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AS 1668.42012

Australian Standard

The use of ventilation and


airconditioning in buildings

Part 4: Natural ventilation of buildings


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This Australian Standard was prepared by Committee ME-062, Ventilation and


Airconditioning. It was approved on behalf of the Council of Standards Australia on
30 November 2012.
This Standard was published on 24 December 2012.

The following are represented on Committee ME-062:

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Contractors Association


Australasian Fire and Emergency Service Authorities Council
Australian Building Codes Board
Australian Industry Group
Australian Institute of Refrigeration Air Conditioning and Heating
Chartered Institute of Building Services Engineers
Climate Control Companies Association
Consumer Electronic Suppliers Association
Department of Health and Human Services, Tasmania
Engineers Australia
Facility Management Association of Australia
Fire Protection Association Australia
Institute of Refrigeration Heating and Air Conditioning Engineers of New Zealand
Plastics and Chemical Industries Association
Plumbing Industry Commission
Property Council of Australia
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This Standard was issued in draft form for comment as DR AS 1668.4.

Standards Australia wishes to acknowledge the participation of the expert individuals that
contributed to the development of this Standard through their representation on the
Committee and through the public comment period.

Keeping Standards up-to-date


Australian Standards are living documents that reflect progress in science, technology and
systems. To maintain their currency, all Standards are periodically reviewed, and new editions
are published. Between editions, amendments may be issued.

Standards may also be withdrawn. It is important that readers assure themselves they are
using a current Standard, which should include any amendments that may have been
published since the Standard was published.

Detailed information about Australian Standards, drafts, amendments and new projects can
be found by visiting www.standards.org.au

Standards Australia welcomes suggestions for improvements, and encourages readers to


notify us immediately of any apparent inaccuracies or ambiguities. Contact us via email at
mail@standards.org.au, or write to Standards Australia, GPO Box 476, Sydney, NSW 2001.
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Australian Standard

The use of ventilation and


airconditioning in buildings

Part 4: Natural ventilation of buildings


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First published as AS 1668.21976.


Fourth edition 2002.
AS 1668.22002 revised (in part) and redesignated as AS 1668.42012.

COPYRIGHT
Standards Australia Limited
All rights are reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or copied in any form or by
any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without the written
permission of the publisher, unless otherwise permitted under the Copyright Act 1968.
Published by SAI Global Limited under licence from Standards Australia Limited, GPO Box
476, Sydney, NSW 2001, Australia
ISBN 978 1 74342 335 6
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PREFACE
This Standard was prepared by the Standards Australia Committee ME-062, Ventilation and
Airconditioning, to supersede, in part, AS 1668.22002, The use of ventilation and
airconditioning in buildings, Part 2: Ventilation for indoor air contaminant control
(excluding requirements for the health aspects of tobacco smoke exposure).
In accordance with the philosophy of adopting a complementary approach to building
regulations, the relocation of natural ventilation content from AS 1668.22002 to this new
Part 4 of the AS 1668 series fulfils this requirement, as well as provides the deemed to
satisfy requirement of the National Construction Code (NCC).
This Standard covers
(a) natural ventilation of occupied spaces; and
(b) natural ventilation within car parks and vehicle facilities.
During the preparation of this Standard, consideration was given to many international and
national Standards, design guides, technical papers, manuals and other publications.
The term informative has been used in this Standard to define the application of the
appendix to which it applies. An informative appendix is only for information and
guidance.
Statements expressed in mandatory terms in notes to tables and figures are deemed to be
requirements of this Standard.
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CONTENTS

Page

FOREWORD .............................................................................................................................. 4

SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL


1.1 SCOPE ......................................................................................................................... 5
1.2 APPLICATION ........................................................................................................... 5
1.3 OBJECTIVES .............................................................................................................. 6
1.4 NORMATIVE REFERENCES .................................................................................... 6
1.5 DEFINITIONS............................................................................................................. 6
1.6 NEW DESIGNS AND INNOVATIONS ..................................................................... 6

SECTION 2 PRINCIPLES OF VENTILATION


2.1 SCOPE OF SECTION ................................................................................................. 7
2.2 NATURAL VENTILATION ....................................................................................... 7
2.3 MECHANICAL VENTILATION ................................................................................ 8
2.4 OPENINGS.................................................................................................................. 8

SECTION 3 VENTILATION OF OCCUPIED SPACES


3.1 SCOPE OF SECTION ............................................................................................... 10
3.2 VENTILATION ARRANGEMENTS ........................................................................ 10
3.3 SYSTEM REQUIRMENTS ....................................................................................... 13
3.4 NATURAL VENTILATIONSIMPLE PROCEDURE............................................ 13
3.5 NATURAL VENTILATIONDETAILED PROCEDURE ...................................... 13
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SECTION 4 VENTILATION OF ENCLOSURES USED BY VEHICLE WITH


COMBUSTION ENGINES
4.1 SCOPE OF SECTION ............................................................................................... 15
4.2 APPLICATION OF SECTION .................................................................................. 15
4.3 CAR PARKSNATURAL VENTILATION ............................................................ 15
4.4 ENCLOSURES OTHER THAN CAR PARKS .......................................................... 23
4.5 OTHER OCCUPANCIES .......................................................................................... 24

