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StructuralDepartment

ManagementSystem
Manual
(ISO9001:2008)




Revision:00
SystemEffectiveDate:01.09.2009






CONFIDENTIALITY
ThisdocumentcontainsinformationbelongingtoGulfConsultandisconfidential.Thedocumentor
anyofitsconstituentpartsmaynotbereproducedinanyformorbyanymeansordisclosedwithout
thepriorwrittenauthorizationoftheHeadOfDepartment.





www.gckuwait.com



QualityManagementSystemManual

TableofContent(Tobeupdated)

1 Introduction
2 OrganizationChart(Departmental)
3 DepartmentStructureandRolesandResponsibilities
4 FlowofInformation(Input/Output)
5 StandardOperatingProcedures(SOP)
6 ListofDeliverables
7 Formatstemplates


Attachments



(nil)













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A. AUTHORIZATION SIGNATORIES

Preparedby Reviewedby Approvedby


Sig: Sig: Sig:

Name: Name: Name:

Designation: Designation: Designation:

B. REVISION HISTORY

Current DetailsofRevision/Change EffectiveDate
Revision

00 Initialissue 01.09.09

C. DISTRIBUTION OF CONTROLLED COPIES

CopyNo. Tobeissuedto

MasterCopy QMSRepresentative

1 HOD

Note:allusersofGULFCONSULTwillhaveelectronicdocumentaccessasa
controlledcopy.

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STRUCTURAL DEPARTMENT

1. Introduction

Gulf Consult has a in-house Structural Department in Kuwait and a branch


office in Karachi. The Structural Departments Work Procedure involves the
structural design of all the projects undertaken by Gulf Consult, as per the
terms of reference of various contracts. The department also provides back
up support to our site supervision activities on structural issues. Many of our
projects are joint venture projects in which some part of work mostly in the
conceptual development stage falls under our JV partners. We provide input
on local condition and practices during this stage of work.

A typical project goes through two major stages of work after a concept is
adopted for the project. These are Preliminary design and Final design. In the
Preliminary design stage the project is basically going through a development
stage and structure is modeled, analyzed and some preliminary design is
performed to size the various components of the structure. These are shared
with architects, who coordinate with other services to finalize their plan. At the
end of this phase drawings are prepared giving sizes of the various
components of structure. The design is performed as per the prevailing
building code and as additionally required in the contract term of reference.

The final design work comprises the detailed structural design and detailing of
all elements. Generally a 3D computer model of the structure is prepared and
all the anticipated loads as per the relevant building codes are applied. The
structure is analyzed using internationally recognized structural analysis and
design computer programs. Any changes in the structural dimension resulting
from the detailed design is discussed and agreed with the architect. A
complete structural analysis and design document is prepared. Detailed
structural drawings are prepared based on the structural design by Cad
technician and checked by the design Engineer. A quality check on the final
documents and drawings is performed before submission.

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COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN AND ANALYSIS SOFTWARE

General Structural Analysis


ETABS 2015 (v 15.1.0) Computers & Structures, Inc. (CSI), Three
Dimensional Static and Dynamic Analysis of Building Systems.

SAP2000 (v 17.3.0) Structural Analysis and Design Program by CSI

SAFE 2014 (v 14.1.1)Slab Analysis by Finite Element Method

STAAD PRO (v 8i) Structural Analysis and Design Program by


Bentley

Reinforced Concrete Design


PCACOL (v 3.64) Reinforced Concrete Column Section Design
Software, Portland cement Association
CSI COL (v 8.4.0) R.C.C & Composite Column designs by CSI.
Various Design work sheets developed in house.

Graphics (Drafting)
AutoCAD 2009 / 2014 Drafting software by AUTODESK
REVIT Structure 2015 Building Information Modeling (BIM) software for
structural engineering by AUTODESK.

CODES AND STANDARDS USED FOR DESIGNING A BUILDING

Codes
1. ASCE 7/10: ASCE Standard, for calculating Minimum Design Loads
for Buildings and Other Structures.

2. IBC 2012: International Building Code for calculating live loads, wind
loads and other structural impacts.

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3. ACI318M-11: Building code requirements for structural concrete, and


commentary for design of structural concrete elements.

4. AISC: AISC Steel Construction Manual (Fourteenth Edition) for design


of structural steel members.

5. Latest Edition of Kuwait Municipality requirements published from time


to time.

References

The following references have been used:


1. American Concrete Institute Manual of Concrete Practice: (Part 1 to Part
6).
2. ASTM Standards in Building Codes.
3. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Specification for the Design
and Construction of Composite Slabs.
4. American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Masonry
Structures and Specifications for Masonry Structures.

5. American Welding Society (AWS) Structural Welding Code for


Structural Steel and Reinforcing Steel.
6. MPW Ministerial Resolution No: 24/1987 dated 18.10.1987 for ground
water effects on basements or underground facilities.
7. PCI Design Handbook.

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2. Organization Chart Head Office

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2.1 Organization Chart Karachi Office

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3. Department Structure and Roles and Responsibilities

Head of Structural Department ( Eng. Mansoor Rao)


Deputy Head of Structural Department (Eng. Khalid Ahmad)
Principal Engineer
Senior Structural Engineers
Structural Engineers
Junior Structural Engineers
CAD Incharge
Senior CAD Technicians
CAD Technicians
Mechanical Engineers (in Karachi Office only)
IT Incharge (in Karachi Office only)

3.1 Head of Structural Department


1. Liaison with Project Managers and higher management to understand
nature of project.
2. Collect necessary information/data from concerned departments,
communicates with H.O.D.s of all disciplines.
3. Provide guidance to subordinates
4. Monitor progress of the project for timely submission and set Key
Performance Index for each member of staff.
5. Look after all the Administrative and financial issues of Karachi office.
Follow up with their work.
6. Approve suppliers and materials related to structure at all sites.
7. Resolve all structural issues at all site and advise R.Es on all structural
matter and constructability.
8. Define scope of all soil investigation works for all projects.
9. Follow up if require with all Engineers and CAD Technicians to submit
the complete work given to them on time.
10. Check the final drawings before submission.

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3.2 Deputy Head of Structural Department


1. Understand the quantum of workload and distribute work between
Senior Engineers, Engineers, and Technicians as per time allocated for the
project to meet the date.
2. Monitor and control project activities and provide technical guidance to
the team.
3. Responsible to keep Schedule of Project and Resource allocation table
updated according to the work load.
4. Coordinate with all other Departments.
5. Act as Team leader for major projects.
6. Study TOR and advice the Senior Structural Engineers on strategy of
dividing work into small packages, setting team for the project, and working
within the time constraints.
7. To set the basic design parameters and level of detailed engineering
required for the project in consultation with the Senior Structural Engineers.
8. Work follow up:
a. Give the work to engineers and technicians by verbal
statement, and also preferably by email to keep track of the
date when the work was given and how long it will take to
finish.
b. Assign a checker for the work. Then confirm with the checker
if the work is done completely or not.

3.3 Principal Engineer

1. Liaison with Head of Department and concerned Head Office Engineers to


understand the work.
2. Understand the quantum of work load and distribute work between
Engineers/Technicians.
3. Informing concerned Head Office Engineers about discrepancies
between Architectural and other discipline drawings.

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4. Monitoring and controlling the progress of work.
5. Responsible to arrange to submit to Head Office Engineer the Project
related drawings and Calculations from time to time for coordination purposes
and after finalizing to submit the final documents to Head Office.
6. Administrative Incharge, looking after all administration matters of
Karachi office.
7. Controlling day to day expenses, responsible for distributing the
salaries to the staff and looking after all other financial matters. Also
responsible for distributing the Cheques issued by Head Office related to
Building rent, Building maintenance, Taxes and other purchases.

3.4 Senior Structural Engineers


1. Senior Engineers are engineers who handle a project.
2. They are required to study the details of the project and understand the
scope of structural design work required to complete the project.
3. They should be able to divide work into small work packages and then
distribute (In consultation with HOD/DHOD) these packages of works to
assigned Engineers on the project.
4. Be able to provide technical guidance in detail to the Engineers
working with them.
5. Perform design check of key elements of work during design and share
it with the team.
6. Keep track of the progress of the engineers work and guide them to
improve their work.
7. Keep track of the drawings production and check against the allotted
time.
8. Make sure that engineers checked the drawings against their design.
9. Also check that all the procedures related to detailed design are
followed by his team.
10. Prepare document which shows how the project should be compiled
and designed in consultation with the head and deputy head of department

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(for example, limit maximum reinforcement in beams, or maximum
reinforcement in columns).
11. Keep a file with A3 final drawings. For quick reference.
12. Senior Structural Engineer should also coordinate and ensure with
Structural Engineers that the changes pointed out/informed by CAD
Technician or any other discipline, have been incorporated.

3.5 Structural Engineers


1. Structural Engineers are required to study Project or part of the project
in detailed and perform the design work under the guidance of Senior
Structural Engineers.
2. Be able to follow all instructions and incorporate comments made by
the Senior Structural Engineer, Dy. Head and Head of department. In case of
additional clarification must consult them immediately.
3. Be able to understand and operate various structural design packages
used in the design.
4. Provide design output to the Cad technicians in the form of well-defined
sketches and explain to them their work.
5. Check the drawings against their design. Keep a copy of the final
drawing in their file.
6. It is structural Engineer responsibility to make sure the final drawings
are correct.
7. Coordinate for details required from other discipline under supervision
of their Senior Structural Engineers.
8. Any change that is informed to Structural Engineer by any discipline
should be directly told to the Senior Structural Engineer. Keep the Senior
Structural Engineer updated of all the changes where the document for this
specific project cannot be followed.
9. Make sure calculations are complete and readable.
10. Work is considered not finished unless drawings and calculations are
compiled and submitted to Senior Structural Engineer.

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3.6 Junior Structural Engineers


1. Junior structural engineers work under direct supervision of Senior
Structural Engineer, or Structural Engineer.
2. They are given part of a project to design and produce calculations of
that part.
3. Provide design output to the Cad technicians after discussing with their
seniors in a form of well-defined sketches and explain to them their work.
4. Check the drawings against their design. Keep a copy of the final
drawing in their file.
5. Make sure calculations are complete and readable.

3.7 CAD Incharge


One of the Senior CAD technicians who is responsible to know what each
CAD technician is working on.

3.8 Senior CAD Technicians


1. Prepare drawings of the project assigned to them.
2. Coordinate structural drawings with requirements from other
disciplines.
3. Distribute Cad work to other technicians working with them.
4. Make sure that all corrections given to them by Engineers are
incorporated in drawings.
5. Responsible to provide the Engineer after incorporating the corrections
a print and marked up drawing by the Engineer for checking.
6. Keep a file with all drawings that need to be corrected. So when Cad
Technicians will be available, the work will be distributed among them.

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7. Make sure that any change done in any part is directly informed to
Engineer and a print of that change is given to the Engineer.
8. Cad Technician is not allowed to move any structural element or
change reinforcement without consulting with Engineer or Senior Structural
Engineer.

3.9 CAD Technicians


1. Prepare drawings of the project assigned to them in consultation with
Senior CAD technician.
2. Coordinate structural drawings with other discipline requirements.
3. Make sure that all corrections given to them by Engineers are
incorporated in drawings.
4. Arrange a print after incorporating the corrections and marked up
drawing by Engineer to handover to Engineer for checking.
5. Make sure that any change done in any part is directly informed to
Engineer and a print of that change is given to the Engineer.
6. Cad Technician is not allowed to move any structural element or
change reinforcement without consulting with Engineer or Senior Structural
Engineer.

3.10 Mechanical Engineers (in Karachi Office only)


1. Karachi Administration and Financial issues for Mechanical engineers
in Karachi office are directed by Head of Structural Department in Kuwait
Office.
2. Mechanical engineers roles and responsibilities are similar to
Mechanical Engineer in Mechanical Department. Technical issues are
followed by Mechanical Department (Refer to Mechanical Department
Operation Manual for the roles and responsibilities of Mechanical Engineer).

3.11 IT Incharge (in Karachi Office only)

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1. Karachi Administration and Financial issues for IT in charge are
directed by Head of Structural Department in Kuwait Office.
2. IT in charge roles and responsibilities are similar to IT in IT
Department. Technical issues are followed by IT Department (Refer to IT
Department Operation Manual for the roles and responsibilities of IT).

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4. Flow of Information

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4.1 Input Required for Structural Design

Concept Design Stage


Size, Shape, no. of stories for building.
Approximate Columns grids
Indication for Concrete or Steel building
Topographic Survey of site
Soil Investigation
Approximate finished floor level in relation to rib levels.

