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Fig.

20-46 Butt and


branch welds made with
the gas tungsten arc
welding process. Pipe
material is Inconel. Di-
ameters are 212 and 312
inches; wall thickness
is inch. Joint gap for
groove welds was 18 inch,
and for the laterals, 316
inch. H elium was used
both for purging and as a
shielding gas. (Argon can
also be used.) Tungsten
electrode size was 332,
filler rod size was 332,
and welding heat was
about 55 to 75amperes.
Stringer bead technique
was used throughout.
Pipefitters Union, St.
Fig. 20-47 Close-up of groove welds shown in Fig. 2046.
Louis, MO
Pipefitters Union, St. Louis, MO

See Notes
8 through 15 12 1A See Notes
1, 4, and 7
See Notes Inch Millimeters
1B See Notes
8 through 15
1, 3, and 7 1/16 1.6
1B 1/8 3.2
1/4 6.4
1/2 TYP 1 /2 12.7
1 25.4
11/2 11/2

Notes:
1. 1 each required, carbon steel, aluminum and stainless steel.
2. All dimensions U.S. customary unless otherwise specified.
3. 3 , 10 ga.18 ga. thickness round tubing. Optional choice of wall thickness within range specified.
4. 10 ga.18 ga. material thickness for sheet. Optional choice of thickness within range specified.
5. The welder shall prepare a bill of materials in U.S. customary units of measure prior to cutting.
6. The welder shall convert the above bill of materials to S.I. metric units of measure.
7. Part 1A manual PAC. Part 1B may be mechanically or manual PAC cut. Uniformly radius all sharp
corners.
8. All Welds GTAW. Fillet weld size = 11/2 times the nominal wall thickness of the round tubing. Groove
weld root opening = 1/2 the nominal wall thickness of the round tubing.
9. Groove weld joint geometry 1618 gauge use square groove. Groove weld joint geometry
Fig. 20-48 Close-up of branch 1014 gauge use V-groove.
weld shown in Fig.2046. Pipefitters 10. No melt through on fillet welds.
Union, St. Louis, MO 11. Root shielding gas required for aluminum and stainless steel.
12. Fit and tack entire assembly on bench before welding.
13. All welding done in position according to drawing orientation.
14. Use WPS ANSI/AWS B2.1.008 for carbon steel. Use WPS AWS2-1-GTAW for aluminum
(M-23/P-23/S-23). Use WPS AWS2-1 .1-GTAW for aluminum (M-22/P-22/S-22). Use WPS
ANSI/AWS B2.1.009 for stainless steel.
15. Visual examination in accordance with the requirements of AWS OC11, Table 1.

Fig. 20-49 GTAW workmanship qualification test per AWS QC11 for fillet and groove
welds. Adapted from AWS QC11

646Chapter 20Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Practice: Jobs 20-J1J17 (Pipe)


R

Round tubing vertical 15


and not rotated during
15
welding. Weld R
horizontal (15). R
Round tubing horizontal fixed T1 T T2
(15) and not rotated during
welding. Weld flat, vertical, R = T1 (Maximum) R = T1 (Maximum)
overhead. T = 10 ga. through 18 ga. T1 = T2
15 15 T = 10 ga. through 18 ga.
Test Position 2G (Horizontal) Test Position 5G (Multiple) Joint Detail without Backing Joint Detail with Backing
A B
Inch Millimeters Notes:
1/16 1.6 1. Administration of this performance qualification test in accordance with AWS QC7, Supplement G, supersedes
AWS QC11 and AWS EG3.0 requirements of Workmanship Qualification for GTAW of carbon steel round tubing.
1/8 3.2
2. 1 2 7/8 , 10 ga.18 ga. carbon steel round tubing. Optional choice of diameter and wall thickness within
1/4 6.4 range specified.
1 /2 12.7 3. The standard round tubing groove test weldments for performance qualification shall consist of two round tubing
sections, each a minimum of 3 in. (76 mm) long joined by welding to make one test weldment a minimum of
1 25.4 6 in. (150 mm) long.
4. Performance Qualification #1 = 2G position. Performance Qualification #2 = 5G position.
5. All welding done in position according to applicable performance qualification requirement.
6. With or without backing. Backing ring to suit diameter and nominal wall thickness of pipe. Refer to Details A and B.
7. Root shielding gas optional.
8. All parts may be mechanically cut or machine OFC.
9. Use WPS ANSI/AWS B2.1.008.
10. Visual examination in accordance with the requirements of AWS B2.1, Sections 3.5.1 and 3.5.3.1. Bend test in
accordance with the requirements of AWS B2.1, Sections 3.5.3.1, 3.7.1.2 and Figure 3.7.1C. Bend specimens =
1/2 (13 mm) wide 6 in (150 mm) long.

