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Multiple Regression Assignment

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Arias MR Assignment 1

Research Questions

There were two research questions in this study, developed from the literature review:

RQ1: What impact do gender, self-concept, and value of education (all measured

at time1) have on student self-reported effort (at time 2) when controlling for self-

effort (time 2)

self-reported effort?

personal characteristics

Methods

Participants

representing the largest grouping at 38% of participants. Students in their first year of Commented [MGP1]: Once it is a continuous variable

(and within realms of normality) report means and SD

high school represented 36% of the sample, with 33.6% sophomores, 18.7% juniors and

8.7% seniors. There was a fairly even split between males (43.3%) and females (54.4%).

Caucasians represented 73.1% of the sample with 7.1% reporting ethnicity as other,

6.4% Hispanic, 4.7% African American, 4.2% Asian American, and 1.6% Native

American.

M. Arias MR Assignment 2

Procedure

education and student perception of teacher interest, caring and competency. Self-concept

was scored on a scale from 1-4; effort, value of education, teacher interest, caring and

competency were scored from 0-4. Gender was dummy coded with males=1 and

female=0.

Before proceeding with the data analysis, all variables were screened for possible

code and statistical assumption violations and outliers, with IBM SPSS 24. Frequencies

and box-plots were used to check for outliers on all applicable variables. Three outliers

identified for Self-Concept were deleted as invalid values. Outliers for teacher interest

and teacher competency were valid and so were retained for analysis (See Figure 1 for

remove cases. However, MR requires normal distribution.

Figure 1. Teacher Interest Box Plot You have to make some justification for keeping variables

that are suggesting non-normal. Maybe use 3 SD z-score as a

method for keeping values?

Computing the Mahalanobis distance for each case on the continuous variables Commented [MGP3]: Write the statistics generated for

this test

screened for multivariate outliers, six cases were identified as potential outliers but all

were retained in the analysis. A scatter plot was created from the standardized residuals Commented [MGP4]: Assumptions need to be met. Do

you believe that these cases will jeopardize your conclusion

if removed?

M. Arias MR Assignment 3

and the standardized predicted variables. The Loess line follows the general flow of the

zero line, confirming linearity and the scatter plot confirms homoscedasticity (Figure 2). Commented [MGP5]: There are three points I can easily

identify as possible outliers in the plot youve presented. I

Figure 2. Scatter Plot know you see them as well

Histograms were used to confirm normality for all variables (see Figure 3 for example

histogram). Self-concept was normally distributed with skewness of -.566 (SE=.117) and

kurtosis of .413 (SE=.234). Value of education was normally distributed with skewness

of -.282 (SE=.117) and kurtosis of -.564 (SE=.234). Effort was normally distributed with

skewness of -.831 (SE=.117) and kurtosis of .179 (SE=.234). Teacher interest, caring and

competency were all normally distributed with skewness of -.910, -.467, -.772 (SE=.117)

and kurtosis of .799, -.473, .269 (SE=.234) respectively. Commented [MGP6]: Thank you for not including gender

here

M. Arias MR Assignment 4

While multivariate normality is not directly tested, univariate normality, linearity and Commented [MGP7]: Mahalanobis distance can be used

Two variables, teacher interest and teacher competency, are highly correlated

(r=.812) and could indicate a problem with multicollinearity. The correlations of the Commented [MGP8]: I understand why you would say

this. However, in my experience .85-.90 are more likely to

be problematic

variables are shown in Table 1.

Variable 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1. Effort (2s) .530 -.206 .194 .321 .237 .184 .214

2. Effort (1s) -- -.254 .230 .521 .362 .353 .368

3. Gender -- .117 -.036 -.059 -.047 .002

4. Self-Concept -- .346 .114 .181 .185

5. Value of Education -- .485 .526 .536

6. Teacher Interest -- .771 .818

7. Teacher Caring -- .754

8. Teacher --

Competency

Note: All correlations were statistically significant (p<.05)

M. Arias MR Assignment 5

Results

A three stage hierarchical linear regression analysis was used to predict the level

of the level of student self-reported effort (time 2). In the first block, effort (time 1) was

and value of education) were simultaneously entered; in the third block teacher interest,

caring and competency were simultaneously entered. The correlations of the variables are

shown in Table 1. As can be seen, student self-report effort (2s) correlated most strongly

R2 Structure

Block R2 Change Model b SE-b Beta Pearson r sr2 coefficient

1 .281 .281 Constant .464 .165

Effort 1s .666 .052 .530 .530 .280

Effort .580 .063 .462 .530 .168 .974

Gender -.163 .073 -.097 -.206 .012 -.379

Self-Concept .098 .053 .083 .194 .008 .357

Value of Education .044 .045 .048 .321 .002 .590

Effort .573 .064 .457 .530 .162 .964

Gender -.161 .073 -.096 -.206 .011 -.375

Self-Concept .108 .053 .091 .194 .01 .353

Value of Education .050 .051 .055 .321 .230 .584

Teacher Interest .167 .093 .140 .237 .008 .431

Teacher Caring -.105 .064 -.113 -.079 .006 .014

Teacher

Competency -.033 .088 -.029 .214 .001 .389

sr2 is the squared semi-partial correlation.

*p<.05.

The results of the hierarchical regression are shown in Table 2. Effort (time 1)

was a significant covariate, F(1, 424) = 165.973, p<.001. When three student

M. Arias MR Assignment 6

characteristic variables were added on the second block, the prediction model was

statistically significant, F(4, 421) = 44.307, p=.242, R2 = .296, adjusted R2 = .290. The Commented [MGP9]: Significant?

final model, which included teacher interest, caring and competency, was statistically

significant F(7, 418) = 25.992, p<.001, R2 = .303, adjusted R2 = .292, however, the

change contributed by this model was not significant, p=.312, determining that these

Prior effort is the most effective predictor of later effort. All other variables held constant,

mens effort will be less than womens (b= -0.163). Commented [MGP10]: The R2 Change statistics are more

helpful in answering your research questions. I would focus

more on those. And always report a few coefficients so the

reader will be able to understand the others

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