D.D. Stage (To commence work on D.D. Stage)


Architectural plans showing grids
All Plans
At least 2 Sections, sometime more sections are required as per
Complexity of the building.
Approximate location of service shaft
Staircases
Elevators
Size of drawings (Scale for Plans, Sections etc.)
Partition type Block wall or light weight
Any specific loading areas

50 % D.D Stage
Final Shaft locations & sizes
Final Staircase enclosure
Final Elevator shaft location & sizes
Main route of HVAC ducts and any limitations
Location of H.T & L.T Transformer and Pads
Hatch for lowering equipment and path for transport of other
equipment
All load data for heavy equipment & their locations & path for
installation.
All water tank sizes & locations
Any hanging loads form HVAC or Electrical
Provision for landscape design on Ground Floor Slab. Final
required depression
All local depression in Slabs
Final Wall Section

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All special features like Canopy, Skylight, and Bridges
Basic Curtain Wall supporting System & section
Any Water features in the buildings
Any Crane requirements
Rout of fire Trucks carrying heavy equipment

C.D Stage
Find Architectural Plans showing:
All levels
Depression location & depth
Shaft location & sizes
Staircase details with Staircase numbers
Final Wall Sections
All openings in all slabs
All sleeves sizes & their locations
Final equipment layout & approximated area and weight
All water tank sizes locations
All Pits sizes & locations
All duct openings in beams
Final hanging loads & details
Details of window cleaning machines
Finishing schedule
Landscaping details and depression for Ground Floor slab

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Annexure 1 Structural Department

Concept Design Stage

Design Process Deliverables Notes

Size, Shape, no. of Foundation plan


stories for building. Typical Flooring plan
Approximate
Columns grids
Indication for
Concrete or Steel
building
Topographic Survey
of site
Soil Investigation
Approximate
finished floor level in
relation to rib levels.

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Design Development Stage

Design Process Deliverables Notes

Architectural plans Drawings: All drawings


showing grids General Notes without
All Plans Column and Wall Layout reinforcement
At least 2 Sections, Foundation Plan/Raft details.
sometime more Foundation
sections are required Grade Slab and Tie
as per Complexity of beams
the building. Column schedule
Approximate location Basement Framing Plan
of service shaft Ground Floor Framing
Staircases Plan
Elevators Mezzanine Framing Plan
Size of drawings Typical Framing Plan
(Scale for Plans, Overall Building Section
Sections etc.) Typical Staircase
Partition type Block Typical Elevator Detail
wall or light weight Steel Structures Details
Any specific loading Miscellaneous Details
areas Calculations:
Preliminary Calculation
Report

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50% Design Development Stage

Design Process Deliverables Notes

Final Shaft locations & Drawings: All drawings


sizes General Notes without
Final Staircase enclosure Column and Wall Layout reinforcement
Final Elevator shaft Foundation Plan/Raft details.
location & sizes Foundation
Main route of HVAC ducts Grade Slab and Tie
and any limitations beams
Location of H.T & L.T Column schedule
Transformer and Pads Basement Framing Plan
Hatch for lowering Ground Floor Framing
equipment and path for Plan
transport of other Mezzanine Framing Plan
equipment Typical Framing Plan
All load data for heavy Overall Building Section
equipment & their Typical Staircase
locations & path for Typical Elevator Detail
installation. Steel Structures Details
All water tank sizes & Miscellaneous Details
locations Calculations:
Any hanging loads form Preliminary Calculation
HVAC or Electrical Report
Provision for landscape
design on Ground Floor
Slab. Final required
depression
All local depression in
Slabs
Final Wall Section
All special features like
Canopy, Skylight, and
Bridges
Basic Curtain Wall
supporting System &
section
Any Water features in the
buildings
Any Crane requirements
Rout of fire Trucks
carrying heavy equipment

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Complete Design Stage

Design Process Deliverables Notes

Find Architectural Plans Drawings: All drawings with


showing: General Notes reinforcement
All levels Column and Wall Layout details.
Depression location Foundation Plan/Raft
& depth Foundation
Shaft location & Grade Slab and Tie
sizes beams
Staircase details Foundations Sections
with Staircase and Details
numbers Column schedule
Final Wall Sections Basement Framing Plan
All openings in all Ground Floor Framing
slabs Plan
All sleeves sizes & Mezzanine Framing Plan
their locations Typical Framing Plan
Final equipment All Floors Framing Plan
layout & Roof Framing Plan
approximated area Overall Building Section
and weight Slab Sections
All water tank sizes Beams Elevations
locations Typical Staircase
All Pits sizes & Typical Elevators Details
locations Wall Elevations
All duct openings in Steel Structures Details
beams Miscellaneous Details
Final hanging loads Calculations:
& details Final Calculation Report
Details of window
cleaning machines
Finishing schedule
Landscaping details
and depression for
Ground Floor slab

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5.0 STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

STRUCTURAL DEPARTMENT
GULF CONSULT, KUWAIT

5.1 Introduction

Structural Drawings and supporting structural calculations are the output of


the design team. The information on structural drawings is based on the
structural calculations. Structural design criteria based on the TOR of the
project is prepared before commencing the structural calculations.

Unless the information on drawings are complete, accurate and coordinated it


will not be effective and no matter how good the design, it will not be
satisfactorily realized on site. Poorly detailed drawings causes delays, extra
costs and poor quality, which in turn give rise to disputes over who is
responsible for the problems. A coordinated detailed drawings which is
complete in all respect is thus of vital importance to the success of the project.

5.2 Scope & Purpose

The Scope and Purpose of this document is to define a standard method and
procedure that will be used for developing and presenting the works of the
Structural Department in a systematic manner and logical sequence.

The scope involved in the handling of all structural design work and its various
components are covered in the SOP mentioned below. These involve the
setting up teams, schedule of work and methods of preparing calculations and
drawings.

5.3 Policies

All Engineers and Cad technicians will follow the guidelines and procedures
provided in the SOP.

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5.4 Responsibilities

It is the responsibility of Structural Departments staff to identify the need for


development or revision of this standard operating procedure (SOP) and to
convey that need to their Internal Auditor. It is the responsibility of the Internal
Auditor for revision and further development of the SOPs according to the
need and in consultation with the H.O.D. The Internal Auditor i s
a l s o responsible to ensure that all routine operations and activities are
followed as per approved SOP Program.

5.5 Required number of SOPs

Considering the nature of the technical activities in the Structural Department,


five (5) numbers of SOPs have identified and established in order to describe
study methods or processes in sufficient detail to ensure the quality and
integrity of the data or procedure to be followed. Those are:

SOP NO ST-01: SCHEDULE OF PROJECT AND RESOURCE ALLOCATION TABLE


SOP NO ST-02 : DESIGN CRITERIA REPORT
Codes
Materials
Loadings
Any special Design Parameter
SOP NO ST-03 : LOADING PLAN
SOP NO ST-04 : BUILDING MODEL (ETABS INPUT AND ANALYSIS AND DESIGN)
SOP NO ST-05 : FOUNDATION ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
SOP NO ST-06 : CALCULATION PREPARATION
SOP NO ST-07 : DRAWING PREPARATION
SOP NO ST-08 : DESIGN REPORTS FOR VARIOUS DESIGN STAGES
SOP NO ST-09 : REPORT PREPARATION

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STRUCTURAL DEPARTMENT
GULF CONSULT

SOP NO ST- 01

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR

SCHEDULE OF PROJECT & RESOURCE ALLOCATION TABLE

Author: .

Approved: .

Prepared on:

Revised on:

Pages I of ..

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SOP NO ST-01

SCHEDULE OF PROJECT & RESOURCE ALLOCATION TABLE

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0 Purpose 1

2.0 Scope 1

3.0 Responsibility 1

4.0 Procedure 1

5.0 Records 2

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SOP NO ST-01

SCHEDULE OF PROJECT AND RESOURCE ALLOCATION


TABLE

1 Purpose
This procedure describes the requirements and responsibilities for
Schedule of Project and Resources Allocation table.

2 Scope
The requirements of this procedure apply to all the works carried out by
structural departments in Kuwait office as well as in Karachi office.

3 Responsibility
The QMS team member is responsible for ensuring that the
requirements of this procedure are implemented.

4 Procedure

4.1 Schedule of Project


A complete schedule of all works in the department will be shown on a
work schedule with at least 12 months schedule. All the available target
dates for each phases of work shall be reflected in the schedule. This
schedule to be updated at least every month preferably every 15 days
and any major change in the work program of major Project. A
template of the Schedule of Projects is given in the Formats and
Templates sections.

4.2 Resources
A Resource allocation table to be prepared based on the work
schedule. The schedule must include all the projects included in the
work schedule worksheet. The current phase of work and the
submission date to be shown in this table. The name of the Engineer in

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charge as well as the names of all the engineers working on the design
of the project to be mentioned. Also name of the Cad in charge for the
project as well as names of all the Cad technicians working on the
project to be mentioned. A template of the Resource Allocation Table is
given in the Formats and Templates sections.
.

5 Records
The following documents shall be retained.
Monthly Project Schedule
Monthly Resource Allocation Table

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STRUCTURAL DEPARTMENT
GULF CONSULT

SOP NO ST- 02

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR

DESIGN CRITERIA REPORT

Author: .

Approved: .

Prepared on:

Revised on:

Pages I of ..

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SOP NO ST-02
DESIGN CRITERIA REPORT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0 Purpose 1

2.0 Scope 1

3.0 Responsibility 1

4.0 Procedure 1

5.0 Records 8

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SOP NO ST-02
DESIGN CRITERIA REPORT

1 Purpose
This procedure describes the requirements for the preparation of
design criteria of a project.

2 Scope
This procedure applies to all design criteria prepared for any GC
project.

3 Responsibility
The Senior Structural Engineer is responsible of preparing design
criteria of the project and distributing it to all engineers working on this
project.

4 Procedure
1. Obtain the following information about the project:
a. Type of building (Office, hospital, school, Etc.). This is
required to obtain the Risk Category for Wind and
Seismic loads. Refer Table 1.5-1 of ASCE/SEI 7-10 or
Table 1604.5 of IBC 2012.
b. Location of building is required to find the exposure type
for wind loads. Refer 26.7.3 of ASCE/SEI 7-10 or
1609.4.3 of IBC 2012.
c. Loads to be considered in design in addition to dead and
live loads (Seismic, wind, earth load or temperature).

2. Check the architectural plans and find the live loads as per room
usage from ASCE/SEI 7-10 or IBC 2012. Fill in the Design
criteria template (Sample attached in Appendix).
3. Go to Wind and Seismic Manual and obtain all necessary data
and fill them in the template.
a. For Wind loads:
i. Check building type and find its Risk category.
ii. Select wind speed as per Risk Category.
iii. Find wind parameters, topographical factor Kzt
from 26.9.1 and Kd from Table 26.6-1 of
ASCE/SEI 7-10.

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b. For Seismic loads ASCE/SEI 7-10:
i. Check building type and find its Risk category,
then find the occupancy importance from Table
1.5-2 of ASCE/SEI 7-10.
ii. Check structure type to obtain time period factors
from table 12.8-2 of ASCE/SEI 7-10.
iii. Define the seismic force resisting system to obtain
Response modification coefficient, system over
strength and deflection amplification from Table
12.2-1 of ASCE/SEI 7-10.
iv. Site class is either C or D for Kuwait projects.
v. Seismic Coefficients are Ss = 0.186, S1 = 0.07 and
Long-Period transition period is 5 seconds for
Kuwait.
4. When structural system of the building is ready, then write a
paragraph and add it in the template.
5. Check the used codes which are mentioned in the template.
6. Select the load combinations which apply to the project only and
delete the unnecessary ones.
7. Check system serviceability criteria as per the project.
8. Check Concrete strength and Steel grades that are used in the
project.
9. Check soil report and find the allowable soil bearing capacity
and important information about soil and add them in the
template.

5 Records

Design criteria report.

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DesignCriteriaTemplate
ProjectName
GULFCONSULT

DEDESIGNCRITERIA

1. Introduction
Thissectionshouldcontaininformationabouttheprojectingeneral.Howmanybuildings,howthey
areconnected(ifconnected),numberoffloorsabovegroundfloorandnumberofbasementsandany
specialstructuresorfeatures.

ThestructuraldesignofthePROJECTrespectsthearchitecturalintegrityofthebuilding,andisbased
onthecriteriaexplainedbelow.