Fig. 20-50 Performance qualification test per AWS QC11 with the GTAW process on carbon steel in the 2G and 5G p ositions.
Adapted from AWS QC11

Inch Millimeters
See Detail A
and Notes 6 and 8 See Notes 3 and 5 1/16 1.6
1/8 3.2
See Notes 2 and 4 45 5
1/4 6.4
R 1/2 12.7
T 1 25.4
Round tubing or pipe inclination fixed (45 5) and not R = T/2 (Maximum)T (Maximum)
rotated during welding. T = 0.050.120
Test Position 6G Detail A without Backing
Notes:
1. Duplicate performance qualification tests are not required if welder is tested under AWS QC12 using AWS QC7 option.
2. 2 1/2 carbon steel, stainless steel and aluminum round tubing (0.050.14 wall thickness) or Schedule 40 (aluminum or carbon
steel) or 10S pipe (0.120 wall thickness). Round tubing diameter and wall thickness optional within range specified. Pipe
Schedule optional according to material requirements.
3. Round tubing or pipe wall thickness greater than 0.0625 chamfer both pipe sections to form V-groove. Round tubing less than or equal
to 0.0625 wall thickness use Square-groove.
4. The standard pipe groove test weldment for performance qualification shall consist of two pipe sections, each a minimum of 3 in.
(76 mm) long joined by welding to make one test weldment a minimum of 6 in. (150 mm) long.
5. Without backing. Refer to Detail A. Root shielding required. Consumable insert required for one stainless steel test. Consumable insert
type optional.
6. All welding done in position.
7. Parts may be mechanically cut, machine OFC or machine PAC.
8. For carbon steel use WPS ANSI/AWS B2.1.008. For stainless steel use WPS ANSI/AWS B2.1.009, ANSI/AWS B2.1.010,
AWS3GTAW1, or AWS3GTAW2. For aluminum use WPS AWS2-1-GTAW or AWS2-1.1-GTAW.
9. Visual examination in accordance with the requirements of QC12, Table 1. Bend test or Radiograph in accordance with the requirements
of QC12, Table 2 and Annex D, Figures 7 and 8. Except as specified in AWS EG4.0, Section 4.2 Performance Qualification.

Fig. 20-51 GTAW performance qualification test per AWS QC12, in the 6G position. Adapted from AWS QC12, in the G6 position
648Chapter 20Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Practice: Jobs 20-J1J17 (Pipe)

15
Round tubing vertical
and not rotated during 15
welding. Weld R
horizontal (15). Round tubing horizontal fixed R
(15) and not rotated during T1 T T2
welding. Weld flat, vertical,
R = T1 (Maximum) R = T1 (Maximum)
overhead.
T = 10 ga. through 18 ga. T1 = T2
15 15 T = 10 ga. through 18 ga.
Test Position 2G (Horizontal) Test Position 5G (Multiple) Joint Detail without Backing Joint Detail with Backing

