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Math 4310 Homework 7 - Due March 21

Problem 1. Determine whether the following matrices determine cyclic linear transformations T : R3
R3 . (In each case, either produce a vector b such that {b, T (b), T 2 (b)} is a basis, or show that no such b can
exist).

1 2 3
(a) A = 0 1 2 .
0 0 1

0 0 2
(b) B = 0 2 0 .
1 0 7

Problem 2. Let T : V V be a linear transformation, with dim V = n.


(a) If T is both cyclic and nilpotent, show that it must have nilpotence index n, i.e. T n = 0 but T n1 6= 0.
(From what we proved in class, this means it has to be conjugate to the n n matrix with 1s on the diagonal
below the main one and 0s elsewhere).
(b) Describe all of the transformations T for which T is both nilpotent and a projection.
(c) Describe all transformations T for which T is both cyclic and a projection. (Your answer will depend on
the dimension n.)

Problem 3. (a) Solve the following homogeneous system of equations over the field R:

x
1 2 2 3 0
y
Ax = 2 4 2 0 z
= 0 .
1 2 4 3 0
w
(b) Solve the inhomogeneous equations Ax = b and Ax = c for the same matrix and the following vectors:

6 6
b= 6 c = 6 .
6 0

Problem 4. Solve the following system of equations over the finite field F5 = Z/5Z by row reduction; here
a denotes the equivalence class a + 5Z. As youre doing your computations, you should write everything in
terms of the elements 0, 1, 2, 3, 4.
2 2 0 x 0
3 4 2 y = 1 .
3 0 4 z 2

Problem 5. Suppose T : V V is a linear transformation, and let v1 , . . . , vk be eigenvectors of T with


distinct eigenvalues 1 , . . . , k . Prove that v1 , . . . , vk are linearly independent.

Problem 6. Suppose T : V V is a linear transformation.


(a) If v is an eigenvector of T with eigenvalue , prove v is also an eigenvector of T k with eigenvalue k .
(b) If v is an eigenvector of T with eigenvalue , and T is invertible, prove that v is also an eigenvector of
T 1 with eigenvalue 1 . (In particular, you need to show that is not zero!)
(c) Show that in the situation of (b), every eigenvector of T 1 is an eigenvector of T and vice versa. Is every
eigenvector of T 2 necessarily an eigenvector of T 1 ?