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# BRACING

Principles
To begin defining bracing parameters, define the geometry of a bracing (position within the
structure). In order to generate a bracing, it is necessary to define the following elements:

Bracing auxiliary lines - draw 1 or 2 lines using the AutoCAD Draw > Line command.
The lines define a plane in which the bracing will be positioned (in the drawing below the
bracing plane and bracing auxiliary lines are marked in red). If only 1 auxiliary line of the
bracing is defined, the other bracing diagonal will be a symmetrical reflection of the
diagonal defined by the first bracing auxiliary line.

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First column, second column elements connected with the bracing (see the drawing
above).
Limitations all the top or bottom limits of the bracing (for example, the beam in the
drawing above).

As an example, to define the bracing shown in red in the left part of the drawing below, define
the elements displayed on the right.

Note: The order in which columns and auxiliary lines are selected has an effect on the bracing
model. The point of intersection of the axis of the first column and the first auxiliary line is
regarded as the reference point of the bracing.

Gusset Plates
You can define geometry of steel structure bracing.

## 1. open the Parametric structures Bracing dialog from:

o Menu: Steel > Parametric structures > Bracing
o Ribbon: ASD - Model > Parametric structures > Bracing

## o Toolbar: Parametric structures > Bracing .

2. In the drawing area, select the auxiliary lines of the bracing (they determine the plane in
which the bracing will be positioned).
3. Select two columns between which the bracing will be generated.
4. Specify the limitations (elements to be considered while shaping gusset plates), such as a
beam for the top limit of the bracing.

Note: The current version of the software lets you define bracing in an inclined plane that is not
parallel to the main plane of the bracing.

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Define the geometry of gusset plates at the columns:

Rectangular plate

Optimized plate

Plate

For the rectangular plate type , there is also a Chamfer option. If this option is selected, the plate
will be chamfered (see the drawing below).

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To generate a gusset plate automatically, select Automatic. If Automatic is cleared, all
dimensions of the plate will be user-defined (edit fields for defining plate dimensions become
available).

## Specify gusset plate parameters:

Material
Family to which the plate should belong. Plate families available in the selection list are
those defined in the Family Manager dialog. To add a new family to the list, click
. The Family manager dialog displays, in which you can select a plate family.
Plate thickness
Distance D from the edge of the bracing profile (see the drawing below)

Distance D of the bracing end to the intersection of the axes (see the drawing below)

## Value of the chamfering b - see the drawing in the dialog

Plate width w available only for the third type of gusset plate

In the lower part of the dialog, define the position of the gusset plate in relation to the working
plane (to the axis of the column profile):

## gusset plate is in front of the plane

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gusset plate is in the center of the plane (within the plane)

## gusset plate is behind the plane

It is possible to define the Offset of the bracing plane. If an offset value differs from 0, the
bracing (together with all its elements) is shifted by the given value.

Central Plate
Use the options on the Central plate tab to define parameters of a central plate (at the place where
elements of a bracing are connected).

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Select a central plate type:

Rectangular plate

Optimized plate

No central plate

## Specify gusset plate parameters:

Material
Family to which a plate should belong. Plate families available on the selection list are
those defined in the Family Manager dialog. To add a new family to the list, click
. The Family manager dialog displays, where you can select a family.
Plate thickness

After you finish defining central plate parameters, click the Diagonals tab to display the Bracing
- Diagonals dialog.

Bolts/Welds
Use the options on the Bolts/Welds tab to define parameters of connectors (bolts or welds).

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For Connector type, specify either Bolts or Welds to be used in the defined bracing. The options
that are required to define the connection parameters depend on the selection made.

## Type and thickness of welds for gusset plates

Type and thickness of welds for diagonal profiles

## Define a bolted connection:

Bolt parameters

Diameter and grade of a bolt - click Settings to open the Bolt settings dialog

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Number of bolts

Distance h1 (see the drawing below) - if the x bolt diam. option is selected, this parameter will be
defined as a multiple of the bolt diameter.

Bolt spacing (see the drawing below) - if the x bolt diam. option is selected, this parameter will
be defined as a multiple of the bolt diameter.

Distance h2 (see the drawing below) - if the x bolt diam. option is selected, this parameter will be
defined as a multiple of the bolt diameter.

