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CHAPTER 8 : PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS

1. Understand and use the concept of binomial distribution.


1.1 List all possible values of a discrete random variable.
(a) If X represents the number of pupils (b) If Y represents the number of times of
scoring 12A in a group of 5 pupils, list getting the number 1 when tossing a
all the possible values of X. fair dice three times, list all the
possible values of Y.

(c) A pupil takes English examination 8 (d) 3 marbles are chosen from a bag
times. If Z represents the number of containing 5 red marbles and 4 black
times he passes the examination, list marbles. If X represents the number
all the possible values of Z. of black marbles chosen, list all the
possible values of X.

1.2 Determine the probability of an event in a binomial distribution.


P ( X = r ) = nCr p r q n - r , p + q = 1
(a) Given p = 0.7 , q = , q=
(b) Given p = 0.2
n=5, r =3 n = 10 , r =2
Find P(X = 3). Find P(X = 2).

[0.3087] [ 0.3020]
(c) Given p = 0.45 , q = (d) Given p = 0.12 , q =
n=7, r =3 n = 10 , r =2
Find P( X = 3). Find P(X = 2).

[0.2918] [ 0.2330]
(e) The probability that Bernard will be (f) The probability that Minmin scoring
late for a meeting is 0.6. Find the 1A for English in the monthly test is
probability that Bernard will be late 0.4. Find the probability that Minmin
for 3 out of five meetings. will be scoring 1A for English twice
out of 6 monthly tests.

[ 0.3456] [ 0.3110]

8. Probability Distributions 1
(g) The probability that Chandra wins in (h) The probability that Ahmad wears
a singing competition is 0.65. Find batik shirt for a meeting is 0.55. Find
the probability that Chandra will win the probability that Ahmad will wear
4 out of 6 singing competitions. batik shirt for 2 out of five meetings.

[ 0.3280] [ 0.2757]

1.3 Plot binomial distribution graphs.

(a) Siva has to play 4 games. The A dice is tossed 4 times. The
probability that Siva will win a game probability of getting the number 2
is 0.55. If the binomial random 9
is . If the binomial random
variable X represents the number of 20
games that Siva won, variable X represents the number of
find the probability that Siva wins 0, times of getting the number 2,
1, 2, 3 or 4 games . find the probability of getting
Plot a binomial distribution graph. 0,1,2,3,or 4 times of number 2
Plot a binomial distribution graph.

8. Probability Distributions 2
1.4 Determine mean, variance and standard deviation of a binomial distribution.
m = np ; s 2 = npq ; s = npq ; p + q = 1
(a) 1 (b) 1
Given n =200, p = , Find the value Given n =100, p = , Find the value
6 3
of of
i) q, ii) m i) q, ii) m

iii) s 2 iv) s iii) s 2 iv) s

(c) Johnny attempted 60 questions with 4 (d) Given that a class consists of 30
options to choose from. There is only students, 70% of them pass in a
one correct answer for each question. mathematics test. Find
Johnny guessed all the answers . (a) the mean number of students pass
Find the test.
(a) the mean number of questions that (b) the variance and the standard
he will get it right. deviation of the number of
(b) the variance and the standard students pass the test
deviation of the number of correct
answers obtained.

[15, 11.25 ,3.354] [21, 6.3, 2.510]


(e) A fair dice is rolled 15 times (f) Given that 30 bombs were released
continuously. The probability of by a jet fighter, the probability that a
1 bomb will hit its target is 0.65. Find
obtaining the number 2 is . Find
6 (a) the mean number bombs hit
(a) the mean number of times that its target.
number 2 appears (b) the variance and the standard
(b) the variance and the standard deviation of the number of bombs
deviation of number 2 is hit its target
obtained.