APPENDICES
A A PERFORMANCE-BASED APPROACH TO NATURAL VENTILATION
SYSTEMS DESIGN .................................................................................................. 25
B METABOLIC RATES ............................................................................................... 26

BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................................................................................................... 27
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FOREWORD
This Standard sets out the requirements for the design of natural ventilation systems, which
have been relocated from AS 1668.22002. Where possible, this Standard is prescriptive
and calculations are presented as simple and detailed procedures.
It is recognized that this Standard is likely to be used for occupational health and
community health purposes, thus its provision have been designed, to the extent possible, to
community health criteria promulgated by peak health bodies. Implicit in this recognition is
the possibility that the provisions of the Standard may, at least in part, be excessively
conservative when applied in an occupational health context. The Standard provides an
approach for the design of natural ventilation as a performance approach outside of the
National Construction Code (NCC) prescribed requirements.
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STANDARDS AUSTRALIA

Australian Standard
The use of ventilation and airconditioning in buildings

Part 4: Natural ventilation of buildings

S E C T I O N 1 S C O P E A N D G E N E R A L

1.1 SCOPE
This Standard sets out minimum design requirements for natural ventilation systems that
ventilate enclosures, and requirements for the ventilation of car parks.
This Standard does not prescribe requirements associated with comfort, such as
temperature, humidity, air movement or noise, nor does it include requirements for the
maintenance of ventilation systems.
NOTES:
1 Road tunnels are outside the scope of this Standard.
2 Fire and smoke control aspects of air-handling systems are covered in AS 1668.1.
3 Requirements for mechanical ventilation are covered by AS 1668.2.
4 Requirements for system design in respect of microbial control are given in AS/NZS 3666.1.
5 Requirements for the provision of ventilation for gas appliances are given in AS 5601.

1.2 APPLICATION
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1.2.1 General
This Standard is intended for use by regulatory authorities, building service designers,
architects, equipment manufacturers and suppliers, installers, managers, owners and
operating staff responsible for designing natural ventilation systems.
C1.2.1 It is intended that this Standard be applied to new buildings at the design stage.
Its application to some existing buildings may be inappropriate and, in such instances,
alternative designs and solutions may be necessary.

1.2.2 Ventilation system application


The design of ventilation systems shall be applied as follows:
(a) Natural ventilation Natural ventilation provisions shall comply with Section 2 for
general enclosures and Section 3 for enclosures accommodating automotive vehicles
with internal combustion engines.
(b) Combination ventilation systems For combinations of natural and mechanical
ventilation provisions, the provisions shall comply with the appropriate sections of
this Standard, in conjunction with the requirements of AS 1668.2.
NOTE: For mechanical ventilation, system selection (supply or exhaust) is specified in
AS 1668.2.

www.standards.org.au Standards Australia


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1.3 OBJECTIVE
The objective of this Standard is to provide users with
(a) minimum ventilation openings required to provide natural ventilation; and
(b) minimum requirements for the design of natural ventilation systems.

1.4 NORMATIVE REFERENCES


The following are the normative documents referenced in this Standard:
NOTE: Documents referenced for informative purposes are listed in the Bibliography.
AS
1668 The use of ventilation and airconditioning in buildings
1668.2 Part 2: Mechanical ventilation in buildings
ABCB Australian Building Codes Board
NCC National Construction Code

1.5 DEFINITIONS
For the purposes of this Standard, the definitions below apply.
1.5.1 Airflow rate (herein referred to as flow rate)
The volumetric flow rate of air derived from the mass flow rate by dividing it by the
density, normalized to 1.2 kg/m3 (1.2 g/L).
NOTE: For buildings located at an altitude substantially differing from sea level, specified
airflow rates should be adjusted.
1.5.2 Borrowed air
Air that is borrowed from a naturally ventilated enclosure and used to ventilate an adjoining
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enclosure.
1.5.3 Effective aerodynamic area
The area of an equivalent aerodynamically perfect orifice, and equals the penetration area
required by the natural ventilation device multiplied by the discharge coefficient
determined under test.
NOTE: For determining effective aerodynamic area, see AS/NZS 4740.
1.5.4 Enclosure
An individual room, space or part thereof.
1.5.5 Specific contaminants
Contaminants that are generated by occupants, the building or devices, other than those
generally found within most buildings (e.g. fumes from unflued gas devices and other
fumes).
1.5.6 Building Class
The Class, as defined in the NCC.

1.6 NEW DESIGNS AND INNOVATIONS


Any alternative materials, designs, methods of assembly and procedures that do not comply
with specific requirements of this Standard, or are not mentioned in it, but give equivalent
results to those specified, are not necessarily prohibited.

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


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S E C T I O N 2 P R I N C I P L E S O F V E N T I L A T I O N

2.1 SCOPE OF SECTION


This Section sets out a means of determining whether an enclosure may be naturally
ventilated or whether mechanical ventilation is necessary.

