 ≠ C 11 and Q 66 = C 66 . 2.15 E 1 = 5.599 Msi , E 2 = 1.199 Msi ν 12 = 0.2600 G 12 = 0.6006 Msi

0

0

0

0

0

1

 G 12 ν 32 ν 23 . . ν 32 ν 13 . ν 31 . ν 12 ν 23 . ν 31 ν 13 . . E 1

2.16

σ 1
=
σ 2
τ 12
9.019
10 1
5.098
2.366

MPa

2.17

ε 1
2.201
=
3.799
ε 2
3.232
γ 12

µin

in

2.18

1

2.19 S 11
0
S 16

S 22

29.06
40.40
19.50
Q
=
40.40
122.26
61.21
GPa
19.50
61.21
41.71
6.383
10 2
2.319
10 2
4.195
10 3
S
=
2.319
10 2
3.925 10 2
4.676 10 2
4.195
10 3
4.676
10 2
9.063
10 2
S 12
S 12
0
S 26

1

GPa

• S 11

• S 66

The values of c and s are interchanged for 0° and 90° laminas. The values of S 11 and S 22 are interchanged also since the local axes for the 0° lamina are rotated 90°.

2.20

A)
ε x
196.4
µm
=
126.0
ε y
m
348.6
γ xy
σ 1
9.800 10 2
=
6.098
MPa
σ 2
6.340
10 1
τ 12
ε 1
7.36
µm
=
329.73
ε 2
m
113.40
γ 12
c)
Principal normal stresses produced by applied global stresses -
2
σ x
σ y
σ x
σ y
2
σ
= 6.162 MPa
σ max
τ xy
max
2
2

1

σ min

σ x

σ y

2

σ x

2

σ y

2

2

τ xy

σ

Orientation of maximum principal stress -

θ pσ

• 1 atan

.

2

2

.

σ x

.

τ xy

σ y

180

π

.
°

Principal normal strains -

ε max

ε min

ε x

ε y

2

ε x

ε y

2

ε x

ε x

2

ε y

2

2

ε y

2

2
γ xy
2
2
γ xy
2

θ

ε

ε

Orientation of maximum principal strain -

θ pε

• 1 atan

.

2

.

ε y

γ xy

ε x

180 . °

π

θ

d) Maximum shear produced by applied global stresses -

τ max

σ x

2

σ y

2

2

τ xy

Orientation of maximum shear -

θ s τ

• 1 atan

.

2

σ x

2

.

.

σ y

τ xy

180 . °

π

Maximum shear strain -

γ max

2

.

ε x

2

ε y

2

γ xy

2

2

τ

θ

γ

Orientation of maximum shear strain -

θ s γ

• 1 atan

.

2

.

ε y

ε x

180

π

γ xy

.
°

θ

 min = 0.1623 MPa pσ = 35.78 ° max = 339.0 µm m min = 16.64 µm m pε = 39.30 ° max = 3.162 MPa s τ = 9.22 ° max = 355.7 µm m s γ = 5.70 °

1

 2.21 θ = 34.98 ° 2.22

2.23

E

ν

m

E

m

G

 x = 2.272 Msi xy = 0.3632 x = 0.8530 y = 3.696 Msi y = 9.538 xy = 1.6 Msi

The maximum value of G xy occurs at θ = 45°

G
= 26.54 GPa
xy
θ 3
The minimum value of G xy occurs at θ = 0°
G
= 20.00 GPa
xy
θ 1

Displayed graphically -

28
26
24
22
20
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Ply Angle (°)
Engineering Shear Modulus (GPa)
• 2.24 a) Graphite/Epoxy lamina

b) Aluminum plate

ε

a

=

11.60 %

1

ε

b

= 0.36

%

2.25

2.26

2.27

Given

• a) Elastic modulus in x direction per Equation (2.112) -

 G = 10.10 GPa 12 b) Elastic modulus - E x = 13.4 GPa E x ( 30 . ° ) = 4.173 1 2 . ν 12 Only G 12 E 1 E 2 < E 1

Msi

• b) can be determined, G 12 and ν 12 cannot be determined individually.