[2.5, 2.083,1.443] [19.5,6.825,2.612]

8. Probability Distributions 3
r n -r
1.5 Solve problems involving binomial distributions. P ( X = r ) = Cr p q , p + q = 1
n

(a) In SMK Simpang Lima, the (b) Given that 12 bombs were released
probability of a pupil being latein by a jet fighter, the probability that a
Form 3D is 8%. Calculate the bomb will hit its target is 0.65.
probability that in a group of 10 calculate the probability that
students from Form 3D, the number (a) exactly 10 bombs hit the target
of pupils being late is (b) all the bombs hit the target
(i) exactly two
(ii) less than two

[ 0.1088, 0.005688]
[ 0.1478, 0.8121]
(c) In Kuantan, the probability that a (d) 72 % of the pupils in Form 5D pass
4 their aptitude test. If 4 pupils are
teenager owns a mobile phone is .A
5 selected at random from the class.
group of 10 teenagers are selected at Calculate the probability that
random from Kuantan. Find the (i) at least half of the selected pupils
probability pass their aptitude test
(i) that exactly 7 of the selected (ii) at most 1 of the selected pupils
teenagers own a mobile phone. pass heir aptitude test,
(ii) at least 8 of the selected
teenagers own a mobile phone.

[ 0.2013, 0.6778] [ 0.9306, 0.0694]


(e) In a shooting competition, the chance (f) A fair dice is tossed 10 times
for John to hit the target on any one continuously. The probability of
shot is 95%. John fires 8 shots. Find 1
the probability that obtaining the number 2 is . Find
6
(i) at least 7 shots hit the target the probability of getting
(ii) at most 3 of the shots hit the (i) number 2 not more than 3
target. tosses
(ii) number 2 in 4 or more tosses

[0.9428, 0.0000154] [ 0.9303,0.0697]

8. Probability Distributions 4
(g) In an examination, 70% of the students (h) Senior citizens make up 20% of the
passed. If a sample of 8 students is population of a settlement.
randomly selected, find the probability If 7 people are randomly selected from
that 6 students from the sample passed the settlement, find the probability that at
the examination. least two of them are senior citizens.

[0.2965] [0.4233]
(i) The result of a study shows that 20% of (j) The probability that each shot fired by
the pupils in a city cycle to school. If 8 Ramli hits a target is 1/3
pupils from the city are chosen at (i) If Ramli fires 10 shots, find the
random, calculate the probability that probability that exactly 2 shots hit
(i) exactly 2 of them cycle to school the target.
(ii) less than 3 of them cycle to school (ii) If Ramli fires n shots, the
probability that all the n shots hit
the target is 1/243. Find the value
of n.

[0.1951, 5]
[0.2936, 0.79691]
(k) It is known that 18 out of 30 students in a (l) In an IT literacy research in a village, it
class like to read during their free time. 9 is found that every one out of three
students are selected at random from the homes has computers. If 10 homes are
class. Find the probability that randomly selected, find the probability
(i) all the selected students like to read that
during their free time. (i) not a single home has computers
(ii) at least 7 of the selected students like (ii) at least two homes have computers.
to read during their free time.

[ 0.01008, 0.2318] [0.01734, 0.8960]

8. Probability Distributions 5
2. Understand and use the concept of normal distribution.
2.1 Describe continuous random variables using set notations.
2.2 Find probability of z-values for standard normal distribution.
1 Given that Z is the standard normal distribution variable, find the values for the
following:
(a) P(Z>0.2) (b) P(Z>1.2)

[ 0.4207 ] [ 0.1151 ]
(c) P( Z < -0.6 ) (d) P ( Z < -1.5)

[ 0.2743] [ 0.0668]
(e) P( Z > -1.511) (f) P( Z > -0.203)

[0.9346] [0.5805]
(g) P( Z < 1.327) (h) P( Z < 0.549 )

[0.9077] [0.7085]
(i) P ( 0.2 < Z < 1.2) (j) P( 0.548< Z < 1.327 )

[0.3056] [0.1996]
(k) P( -1.5 < Z < -0.6) (l) P ( -1.013 < Z < -0.203 )

[ 0.2075] [0.2640]
(m) P ( 0 Z 1.511 ) (n) P ( -0.203 Z 1.327 )

[ 0.4346] [ 0.4882]

8. Probability Distributions 6
(o) P ( Z 1.334 ) (p) P ( Z 0.625 )

[0.1824] [ 0.5320]
(q) P ( Z 1.112 ) (r) P ( Z 0.336 )

[ 0.7338] [ 0.2630]
2 Find the z-score for each of the following:

(a) P( Z > z ) =0.4207 (b) P(Z > z) =0.1151

[0.2] [1.2]
(c) P( Z < z ) =0.2743 (d) P( Z < z ) =0.0668

[-0.6] [-1.5]
(e) P( Z > z ) = 0.5805 (f) P( Z > z ) = 0.9346

[-0.203 ] [-1.511]
(g) P( Z < z ) = 0.9332 (h) P( Z< z ) = 0.8757

[1.5] [1.154]
(i) P( -1.2 Z z ) 0.2369, z <0 (j) P( z Z 0.5 ) =0.6152, z < 0

[-0.38] [-1.431]

8. Probability Distributions 7
2.3 Convert random variable of normal distributions, X, to standardised variable, Z.

(1) For each normal distribution below, convert the random variable X to standardized variable
Z. Then, find the probability of the event given the mean and the standard deviation.
(a) (b)
X 12 X 43.26
m 10 m 50
s 3 s 10
X -m X -m
Z= Z=
s s

Probability Probability
of event of event
P(Z>z) P( Z<z)

[ 0.667, 0.2523] [-0.674, 0.2501]


(c) (d)
X 68 X 43
m 70 m 50
s 10 s 8
X -m X -m
Z= Z=
s s

Probability Probability
of event of event
P(Z>z) P( Z >z)

[ -0.2 , 0.5793] [ -0.875, 0.6184]


2.4 Represent probability of an event using set notation.
2.5 Determine probability of an event.
2.6 Solve problems involving normal distributions.
(a) X is random variable of a normal (b) X is random variable of a normal
distribution with mean m and standard distribution with mean 4.8 and standard
deviation 6. Find deviation 1.2 . Find
(i) the value of m , if the z-value is 1.5 (i) the value of X if the z score =1.5
when X= 42 (ii) P (X 3.2)
(ii) P( X<47)

[33, 0.9902] [6.6, 0.9977]

8. Probability Distributions 8
(c) X is random variable of a normal (d) X is random variable of a normal
distribution with mean 6.7 and standard distribution with mean m and variance
deviation 1.5. Find 2.25. Find
(i) the z-score given X=4.6 (i) the value of m if the z score =2
(ii) P ( X 4.6) when X = 8.5
(ii) P (X < 7)

[5.5, 0.8413]
[-1.4, 0.9192]
(e) X is random variable of a normal (f) X is random variable of a normal
distribution with mean 108 and standard distribution with mean 24 and standard
deviation 10. Find deviation 2.5. Find
(i) the Z score if X=100 (i) P( X >26 )
(ii) P ( 100 X 108) (ii) value of k if P( X < k) = 0.1151

[-0.8, 0.2881] [ 0.2119, 27]


(g) X is random variable of a normal (h) X is a continuous random variable such
distribution with m = 10 and standard that X~N( m ,25) . Given that
deviation 3. . Find the value of k if P (X < 9)= 0.7257. Find the value of m .
P( X < k) = 0.975

[15.88] [6]
(i) A random variable X has a normal (j) X is random variable of a normal
distribution with mean 50 and variance, distribution with mean 38.5 and
s 2 . Given that variance 10.24 . Find the value of a
P (X > 51) = 0.288, find the value of s given P (X > a) = 0.268

[1.795] [44.84]

8. Probability Distributions 9
(k) Diagram below shows a standard normal (l) The diameters of the marbles produced
distribution graph. by a factory are normally distributed
with a mean of 9mm and a standard
deviation of 0.1 mm. Diagram below
F(z) shows the normal distribution graph for
the diameter of the marbles, X mm

0=9 hk X mm
It is given that the area of the shaded
If P(0< z < k)=0.3128, find P(z > k) region is o.4522. Find the value of h

[0.1872] [9.012]
(m) Diagram below shows a standardized (n)
normal distribution graph.
f (z)

0.3643

z
O k
The probability represented by the area Diagram shows a standard normal
of the shaded region is 0.3643 distribution graph.
(i) Find the value of k. The probability represented by the area
(ii) X is a continuous random variable of the shaded region is 0.3485.
which is normally distributed with a (i)Find the value of k
mean of m and a standard deviation of (ii) X is a continuous random variable
8. which is normally distributed with a
Find the value of m if X = 70 when the mean of 79 and a standard deviation of
z-score is k. 3. Find the value of X when the z-score is
k