TheProjectwillbelocatedinthe.TheprojectconsistsofaCarParkBuilding,twoHospitalTower
BuildingsEastTower&WestTowerandaKitchenandLaundryBuilding.TheHospitalbuildingsand
parkingbuildingareconnectedatvariouslevelsbybridges.Moreover,thetwotowerbuildingsare
alsoconnectedbybridgesatdifferentlevels.Thegreengardensarelocatedinallpodiumlevelroof
thepartofforthfloor.Thegeneraldescriptionsofthebuildingsareasbelow.

WestTower:ThefirsthospitalbuildingcalledasWestTowerconsistsofonebasementlevel,ground
level,dedicatedtwomechanicalfloorssuchasthirdmechanicalfloor&sixthmechanicalfloor.Ithas
9suspendedfloorsaboveground.TheAHU/HVACunitsarelocatedontheroofofthetower.

East Tower: The second hospital building called as East Tower consists of one basement level,
ground level and two dedicated mechanical floors same as west tower. The East Tower has 12
suspendedfloorsaboveground.TheAHU/HVACunitsarelocatedintheroofsimilartowesttower.

2. CodesandStandards
Allcodesandstandardsusedintheprojecttobementionedhere.Thefollowingisgivenasaguide.

Structural systems for the proposed Project will be designed in accordance with the following
standards:

ASCE/SEI710:ASCEStandardhasbeenusedforcalculatingMinimumDesignLoads
forBuildingsandOtherStructures.
IBC2012:InternationalBuildingCodehasbeenusedforcalculatingliveloads,wind
loadsandotherstructuralimpacts.
ACI 318M11: Building code requirements for structural concrete and
commentary:hasbeenusedfordesignofstructuralconcreteelements.
AISC:AISCSteelConstructionManual,FourteenthEditionhasbeenusedfordesign
ofstructuralsteelmembers.
UBC97:ForSeismicLoadsconsiderationonly.(Onlywhenapplicable)


Duringdesignwork,referenceshavealsobeenmadetothefollowing:

Allreferencesusedintheprojecttobementionedhere.Thefollowingisgivenasaguide.

AmericanConcreteInstituteManualofConcretePractice:(Part1toPart6).
ASTMStandardsinBuildingCodes.
American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE): Specification for the Design and
ConstructionofCompositeSlabs.

ProjectName
GULFCONSULT

American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures


andSpecificationsforMasonryStructures.
American Welding Society (AWS): Structural Welding Code for Structural Steel and
ReinforcingSteel(AWSD1.1).
PCIDesignHandbook7thEditionPrecastandPrestressedConcrete.
MPWMinisterialResolutionNo:24/1987dated18.10.1987forgroundwatereffects
onbasementsorundergroundfacilities.

3. StructuralLoads
All superimposed dead loads (Finishes, Partition loads, CMEP and Soil fill), Live loads(All room
usages), wind loads and seismic loads used in the project to be mentioned here. The following is
givenasaguide.Fromliveloads,selectroomusageswhichareavailableinarchitecturaldrawings
anddeleteothers.

3.1. ImposedDeadLoads
Finishes (Fordetails,referarchitecturaldrawings)
2kN/m2 (Allfloors)
3kN/m2 (Roof/Landscapeareas)

Partition (Refertoarchitecturalandloadingplans)

CMEP 0.5kN/m2
(CeilingMechanicalElectricalPlumbing)

SoilFill (Refertolandscapeandloadingplans)
Soil=18kN/m3

3.2. LiveLoads
[ASCE/SEI710(Table41)]
Assemblyareaandtheaters
(Fixedseats) 3kN/m2
(Movableseats) 5kN/m2
Lobbiesandplatform 5kN/m2
Stagefloors 7.2kN/m2

Catwalksformaintenanceaccess 2kN/m2

Corridorsonfirstfloor 5kN/m2
Corridorsabovefirstfloor 4kN/m2
DiningRoomsandRestaurants 5kN/m2
Garages(Passengervehicles) 2kN/m2

Hospitals
Operatingrooms,laboratories 3kN/m2
Patientrooms 2kN/m2

ProjectName
GULFCONSULT

Libraries
Readingrooms 3kN/m2
Stackrooms 7.2kN/m2

Officebuildings
Lobbiesandfirstfloorcorridors 5kN/m2
Offices 2.5kN/m2

Recreationaluses
Gymnasium,Bleachers,Dancehalls 5kN/m2

Residential
Habitableatticsandsleepingareas 1.5kN/m2
Otherareas 2kN/m2
Privaterooms 2kN/m2
Publicrooms 5kN/m2

Roofs
Ordinary,flat,pitchedandcurved 1kN/m2
Roofgardens 5kN/m2
Roofsusedforassembly 5kN/m2

Schools
Classrooms 2kN/m2

Stairandexitways 5kN/m2

Stairs(Oneandtwofamilydwelling) 2kN/m2

Storage
Light 6kN/m2
Heavy 12kN/m2

Stores
Retail(Firstfloor) 5kN/m2
Retail(Upperfloors) 4kN/m2

3.3. ThermalLoads
25C





ProjectName
GULFCONSULT

3.4. WindLoads
(In the below section there are two wind speeds for different Risk categories. Check the
typeofthestructureandselecttheriskcategorywhichisapplicable.Deletethepartofthe
tablewhichisnotapplicable).
BuildingType RiskCategory
Office,Residential,CarparandGarage 2
College,School,Museumandwastewatertreatmentfacility 3
Airport,HospitalandPumpstation 4

WindloadisasperASCE/SEI710

RiskCategory = II Table1.51
WindSpeed(mph) V = 125 mph
ASCE26.8.2AllowstouseKztas1when
siteconditionsandlocationsofstructures
TopographicalFactor Kzt = 1
donotmeetalltheconditionsspecifiedin
section26.8.1
ASCE26.9.1Allowstousegusteffectfactor
as0.85ifthebuilding/otherstructureis
GustFactor = 0.85
rigid.Whichmeansthefundamental
frequencyisgreaterthanorequalto1Hz.
Table26.61forBuildings(MainWind
DirectionalityFactor Kd = 0.85 ForceResistingSystemorComponentsand
Cladding)

RiskCategory = IIIorIV Table1.51


WindSpeed(mph) V = 135 mph
ASCE26.8.2AllowstouseKztas1when
siteconditionsandlocationsofstructures
TopographicalFactor Kzt = 1
donotmeetalltheconditionsspecifiedin
section26.8.1
ASCE26.9.1Allowstousegusteffectfactor
as0.85ifthebuilding/otherstructureis
GustFactor = 0.85
rigid.Whichmeansthefundamental
frequencyisgreaterthanorequalto1Hz.
Table26.61forBuildings(MainWind
DirectionalityFactor Kd = 0.85 ForceResistingSystemorComponentsand
Cladding)

Notes:
1 Theabovefactorsareusedforbuildingswherethesiteconditionsandlocationsdonot
meetalltheconditionsinsection26.8.1whichisthecaseinKuwait.
2 BuildingsaregenerallyconsideredasrigidbuildingswhereGustFactorcanbe0.85.For
flexiblebuildings/structures,calculateexactGustFactor.AsperASCE26.9.5.
3 Winddirectionalityfactorisforstructuretype:BuildingsMainWindForceResisting
System

ProjectName
GULFCONSULT

3.5. SeismicLoads
(Selectdesigncode,ASCEorUBC.Thencheckbuildingtypeandselectriskcategorywhen
using ASCE and importance factor when using UBC. Delete the part of the table which is
notapplicable).

AsperASCE/SEI710
1 TimePeriod [12.8.2.1]
StructureType CT x
ConcreteMomentResistingframes 0.016 0.9
Allotherstructuralsystems 0.02 0.75

2 Factors
Table12.21DesignCoefficientsandFactorsforSeismicForceResistingSystems

Response System Deflection


SeismicForceResistingSystem Modification Overstrength Amplification
Coefficient
R Cd
MomentResistingFrameSystems
3 3 2.5
Ordinaryreinforcedconcretemomentframes

DualSystemswithintermediatemomentframescapable 5.5 2.5 4.5


ofresistingatleast25%ofprescribedseismicforces
Ordinaryreinforcedconcreteshearwalls
Shearwallframeinteractivesystemwithordinary
reinforcedconcretemomentsframesandordinary 4.5 2.5 4
reinforcedconcreteshearwalls

3 RiskCategory I, II, III, IV [Table1.51]

4 OccupancyImportance
RiskCategory Ie [Table1.52]
I 1
II 1
III 1.25
IV 1.5

5 SeismicCoefficients
MappedMCER,5%damped,spectralresponseaccelerationparameterat
SS = 0.186
shortperiods
MappedMCER,5%damped,spectralresponseaccelerationparameterata
S1 = 0.07
periodof1s

Longperiodtransitionperiod TL = 5 Seconds

6 SiteClass CorD

ProjectName
GULFCONSULT

AsperUBC1997
1 CT = Numericalcoefficient [UBC1630.2.2]

CT = 0.035 (forsteelmomentresistingframes)
0.03 (forreinforcedconcretemomentresistingframesandeccentricallybracedframes)
0.02 (forallotherbuildings)

2 Factors
Table16NStructuralSystems
Overstrength
LateralForceResistingSystemDescritpion factor
R
Momentresistingframesystem
3.5
OrdinarymomentresistingframeConcrete
DualSystems
Shearwallsconcretewithconcreteintermediate 6.5
momentresistingframe
Shearwallframeinteractionsystems 5.5

3 SeismicCoefficients
SoilProfileType Soilprofilename/genericdescription [Table16.J]
SA HardRock
S B Rock
SC VeryDenseSoilandSoftRock
SD StiffSoilProfile
SE SoftSoilProfile

SeismicZoneFactorZ [Table16.I]
Zone Z
1 0.075
2A 0.15

4 NearSourceFactor [Table16U]
SeismicSourceType SeismicSourceDescription
Faultsthatarecapableofproducinglargemagnitudeeventsandthathavea
A
highrateofseismicactivity
B AllfaultsotherthanTypesAandC
Faultsthatarenotcapableofproducinglargemagnitudeearthquakesand
C
thathavearelativelylowrateofseismicactivity

5 ImportanceFactor
OccupancyCategory I [Table16K]
EssentialFacilities 1.25
HazardousFacilities 1.25
SpecialOccupancyStructures 1
StandardOccupancyStructures 1
MiscellaneousStructures 1

ProjectName
GULFCONSULT

3.6. LoadCombinations [ASCE/SEI710Section2.3.2]


D = DeadLoad(SelfWeightandsuperimposeddeadload)
E = EarthquakeLoad
F = Loadduetofluidswithwelldefinedpressuresandmaximumheights
H = Loadduetolateralearthpressure,groundwaterpressures,orpressureofbulk
materials
L = LiveLoad
Lr = RoofLiveLoad
R = RainLoad
T = Selfstrainingload(ThermalLoad)
W = WindLoad

a. UltimateLoadCombinations:
U1= 1.4(D+F)
U2= 1.2(D+F)+1.6L+0.5(LrorR)
U3= 1.2(D+F)+1.6(LrorR)+(Lor0.5W)
U4= 1.2(D+F)+1.0W+L+0.5(LrorR)
U5= 1.2(D+F)+1.0E+L+1.6H
U6= 0.9D+1.0W
U7= 0.9(D+F)+1.0E
Exceptions:
1. The load factor on L in combinations 3, 4, and 5 is permitted to equal 0.5 for all
occupanciesinwhichLoinTable41(ASCE/SEI710)islessthanorequalto100psf(5
kN/m2).
2. WhereloadHarepresent,theyshallbeincludedasfollow:
a. WheretheeffectofHaddstotheprimaryvariableloadeffect,includeHwitha
loadfactorof1.6;
b. WheretheeffectofHresiststheprimaryvariableloadeffect,includeHwitha
loadfactorof0.9.Wheretheloadispermanentoraloadfactorof0forallother
conditions.

Fortemperatureloads(referSectionC2.3.5ofASCE/SEI710)
U8= 1.2D+1.2T+0.5L
U9= 1.2D+1.6L+1.0T
ForearthquakeloadswhenconsideringUBC1997Section1612.2.1:
U10= 1.1(1.2D+1.0E+f1L)
U11= 1.1(0.9D1.0E)
Where
f1 = 1.0forfloorsinplacesofpublicassembly,forliveloadsinexcessof100psf(4.9
kN/m2),andforgarageliveload.
= 0.5forotherliveloads.