A B
Inch Millimeters Notes:
1/16 1.6 1. Administration of this performance qualification test in accordance with AWS QC7, Supplement G, supersedes AWS
QC11 and AWS EG3.0 requirements of Workmanship Qualification for GTAW of aluminum round tubing.
1/8 3.2 2. 1 2 7/8 , 10 ga.18 ga. aluminum round tubing (M-22/P-22/S-22 to M-22/P-22/S-22) or (M-23/P-23/S-23 to
1/4 6.4 M-23/P-23/S-23). Optional choice of diameter, wall thickness and material within range specified.
3. The standard round tubing groove test weldments for performance qualification shall consist of two round tubing
1 /2 12.7
sections, each a minimum of 3 in. (76 mm) long joined by welding to make one test weldment a minimum of 6 in.
1 25.4 (150 mm) long.
4. Performance Qualification #1 = 2G position.
Performance Qualification #2 = 5G position.
5. All welding done in position according to applicable performance qualification requirement.
6. With or without backing. Backing ring to suit diameter and nominal wall thickness of pipe. Refer to Details A and B.
7. Root shielding gas required.
8. All parts may be mechanically cut or machine PAC.
9. Use WPS AWS 2-1-GTAW for M-23/P-23/S-23. Use WPS AWS 2-1.1-GTAW for M-22/P-22/S-22.
10. Visual examination in accordance with the requirements of AWS B2.1, Sections 3.5.1 and 3.5.3.1. Bend test in
accordance with the requirements of AWS B2.1, Sections 3.5.3.1, 3.7.1.2 and Figure 3.7.1C. Bend specimens =
1/2 (13 mm) wide 6 in (150 mm) long.

Fig. 20-52 Performance qualification test per AWS QC11 with the GTAW process on aluminum in the 2G and 5G positions.
Adapted from AWS QC11
R

15
Round tubing vertical
and not rotated during 15
welding. Weld R
horizontal (15). Round tubing horizontal fixed R
(15) and not rotated during T1 T T2
welding. Weld flat, vertical,
R = T1 (Maximum) R = T1 (Maximum)
overhead.
T = 10 ga. through 18 ga. T1 = T2
15 15 T = 10 ga. through 18 ga.
Test Position 2G (Horizontal) Test Position 5G (Multiple) Joint Detail without Backing Joint Detail with Backing
A B
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Practice: Jobs 20-J1J17 (Pipe) Chapter 20649

Inch Millimeters Notes:


1/16 1.6 1. Administration of this performance qualification test in accordance with AWS QC7, Supplement G, supersedes AWS
QC11 and AWS EG3.0 requirements of Workmanship Qualification for GTAW of stainless steel round tubing.
1/8 3.2 2. 1 2 7/8 , 10 ga.18 ga. stainless steel round tubing. Optional choice of diameter and wall thickness within range
1/4 6.4 specified.
3. The standard round tubing groove test weldments for performance qualification shall consist of two round tubing
1 /2 12.7
sections, each a minimum of 3 in. (76 mm) long joined by welding to make one test weldment a minimum of 6 in.
1 25.4 (150 mm) long.
4. Performance Qualification #1 = 2G position.
Performance Qualification #2 = 5G position.
5. All welding done in position according to applicable performance qualification requirement.
6. With or without backing. Backing ring to suit diameter and nominal wall thickness of pipe. Refer to Details A and B.
7. Root shielding gas required.
8. All parts may be mechanically cut or machine OFC.
9. Use WPS ANSI/AWS B2.1.009.
10. Visual examination in accordance with the requirements of AWS B2.1, Sections 3.5.1 and 3.5.3.1. Bend test in
accordance with the requirements of AWS B2.1, Sections 3.5.3.1, 3.7.1.2 and Figure 3.7.1C. Bend specimens =
1/2 (13mm) wide 6 in. (150 mm) long.