[ 1.1, 61.2]
[ 1.03, 82.09]

8. Probability Distributions 10
(o) Marks obtained by a group of students in (p) A group of workers are given medical
an examination are normally distributed check up. The blood pressure of a
with a mean of 48 marks and standard worker has a normal distribution with a
deviation of 10 marks. mean of 130 mmHg and a standard
(i) If a student is selected at random, deviation of 16mmHg. Blood pressure
calculate the probability that the students that is more than 150 mmHg is classify
mark is more than 60 as high blood pressure
(ii)If 30% of the students fail in the (i) a worker is chosen at random from
examination, estimate the minimum mark the group. Find the probability that the
required to pass the examination. worker has a blood pressure between
114mm Hg and 150mmHg
(ii) It is found that 132 workers have
high blood pressure. Find the total
number of workers in the group.

[0.1151,42.76] [ 0.7357, 1249]


(q) The mass of a packet of cookies has a (r) In a training session with a group of
normal distribution with mass of 248 g Form 5 boys, it is discovered that the
and a standard deviation of 16 g. Find rate of heart beats has a normal
(i) The probability that a packet of distribution with a mean of 80 beats per
cookies is chosen at random has mass minute and a standard deviation of 10
between 240 g and 250 g. beats per minutes.
(ii) the value of x if 20% of the packet of (i) If one form 5 boy is randomly
cookies chosen at random have a mass selected, find the probability that
greater than x g his rate of heart beats is between
75 to 85 beats per minutes.
(ii) Given that 20% of the Form 5
boys have rate of heart bets less
than k beats per minute, find the
value of k.

[0.2412, 261.47] [0.383, 71.58]

8. Probability Distributions 11
(s) The life span of a type of battery (t) The mass of papayas produced by an
produced by a factory is normally orchard is normally distributed with a
distributed with mean 325 hours and mean m and variance 0.64 g
standard deviation of 25 hours. Find (i) Given that 10.5% of the papayas
(i) the probability that a unit of battery produced exceed 3.5 kg. Find the value
chosen at random, has a life span of m
between 280 hours and 350 hours, (ii) The papayas that have masses less
(ii) the percentage of battery that has a than 1.0 kg and more than 4.0 kg are
life span of more than 320 hours. rejected from packaging. Calculate the
percentage of acceptable papayas.

[0.8054, 57.93%] [ 2.4976, 93.92%]


(u) The mass of water melons produced from (v) The mass of mango fruits from a farm is
an orchard follows a normal distribution normally distributed with a mean of
with a mean of 3.2kg and a standard 820 g and standard deviation of 100 g.
deviation of 0.5 kg. find (i)Find the probability that a mango fruit
(i) the probability that a water-melon chosen randomly has a minimum mass
chosen randomly from the orchard have a of 700 g.
mass of not more than 4.0 kg (ii)Find the expected number of mango
(ii) the value of m if 60% of the water fruits from a basket containing 200 fruits
melons from the orchard have a mass that have a mass of less than 700 g.
more than m kg

[ 0.9452,3.0735,] [ 0.8849, 23 ]
w (a)Government servants make up 15% of x (a) A football team is having a practice

8. Probability Distributions 12
the population of a village. session on scoring goals from penalty
(i) If 8 people are selected randomly from kicks. Each player takes 10 penalty . The
the village, find the probability that at probability that a player scores a goal
least two of them are government from a penalty kick is p. After the
servants. practice session, it is found that the mean
(ii) If the variance of government number of goals for a player is 3.6
servants is 91.8, what is the population of (i) Find the value of p.
the village? [5 marks] (ii) If a player is chosen at random, find
(b) The height of the workers in a factory the probability that he scores at least one
is normally distributed with a mean of goal. [5 marks]
162.5 cm and a variance of 90.25 cm2. (b) The heights of students are normally
180 of the workers are between 151.3 cm distributed with a mean of 162 cm, and a
and 169.7 cm tall. Find the total number standard deviation of 12 cm
of workers in the factory. [ 5marks] (i) If a student is chosen at random,
calculate the probability that his height
is less than 154 cm.
(ii)Given that 15% of the students are
taller than h cm, find the value of h
[5 marks]
[0.3428, 720,268] [0.36, 0.9885, 0.2523,174.4]