2.2 NATURAL VENTILATION


2.2.1 Suitability
Natural ventilation is an appropriate means of providing ventilation to enclosures where
(a) the outdoor air needs no treatment such as particulate filtration;
(b) air movement within the enclosures is unimpeded;
(c) there is provision for wind and thermal effects to allow for varying atmospheric
conditions; and
(d) there is some tolerance to transient lower airflow rates caused by adverse atmospheric
conditions.
Natural ventilation is mainly suitable for applications where there is low occupancy density
but may also be suitable for applications of moderate occupancy density, provided due
allowance is made in the design. Where there is potential for a hazardous condition to arise
within the enclosure through the release of specific contaminants, then adequate fixed
external openings or mechanical ventilation shall be provided.
C2.2.1 There is increased community interest in natural ventilation because of its
lower energy consumption; however, the dynamics of these systems rely on very small
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pressure differentials caused by wind and air density, which makes the effect difficult
and complex to predict. This Standard provides simplified solutions that are considered
to satisfy the ventilation requirements for most applications; however, more complex
empirical and modelling methods may be appropriate for special institutional, factory
or office buildings where a full analysis is worthwhile. Also, as a result of energy
conservation efforts, some buildings are now being sealed to a much greater degree
than was the case in the past. This has reduced the ventilation benefit that infiltration of
outdoor air has provided.
Ventilation rates will vary significantly with atmospheric conditions, including wind
speed, wind direction, thermal effects and outdoor air temperatures. Failure to ensure
adequate outdoor air ventilation through the minimum permissible openable openings,
at all times, and adequate air movement through the enclosure may result in
contaminant levels reaching concentrations that may cause adverse health effects. This
is particularly true for specific contaminants.
High occupancy density, the need for filtration, the uncertainty of atmospheric
conditions, and a high internal resistance to air movement, such as internal partitions
or deep floor plans, are all factors that may preclude the use of natural ventilation.
Some of the advantages and disadvantages of Natural Ventilation over Mechanical
Ventilation are summarized below:
Advantages Disadvantages
Low energy consumption Cannot guarantee continuous ventilation
Less maintenance Unsuitable for high occupancy density
Low cost Unable to eliminate dust and contaminants
Greater global sustainability Wide daily/yearly variation in ventilation rates

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2.2.2 Building attributes


Outdoor air ventilation is driven by pressure differences across the external envelope of a
building. In the case of natural ventilation, wind pressure and thermal buoyancy are the
only available sources of pressure required to drive outdoor air movement. To utilize these
principles for natural ventilation purposes, a building shall have, or be able to incorporate,
some or all of the following five attributes, which permit wind and thermal forces to
generate air movement:
(a) Adequate, permanent open area in the external envelope of the building (or room)
being ventilated.
(b) Suitably located openings in the external envelope (i.e. high and low level and/or on
opposite facades).
(c) Ventilation openings exposed to prevailing winds (i.e. not obstructed by other
buildings, structures or land forms).
(d) Adequate temperature differentials for thermally induced air movement.
(e) Active and passive ventilation enhancement features (e.g. cowls, chimneys, wind
towers, etc.).
C2.2.2 Guidance on the application of natural ventilation can be found in several
internationally available publications, including
(a) BS 5925;
(b) CIBSE Guide A: Environmental design; and
(c) ASHRAE HandbookFundamentals.

2.3 MECHANICAL VENTILATION


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Mechanical ventilation is utilized where ventilation is required and natural ventilation is not
applied. Mechanical ventilation is covered by AS 1668.2.

2.4 OPENINGS
2.4.1 General
Openings for natural ventilation shall be of a type, location and size as required to provide
compliance with the relevant sections of this Standard. Where a combination of methods are
used, the area of openings shall be determined on a proportional basis.
2.4.2 Type of openings
Openings shall either be fixed, such as wall or roof ventilators (with ducting where needed),
or adjustable, such as windows or other openable devices including doors. Adjustable
ventilation openings shall be operable by or on behalf of the enclosure occupants.
2.4.3 External openings
External openings shall be appropriately positioned to
(a) provide a reasonably even distribution of outdoor air; and
(b) minimize the entry of objectionable or noxious discharges.
Obstacles shall not substantially reduce the minimum outdoor airflow through the openings.
The minimum total area of unobstructed openings, including natural ventilators, shall be
proportional to the floor area as nominated in the various sections of this Standard.

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The unobstructed opening area of natural ventilators shall be taken as the effective
aerodynamic area. Where the airflow is reduced by ducting being installed to a natural
ventilator, the minimum area shall be increased appropriately unless it can be demonstrated
that the performance requirements of Clause 3.3 can be achieved with a lesser area.
C2.4.3 Positioning external openings on opposite or adjacent sides of the building
should maximize the cross-ventilation benefit of wind effects. Positioning external
openings at both high and low levels maximizes the benefits of thermal effects.
Where concentrations of people are high, specific contaminants are present, hazardous
gases are present or where combustion air is needed for plant, then larger openings or
mechanical ventilation systems may be needed. Such enclosures may need to be
analysed on a case-by-case basis.