ProjectName
GULFCONSULT

b. ServiceLoadCombinations: [S1S8fromASCE/SEI710Section2.4.1]
S1 = (D+F)
S2 = (D+F)+L
S3 = (D+F)+Lr
S4 = (D+F)+0.75L+0.75Lr
S5 = (D+F)+(0.6Wor0.7E)
S6a= (D+F)+0.75L+0.75(0.6W)+0.75Lr
S6b= (D+F)+0.75L+0.75(0.7E)
S7 = 0.6D+0.6W
S8 = 0.6(D+F)+0.7E
Fortemperatureloadscombinations,refertoASCE/SEI710SectionC2.4.4
S9 = 1.0D+1.0T
S10= 1.0D+0.75(L+T)
Exceptions:
1. WhereloadHispresent,itshallbeincludedasfollows:
a. WheretheeffectofHaddstotheprimaryvariableloadeffect,includeHwitha
loadfactorof1.0;
b. WheretheeffectofHresiststheprimaryvariableloadeffect,includeHwitha
loadfactorof0.6
wheretheloadispermanentoraloadfactorof0forallotherconditions.

4. SystemServiceabilityCriteria

4.1. SystemDeflectionCriteria
a. VerticalDeflectionsarelimitedtothefollowing: [ACI318M11Table9.5(b)]

Typeofmember Deflectiontobeconsidered Deflection


limitation

Rooforfloorconstructionsupportingor Thatpartofthetotaldeflectionoccurring l /240


attachedtononstructural afterattachmentofnonstructuralelements
elementsnotlikelytobedamagedby (sumofthelongtermdeflectionduetoall
largedeflections sustainedloadsandtheimmediate
deflectionduetoanyadditionalliveload).
Floorsnotsupportingorattachedto Immediatedeflectionduetoliveload. l/360
nonstructuralelements
likelytobedamagedbylarge
deflections

Wherelisthespanlength.

ProjectName
GULFCONSULT

b. LateralDeflectionsarelimitedtothefollowing:
ForWindLoads [ASCE/SEI710SectionCC.1.2]

BuildingDrift BuildingHeight/500
StoryDrift StoryHeight/500

ForSeismicLoads [ASCE/SEI710Section12.12]
StorydriftshallnotexceedtheallowablestorydriftaobtainedfromTable12.121.

RiskCategory
Structure I or II III IV
Structures,otherthanmasonryshearwallstructures,4 0.025h sx 0.020h sx 0.015h sx

storiesorlessabovethebaseasdefinedinSection11.2,with
interiorwalls,partitions,ceilings,andexteriorwallsystems
thathavebeendesignedtoaccommodatethestorydrifts.
Masonrycantilevershearwallstructures 0.010hsx 0.010hsx 0.010hsx

Othermasonryshearwallstructures 0.007hsx 0.007hsx 0.007hsx

Allotherstructures 0.020hsx 0.015hsx 0.010hsx

Wherehsxisthestoryheightbelowlevelx

ForSeismicLoads [UBC19971630.10]
StorydriftarecomputedusingMaximumInelasticResponseDisplacementM.

M<0.025*storyheight forstructureswithT<0.7second
M<0.02*storyheight forstructureswithT0.7second

WhereTisthefundamentalperiodofvibrationinseconds,ofthestructureinthe
directionunderconsideration

4.2. CrackwidthCriteria
AsperACI224R01Table4.1,themaximumallowedcrackwidthis0.41mm.

4.3. UpliftCriteria
Aspersoilreport(Reportnumber),factorofsafetyforupliftis1.1.

ProjectName
GULFCONSULT

5. Materials
ReinforcedConcreteispresentlyenvisionedasthemostappropriateandcosteffectivematerial
foralltheprimarystructuralsystems(i.e.forfoundations,columns,slabs,beams,walls,etc.)forthe
majorityofstructuresconstitutingthenewproposedhospitalbuildings.Typically,concreteelements
arecastinplace,butprecastconcrete isalsoappropriateformanyapplications.Longspanroofs,
longspan floors, ornamental stairs, special entrance structures and systems to support glazing
systemsaremoreappropriatelydesignedusingstructuralsteel.

5.1. ReinforcedConcrete:

Typicalconcreteandreinforcementpropertiesareasfollows:
a. Concretestrengthsat28days:

ConcreteCube ConcreteCompressive ModulusofElasticity


CrushingStrength strength 4700 f c'
StructuralElement
fcu fc E
MPa MPa MPa

Slabs/Beams 40 32 26587
Columns/Shearwalls 55 44 31176
Foundations 40 32 26587
Precast/Prestressed
50 40 29725
elements
Blinding 14 11.2 15729

Unitweightofplainconcrete : 2320kg/m3=22.76kN/m3 [Structural Concrete Book by


Unitweightofreinforcedconcrete : 2500kg/m3=24.525kN/m3 NadimHassoun]
25kN/m3isused.
Poisson'sRatio : 0.20

Creepcoefficient,Cu: [Table2.2DesignofConcreteStructuresBookbyNilson,DarwinandDolan]

CompressiveStrength CreepCoefficient
fc(MPa) Cu
44 2.3
40 2.4
32 2.7

Thermalcoefficient:Average,10x106i.e.,105perdegreeC

10

ProjectName
GULFCONSULT

b. ReinforcementConformingtoASTMA615
fy=420MPa
Density=77.30kN/m3 [ASCE710TableC32]
c. PrestressingTendonConformingtoASTMA416 fpu=1860MPa

5.2. StructuralSteel:

StructuralsteelhasbeendesignedanddetailedasinaccordancewithAISC.Structuralsteel
gradesaretypicallyasfollows:

SteelSections ASTMA572,Grade50,fy=345MPa
AnchorBolts ASTMF1554Grade55
ConnectionBolts ASTMA325orA490
WeldMaterial E70XX

6. Geotechnical Condition

This section should contain information from soil report. Such as number of boreholes, depth of
boreholes, types of tests conducted at site to describe the soil type condition and foundation
recommendations. In some cases the soil needs to be improved, so this should be mentioned here.
Thefollowingisgivenasaguide.
XLabwasappointedbytheClientXtocarryoutthesoilinvestigationworksattheProjectBuilding
Site.Soilinvestigationshavebeencarriedoutbydrillingboreholesattheprojectsite.

Number(X)boreholesBH1toBHXhavebeendrilledatthespecificlocationsontheBuildingSite.

Detailedsoilreportshavebeensubmittedseparately.

Standard Penetration Tests (SPT) have been performed at 0.5m interval to the depth of 3m and
thereafter at 1m interval to the final depth of the boreholes. Disturbed samples for visual
classifications have been taken at all the depths where SPT were conducted. Necessary field tests
(Grainsieveanalysis,Atterberglimits,Directsheartest,Bulkunitweight,Proctortest,CBR,specific
gravity,constanthead,permeabilityandchemicaltest(PH,Sulphate,Chloride,organicmatter)are
carriedoutonsamplesobtainedfromtheboreholes.

The drilled boreholes show that there are general similarities and continuities of the sub surface
materials inspite of some local variations. Based on the results of the field investigations, the
subsurface conditions in general shows that soil is silty sand with layers of poorly graded sand,
clayeysand,siltyclayeyareencounteredatdepthsbelow.

Furtherdetailscanbefoundinthedetailedsoilinvestigationreport.

Watertablehasbeenencounteredduringthedrillingprocessvaryingbetween2.7mto3.9mforCar
Park Building, between 2.9m to 3.8m for kitchen/laundry building, between 2.5m to 3.3m for
Hospitalbuilding,fromtheexistinggroundlevel.

11

ProjectName
GULFCONSULT

7. Structural System

Thissectionshouldcontaininformationabouttypeofstructure,whetherconcreteorsteel,framing
(solidslabwithbeams,flatslaborribbedslab,oracombinationoftwodifferentstructuralsystems),
howislateralstabilityachievedandanyspecialstructuralitemsoftheproject.Thefollowingisgiven
asaguide.
The structural framing system has been proposed for each building considering the architectural
layouts,locationofcolumnsandservicesrequirements.

For the Hospital Building the general framing system has been proposed as Flat Slab with drop
panels and spandrel beams. For mechanical areas the proposed system is also Flat Slab with drop
panel but with extra thickness. For the isolation rooms and slabs with openings, the structural
systemproposedistwowayslabswithbeamsineitherdirection.

Theframingsystemoftheconnectinglinkbridgebetweenthemultistorycarparkbuilding&main
hospitalbuildingconsistsofRCbeamandslabsupportedonRCcolumn.

Theundergroundlinktunnelbetweenthemultistorycarparkbuilding&AuditoriumhasRCwall&
RCtopslabsupportedonraft.

ConsideringthelengthoftheHospitalBuilding,oneortwoexpansionjointsapproximately200mm
widehavebeenproposedbasedontheSeismicdesigncriteria.Themaximumlengthbetweentwo
expansionsjointisaround129m.

Atlocationwhereslabcantileversmorethan4m,itisproposedtoposttensiontheslab.

FortheconnectionBridgestheproposedsystemissteelbeamorTrussesoffloorheightsaccording
tothespanssupportingtheconcreteslabovermetaldeck.

The columns locations are as per architectural planning. Lateral stability has been provided by
Stair/ElevatorcoresandRampwalls.

Considering the Basement and recommended bearing capacity, the foundation system has been
proposed as Raft Foundation with variable thicknesses at columns and walls locations for Hospital
andCarParkBuildings.

The raft foundation and basement walls in Hospital and Car Park Buildings have been fully tanked
usingPVCwaterproofingmembranetoprotecttheconcretefromgroundwatereffects.

12

QualityManagementSystemManual

STRUCTURAL DEPARTMENT
GULF CONSULT

SOP NO ST- 03

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR

LOADING PLAN

Author: .

Approved: .

Prepared on:

Revised on:

Pages I of ..

- 32 -
QualityManagementSystemManual

SOP NO ST-03
LOADING PLAN

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0 Purpose 1

2.0 Scope 1

3.0 Responsibility 1

4.0 Procedure 1

5.0 Records 8

- 33 -
QualityManagementSystemManual

SOP NO ST-03
LOADING PLAN

1 Purpose
The purpose of this SOP is to establish a uniform procedure for
developing loading plans of any project as per loadings from
Architectural drawings and usage of building. The loading plans help
the structural engineer in the design and checking of structural
elements.

2 Scope
This procedure applies to all design projects undertaken by Gulf
Consult. All projects must have a loading plan that clearly shows all the
loads that are considered in the design of all structural elements.

3 Responsibility
The Senior Structural Engineer responsible for a specific project is
responsible of preparing loading plans as per the loads from
architectural drawings and distributing them to all engineers working on
this project. All loading plans should be checked and approved by
Senior Structural Engineer.

4 Procedure
The procedure for preparing the loading plans begins with the study of
architectural plans and usage of every area marked in them. All
Mechanical and Electrical equipment should be marked on architectural
plans with their weights.
1. Prepare structural drawings of all floors as per architectural
drawings.
2. Take architectural and structural plans of a floor and mark the
different loads:
a. Finishes Load
i. Finishes on floors are 100 mm thick and unit weight of
finishes is considered as 20 kN/m3. So 2 kN/m2 is
considered for finishes.
ii. Roof finishes are higher, 3 kN/m2 is considered.
iii. If architectural floors show higher thickness of
finishes, then this thickness should be considered.