Fig. 20-53 Performance qualification test per AWS QC11 with the GTAW process on stainless steel in the 2G and 5G positions.
Adapted from AWS QC11 with the GTAW process on stainless steel
CHAPTER 20 REVIEW

Multiple Choice 7. Which of the following statements concerning filler


passes is not true? (Obj. 20-3)
Choose the letter of the correct answer. a. Filler passes are placed on top of the root pass
1. Gas tungsten arc welding on pipe produces welds and fill the groove to within 116 inch of being
that are . (Obj. 20-1) full.
a. Full of crevices and observations b. Stringer or weave beads can be used for filler
b. Corrosion prone passes.
c. Unusually smooth and fully penetrated c. Filler passes should remelt the inside surface of
d. All of these the root pass weld.
2. The following joints and welds are used for GTAW d. When making filler pass welds, the torch should
on pipe. (Obj. 20-2) be inclined to approximately 45.
a. V-Groove butt 8. Finished cover passes should be .
b. U-groove butt (Obj.20-3)
c. Consumable insert butt a. 332 inch wider than the beveled edges on each
d. All of these side of the joint
3. The proper bevel angle for a V-groove joint is b. Not quite touching the joint edges
. (Obj. 20-2) c. Slightly concave
a. 22 d. All of these
b. 45 9. To properly terminate a weld, the following tech-
c. 55 nique should be used: (Obj. 20-4)
d. None of these a. Increase the amperage and dwell on the weld
4. Purging, the introduction of argon or helium into a pool.
pipe, is done to . (Obj. 20-3) b. Reduce the weld pool size by rapidly increasing
a. Permit oxidation on the interior surface of the pipe the weld travel speed.
b. Protect the joint from flux c. Direct the weld pool off to the side of the joint.
c. Shield the weld pool on the inside of the pipe d. Both b and c.
d. Heat-treat the inside of the pipe 10. Porosity can be caused by contamination brought
5. Tack welds are used to hold pipe sections together about by . (Obj. 20-4)
in preparation for welding. Which of these state- a. Rust, oil, grease, and moisture on the surface of
ments is true about tack welding? (Obj. 20-3) the pipe or filler rod
a. If filler rod is to be used for the root pass, filler b. Gas flow too low
rod should be used for the tack weld. c. Arc too long
b. The beginning and end of the tack weld should d. All of these
be worn away with a drill or reamer.
c. The tack welds should all be on one side of the Review Questions
joint to provide joint flexibility during the root
weld. Write the answers in your own words.
d. The torch should be withdrawn from the tack 11. Describe the technique that should be used to prop-
weld quickly to produce tack weld cracking. erly terminate a weld. (Obj. 20-5)
6. When making a pipe weld, how can you tell if you 12. Describe the walking the cup technique and the
are getting penetration through to the root of the importance of the gas cup size for welding pipe with
joint? (Obj. 20-3) the GTAW process. (Obj. 20-6)
a. The weld pool will have a sharp point of the lead- 13. Explain the terms root pass, filler pass, and cover
ing edge. pass. (Obj. 20-3)
b. The weld pool will flatten out. 14. Explain the proper welding technique when ending
c. The birds-eye of silica will begin dancing in a weld bead. (Obj. 20-5)
the middle of the weld pool. 15. Explain the general rule for determining the width
d. All of these. of a cover pass weld bead on pipe. (Obj.20-6)

650Chapter 20Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Practice: Jobs 20-J1J17 (Pipe)


INTERNET ACTIVITIES

Internet Activity A
Use your favorite search engine and see what the most recent studies are on the
flow of fluids through a pipe. Look for information that would pertain to the weld
profile on the inside of the pipe or any other possible restrictions that might impact
flow, turbulance, erosion, and so on.
Internet Activity B
Using your favorite search engine check out how pipe sizes compare between the
U.S. Customary measuring system and the Standards International (metric) mea-
suring system. You may want to start your search by finding manufacturers of pipe.