2.4.4 Internal openings


All internal openings along the air path shall be no less in effective area than the total area
required for external openings, based on the floor area of the enclosures along the air path.
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S E C T I O N 3 V E N T I L A T I O N O F O C C U P I E D
SPACE S

3.1 SCOPE OF SECTION


This Section specifies the means of achieving acceptable natural ventilation to occupied
spaces for general applications. The specified provisions include ventilation openings for
the amenity of occupants. When the ventilation openings are open, general contaminants are
considered to be maintained at concentrations below exposures that have the potential to
cause adverse health effects to a substantial majority of occupants; however, natural
ventilation in accordance with this Standard may not ensure that specific contaminants are
maintained at concentrations below exposures that have the potential to cause adverse
health effects under all atmospheric conditions. Requirements for the natural ventilation of
enclosures used by vehicles with combustion engines are given in Section 4.

3.2 VENTILATION ARRANGEMENTS


3.2.1 Direct ventilation
A direct ventilation system is a system that ventilates individual enclosures with one or
more openings in the external envelope of the enclosure [see Figure 3.1(a)].
Where the following and similar enclosures are naturally ventilated, they shall be designed
as direct ventilation systems:
(a) Bathrooms, showers and the like.
(b) Enclosures containing sanitary fixtures.
(c) Laundries.
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(d) Enclosures containing unflued gas appliances.


NOTE: Requirements for unflued gas appliances may be the subject of State and Territory
governments legislation.
3.2.2 Borrowed ventilation
Borrowed ventilation [see Figure 3.1(b)] may be applied to a particular enclosure by
considering it as part of a second adjoining enclosure (that is, borrows air from and returns
it to that adjoining enclosure) provided
(a) the area of the openings between the enclosures is twice that of the requirements for
external openings, based on the area of the particular enclosure; and
(b) the adjoining enclosure has an external opening area based on the total area of both
enclosures.
The enclosures listed in Clause 3.2.1 shall not be used as the source for borrowed
ventilation.
3.2.3 Flowthrough ventilation
Flowthrough ventilation [see Figure 3.1(c)] may be applied to a series of enclosures and is
designed to enter by one enclosure and leave by a different enclosure.
Where flowthrough ventilation systems are applied to enclosures the following
requirements apply:
(a) The area of external openings shall be based on the total floor area of all enclosures
and shall be proportionally distributed.
(b) The flowthrough air shall not pass through more than two enclosures and a corridor.

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


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(c) The internal openings shall comply with Clause 2.4.4.


(d) All parts of the enclosure being naturally ventilated shall be either
(i) within 7 m; or
(ii) within a distance of twice the enclosure height of the shortest path between any
two natural ventilation openings.
The enclosures listed in Clause 3.2.1 shall not be used as the source for flowthrough
ventilation.
NOTE: When calculating the required opening sizes for flowthrough ventilation, it may be
considered as two back-to-back borrowed ventilation systems.
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a A m2 a X% of A

(a) D i re c t ve ntil ati o n

a A m2 b B m2 a X% of ( A+B)
b 2 x X% of B

( b) B o r r owe d ve ntil ati o n


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(a+b) X% of ( A+B+ C)
A m2 c C m2 c B m2 c X% of ( A+B+ C)

(c) Fl ow th r o u g h ve ntil ati o n

W h e r e:
A, B, C = f l o o r a r e a of e n c l o s u r e s , i n s q u a r e m e tr e s
a, b, c = a r e a of o p e n a b l e o p e ni n g (s) i nto e n c l o s u r e s, i n s q u a r e m e tr e s
x = p e r c e nt a g e f l o o r a r e a of e n c l o s u r e s r e q u i r e d a s
o p e n a b l e o p e ni n g s , i n a c c o r d a n c e wi th c l a u s e 3.4 a n d 3. 5

FIGURE 3.1 NATURAL VENTILATION ARRANGEMENTS

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3.3 SYSTEM REQUIRMENTS


System requirements shall be achieved by providing natural ventilation openings
determined by one of the following methods:
(a) The simple procedure provided in Clause 3.4.
(b) The detailed procedure provided in Clause 3.5.
NOTE: For guidance on a performance-based approach to natural ventilation systems design, see
Appendix A.

C3.3 It is intended that outdoor airflow rates resulting from natural ventilation
systems be capable of achieving a similar ventilation effect to the minimum outdoor
airflow requirements of AS 1668.2. Prevailing atmospheric conditions will vary
ventilation rates; however, the provisions of this Section are considered appropriate
under most conditions for general contaminants. Guidance on the use of empirical
calculations and computer modelling is given in Appendix A of this Standard. Where a
source of contamination has the potential to create an unsafe condition, the particular
requirements need to be determined and, where continuity of ventilation is required,
mechanical ventilation may be necessary.

3.4 NATURAL VENTILATIONSIMPLE PROCEDURE


Natural ventilation shall be provided to an enclosure by direct ventilation openings that
have an area not less than 5% of the floor area of the enclosure, or by borrowed ventilation
as follows:
(a) In a Class 2 building, a sole-occupancy unit of a Class 3 building or Class 4 part of a
building
(i) the internal opening shall have an area of not less than 5% of the floor area of
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the room to be ventilated; and


(ii) the adjoining rooms shall have an external opening with an area of not less than
5% of the combined floor areas of both rooms.
(b) In a Class 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9 building
(i) the internal opening shall have an area of not less than 10% of the floor area of
the room to be ventilated, measured not more than 3.6 m above the floor; and
(ii) the adjoining room shall have an external opening with a ventilating area of not
less than 10% of the combined floor areas of both rooms.
The opening areas specified in Items (a) and (b) may be reduced as appropriate, provided
natural ventilation is provided from another source.