Yes, for some values of θ, E x < E 2 if

E 1

E 1
E 2

and

G

• 12 <

• 2 .

ν 12

2.28

Yes, for some values of θ, E x > E 1 if

G

• 12 >

E 1

2

.
1
ν 12

2.29

Basing calculations on a Boron/Epoxy lamina

The value of ν xy is maximum for a 26° lamina. Displayed graphically –

1

2.30
Given
Tabulation:
 LWR ζ E1 x (Msi) 2 1.504E-1 2.629 8 1.803E-2 2.275 16 4.724E-3 2.245 64 2.998E-4 2.235

Graph of ζ as a function of Length-to-Width ratio -

0.3
0.2
0.1
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Zeta

Length-to-Width Ratio (L/W)

Graph of Engineering modulus for Finite LWR as a function of ζ -

1

3.5
3
2.5
E x
2
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Young's modulus for Finite L/W (Msi)

Length-to-Width Ratio (L/W)

2.32

G

• 12 = 0.0488 GPa

• b) From 35° ply data, one can find S 11 and S 12 for the lamina. However, for Equations (2.101a) and (2.101b), there are four unknowns: S 11 , S 12 , S 22 , and S 66 . Therefore, one cannot find S 66 nor, in turn, the shear modulus, G 12 . Although the same is true in the case of the 45° ply, no manipulation of Equations (2.101a) and (2.101b) will allow S 66 to be expressed in terms of S 11 and S 12 for the 35° ply.

2.33

Elastic properties of Boron/Epoxy from Table 2.2 -

U

1

U

2

U

3

U

4

• V 1

• V 2

• V 3

• V 4

 = 12.72 Msi = 13.52 Msi = 3.493 Msi = 4.113 Msi = 3.046 10 1 = 1.695 10 1 = 1.014 10 1 = 1.091 10 1

1

Msi
1
Msi
1

Msi

1

Msi

1

2.35
Given
Failure Criterion
Magnitude of Maximum
Positive Shear Stress
Magnitude of Maximum
Negative Shear Stress
Off-axis Shear
Strength
Maximum Stress
134
MPa
70.44
MPa
70.44 MPa
Maximum Strain:
134
MPa
68.99
MPa
68.99 MPa
Tsai-Hill:
62.24 MPa
62.24
MPa
62.24 MPa
Tsai-Wu (Mises-
139 MPa
59.66
MPa
59.66 MPa
Hencky criterion)
2.36
The maximum stress failure theory gives the mode of failure. The Tsai-Wu failure theory is a unified
theory and gives no indication of the failure mode.
2.37
The Tsai-Wu failure theory agrees closely with experimentally obtained results. The difference between
the maximum stress failure theory and experimental results are quite pronounced.
2.38
Given
.
Maximum Strain:
249.9
MPa
σ Mε
.
Tsai-Wu (Mises-Hencky criterion):
259.9
MPa
σ TWMH
The maximum biaxial stress that can be applied to a 60° lamina of Graphite/Epoxy is conservatively
estimated at -249.9 MPa.
2.40
Given the strength parameters for an isotropic material
2
2
2
2
.
.
.
σ
6.25
1.
<
1
σ 2
τ 12
σ 1 σ 2
σ T
2.41
Given the strength parameters for a unidirectional Boron/Epoxy system -
2
.
Since H
<
H 22 the stability criterion is satisfied.
12
H 11
2.42
The units for the coefficient of thermal expansion in the USCS system are in/in/°F. In the SI system the
units for the coefficient of thermal expansion are m/m/°C.
2.43
ε C1
0
µm
=
1200
ε C2
m
0
γ C12

1

∆T
=
54.30 °C
2_Offset
2.44
µin
α x
10.403
in
=
6.653
α y
°F
6.495
α xy
2.45
T he units for the coefficient of moisture expansion in the USCS system are in/in/lbm/lbm. In the SI system
the units for the coefficient of moisture expansion are m/m/kg/kg.
2.46
m
β x
0.4500
m
=
0.1500
β y
kg
0.5196
β xy
kg