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QualityManagementSystemManual
b. Partition Load
i. Calculate partition load in all areas. If partition load is
similar in different areas, then consider one typical
area and calculate the load. All walls should be
considered in partition loads.
ii. If partition wall is on the edge of the building, then
calculate it as line load and mark on structural plans.
iii. Mark all partition loads on structural plans.

c. CMEP (Ceiling Mechanical Electrical Plumbing)


i. Usually a value of 0.5 kN/m2 is considered.
ii. If architectural drawings show heavy ceilings, then a
value of 1.0 kN/m2 is considered.
iii. For special cases, the CMEP value should be
calculated.

d. Live Load
i. First mark live loads on architectural plans as per area
usages from ASCE/SEI 7-10 and prepare a list of all
these areas with their loads from ASCE. This list will
be added as in design criteria.
SampleofareausagesasperTable41fromASCE/SEI710
(Valuesareroundedup)
Assemblyareaandtheaters
(Fixedseats)=3kN/m2
(Movableseats)=5kN/m2
Lobbiesandplatform=5kN/m2
Stagefloors=7.2kN/m2
Catwalksformaintenanceaccess=2kN/m2
Corridorsonfirstfloor=5kN/m2
Corridorsabovefirstfloor=4kN/m2
Restaurants=5kN/m2
Garages(Passengervehicles)=2kN/m2
Hospitals
Operatingrooms,laboratories=3kN/m2
Patientrooms=2kN/m2
Libraries
Readingrooms=3kN/m2
Stackrooms=7.2kN/m2

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QualityManagementSystemManual
Officebuildings
Lobbiesandfirstfloorcorridors=5kN/m2
Offices=2.5kN/m2
Recreationaluses
Gymnasium,Bleachers,Dancehalls=5kN/m2
Residential
Habitableatticsandsleepingareas=1.5kN/m2
Otherareas=2kN/m2
Privaterooms=2kN/m2
Publicrooms=5kN/m2
Roofs
Ordinary,flat,pitchedandcurved=1kN/m2
Roofgardens=5kN/m2
Roofsusedforassembly=5kN/m2
Schools
Classrooms=2kN/m2 (AsperASCE/SEI710)
Classrooms=3kN/m2(AsperMOErequirements)
Stairandexitways=5kN/m2
Stairs(Oneandtwofamilydwelling)=2kN/m2
Storage
Light=6kN/m2
Heavy=12kN/m2
Stores
Retail(Firstfloor)=5kN/m2
Retail(Upperfloors)=4kN/m2
ii. Mark the live loads on structural plans.
iii. If a structural system such as ribbed slab consists of
two live loads then a weighted average can be
calculated and provided.

e. Landscape areas
i. Landscape areas are covered with finishes similar to
roof finishes (200-300 mm thick 3 kN/m2).
ii. Soil height to be considered is equal to the top level
from landscape drawings minus the top of slab at that
area minus 200-300 mm of finishes. (See sketch
below)
For example:
Soil level is 1.2m, Top of slab is -0.1
Soil height = 1.2 (-0.1) 0.2 = 1.1 m

- 36 -
QualityManagementSystemManual

f. Substation areas
i. Transformer area
Finishes+Transformer+Pad/Fill=25kN/m2
Liveload=10kN/m2
ii. Chiller area / Generator area
Tobecalculatedaspersupplierdetails.
Theloadshouldcontain:
Chillerpad
Finishes+CMEP
ChillerWeight
LiveLoad

g. Areas which have similar live load, partition load, finishes


and CMEP load are designated one area type. List of
these areas is added as a drawing in loading plans.
h. Mark all line loads from different load cases.
i. Repeat the above for all floors.

The Loading plan should consist of all area loads (Finishes, CMEP,
Partition, Live or any other loads) that are applied on that floor. In addition
to that, any line loads that are applied on that floor should be clearly
marked.
Seismic and wind loads are written at the corner of each drawing.
A sample of loading plan is attached in Appendix.

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QualityManagementSystemManual

5 Records
Loading plans are prepared. See Figure. Full loading plan drawing is
attached in appendix.

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QualityManagementSystemManual

STRUCTURAL DEPARTMENT
GULF CONSULT

SOP NO ST- 04

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR

BUILDING MODEL

Author: .

Approved: .

Prepared on:

Revised on:

Pages I of ..

- 39 -
QualityManagementSystemManual

SOP NO ST-04
BUILDING MODEL

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0 Purpose 1

2.0 Scope 1

3.0 Responsibility 1

4.0 Procedure 1

5.0 Records 8

- 40 -
QualityManagementSystemManual

SOP NO ST-04
BUILDING MODEL
1. Purpose
The purpose of this SOP is to establish a uniform procedure for developing
an ETABS model of any project in GC. This will help all engineers while
modeling different segments of one project.

2. Scope
This procedure applies to all ETABS models of any GC project created in
ETABS 2013/2015 version 13.2.2/15.2.0. All ETABS models should be
modeled as mentioned in the procedure below.

3. Responsibility
The Structural Engineer is responsible of preparing a building model as per
the structural plans given to him. The model should match the structural
plans. Where the model is not matching, then a reason must be mentioned in
the calculations file.

4. Procedure
1. Define if building should be divided into smaller segments or one model
can be prepared.
2. Take structural drawings, mark centrelines of all structural elements
and assign one layer type, then transfer them into ETABS model using
import .DXF file of floor plan in ETABS file menu.
3. Geometry is ready. (The steps from 4 to 30 are required when a
template model does not exist).
DEFINE MENU
4. Define concrete material properties as per design criteria. Use name as
C32 for a concrete with fc = 32 MPa. Go to Define menu, Material
properties and Add new Material, or Add copy of Material, but make
sure to select the 4000Psi default material.

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QualityManagementSystemManual
5. If you use Add Copy of Material or Add new Material the Weight per
Unit Volume is 25 kN/m2, the modulus of Elasticity is
E = 4700*SQRT(fc).
Keep the remaining parameters as they are shown below.

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QualityManagementSystemManual
6. After that go to Modify/Show Material Property Design Data and
assign the concrete strength as 32. Similarly define all required
concrete strengths. See below table for values of E for different
concrete strengths.

fcu fc E
ETABS ID 2 2
kg/cm N/mm kN/m2
C32 400 32 26587000
C40 500 40 29725000
C44 550 44 31176000

7. Materials are defined.


8. Define beam sections as per size. Use B as an indication of a beam
section. If a beam is 400 wide and 800 deep, then the name of the
beam should be as B400X800. Go to Define menu, Section
Properties, and Frame Sections. See below. Then select Add New
Property.

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9. Select the section you want to enter. For example Concrete


Rectangular.

10. Enter beam width and depth as shown below. Then select
Modify/Show Rebar.

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11. Select M3 Design only (Beam). Click OK.

12. The window will look like below.

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13. Click on Modify/Show Modifiers, and assign 0.35 modifiers as shown


below.

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14. Define Column sections as per size. Use C as an indication of a
column section. If a column is 500 wide and 500 deep, then the name
of the column should be C500X500. Go to Define menu, Section
Properties, and Frame Sections. Then select Add New Property.

15. Select the section you want to enter. For example Concrete
Rectangular.

16. Enter column width and depth as shown below. Then select
Modify/Show Rebar.

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17. Select P-M2-M3 Design (Column).

a. If Reinforcement to be designed is selected, then the column


will be designed and the output of concrete design will be
reinforcement percentages.
b. If Reinforcement to be checked is selected, then the column is
checked for the given reinforcement. For example C500X500
column with 1.5% reinforcement will have 12-dia 20 bars. So the
input should be as shown below. The column capacity of
500x500 with 12-dia 20 bars will be compared with column
forces.

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And the final column section property will be as shown below.

c. The Number of Longitudinal Bars Along 3-dir Face and Along 2-


dir Face are as per Columns schedule. (Most of the columns will
be defined in ETABS model Template). Sample of Column
schedule is shown below. Refer to Appendix for all column
sizes.

B H Dia Ast Along Along


No Rho
mm mm mm mm2 3-dir Face 2-dir Face
400 400 8 16 1608 1.01 % 3 3
400 400 8 20 2513 1.57 % 3 3
400 400 12 20 3770 2.36 % 4 4
400 400 16 20 5027 3.14 % 5 5
400 400 20 20 6283 3.93 % 6 6
400 400 16 25 7854 4.91 % 5 5
400 400 20 25 9817 6.14 % 6 6

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18. Click on Modify/show Modifiers, and assign 0.7 modifiers as shown
below.

19. Define slab sections as per their thicknesses. Consider S as an


indication of a slab section. If slab is 200 mm thick, then the name of
the slab should be S200. Go to Define menu, Section Properties,
and Slab Sections. Then select Add New Property.

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20. Enter the slab thickness as shown below for 200 mm slab.

21. Click on Modify/Show at the Modifiers (Currently Default) and assign


0.25 modifiers as shown below.

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22. The Slab section window will appear as shown below. Note the change
next to Modifiers. It says now (Currently User Specified).

23. Define Wall sections as per their thicknesses. Consider W as an


indication of a wall section. If wall is 300 mm thick, then the name of
the wall should be W300. Go to Define menu, Section Properties,
and Wall Sections. Then select Add New Property.

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24. Enter the wall thickness as shown below for 300 mm wall.

25. Click on Modify/Show at the Modifiers (Currently Default) and assign


0.7 modifiers as shown below.

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26. The wall section window will appear as shown below. Note the change
next to Modifiers. It says now (Currently User Specified).

27. Now all sections are defined. ETABS template model (that will be
created in near future) will contain all the usual beams, slabs and walls
sections defined.

28. Define Loads by going to Define menu, then Load Patterns.

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29. Add the loads as shown below by typing the Load name under the
Load and selecting the Type from drop down list.
Self Weight Auto Lateral
Load Type
Multiplier Load
Finishes Super Dead 0
Partition Super Dead 0
CMEP1 Super Dead 0
Soil2 Super Dead 0
Wind3 Wind 0 ASCE 7-10
EQX, EQY, EQXPY, EQXNY,
Seismic 0 ASCE 7-10
EQYPX, EQYNX4
TEMPPOS5 OTHER 0
TEMPNEG6 OTHER 0
Water7 *** 0

1
CMEP (Ceiling Mechanical Electrical Plumbing)
2
Soil (for any soil fill)
3
Wind (12 wind load cases are generated automatically when ASCE 7-10 Code is selected)
4
EQX, EQY, EQXPY, EQXNY, EQYPX, EQYNX (Earthquake loads, Six load cases)
5
TEMPPOS (Temperature load case where temperature value is positive)
6
TEMPNEG (Temperature load case where temperature value is negative)
7
Water (for water loads) [If water is used in water tank, then Type should be Super Dead. It
has a multiplier of 1.2 for ultimate load combinations]. [If water is considered as soil load, then
Type should be Live. It has a multiplier of 1.6 for ultimate load combinations].
a. For Wind: Check the design criteria of The Project and define
the exposure type, topographical factor, Gust factor and
Directionality factor. A Table summarizing all wind input is
shown below. Input the parameters in Wind load Pattern form as
shown below.

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WindLoadParametersasperASCE/SEI710

RiskCategory = II Table1.51
WindSpeed(mph) V = 125 mph
ASCE26.8.2AllowstouseKztas1whensite
TopographicalFactor Kzt = 1 conditionsandlocationsofstructuresdonot
meetalltheconditionsspecifiedinsection26.8.1
ASCE26.9.1Allowstousegusteffectfactoras
0.85ifthebuilding/otherstructureisrigid.Which
GustFactor = 0.85
meansthefundamentalfrequencyisgreaterthan
orequalto1Hz.
Table26.61forBuildings(MainWindForce
DirectionalityFactor Kd = 0.85
ResistingSystemorComponentsandCladding)

RiskCategory = IIIorIV Table1.51


WindSpeed(mph) V = 135 mph
ASCE26.8.2AllowstouseKztas1whensite
TopographicalFactor Kzt = 1 conditionsandlocationsofstructuresdonot
meetalltheconditionsspecifiedinsection26.8.1
ASCE26.9.1Allowstousegusteffectfactoras
0.85ifthebuilding/otherstructureisrigid.Which
GustFactor = 0.85
meansthefundamentalfrequencyisgreaterthan
orequalto1Hz.
Table26.61forBuildings(MainWindForce
DirectionalityFactor Kd = 0.85
ResistingSystemorComponentsandCladding)

Notes:
1 Theabovefactorsareusedforbuildingswherethesiteconditionsandlocationsdo
notmeetalltheconditionsinsection26.8.1whichisthecaseinKuwait.
2 BuildingsaregenerallyconsideredasrigidbuildingswhereGustFactorcanbe0.85.
Forflexiblebuildings/structures,calculateexactGustFactor.AsperASCE26.9.5.
3 Winddirectionalityfactorisforstructuretype:BuildingsMainWindForceResisting
System

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b. For Seismic: Check the design criteria of The Project and
define the structure type, Response Modification Coefficient,
System Overstrength, Deflection Amplification, Risk Category,
Occupancy Importance, Seismic Coefficients and Site Class and
input in the form shown below.
All seismic parameters used in ETABS model are summarized
below.

There are six seismic load cases. All have similar input as
shown above; the only difference is the Direction and
Eccentricity

Load Direction and Eccentricity


EQX X Dir
EQY Y Dir
EQXPY X Dir + Eccentricity
EQXNY X Dir - Eccentricity
EQYPX Y Dir + Eccentricity
EQYNX Y Dir - Eccentricity

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SeismicloadparametersasperASCE/SEI710

1 TimePeriod
StructureType CT x
ConcreteMomentResistingframes 0.016 0.9
Allotherstructuralsystems 0.02 0.75
2 Factors
Table12.21DesignCoefficientsandFactorsforSeismicForceResistingSystems
Response System Deflection
SeismicForceResistingSystem Modification Overstrength Amplification
Coefficient
R Cd
MomentResistingFrameSystems
3 3 2.5
Ordinaryreinforcedconcretemomentframes
DualSystemswithintermediatemomentframes
capableofresistingatleast25%ofprescribed 5.5 2.5 4.5
seismicforces
Ordinaryreinforcedconcreteshearwalls
Shearwallframeinteractivesystemwith
ordinaryreinforcedconcretemomentsframes 4.5 2.5 4
andordinaryreinforcedconcreteshearwalls

3 RiskCategory I, II, III, IV [Table1.51]


4 OccupancyImportance
RiskCategory Ie [Table1.52]
I 1
II 1
III 1.25
IV 1.5
5 SeismicCoefficients
MappedMCER,5%damped,spectralresponseacceleration
SS = 0.186
parameteratshortperiods
MappedMCER,5%damped,spectralresponseacceleration
S1 = 0.07
parameterataperiodof1s

Longperiodtransitionperiod TL = 5 Seconds

6 SiteClass CorD

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30. Define load combinations: Go to Define menu, Load Combinations,
click on Add Default Design Combos.