3.5 NATURAL VENTILATIONDETAILED PROCEDURE


Natural ventilation shall be provided to enclosures by systems, or a combination of systems,
complying with Table 3.1.
For enclosures for which Table 3.1 requires an amount of openable areas greater than 5% of
floor area, and where the distribution of openable openings within the enclosure provides
substantial cross-ventilation (i.e. a minimum ratio of 1:4 opposite distribution of openings),
the required percentage of openable openings may be reduced to 5% of the floor area.

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TABLE 3.1
PERCENTAGE FLOOR AREA REQUIRED AS OPENINGS

Average Net floor area per occupant, m 2


adjusted (use highest applicable value)
Use of enclosure
metabolic rate Over 5
watts/occupant <2 2 to 5 >15
up to 15
Low activity Up to 160 7.5% 5% 5% 2.5%

Medium activity 161200 7.5% 5% 5% 2.5%

High activity 201340 10% 7.5% 5% 5%

Very high activity Over 341 15% 10% 7.5% 5%

Class 1
Class 2 Any 5%
Class 4
Classroom (students
Any Multiply the percentage floor area required by 1.25
under 16 years old)
NOTES:
1 For information on metabolic rates/activity levels, see Table B1, Appendix B.
2 A description of building Class is given in the NCC.
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S E C T I O N 4 V E N T I L A T I O N O F E N C L O S U R E S
U S E D B Y V E H I C L E W I T H C O M B U S T I O N
E N G I N E S

4.1 SCOPE OF SECTION


This Section applies to all enclosures in which vehicles powered by combustion engines are
parked, service or operated (e.g. car parks, automotive service and repair shops, enclosed
driveways, loading docks and similar enclosures). Requirements for specific occupancies
located within these enclosures are also given.
C4.1 This Section applies to the provision of natural ventilation to enclosures intended
to minimize the potential for adverse health effects from contaminants generated by
combustion engines.

4.2 APPLICATION OF SECTION


Requirements of this Section shall be applied as follows:
(a) For car parks, Clause 4.3.
(b) For enclosures other than car parks, Clause 4.4.
(c) For enclosures within car parks Clause 4.5.

4.3 CAR PARKSNATURAL VENTILATION


4.3.1 General
Natural ventilation of car parks is permitted provided the following requirements are met:
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(a) The lowest point of the floor of the car park being ventilated shall be not more than
1.2 m below the ground level of the required outdoor clear space, with permanent
ventilation openings along at least one side.
NOTE: For Type 3, on a sloping site, as shown in Figure 4.2, this may be achieved by
excavation down to a level of within 1.2 m of the lowest car park floor over the required
outdoor clear space area, as shown in Figure 4.6.
(b) Outdoor areas immediately outside the required permanent ventilation openings of a
car park shall be free of vegetation or other obstructions to the required free flow of
air to and from the car park for the minimum distances shown in Figures 4.3, 4.4, 4.5,
and 4.6, as appropriate, and extending upwards from a level 1.2 m above the lowest
car park floor.
(c) The parking areas shall be free of internal permanent obstructions except as shown in
Figure 4.2(b) and (c).
(d) The minimum area of required openings shall be calculated in accordance with either
Clause 4.3.3 or 4.3.4.

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4.3.2 Natural ventilation openings


For natural ventilation openings, the following requirements apply:
(a) There shall be a minimum of 3 m unobstructed space outside the opening
(see Figure 4.2 and Note 1).
(b) An opening in the roof or ceiling shall be considered to provide cross-ventilation for
an opening in a wall (see Note 2).
NOTES:
1 The requirement of 3 m deems the opening to be unobstructed.
2 An opening in the roof or ceiling is not considered to provide cross-ventilation for another
opening in the roof or ceiling.
3 If an opening or part thereof has been allocated to provide ventilation to a part of a car park,
then that opening or part thereof is not deemed as contributing to the ventilation of another
part of the car park.
4.3.3 Simple procedure
Zones of car parks shall be naturally ventilated by the provision of fixed unobstructed
openings with a total minimum area and arrangement in accordance with the following:
(a) Zones (other than queuing zones) where the parking capacity does not exceed six
motor vehiclesopenings shall be uniformly distributed over a minimum of two
walls and of not less than 5% of the floor area.
(b) Zones (other than queuing zones) with openings not less than 12.5% of the wall
areaopenings shall be uniformly distributed along the length of the wall, provided
that no part of the floor area is more than 9 m from any such opening [see
Figure 4.2(a)].
(c) Zones (other than queuing zones) situated within 18 m from either an extremity that is
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open to the outside or a perimeter wallopenings shall be uniformly distributed and