2.7 Past year questions

(a) SPM 2008 P2 Q11 (b) SPM 2007 P2 Q11


The masses of mangoes from an orchard (a) In a survey carried out in a school, it
has a normal distribution with a mean of is found that 2 out of 5 students have
300 g and a standard deviation of 80 g. handphones. If 8 students from that
(a) Find the probability that a mango school are chosen at random, calculate
chosen randomly from this orchard has a the probability that
mass of more than 168 g [3marks] (i) exactly 2 students have handphones
(b) A random sample of 500 mangoes is (ii) more than 2 students have
chosen. handphones [5marks]
(i) calculate the number of mangoes from (b) A group of workers are given medical
this sample that have a mass of more than check up. The blood pressure of a
168 g worker has a normal distribution with a
(ii) Given that 435 mangoes from this mean of 130 mmHg and a standard
sample have a mass of more than m g, deviation of 16mmHg. Blood pressure
find the value of m [7marks] that is more than 150 mmHg is classify
as high blood pressure
(i) a worker is chosen at random from
the group. Find the probability that the
worker has a blood pressure between
114mm Hg and 150mmHg
(ii) It is found that 132 workers have
high blood pressure. Find the total
number of workers in the group.
[5marks]
[0.95053,475/476, 209.84]
[0.6846, 0.7357, 0.1056,1250]
(c) SPM 2006 P2 Q 11 (d) SPM 2005 P2 Q11

8. Probability Distributions 13
An orchard produces lemons. Only (a) The result of a study shows that 20%
lemons with diameter, x greater than k of the pupils in a city cycle to school. If
cm are graded and marketed. Table below 8 pupils from the city are chosen at
show the grades of the lemons based on random, calculate the probability that
their diameters. (i) exactly 2 of them cycle to school
Grade A B C (ii) less than 3 of them cycle to school
Diameter, X>7 7>x>5 5>x>k [4marks]
x(cm) (b) The mass of water melons produced
It is given that the diameter of the lemons from an orchard follows a normal
has a normal distribution with a mean of distribution with a mean of 3.2kg and a
5.8 cm and a standard deviation of 1.5 standard deviation of 0.5 kg. find
cm (i) the probability that a water-melon
(a) If one lemon is picked at random, chosen randomly from the orchard have
calculate the probability that it is of grade a mass of not more than 4.0 kg
A [2marks] (ii) the value of m if 60% of the water
(b) In a basket of 500 lemons, estimate melons from the orchard have a mass
the number of grade B lemons. more than m kg [6marks]
[4marks]
(c) If 85.7% of the lemons is marketed,
find the value of k.
[4marks]

[ 0.2119, 0.4912, 4.1965] [ 0.2936, 0.79691, 0.9452,3.0735,]


(e) SPM 2004 P2 Q11 (f) SPM 2003 P2 Q 10

(a) A club organizes a practice session for (a) Senior citizens make up 20% of the
trainees on scoring goals from penalty population of a settlement.
kicks.. each trainee takes 8 penalty kicks. (i) If 7 people are randomly selected
The probability that a trainee scores a from the settlement, find the probability
goal from a penalty kick is p. After the that at least two of them are senior
session, it is found that the mean number citizens
of goals for a trainee is 4.8 (ii) If the variance of the senior citizens
(i) Find the value of p. in 128, what is the population of the
(ii) If a trainee is chosen at random, find settlement. [5 marks]
the probability that he scores at least one (b) The mass of the workers in a factory
goal. [5 marks] is normally distributed with a mean of
(b) A survey on body-mass is done on a 67.86 kg and a variance of 42.25 kg2.
group of students. The mass of a student 200 of the workers in the factory weigh
has a normal distribution with a mean of between 50 kg and 70kg.
50kg and a standard deviation of 15 kg Find the total number of worker in the
(i) If a student is chosen at random, factory. [5 marks]
calculate the probability that his mass is
less than 41kg
(ii) Given that 12% of the students have a
mass of more than m kg, find the value of
m. [5 marks]
[0.6, 0.9993,0.2743,67.63] [0.2, 0.4232, 800, 0.6259]

8. Probability Distributions 14