If you select Slotted, you can define oval bolt openings (in diagonals). Additionally, you can
define a rotation angle for an opening (with respect to the diagonal angle). If Slotted is not
selected, bolt openings will be round.

## In the diagonal axis

In the T-line - if you select this, you must specify a value of the T parameter (the distance from
the profile leg).

After you have defined connector parameters, you can define parameters of tubes and battens
(depending on the options selected on the earlier tabs of the Bracing dialog).

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Angles
Use the options on the Angles tab to define parameters of connecting angles.

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If Generate angles is not selected, angles will not be generated. In order to generate angles
connecting a plate with a column, select Generate angles.

## Connector type (bolted or welded)

Profilefamily to which an angle should belong.

Profiles available on the selection list are those defined in the Profile List dialog. To add a profile
to the list, click . The Profile list dialog displays, where you can select a profile.

Profile families available on the selection list are those defined in the Family Manager dialog. To
add a family to the list, click . The Family manager dialog displays, where you can select
a family.
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Location - define an angle length and angle distance to the plate edge. There are 2
possibilities of angle orientation:

## Fixed to the plate by its longer arm

Parameters of the angle connection with the plate and the column are accessible only if a bolted
angle-column/plate connection is selected:

## Vertical and horizontal spacing of bolts

Distances of bolt openings in the angle from the plate edge

Under Bolts, define bolt diameter and grade separately for fixing to a column and for fixing to a
plate. Click Settings to open the Bolt settings dialog.

Tubes
If a tubular profile is selected on the Diagonals tab of the Bracing dialog, the Tubes tab will be
accessible. Use the options on this tab to define parameters of a connection between diagonals of
a tubular profile and a gusset plate.

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Under Type, select the type of connection between a diagonal of tubular profile and a gusset
plate:

## Hollow section (cut tubes)

Section with Tee plate

The options that are required to define the connection parameters depend on the selection made.

## Distance (plate length) d1

Distance d2
Plate width w
Plate thickness t this value is the same as that for gusset plates.

## Generate select this in order to create a sealing plate

Rectangular
Circular

For the connection with the use of a Tee plate, determine the parameters as follows (see the
drawing below):

plate length d1
plate width w
diameter of the frontal plate of circular shape d2
plate thickness t - this value is the same as that for gusset plates.

## Select either Rectangular or Circular for the closing plate.

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Battens
If Battens is selected on the Diagonals tab of the Bracing dialog, the Battens tab will be
accessible. Use the options on this tab to define parameters of battens between the legs of
diagonal profiles.

## Specify the method of batten definition:

Number of battens (see the drawing below) - the plate-to-plate distance Lc is divided into n equal
parts.

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Distance between battens (see the drawing below) - define 2 distance parameters for each batten

## Distance from gusset plate d1

Distance between battens d2

The options that are required to define the connection parameters depend on the selection made.

A batten is made of a flat profile of dimensions (length l and width w) specified in the Batten
size field.

Offsets
The Offsets tab is accessible in the Bracing dialog only if limitations are not selected during
definition of a bracing (upper and/or lower). Use the options on this tab to define offset values.

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It is possible to specify values for offset of the bracing axis at each point of the connection
between the bracing and a column. In the software, an upward offset is positive, and a downward
offset is negative.

You can specify a value for the offset of the entire bracing plane (all components of the bracing).
The following rule of signing this parameter is adopted:

## Positions of the following 2 points are assumed

o Point of intersection of the axes of the first column and first auxiliary line
o Point of intersection of the axes of the second column and second auxiliary line
A vector perpendicular to this line is determined
The offset compatible with the vector (compatible with the dextrorotatory rotation) is
given the sign +.

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Bracing - Strut
Use the options on the Strut tab to generate a strut.

If Generate strut is not selected, struts will not be generated. In order to generate struts between
selected bars in a structure, select Generate strut.

## Structure elements created as a strut is generated:

Horizontal profile
Connector plate
Bolts or welds

Note: The elements can be created only if bracing limitations have not been selected.
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The axis of a strut profile is determined by the positions of points 1 and 2 in the main bracing
plane.Point 1 is the point of intersection of the axis of column 1 and the second auxiliary line of a
bracing; point 2 is the point of intersection of the axis of column 2 and the first auxiliary line (see
the drawing below).