of minimum 2.0 m2 per car parking space [see Figure 4.2(b)].
Where the permanent ventilation openings are located in adjacent walls, the
maximum allowable depth of the car park may be increased as depicted in
Figure 4.2(d), provided openings of 1.0 m 2 per car parking space on each wall are
uniformly distributed.
(d) Zones (other than queuing zones) situated between opposite extremities that are not
more than 75 m apartwalls shall have uniformly distributed openings of a total area
of at least 0.5 m2 per car parking space on each wall [see Figure 4.2(c)].
(e) Zones (other than queuing zones) where the permanent ventilation openings are in
opposite walls that are of unequal lengtheach part shall be treated separately as
shown in Figure 4.3.
(f) Queuing zones situated within 10 m from either an extremity that is open to the
outside or a perimeter wallopenings shall be evenly distributed and shall be a
minimum 2 m high for at least 90% of the full length of the queuing area.
Where the car park is deemed to be a combination of types shown in Figure 4.2 and those
shown in Figures 4.4 to 4.6, parts of the combination shall be treated individually in
accordance with relevant type.

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Tot a l a r e a of o p e ni n g s
s h a ll b e at l e a s t 12. 5%
9 m a x. of th e wa ll a r e a

6 m i n.
3 m i n. O u td o o r c l e a r s p a c e (both sides) S e e N ote 1

(a) Ty p e 1

Tot a l l e n g th of i nte r n a l
o b s tr u c ti o n s n ot to
exc e e d 0.1L
18 m a x.
3 m a x.
6 m a x. Pe r m a n e nt wa ll o p e ni n g s
of m i ni m u m a r e a of 2 m 2
per car parking space

6 m i n.
6 m i n. (both sides)
O u td o o r c l e a r s p a c e S e e N ote 1

( b) Ty p e 2

O u td o o r c l e a r s p a c e
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L 6 m i n.
3 m i n. S e e N ote 1

Tot a l l e n g th of i nte r n a l
o b s tr u c ti o n s n ot to
exc e e d 0. 2 L

75 m a x. Pe r m a n e nt wa ll o p e ni n g s
of m i ni m u m a r e a of 0. 5 m 2
5 m a x.
per car parking space on
10 m a x.
e a c h wa ll

6 m i n. S e e N ote 1
6 m i n. O u td o o r c l e a r s p a c e (both sides)

(c) Ty p e 3

NOT TO SCALE

DIMENSIONS IN METRES

FIGURE 4.2 (in part) NATURAL VENTILATION OF CAR PARKS

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O u td o o r
S e e N ote 1 clear space

6 m i n.
3 m i n.

Pe r m a n e nt wa ll
o p e ni n g s of
minimum area
1.0 m 2 /c a r p a r k i n g
3 0 m a x. s p a c e o n e a c h wa l l
6 m i n.

S e e N ote 1

6 m i n.

3 0 m a x.

(d ) Ty p e 4
NOTES:
1 Adjacent building or permanent vertical obstruction to horizontal airflow. The outdoor clear space between
the car park and this obstruction shall be free of vertical obstructions, such as swings, extended upper
floors, and similar obstructions, unless appropriately increased.
2 Total length of internal obstructions such as stairs, lifts, switchrooms, and columns greater than 1.2 width
shall not exceed 10 m. Separation between adjacent obstructions shall be at least the one half the length of
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the larger obstruction.

FIGURE 4.2 (in part) NATURAL VENTILATION OF CAR PARKS

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6 m i n.

O u td o o r c l e a r s p a c e 6 m i n.

18 m a x.

Pe r m a n e nt wa ll
o p e ni n g s of
minimum area
0. 5 m 2 /c a r p a r k i n g
s p a c e o n e a c h wa l l

75 m a x.

6 m i n.
3 m i n. O u td o o r c l e a r s p a c e

DIMENSIONS IN METRES
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FIGURE 4.3 PERMANENT OPENINGS IN UNEQUAL WALLS

Building
C l e a r u n o b s t r u c te d
s p a c e ve r ti c a l l y
C l e a r u n o b s t r u c te d
s p a c e ve r ti c a l l y
3 m i n.
Gro
und
leve Ca r p a r k Pe r m a n e nt
l
c e ili n g ve ntil a ti o n 6 m i n.
o p e ni n g A d j a c e nt
building
or
Pe r m a n e nt p e r m a n e nt
ve ntil a ti o n o b s tr u c ti o n
o p e ni n g Ca r p a r k
Street

DIMENSIONS IN METRES

FIGURE 4.4 ELEVATION OF TYPE 3 CAR PARK ROOF OPENINGS

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Building

C l e a r u n o b s t r u c te d
s p a c e ve r ti c a l l y
Cl e a r u n o b s tr u c te d
s p a c e ve r ti c a l l y
Gro
und Pe r m a n e nt
leve
l ve ntil ati o n
Street or
o p e ni n g
access A d j a c e nt
Ac c e s s u s e d used building
fo r c a r p a r k i n g fo r c a r or
parking p e r m a n e nt
Pe r m a n e nt Ca r p a r k o b s tr u c ti o n
ve ntil ati o n
o p e ni n g

3 m i n. 6 m i n.