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Practice: Jobs 20-J1J17 (Pipe) Chapter 20651
Table 20-2 Job Outline: Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Practice (Pipe)

Pipe Specifications
Recommended Number in Type Type Diameter
Job Order1 Text of Joint of Weld Position2 Welding Technique Material (in.) Wall Thickness
1st 20-J1 NA Beading 1 (pipe rotated) Stringer-up, Steel 46 1
4 in.
weave-up
2nd 20-J2 Butt V-groove 1 (pipe rotated) 1 stringer-up, Steel 46 1
4 in.
1 weave-up
3rd 20-J8 Butt V-groove 2 5 stringers Steel 46 1
4 in.
4th 20-J12 Butt V-groove 5 1 stringer-up, Steel 46 1
4 in.
1 weave-up
Test 20-JQT17 Butt & T Groove & fillet 5 Stringer or weave Steel 3 1810 gauge
Test 20-JQT2 8
Butt Sq. or V-groove 2&5 Stringer or weave Steel 12 8 7
1810 gauge
Test 20-JQT39 Butt Sq. or V-groove 6 Stringer or weave Steel 212 0.050.120 in.
5th 20-J3 NA Beading 1 (pipe rotated) Stringer-up, Al. 46 1
4 in.
weave-up
6th 20-J4 Butt V-groove 1 (pipe rotated) 1 stringer-up, Al. 46 1
4 in.
1 weave-up
7th 20-J9 Butt V-groove 2 5 stringers Al. 46 1
4 in.

8th 20-J13 Butt V-groove 5 1 stringer-up, Al. 46 1


4 in.
2 weave-up
9th 20-J14 Butt V-groove 5 1 semiweave Al. 23 8 in.
1

10th 20-J15 Butt V-groove 5 1 semiweave Al. 23 8 in.


1

11th 20-J10 Butt V-groove 2 1 semiweave Al. 23 8 in.


1

Test 20-JQT4 7
Butt & T Groove & fillet 5 Stringer or weave Al. 3 1810 gauge
Test 20-JQT58 Butt Sq. or V-groove 2&5 Stringer or weave Al. 1278 1810 gauge
Test 20-JQT69 Butt Sq. or V-groove 6 Stringer or weave Al. 212 0.050.120 in.
12th 20-J5 NA Beading 1 (pipe rotated) Stringer-up, S. Stl 46 1
4 in.
weave-up
13th 20-J6 Butt V-groove 1 (pipe rotated) 1 stringer-up, S. Stl 46 1
4 in.
1 weave-up
14th 20-J11 Butt V-groove 2 5 stringers S. Stl 46 1
4 in.

15th 20-J16 Butt V-groove 5 1 stringer-up, S. Stl 46 1


4 in.
2 weave-up
16th 20-J7 Butt Sq.-groove 1 1 semiweave S. Stl 23 8 in.
1

17th 20-J17 Butt Sq.-groove 5 1 semiweave S. Stl 23 8 in.


1

Test 20-JQT7 7
Butt & T Groove & fillet 5 Stringer or weave S. Stl 3 1810 gauge
Test 20-JQT88 Butt Sq. or V-groove 2&5 Stringer or weave S. Stl 1278 1810 gauge
Test 20-JQT9 9
Butt Sq. or V-groove 6 Stringer or weave S. Stl 2 2
1
0.050.120 in.

1
It is recommended that the student do the jobs in this order. In the text, the jobs are grouped according to the type of operation to avoid repetition. The tests
will be administered per your instructors instructions.
2
1 = flat, 2 = horizontal, 5 = multiple, 6 = multiple axis 45.
3
Ceramic or glass cups should be used for currents up to 250 A. Water-cooled cups should be used for currents above 250 A.
4
The gas flow should be set for the maximum rate for the vertical and overhead positions. Gas backing is optional for steel and aluminum. It is r equired for
stainless steel.
5
The type of filler rod must always match the type of base metal being welded.
6
NA = not appropriate.