31. Select Design Type as required.

32. When Temperature load to be considered in Design, then a manual


combination should be added in the load combinations as follow.
a. Click on Add New Combo in step 30. The following window
should appear. Two load combinations should be added.
TEMP1 = 1.2(D+F)+1.0 TEMPPOS + 1.6 (L+H) + 0.5 Lr
TEMP2 = 1.2(D+F)+1.0 TEMPNEG + 1.6 (L+H) + 0.5 Lr

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ASSIGN MENU
When all the beams, columns, slabs and walls are drawn, the geometry is
done and the remaining part is assigning sections as per the structural
drawings and assigning loads. The following points will explain how the
different assignments are done.
33. Assigning Slab Sections
a. Select the slab that you want to assign a thickness of 200mm for
example.
b. Go to Assign menu, Shell, Slab Section. The following
window will appear. Select the slab thickness S200. If only one
slab to be assigned a thickness, click on OK. If more than one
slab with different thicknesses to be assigned then click on
Apply. Then select another slab, another thickness and again
Apply. When done, click OK and the window will close.
Assigned slab thicknesses are shown on each slab.

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34. Assigning Beam Sections


a. Select the beam that you want to assign a section of 400X800
for example.
b. Go to Assign menu, Frame, Section Property. The following
window will appear. Select the beam section B400X800. If only
one beam to be assigned a section, click on OK. If more than
one beam with different beam sections to be assigned then click
on Apply. Then select another beam, another beam section
and again Apply. When done, click OK and the window will
close. Assigned beam sections are shown on each beam
element.

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35. Assigning Column Sections


a. Select the column that you want to assign a section of 500X500
for example.
b. Go to Assign menu, Frame, Section Property. The following
window will appear. Select the column section C500X500. If only
one column to be assigned a section, click on OK. If more than
one column with different column sections to be assigned then
click on Apply. Then select another column, another column
section and again Apply. When done, click OK and the window
will close. Assigned column sections are shown on each column
element.

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36. Assigning Wall sections


a. Select the wall that you want to assign a thickness of 300 for
example.
b. Go to Assign menu, Shell, Wall Section. The following
window will appear. Select the wall section W300. If only one
wall to be assigned, then click on OK. If more than one wall
with different wall thicknesses to be assigned then click on
Apply. Then select another wall, another thickness and again
Apply. When done, click OK and the window will close.
Assigned wall sections are shown on each wall element.

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37. Assigning point loads to joints:


a. Select the joint where you want to apply the point load.
b. Go to Assign menu, select Joint Loads, then Force. The
below window appears.

c. From the Load Pattern Name drop down list, select the load
case to which you want to add the point load.
d. Type the values of loads in the required directions.
e. Select:
i. Add to Existing Loads, if the loads to be added to
already assigned loads.
ii. Replace Existing Loads, if the loads to be replaced with
new values.
iii. Delete Existing Loads, No need to write any value on
the left. Selecting this will delete any assigned loads to
that joint in the Load Pattern Name selected above.

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f. Click OK if you do not need to assign any more joint loads.
Click Apply, if another joint to be selected and loads to be
assigned.
38. Assigning point loads on beams:
a. Select the beam where you want to apply the point load.
b. Go to Assign menu, select Frame Loads, then Point. The
below window appears.

c. From the Load Pattern Name drop down list, select the load
case to which you want to add the point load.
d. Select Load Type and Direction.
i. Force, if point load is a force. Moment, if point load is
moment.
ii. Direction of Load Application from drop down list.
e. Point Loads:
i. Type Load values and their Distance as per their Relative
Distance from End-I or Absolute Distance from End-I.
f. Select in Options:
i. Add to Existing Loads, if the loads to be added to
already assigned loads.
ii. Replace Existing Loads, if the loads to be replaced with
new values.
iii. Delete Existing Loads, No need to write any value on
the left. Selecting this will delete any assigned loads to
that joint in the Load Pattern Name selected above.
g. Click OK if you do not need to assign any more point loads to
beams. Click Apply, if another beam to be selected and loads
to be assigned.

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39. Assigning line loads on beams:
a. Select the beam where you want to apply the line load.
b. Go to Assign menu, select Frame Loads, then Distributed.
The below window appears.

c. From the Load Pattern Name drop down list, select the load
case to which you want to add the distributed load.
d. Select Load Type and Direction.
i. Force, if distributed load is a force. Moment, if distributed
load is moment.
ii. Direction of Load Application from drop down list.
e. Trapezoidal Loads:
i. Type Load values and extension distance as per their
Relative Distance from End-I or Absolute Distance from
End-I.
f. Or type one value in Uniform Load. If the distributed load is not
changing along the beam length.
g. Select in Options:
i. Add to Existing Loads, if the loads to be added to
already assigned loads.
ii. Replace Existing Loads, if the loads to be replaced with
new values.
iii. Delete Existing Loads, No need to write any value on
the left. Selecting this will delete any assigned loads to
that joint in the Load Pattern Name selected above.
h. Click OK if you do not need to assign any more point loads to
beams. Click Apply, if another beam to be selected and loads
to be assigned.

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40. Assigning uniform loads on slabs:
a. Select the Slab where you want to apply the load.
b. Go to Assign menu, select Shell Loads, then Uniform. The
below window appears.

c. From the Load Pattern Name drop down list, select the load
case to which you want to add the uniform load.
d. Type load value in Uniform Load.
e. From the Direction drop down list, select the load direction.
f. Select in Options:
i. Add to Existing Loads, if the loads to be added to
already assigned loads.
ii. Replace Existing Loads, if the loads to be replaced with
new values.
iii. Delete Existing Loads, No need to write any value on
the left. Selecting this will delete any assigned loads to
that joint in the Load Pattern Name selected above.
g. Click OK if you do not need to assign any more point loads to
beams. Click Apply, if another beam to be selected and loads
to be assigned.

41. Assignments to different elements can be copied.


a. Select the element that you want to copy the assignments from.
b. Go to Assign, Copy Assigns.
c. Select the element that you want to paste the assignment to.
d. Go to Assign, Paste Assigns. Select the element type you
are assigning. For example Frame, the following window
appears.

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e. Select what assignments you would like to paste. Then click OK.
f. For shell elements the following window appears

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g. For Frames, the following window appears.

h. For Joints, the following window appears.

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ANALYZE MENU
Before analysing the model, several steps are required to be done. Such as
checking the model, set active degrees of freedom, set load cases to run,
advanced SAPFire options, Automatic Rectangular Mesh settings for floors,
Automatic Rectangular Mesh settings for walls, Run Analysis, and Last
Analysis Run Log. All these will be explained below.

42. Checking the model:


When the model is finished and only Analysis part is remaining, it is
advisable to check the model before running. (It is better to use this
option at the end stage of every floor, rather than at the time when the
whole model is built).
a. Go to Analyze menu, Check Model. The following window
appears.

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b. Assign the Length Tolerance for Checks to 1 mm.
c. Select all Joint Checks and click OK. (It is better to perform each
check separately, that means Joint Checks, then Frame Checks,
then Shell Checks and at the end Other Checks).
d. The model is being checked, if the model is correctly modelled,
the message will be as shown below.

e. If there will be any warnings for joints, then the message will be
as shown below. First warning indicates that two joints are
close. Second and third warnings indicate that a joint is too
close to a beam. Fourth warning indicates that a joint is too
close to an area object.

f. The locations of these warnings are selected. So when the


window is closed, the user can go directly to the locations of
these warnings. These warnings are usually because of joints
that are close to each other or to a line element or shell element
a distance less than the length tolerance.
i. An example of two joints which are close to each other is
shown below. Such problem can be solved by extending
the line to joint a. Joints are highlighted in red for clarity.

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b
a

ii. An example of joints that are close to a line is shown


below. To solve this, first try to extend Line 1 to Line 2
with a command Align Joints/Frame/Edges from Edit
menu. And then check if problem is solved. If not, then
divide Line 2 at that joint location. The left side of the
picture shows that line is connected, but when the view is
zoomed in, then it can be seen how a gap exist between
Lines 1 and 2. Refer to right side of picture.

Line 2
Line 2

iii. An example of joints that are close to an area is shown


below in red circle. This can be solved by first trying to
extend the line to the shell by Align Joints/Frame/Edges

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from Edit menu. If still warning, then divide shell
element at that joint using Divide Shells command.

Shell

Line

iv. Align Joints/Frame/Edges Command:


1. Select Line 1, Line 2 and the joint which is close to
Line 2.
2. Go to Edit Menu.
3. Select Align Joints/Frame/Edges.

4. Select Extend Frame Objects. Line 1 will be


extended to Line 2 with no gap.
v. Divide Shells Command:
1. Select Line, joint close to shell and shell.
2. Go to Edit menu, Edit Shells, Divide Shells.
The below window appears. Select Selected Joint
Objects on Edges. And click OK.
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3. The area will be divided at that joint location.

g. To check for joints that are close to each other, but are not
found in step e, then select the Joints/Joints within Tolerance
and use 10 mm for Length Tolerance for Checks. When
finished, then all joints which are close will be selected and can
be solved. It is advisable to look at every two joints separately.
And not to try to combine all in one step.
h. Perform Frame Checks by selecting the Frame Overlaps,
Frame Intersections within Tolerance and Frame Intersections
with Area Edges. See below.

i. The model is being checked, if the model is correctly modelled,


then the following message will appear.

j. If there will be any warnings for frames, then the message will
be as shown below. (This is an example of warning message).

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k. In the above message box, the first 3 lines indicate that some
frames are overlapping. The next two lines indicate that there
are two beams which are too close and the last warning line
indicates that there is a frame too close to an area. Each
warning will be explained.
i. Frame Overlaps: This happens when a frame is drawn
above another. See below for explanation. Top left corner
figure shows that the labels of beams are not clear.
Bottom right corner clarify the problem and solution.

B6:Label of frame
which is connected
from point a to point b
f.

Indicates that there


are two frames c
above each other

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a Thereare4framesasshown.

B13
B6,B8,B10andB13.
b B6isdrawnfrompointatopointf.
B8,B10andB13weredrawnearlier
asonebeamfrompointatof.
b
Thentheonebeamwasdividedinto
B10:Label of frame c segments.Someofthesesegments
which is connected weredeleted,andsomeweremissed.

B10
SuchasB8,B10andB13werenot

B6
from point c to point c
d. deleted.
d
Herethebeamsareshownseparately
d toclarifythewarning.
e
ThewarningissolvedbydeletingB8,
B10andB13.
B8

ii. Frame intersections within tolerance (Two lines are too


close): See below image, frame B3 seems to be
connected to frame B7. But when zooming in, a gap is
clearly shown. See the inset two figures. To solve this,
use the Align Joints/Frame/Edges Command and check
the model again.

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To solve this, use the Align Joints/Frame/Edges


Command and check the model again. Frame B3 should
be connected to frame B7 as shown below.

B7

iii. Frame intersections with area edges (A frame is too close


to an area): See below image, frame B11 seems to be
connected to area F2. But when zooming in(see inset
image), there is a clear gap.

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F2

F2

To solve this, use the Align Joints/Frame/Edges


Command and check the model again. Frame B11 should
be connected to area F2 as shown below.

F2

Note: When using the Align Joints/Frame/Edges Command, the frame


labels changes. In the above examples, the frame labels were kept same for
demonstration purposes only.

l. Perform Shell Checks by selecting the Shell Overlaps.

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m. The model is being checked. If there will be any warnings for


area overlaps, then the message will be as shown below.

n. The first warning in the above warning window message box is


shown below. Area F17 overlaps area F18. A closer view is
shown in the inset image.