DIMENSIONS IN METRES

FIGURE 4.5 ELEVATION OF TYPE 3 CAR PARKCLEAR SPACE USED


FOR ACCESS AND PARKING
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C l e a r u n o b s t r u c te d
s p a c e ve r ti c a l l y C l e a r u n o b s t r u c te d
Building s p a c e ve r ti c a l l y

A d j a c e nt
building
Gro or
und
leve p e r m a n e nt
l Pe r m a n e nt ve ntil ati o n
o p e ni n g o b s tr u c ti o n

Ca r p a r k
1. 2 m a x.

H e i g ht of
3 m i n. c a r p a r k , s of f i t 3 m i n.
to s l a b (H )
6 m i n. 6 m i n.

DIMENSIONS IN METRES

FIGURE 4.6 ELEVATION OF TYPE 3 CAR PARK WITH RECESSED FLOOR LEVEL

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4.3.4 Detailed procedure


As an alternative to the procedure provided in Clause 4.3.3, the area of required natural
ventilation openings may be calculated based on the equivalent ventilation rate provided by
the natural ventilation openings proposed. The required ventilation rate shall be calculated
in accordance with AS 1668.2.
The equivalent ventilation rate shall be not less than the required ventilation rate.
The total equivalent ventilation rate for all natural ventilation openings (Vo), in litres per
second, shall be the aggregate of the equivalent ventilation rates for each natural ventilation
opening (vo), given by the following:
(a) For each unobstructed opening having cross-ventilation openings:
vo = 50 a cv . . . 4.3.4(1)
(b) For each unobstructed opening having cross-ventilation openings in an opposite wall
within 75 m or in a sidewall within 30 m:
vo = 50 cf cav a cv . . . 4.3.4(2)
where
a = the free area of each opening
cv = the ventilation coefficient for the opening given in Table 4.1
cav = average value of cv for all openings
cf = cross-ventilation coefficient given in Table 4.2
The total equivalent ventilation rate (Vo) is then given by the following:
Vo = v o . . . 4.3.4(3)
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TABLE 4.1
VENTILATION COEFFICIENTS FOR OPENINGS
(see Figure 4.7)

Vertical opening Ventilation coefficient (c v )


angle of slope
(S) D>3 D>6 D > 10

0 0.5 0.75 1
10 0.44 0.63 0.88
20 0.38 0.5 0.75
30 0.31 0.44 0.63
40 (max) 0.25 0.38 0.5
Horizontal opening 0.25 0.38 0.5
LEGEND:
D = the extent of unobstructed space from a required ventilation
opening
NOTE: Interpolation of ventilation coefficient for intermediate angles
and distances is permissible. Extrapolation of coefficient is not allowed.

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N e a r e s t o b s tr u c ti o n

U n o b s tr u c te d
space

O p e ni n g
Area = a
A n g l e of s l o p e S
Ca r p a r k

(a) Ve r ti c a l o p e ni n g

B u il di n g ove r h a n g

A n g l e of li n e p r oj e c ti n g to
b u il di n g ove r h a n g n ot to
exc e e d 4 0

U n o b s tr u c te d
To p of o p e ni n g
space
S
D
H e i g ht f r o m c a r p a r k c e ili n g
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to to p of o p e ni n g n ot to
exc e e d H

7 m m a x.
H e i g ht of
car park (H )

Fo r c r o s s -ve ntil ati o n, th e a r e a of th e o p e ni n g s h a ll b e th e l e s s e r


of
(a) th e wi d th i n th e di r e c ti o n of c r o s s -ve ntil ati o n x th e l e n g th
p e r p e n di c u l a r to th e di r e c ti o n of c r o s s -ve ntil ati o n; a n d
( b) th e h e i g ht of c a r p a r k x th e l e n g th p e r p e n di c ul a r to th e
d i r e c ti o n of c r o s s -ve n t i l a t i o n .
Fo r a n o p e ni n g wi th n o c r o s s -ve ntil ati o n th e a r e a of th e o p e ni n g
s h a ll b e th e l e s s e r of
(i) a r e a of th e o p e ni n g; a n d
( ii ) 1/3 x p e r i m e te r of th e o p e ni n g x th e h e i g ht of th e c a r p a r k .

( b) H o r izo nt a l o p e ni n g

FIGURE 4.7 SLOPES AND WIDTHS

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TABLE 4.2
CROSS-VENTILATION COEFFICIENTS FOR GROUPS OF OPENINGS
For openings in opposite walls
Ratio of X to Y
cf
(r w )
1 8.5
2 3.1
3 5.7
4 4.6
For other arrangements of groups of openings
For walls and openings with ratio of X to Y = r w and at
angle to each other of degrees 24 cos
cf = 2
NOTE: = 0 for walls opposite each other
(1 + r ) 1 + r1
2
2
= 90 for walls at right angles to each other w
w
LEGEND:
X = the aggregate effective area of openings in the wall having the larger area of openings
Y = the aggregate effective area of openings in the wall having the smaller area of openings