652Chapter 20Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Practice: Jobs 20-J1J17 (Pipe)


Current Shielding gas
Tungsten Filler Rod AWS
Electrode Gas Gas Flow Cup Size Size5 Text S.E.N.S.E.
Size (in.) Type Amperes3 Type (ft3/h)4 (in.) (in.) Reference Reference6
32
3
DCEN 140160 Argon 810 3
8 3
3218 654 NA

32
3
DCEN 120140 Argon 810 3
8 3
3218 654 Entry level
140160
32
3
DCEN 120160 Argon 810 3
8 3
3218 659 Advanced level
32
3
DCEN 120140 Argon 810 3
8 3
32 8
1
661 Advanced level

1
8 max. DCEN 45130 Argon 1525 1
458 1
16332 Fig. 20-49 Advanced level
1
8 max. DCEN 45130 Argon 1525 1
4 8
5 1
16 32
3
Fig. 20-50 Advanced level
1
8 max. DCEN 45130 Argon 1525 1
458 1
16332 Fig. 20-51 Expert level
1
8 A.C. 150280 Argon 2228 1
2 3
32 8
1
654 NA

1
8 A.C. 150280 Argon 2228 1
2 3
3218 654 Entry level
160300
1
8 A.C. 150200 Argon 2530 1
2 3
3218 659 Advanced level
160210
1
8 A.C. 120200 Argon 2530 1
2 3
3218 661 Advanced level
140220
32
3
A.C. 120145 Argon 1520 3
8 3
3218 661 Advanced level
32
3
A.C. 100120 Argon 1222 3
8 3
3218 661 Advanced level
32
3
A.C. 100120 Argon 1520 3
8 3
32 8
1
659 Advanced level
1
8 max. A.C. 40125 Argon 2040 1
4 8
5 3
32 8
1
Fig. 20-49 Advanced level
1
8 max. A.C. 40125 Argon 2040 1
458 3
3218 Fig. 20-52 Advanced level
1
8 max. A.C. 40125 Argon 2040 1
4 8
5 3
32 8
1
Fig. 20-51 Expert level
32
3
DCEN 120160 Argon 1215 1
2 3
32 8
1
654 NA

32
3
DCEN 110150 Argon 1215 1
2 3
3218 654 Entry level
110160
32
3
DCEN 110150 Argon 1215 1
2 3
3218 659 Advanced level
110160
32
3
DCEN 110150 Argon 1418 1
2 3
3218 661 Advanced level
110160
1
16 to 332 DCEN 60120 Argon 1215 3
3218 3
3218 654 Advanced level
DCEN 80140 Argon 1215 3
32 8 1 3
32 8
1
661 Advanced level
1
8 max. DCEN 35130 Argon 1525 1
4 8
5 1
16 32
3
Fig. 20-49 Advanced level
1
8 max. DCEN 35130 Argon 1525 1
458 1
16332 Fig. 20-53 Advanced level
1
8 max. DCEN 35130 Argon 1525 1
4 8
5 1
16 32
3
Fig. 20-51 Expert level
7
 or additional information follow AWS Standard Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) B2.1.008 for carbon steel, AWS2-1-GTAW or AWS2-1.1-GTAW for
F
aluminum, and (WPS) B2.1.009 for stainless steel.
8
For additional information follow AWS Standard Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) B2.1.008 for carbon steel.
9
For additional information follow AWS Standard Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) B2.1.008 for carbon steel; AWS3-GTAW-1, AWS3-GTAW-2, AWS2-
1-GTAW, or AWS2-1.1-GTAW for aluminum; and AWS B2.1.009 and AWS B2.1.010 for stainless steel.
Note: The conditions given here are basic. They vary with the job situation, the results desired, and the skill of the welder. It is also generally acknowledged if
you are capable of welding a more difficult weld and joint like a groove weld on a butt joint that you are capable of making easier fillet welds on lap joints and
T-joints.

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Practice: Jobs 20-J1J17 (Pipe) Chapter 20653