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i. To solve the warning above, use the Reshape Object
command from Draw menu. First go to Draw menu
and select the Reshape Object command, or select it
directly from tool bar as shown below.
ii. Then click on joint a in area F17. The joint will be
highlighted as shown in Step 1. Then move joint a
towards joint b.

Step1

a b

F18 F17

Step2

iii. After joint a is moved towards b, only one joint will


appear as shown below.
Onejoint.Areasarenotoverlapping.

F18 F17

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o. The remaining warnings in the Area Overlaps warning window
message box are shown below.

It appears that the small areas are drawn on the same line as
area F39. But if the image is zoomed in, it is clear that the areas
are overlapping. See below.

F39

F32 F33

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i. To solve the above, select Area F39 and the three joints
highlighted in the below image. Then use the Edit Shells
command from Edit menu.

ii. Edit Shell command:


1. Select the area that should be divided (Such as
Area F39). And the joints which are at the edge as
highlighted in the above image.
2. Go to Edit menu, select Edit Shells, Divide
Shells, and select the Divide
Quadrilaterals/Triangles at (Selected Joint Objects
on Edges) . See below image. And click ok.

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3. After the command is used, then the divided areas


will be as shown below. Run the check for area
overlaps and warning is gone. But before moving
further a check of double joint should be done.

4. Select the joint and note bottom left corner. See


image below. When selecting the joint draw a
window around it and check what is written at the
left bottom corner. If 1 joint selected is written,
then there is only one joint and no need to do

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anything. If 2 joints selected, then this should be
solved.

Selectingbydrawing
awindowaroundthejoint

Notethat2Jointsselected.
Whichmeanstherearetwojoints.

5. Use the Reshape command as mentioned above


to solve this. The below image shows the double
joints and area overlaps when zoomed in.

Twojointsandareasareoverlapping

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p. Perform Other Checks and select Check Meshing for All
Stories and Check Loading for All Stories. Then click OK.
Usually if the above warnings are removed, then these two
checks pass. Sometimes it may have some warnings when
areas are auto meshed and meshes are concentrated at one
corner. Re-mesh the area and warning should be gone.

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43. After all model checks are done, then cross check the following from
Analyze menu.
a. Set Active Degrees of Freedom, when 3D model, then all the
below should be selected.

b. Make sure that all area elements are Auto meshed. (Meshing is
done using Assign Menu. Mentioned above).
c. Before hitting the Run model command. See what to be
confirmed before each run is performed.
d. Set Load Cases To Run, select the cases which needs to run
and options for Analysis Monitor, differs from user to user.
Select Calculate Diaphragm Centers of Rigidity to calculate
diaphragms. Click ok.

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44. Run Analysis after the following is confirmed:
a. Diaphragms:
i. Select all slab areas that are to be assigned diaphragm
D1; go to Assign menu, Shell, Diaphragms. The
below window appears, select D1 and press OK.

ii. In case when more than one diaphragm is required in a


project. Select all areas that need to be assigned that
diaphragm, then go to Assign menu, Shell,
Diaphragms then click on Modify/Show Definitions,
the below window appears. Click on Add New
Diaphragm.

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iii. Type diaphragm name such as D2 and select its rigidity
Rigid if diaphragm to be rigid. Click OK.

iv. To check Diaphragms, go to View menu, Set Display


options, select Diaphragms Extent and click ok.
Diaphragms will be visible on all levels.

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b. Releases at beam ends:
i. Select the beams to be released. Check both boxes for
Moment 22 and Moment 33. Start and End depends on
beam location

ii. All simply supported beams to be released in moments at


their ends. Examples where to release moments is shown
in the figure below.
1. Beam 1 is connected between a wall and column.
Release is provided at column end only.
2. Beam 2 is supported by a wall and a beam.
Moments release is provided at both ends.
3. Beam 3 is supported by two beams. Moments
release is provided at both ends.
4. Beam 4 is supported by two columns. Moments
release is provided at both ends.
5. Beam 5 is a continuous beam. Moment release is
provided at the first and last supports if columns
are the supporting members. If wall is the support,
follow above points.

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3
1

45. In Analyze menu check the Last Analysis Run Log for warnings of
instability.
a. If a column is not assigned a support, then an instability warning
will be shown. To clearly see the problem, after running the
model, see the deflected shape for any abnormal deflections.
b. Instability may also be because two elements are not connected
properly. To find location of the instability, run the model using
Standard Solver as shown below. And then check the Last
Analysis Run Log.
46. To run the model using the Standard Solver, go to Analyze menu
and select the Advanced SAPFire options. There select the Standard
Solver and press ok. Then run the model again and check the Last
Analysis Run Log.

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SOP NO ST-04
BUILDING MODEL Results and Design

1. Purpose
The purpose of this SOP is to establish a uniform procedure for
understanding results of analysis, concrete design and steel design. This will
help all engineers while checking the results and design different elements.

2. Scope
This procedure applies to all ETABS models of any GC project created in
ETABS 2013 version 13.2.2.

3. Responsibility
The Structural Engineer is responsible of printing clear results of the
ETABS model.

4. Procedure
From ETABS model the following results are taken:
1. Beams (Sample of beam compilation is at the end of this document)
a. Beam sections, Moment, shear and torsion diagrams are printed
in a clear manner. The method of printing beams is based on
the nature of the building. Engineer to decide whether beams to
be printed in elevations or plans. All values should be readable.
If some values are not readable, the value should be written.
b. The diagrams prints should have the beam location and floor
level at the bottom of each printed diagram. This should be
written on each sheet in case the ETABS grids are not clear.
Otherwise ETABS grids are fine. How to define the different
beam elevations:
i. If a beam is located on Grid A, between Grids 1 and 6.
Beam on Grid A between Grids 1 and 6.
ii. If beam is between four grids, A, B, 2 and 3. And the
beam is parallel to grids A and B. So the beam location
will be as Beam between Grids A, B, 2 and 3. The grids
which the beam is parallel to are mentioned first.
iii. If the beam is near Grid A, and between grids 1 and 4,
then the name will be Beam near Grid A, between Grids
1 and 4.
c. Moments, shear and torsion values are input in a continuous
beam design worksheet.
i. Each sheet should be filled with the following information:

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1. Name of project
2. Floor level of the beams to be designed
3. Name of designer
4. Name of checker when checked.
5. Location of beam
ii. Negative moments are read at face of supports.
iii. Shear values are read at face of support. If applicable as
per ACI code clause ACI 11.1.3.1, shear values may be
read at a distance d from face of support. This value
should be clearly written on the printed shear diagrams.
iv. If negative moments are reduced due to re-distribution of
moments, the new moment values should be written on
the printed moment diagrams.
d. The provided reinforcement should be as per the tables
attached in appendix. Other arrangements may be used after
the approval of Senior Structural Engineer.
2. Beams designed in ETABS:
When beams are designed in ETABS, a correct assumption of
concrete cover should be made for Top Bars and Bottom Bars. Since
this affects the calculation of the effective depth for moment and shear
designs.

The above is from Define menu, Section Properties, Frame


Sections, select the desired beam, then click on Modify/Show
Property, Modify/Show Rebar.

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a. Same as above, all diagrams should be printed.
b. Print of design values, like area of reinforcements, shear stirrups
should be printed and clearly shown what does every number
means. (Sample is attached in Appendix)
3. Columns
a. Column sections and pmm ratios to be printed for Design
Development stage design.
b. For Final Design stage, column compilation sheet should be
used as per the manual attached in the Appendix. In addition to
the tables, a plan showing columns on all floors should be
printed.

5. Records
Compilation of calculations to be prepared.

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STRUCTURAL DEPARTMENT
GULF CONSULT

SOP NO ST- 05

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR

FOUNDATION ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

Author: .

Approved: .

Prepared on:

Revised on:

Pages I of ..

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SOP NO ST-05
FOUNDATION ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0 Purpose 1

2.0 Scope 1

3.0 Responsibility 1

4.0 Procedure 1

5.0 Records 8

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SOP NO ST-05
FOUNDATION ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
1. Purpose
The purpose of this SOP is to establish a uniform procedure for designing
various types of foundation. Isolated footings and Raft are the two types
considered in this SOP. This will help all engineers to follow same steps while
analysing and designing foundations.

2. Scope
This procedure applies to all GC projects.

3. Responsibility
The Structural Engineer is responsible of producing clear calculations of
foundation design.

4. Procedure
Isolated Footing for Dead and Live loads only using Isolated Footing
Design spread sheets

After ETABS model is run, the reactions of columns can be printed in


tables. Follow the steps below in the design and compilation of isolated
footings:
1. Print a plan showing joint numbers of column supports. The print
should show grids.
2. Define a load combination called Total Dead Load TDL and add
all dead load cases in it.
3. Go to Display, Show Tables, Analysis, Results, Reactions,
Joint Reactions. And click on OK. See below figure for the
reactions.
4. A table will appear at the bottom of the screen as shown below.
Reactions of all load cases are displayed. Right click on the Load
Case/Combo, the following will appear. Select TDL and Live.

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5. After selecting TDL and Live, only the reactions for these two
combinations will appear. Then right click anywhere in the table and
select Export to Excel.

6. After exporting the table to Excel, the following will appear. In the
excel file, each joint should have the TDL and Live in one row. So
the table below should be re-arranged.

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7. After re-arranging, the table will be as shown below. Note that the
joints are re-arranged as per the ultimate vertical loads from the
largest load to the smallest. This will help in the following steps.

8. After getting the above table and printing it. Footings can be divided
into groups as per the vertical load values. Usually the highest
value is rounded up to the next multiple of 100 kN. And then as per
the footings loads, the load reduces by 150 kN or 200 kN. Usually
the sizes are 100 or 200 mm different. For example we have
1400x1400 and the next one can be 1300x1300 or 1200x1200 and
so on.
9. As per the table, the highest load is 1400 kN. Dead load is 629.7 kN
and live load is 359.4 kN. To get the percentage of dead load to live
load, follow the below steps.
DL/LL = 629.7/359.4 = 1.752
DL = 1.752 LL
1.2*DL +1.6*LL = ULT
1.2*(1.752*LL)+1.6*LL = 1400
2.1024*LL+1.6*LL = 1400
LL = 378.14 , use LL = 379 kN
DL= 1.752 * 378.14 = 662.51, use 663 kN

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The above steps should be done for the highest load of
every group.
10. The highest load is given a label F1 and so on.
11. Design every group as per the loads calculated in step 9. Use
Isolated footing spread sheet.
12. Take the print with joint labels (from step 1) and mark the footing
labels for every joint as per the groups.
13. Take the footing drawing and mark the labels as per step 12.
14. As a check for the footing design, a SAFE model can be prepared
as per the drawing from step 13 and run. Safe will check for
punching shear and different load combinations. The Excel spread
sheet checks for few load combinations.

Isolated Footing for Dead, Live and wind loads only using Isolated Footing
Design spread sheets
Follow the same steps as for the design of footings with Dead and Live
load only. The only difference will be for the loads. The Wind load should
be considered in calculating the ultimate. A check can be performed in
SAFE for the different wind load cases.

Raft
1. ETABS model is run and Base is exported to SAFE
2. Before modelling in SAFE, assumption for thicknesses at column
locations should be made by calculating the required thickness for
punching shear.
a. From ETABS model print the reaction values as done for the
isolated footings above.
b. Then group the values and find the thickness required for
punching for the different groups.
c. Mark these thicknesses at their locations on the drawing with
grid locations. This will be used in SAFE modelling.
d. Size of Drops is calculated by
LDrop = Column size +2*Thickness
3. Modelling Raft in SAFE:
a. Go to File menu, then Export, Story as SAFE V12 .f2k
File. A window will be shown as below. Select story to
export to be Base, then select Export Floor Loads and
Loads from Above, then select the all load cases and click
ok. It will ask for a location to save the f2k file. Select a
location and use file name as (Project name Raft-02042015).

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4. Open SAFE to import the f2k file from earlier step.


a. Go to File menu, Import, SAFE .F2K File, go to the
location where the .F2K file is saved. Select it and click
Open.
b. The joints at the base are imported from ETABS to SAFE.
The joints may not be visible. So go to View menu, Set
Display Options, and make sure that the Items Present in
View, Points, invisible is not checked as shown below.

c. Defining Materials and thicknesses:


i. Define concrete material properties as per design
criteria. Use name as C28 for a concrete with fc = 28
MPa. Go to Define menu, Materials and Add new
Material, or Add copy of Material, but make sure to

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select the CSAC30 default material. The input should
be as shown below. Click OK, and new material called
C28 is created.

ii. Define Raft thickness: go to Define menu, Slab


Properties, Add New Property and define raft
thickness as required. For example a 600 mm value is
used. See below for input data. The Analysis Property
Data Type is Mat.