4.4 ENCLOSURES OTHER THAN CAR PARKS


4.4.1 Enclosed driveways associated with buildings
Natural ventilation of enclosed driveways giving access to areas in buildings, including
loading docks, car parks and servicing facilities is permitted, provided the following criteria
are met:
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(a) All parts of the driveway shall be within 20 m from the outdoor air.
(b) The lowest point of the floor of the driveway being considered shall be not more than
1.2 m below the ground level of the required outdoor clear space, as per natural
ventilation design for car parks.
Alternatively, enclosed driveways shall be provided with mechanical ventilation in
accordance with AS 1668.2.
4.4.2 Loading docks
Natural ventilation of loading docks is permitted, provided the following criteria are met:
(a) The rear of the docked vehicle shall be within 10 m of the natural ventilation source
or external opening complying with Clause 4.3.
(b) The lowest point of the floor of the loading dock being considered shall be not more
than 1.2 m below the ground level of the required outdoor clear space, as per natural
ventilation design for car parks.
Alternatively, loading docks shall be provided with mechanical ventilation in accordance
with AS 1668.2.
4.4.3 Queuing areas
Enclosures where vehicles queue up with engines operating for any purpose, including
parcel pick-up, purchasing, payment at exits or awaiting entry or exit, shall be naturally
ventilated in accordance with Clause 4.3, or shall be provided with mechanical ventilation
in accordance with AS 1668.2.

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4.5 OTHER OCCUPANCIES


Other occupancies located within the car park area (e.g. offices, retail premises, mechanics
shops, tyre shops or similar premises), including fixed locations in the enclosure where car
park staff are located (e.g. pay booth), shall not rely on the natural ventilation provisions
intended for the car park.
Ventilation of these occupancies shall be provided in accordance with Section 3.
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APPENDIX A
A PERFORMANCE-BASED APPROACH TO NATURAL VENTILATION
SYSTEMS DESIGN
(Informative)

A1 SCOPE
This Appendix sets out guidelines for a performance-based approach to the design of
natural ventilation systems.

A2 PROPOSAL SUBMISSION
A proposal based on the performance approach should be prepared in the form of a detailed
report that includes sufficient information on the basis of the design, all assumptions and
expected outcomes.
The report should be in a format that will facilitate an independent peer review.

A3 EMPIRICAL CALCULATIONS
Information on methodologies that should be adopted for the use of empirical calculations
in the design of natural ventilation systems may be found in the following documents:
(a) BS 5925.
(b) CIBSE, Environmental design: Guide A.
(c) ASHRAE, HandbookFundamentals.
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A4 COMPUTER MODELLING
Any computer software used for modelling simulation [including Computational Fluid
Dynamics (CFD)] would be suitable for the application, designed in accordance with
AS 4008, tested in accordance with AS 4006, and verified by an independent authority.
Computer models simulating airflow resistance paths through a space provide the most
accurate simulation systems.

A5 SYSTEM DESIGN VERIFICATION


Because of the likely variations in theoretical results, natural ventilation systems designed
on a performance-based approach may need to be partially or fully verified during
commissioning. Possible verification methods include ASTM E741 and BSIRA Technical
Note 7/92.

www.standards.org.au Standards Australia


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APPENDIX B
METABOLIC RATES
(Informative)
Values for typical metabolic rates are provided in Table B1.

TABLE B1
METABOLIC RATES FOR DIFFERENT ACTIVITIES
Average adjusted
Activity metabolic rate, Examples
watts/occupant
Resting 80
Seated, relaxed 100 Theatre, cinema
Sedentary 120 Office, dwelling, school
Standing, light activity 160 Shopping, laboratory
Standing medium activity 200 Domestic work
Light factory work 170 Light assembly lines, sewing, machining
Heavy factory work 280 Heavy assembly work, hammering, manually
lifting/handling goods
Labouring 390 Sawing, shovelling, carrying heavy goods
Intense labouring 500 Climbing stairs/ladders, intense shovelling
Moderate dancing 250 Dance hall
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Energetic dancing 500 Discotheque


Vigorous exercise 600 Aerobic classes, gyms
NOTE: Metabolic rates are based on the average of rates for male and female persons. For
further information on metabolic rates, refer to AIRAH DA09 or CIBSE, Environmental
design, Guide A.

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


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BIBLIOGRAPHY

AS
4006 Software test documentation
4008 Software design description
AS/NZS
1668 The use of ventilation and airconditioning in buildings
1668.1 Part 1: Fire and smoke control in multi-compartment buildings
3666 Air-handling and water systems of buildingsMicrobial control
3666.1 Part 1: Air-handling and water systems of buildingsMicrobial control
Design, installation and commissioning
4740 Natural ventilatorsClassification and performance
5601 Gas installations (set)
BS
5925 Code of practice for ventilation principles and designing for natural
ventilation
ASHRAE HandbookFundamentals
ASTM
E741 Standard Test Method for Determining Air Change in a Single Zone by Means
of a Tracer Gas Dilution
AIRAH
DA09 Air Conditioning Load Estimation
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BSI
CIBSE Guide A: Environmental design
BSRIA Building Services Research and Information Association
Technical Note TN 7/92
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NOTES

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For information regarding the development of Standards contact:


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