## Strut profile - round or rectangular pipes

Family to which the strut profile should belong

Profiles available on the selection list are those defined in the Profile List dialog. To add a profile
to the list, click . The Profile list dialog displays, where you can select a profile.

Profile families available on the selection list are those defined in the Family Manager dialog. To
add a family to the list, click . The Family manager dialog displays, in which you can
select a family.

## Hollow section (cut tube)

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by means of a Tee plate.

For both connection types, appropriate dimensions should be defined under Strut fixing.

Rectangular
Circular

## Select either Rectangular or Circular for the closing plate.

Under Connect plate position in relation to gusset plate,select either Front or Behind.

Rods / Turnbuckle
If a solid profile (for example, ROND 20) is selected on the Diagonals tab of the Bracing dialog,
the Rods and Turnbuckle tabs will be accessible.Use the options on this tab to define connection
parameters for rods and generation parameters for a turnbuckle.

## The Rods tab

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For type, select either Fixing to gusset plate or Fixing to column web.

## Fixing to gusset plate

Define parameters for a connection by means of cut tubes (see the drawing below):

## o Distance (plate length) d1

o Distance d2

o Plate width w

o Plate thickness t - this value is the same as that for gusset plates

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o Position of a rod with respect to the plate

## Define the profile and family:

o Profiles available on the selection list are those defined in the Profile List dialog.
To add a profile to the list, click . The Profile list dialog displays, where
you can select a profile.
o Profile families available on the selection list are those defined in the Family
Manager dialog. To add a family to the list, click . The Family manager
dialog displays, where you can select a family.

## Define sleeve parameters:

o Diameters: d1 and d2
o Distances l1 and l2
o Parameters of a nut and a washer

## The Turnbuckle tab

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If Generate turnbuckle is not selected, a turnbuckle will not be generated. In order to generate a
turnbuckle and define parameters of a connection, select Generate turnbuckle.

## Specify turnbuckle parameters:

Database
Name (type)
Position (dimensions that determine a position of a turnbuckle)

## Use the buttons at the bottom of the dialog:

Apply after you click this, the defined bracings are generated on screen without closing
the dialog. This lets you check if the bracings have been generated correctly.
OK - click this button to generate the defined bracings and close the Bracing dialog.

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Hide - after you click this, the dialog is no longer visible on screen. To restore the dialog
display on screen, press Esc.
Close - click this to close the dialog without generating the bracing.

## Example of Frame Bracing Definition

To define bracings in a 3D frame:

## 1. Open a project with a defined frame (see Example of 3D Frame Definition).

2. Draw an auxiliary line of the frame bracing between 2 columns using the AutoCAD
Draw > Line command (see the drawing below). Because both columns are of equal
height, the other diagonal will be a mirror image of the diagonal positioned on the
defined auxiliary line.

## 3. Click the Bracing option .

4. In the drawing area, select bracing lines, columns, and objects that define vertical
limitations to define the position of frame bracings (see the drawing below).

5. On the Gusset plates tab of the Parametric structures - Bracing dialog, specify
parameters:
o For Gusset plate type, select Plate.
o Under Gusset plate:
For Material, select Steel.
For Family, select Plate.
For Thickness d, select 0.5 in.
For Distance, enter 2 in.
For Plate width, enter 2 in.
o Under Gusset plate position, select Center.

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6. On the Central plate tab, accept the default values for the plate parameters.
7. On the Diagonals tab:
o Select Crossed bracing.
o Under Diagonal selection
Select profile LP 3.5x3.5x0.25, and family Profile.
Select Double (double-leg profile of diagonals).
Select Battens.
o Under Diagonal location in relation to gusset plate
Select First diagonal in front of the plate.
For Crossing type, select Both diagonal cut
For Shortening s, enter 4 in.
o For Diagonal insertion in relation to bracing system line
Select Middle.
For Rotation angle, select 0.
Clear Mirror.
8. On the Bolts/Welds tab:
o For Connector type, select Welds.
o Under Welds, for type of welds for gusset plates and profiles, specify 0.12-inch-
thick fillet weld.
9. On the Angles tab, clear Generate angles.
10. On the Battens tab, define parameters for battens of double-leg diagonals:
o For Definition method, select Number of battens.
o For Connector type, select welds.
o Under Batten size
For Length l, enter 4.
For Width w, enter 2 in.
o For Number of battens for each leg, select 3.
11. Click OK.

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