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Power Standard #4

Study Guide
Students should be able to add, subtract, and multiply fractions (including mixed numbers)
with unlike denominators. (May include multiple methods and representations.)

Students should be able to divide unit fractions by whole numbers and whole numbers by unit
fractions.

Students should be able to solve word problems involving division of whole numbers leading
to answers in the form of fractions (including mixed numbers).

Students should be able to demonstrate an understanding of multiplication as scaling


(resizing).


Regular Fraction: 5/7 or
All regular fractions have a value of less than one.


Improper Fraction: 8/5 or

All improper fractions have a value of more than one.

Mixed number: 4
All mixed numbers have a value of more than one.
I. Adding & Subtracting Fractions:

In order to add or subtract fractions, the bottom number (denominator)


must be the same. If the bottom numbers are not the same, youll need
to find the LCM (Least Common Multiple) of both numbers.

Examples:

2 1 3 1 5 6
+ = + = =1
5 5 5 6 6 6

1 1
+ =?
8 4

Step 1: Find the LCM 8: 8, 16, 24, 32


4: 4, 8, 12, 16

Step 2: Change and rewrite the fractions

1 1 1 2 3
+ = + =
8 4 8 8 8
1 1
+ =?
4 6

Step 1: Find the LCM 4: 4, 8, 12, 16


6: 6, 12, 18, 24

Step 2: Change and rewrite the fractions

1 1 3 2 5
+ = + =
4 6 12 12 12

When adding or subtracting mixed numbers, you can ignore the


whole number until the end.
II. Multiplying Fractions:

Unlike adding or subtracting fractions, the two bottom numbers


(denominators) do not have to be the same when multiplying fractions.
To multiple fractions simply multiply straight across:

Examples:

Unlike adding or subtracting fractions, when multiplying fractions you


cant ignore the whole number until the end. You must convert (change)
all mixed numbers to improper fractions before you multiply.

Mixed numbers can be changed to fractions by using the acrobat


method.

Examples:

Multiple, Add, then Slide


III. Dividing Fractions:

To divide fractions flip the second fraction and multiply.

Examples:

Flip

Flip

Flip

KFC = Keep first fraction the same, flip the second fraction, and change
the sign from division to multiplication.
IV. Reducing Fractions:

Example:
2
8

Step 1: Find the GCF of 2 and 8 (Great Common Factor)

2: 1, 2
8: 1, 2, 4, 8

Step 2: Divide each number by the GCF

2 1
=
8 4
13
8
Step 1: Divide fraction

5
1
8
8) 13

Step 2: Reduce fraction (remainder) if needed.


V. Fraction Word Problem Examples:

1. Last year, Mr. Deppen covered 3/10 of his bathroom with white tiles. The rest of
the bathroom was covered blue tiles. What fraction represents the fraction of the
bathroom covered with blue tiles?

2. A painter used 1/5 of a bucket of paint yesterday. He used 1/4 of the same
bucket today. What fraction below represents the amount of paint remaining?

3. A janitor used 4 containers of cleaner. Each container was 2/3 full. How many
containers of cleaner did the janitor use all together?

4. Jill has a cake that was 1/7 gone (her sister ate it). He split the remaining cake
among his 4 friends (Jill didnt want any). How much of the cake does each friend
get?
VI. Scaling:

Examples:

1. There are two factors in the problem below, 6 and . Is the product
of these two factors larger or smaller than 6?

6x=
Answer: _________________________

2. A number multiplied by a fraction is not always smaller than what you


start with. Explain this, and give at least two examples to support your
thinking.

3. A high speed train travels at 300km per hour from London to Paris. If
the train traveled at times that speed, would the amount of time the
trip takes be shorter or longer? Explain your thinking.