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iii. If different thicknesses are assigned at different
locations, then all the thicknesses will be labelled
starting with the letter R.
iv. If thickness around columns is different than the raft,
and one Mat element cover the whole area, then the
increased thickness is achieved by drawing Drops.
Define drops similarly as defining Raft thickness with
the Analysis Property Data Type to be Drop. See
below.

v. All the required thicknesses are defined.

d. Drawing Raft geometry in SAFE


i. Raft geometry is drawn as per the drawing.
ii. Thicknesses are assigned.
iii. Soil support value should be defined and assigned to
the drawn areas.
1. Define soil support by going to Define menu,
select Soil Subgrade Properties. Then click
on Modify/Show Property.

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2. Add the soil subgrade property taken from Soil


report in the form as shown below.

3. Select all areas, go to Assign menu, Support


Data, Soil Properties, the below window will
be shown. Select SOIL1 and click OK.

4. Apply Uplift load ( to be written in more details,


The detailed steps are not available at the
moment).
5. The model is ready for analysis.
e. Analysing the model.
i. Go to Run menu, Run Analysis and Design.

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ii. When run is done, go to Run menu, Show Last Run
Details. Make sure that there is no message of
instability.
iii. In case there was a message of instability, or ill
condition, then unlock the model and follow the below:
1. Go to Run menu, and select Advanced
SapFire Options. Select Standard Solver in
Solver Options and Click on OK.

2. From Run menu, select Run Analysis and


Design. The model will be analysed again.
3. When run is done, go to Run menu, Show
Last Run Details. The instability of ill
conditioned message will appear. For some
cases, the x and y coordinates of the ill
condition location is shown in the message
box.
4. Locate the above x and y coordinates and find
the problem to solve it. In some cases the area
is not connected causing ill condition. Or
sometimes the area may be assigned two
supports.
iv. Model is analysed properly and results can be read.
f. Reading results
i. Envelope and Service load combinations:
1. Envelope: Go to Define menu, Load
Combinations, Add New Combo. Name of
combination should be Envelope,
Combination Type to be Envelope. Add all
Ultimate load combinations with Scale Factor 1.
See below.

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2. Service: Go to Define menu, Load


Combinations, Add New Combo. Name of
combination should be Service, Combination
Type to be Add. Add all load cases with Scale
Factor 1. See below.

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ii. First check results on screen. Then produce prints.
1. Punching Check: Go to Display menu, Show
Punching Shear Design. All values should be
less than 1.
2. Soil pressure value: Go to Display menu,
Show Reaction Forces, select Service load
combination in the Load Combination. And
select Soil Pressures in Type of Reactions.
See below for other options. Make sure all
pressure values are less than Soil Bearing
Capacity taken from soil report.

3. Check moment values, M11 and M22 for


Envelope load combination. Check if the Raft
thickness which is used is ok by selecting
maximum negative/positive moments and
calculating the required percentage of
reinforcement. The percentage of
reinforcement should be less than the
maximum allowed. Usually for Raft 0.8% is
acceptable in practice as maximum
reinforcement.

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iii. After all results are checked on screen, prints can be
produced to all the above.
1. Note that M11 and M22 diagrams should have
same contour range for comparison purposes.
And a line of Zero moment should be clear to
differentiate between Negative and Positive
moment contours easily.
2. M11 and M22 Envelope Max are for positive
moments. Moments at column or wall locations.
3. M11 and M22 Envelope Min are for negative
moments. Moments in spans.
4. Positive moments are read at face of supports.
5. Punching shear ratios should be print in plan
and table.
iv. In addition to the results mentioned above, the
geometry and input values such as Soil Subgrade
property should be mentioned in the calculations.
v. Arrangement of the print is shown in sample
calculation at the end of this document (To be
prepared once procedure is approved).

5. Records
Full document that contains all input and output values is compiled.

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STRUCTURAL DEPARTMENT
GULF CONSULT

SOP NO ST- 06

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR

CALCULATION PREPARATION

Author: .

Approved: .

Prepared on:

Revised on:

Pages I of ..

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SOP NO ST-06
CLACULATION PREPARATION

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0 Purpose 1

2.0 Scope 1

3.0 Responsibility 1

4.0 Procedure 1

5.0 Records 8

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SOP NO ST-06
CALCULATION PREPARATION

1 Purpose
This procedure describes the requirements for the preparation and
checking of project-related calculations.

2 Scope
This procedure applies to all calculations performed in support of a
project in the structural department both in Kuwait office and in Karachi
office.

3 Responsibility
The task leader is responsible for preparing project discipline-related
criteria and for designating an originator and a checker. The calculation
originator is responsible for preparing the calculations in accordance
with project-specific guidelines, codes, criteria and standards. The
checker is responsible for verifying the correctness of the assumptions
upon which the calculations are based and for compliance with the
project-specific guidelines, codes, criteria and standards.

4 Procedure

4.1 Preparing Calculations Using worksheets

Each computation sheet shall be identified by:


The project title
The subject of the calculations
A consecutive page number
The name or the initials of the originator and checker
The calculations shall include the following:
All calculation shall be performed using worksheets or shall be
typed.
All the work shall be kept in the project directory in the structural
server (K drive). A copy of the same should be kept by the
designer in his/her local hard disk.

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Criteria and source referencing the design requirements
Design assumptions and structural systems.
References, if any, indicating specific paragraph or section
numbers.
Back-up materials, appropriately labeled and referenced.
Dimensional units
The designer shall use the standard design worksheets wherever
possible.
In case a repetitive calculation is required, new worksheet shall be
developed by the designer and checked by a senior colleague
before using the same in the calculations.

4.2 Checking Calculations

Calculations shall be checked for the following:


Clarity and legibility
Proper documentation
Technical concept
Numerical accuracy

The checker shall give the originator the significant comments and
corrections on a copy of the original computation sheets.

The originator and checker shall:


Discuss the checkers comments and corrections until all
differences are resolved. The task leader will decide on a course
of action for any unresolved differences.
If the corrections are significant, redo the original calculation and
check it again.
Check list table for checking calculations is in the Forms and
Templates part at the end of this document.

If independent check calculations are used, they shall be prepared in the


manner outlined in Section 4.1 and / or 4.3.

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4.3 Computer-Generated Calculations

The originator shall prepare the input of the computer model clearly
defining the following:
Graphical model with coordinates and member numbers and
support conditions.
The material properties used for deflection and for designing the
various components of structure.
All manual calculation used to develop the input. (if applicable).
If sensitivity analysis is carried out it must be described and the
results summarized for application to analysis results used for
designing the structure.
Calculation of applied loads and graphical representation of these
loads on computer model.
The originator shall review the results of computer programs to
verify that results are reasonable, at least check that total applied
load and the reaction balances.
The output shall have the name of the originator and the date on
the first page of the output document.

4.4 Checking Computer-Generated Calculations

Checking shall be done for concept and accuracy. The checker shall
verify:
All the input data
The results are reasonable and correct.
If required, the originator shall revise the input. The checker shall
manually sign or initial and date the front page of the finished output
document.
Calculations done using spreadsheets shall be spot-checked manually
and be signed or initialed and dated manually as indicated above.

4.5 Compiling Calculation Report

A complete structural calculation report to be compiled on paper and


electronically in PDF format side by side as the design engineer is working
through the project. The PDF files to be created same time and should be
printed which is the documented final calculation. During the design work

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the parts of calculation that are required to be revised shall be revised in
the same manner as the original calculation and replaced in the document
and the electronic PDF files. Guidance on working with the PDF format,
and creating PDF files from different engineering programs and
worksheets is given below.

Method to create PDF files from Engineering Programs, Word


Documents and Excel:

1. Engineering Program (SAP2000) Graphics Print


a. Go to File menu, select Print Setup for Graphics, in the printer
name select Adobe PDF, and select paper size you want to print
and orientation of paper either Portrait or Landscape*.Then
press OK button. Best is to select A4 paper size. If the drawing
is so small, ONLY then select A3 size paper.
b. Again go to File menu, select Print Graphics. Print Audit will
open, select project name, paper type and press OK.
c. A window called (Save PDF File As) will appear. Select the
location where you want to save the PDF file, type the name of
the file and press OK. After few seconds your PDF will appear.
d. Repeat the above steps for all the graphics you want to print.

2. Engineering Program (SAP2000) Steel Design Details


a. First you have to right click on the member you want to print the
Steel Design Details for it. Then a window called (Steel Stress
Check Information) will appear. There you select Details.
Another window will appear (White window with the details).
There you go to File menu, select Print Setup for Graphics, in
the printer name select Adobe PDF, and select paper size you
want to print and orientation of paper Portrait. Then press OK
button.
b. Again go to File menu, select Print. Print Audit will open, select
project name, paper type and press OK.
c. A window called (Save PDF File As) will appear. Select the
location where you want to save the PDF file, type the name of
the file and press OK. After few seconds your PDF will appear.

3. Engineering Program (SAFE) Graphics Print


a. Go to File menu, select Print Setup, a window called (Print
Setup) will appear. There select Setup and then in the printer

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name select Adobe PDF, and select paper size you want to print
and orientation of paper either Portrait or Landscape*.Then
press OK button. And then again OK. Best is to select A4 paper
size. If the drawing is so small, ONLY then select A3 size paper.
b. Again go to File menu, select Print Graphics. Print Audit will
open, select project name, paper type and press OK.
c. A window called (Save PDF File As) will appear. Select the
location where you want to save the PDF file, type the name of
the file and press OK. After few seconds your PDF will appear.
d. Repeat the above steps for all the graphics you want to print.

4. Engineering Program (ETABS) Graphics Print


a. Go to File menu, select Print Setup, a window called (Print
Setup) will appear. There select printer name, select Adobe
PDF, and select paper size you want to print and orientation of
paper either Portrait or Landscape*. Then press OK button. And
then again OK. Best is to select A4 paper size. If the drawing is
so small, ONLY then select A3 size paper.
b. Again go to File menu, select Print Graphics. Print Audit will
open, select project name, paper type and press OK.
c. A window called (Save PDF File As) will appear. Select the
location where you want to save the PDF file, type the name of
the file and press OK. After few seconds your PDF will appear.
d. Repeat the above steps for all the graphics you want to print.

5. Engineering Program (PCA COL)


a. Go to Start, Settings, Printers, select Adobe PDF. Use right
mouse button and click on it then select (Set as Default Printer).
b. Go to PCA. Open File menu and select print. It will ask you what
do you want to print, if Screen and Result files then keep both of
them chosen, otherwise choose the one you want and press
OK.
c. A window called (Save PDF File As) will appear. Select the
location where you want to save the PDF file, type the name of
the file and press OK. After few seconds your PDF will appear.
d. The window in Step c will open twice, once for Screen and
once for Result Files, so just repeat Step 2 twice. Note that if
you want to print only Screen, then the window will open once
only. Same thing goes for Result Files only.

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e. After you finish printing from PCA, again go to Start, Settings,
Printers and select the printer you use then right click on the
printer and select (Set as Default Printer).
f. If you will continuously print from PCA COL then do not do step
e and do it only when you finish printing from PCA COL.

6. Microsoft Office Family (Word, Excel)


a. Go to File menu, select Print, a window called (Print) will appear.
There select printer name, select Adobe PDF, and select any
options you want similar to the way if printing on papers. Then
press OK button.
b. A window called (Save PDF File As) will appear. Select the
location where you want to save the PDF file, type the name of
the file and press OK. After few seconds your PDF will appear.
c. Repeat the above steps for all the Word or Excel documents you
want to print.

7. Combined PDF File


After you have created all the PDF files for different programs, its
time to combine them in one PDF file. For that it is better to have all the
PDF files in one folder. Also for revisions, the separate files will help in
fast revisions.

a. Open any PDF file from the folder where you saved the PDF
files. Then go to File, select (Create PDF) then select (From
multiple files). A window will open where you press Browse and
find your files. Then you select all the files you want and press
the Add button. In the window you are able to move the PDF
files and sort them as you require. You can also preview the
different files. Finally you just press OK button and your
Combined PDF is created. Again it will ask you to select the
location where you want to save the file and a name for it, press
OK.

8. Edit an existing combined PDF File


a. Now your combined PDF is ready. You want to add page into it,
just go to Pages TAB on your left hand side, then select options
and choose what you need, if inserting a page or removing or
changing the location of some pages. Finally when you finish,
save your work.

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9. Print a PDF File
a. For printing the combined PDF, go to File, Print, and choose
(Print color as Black) this will make the print more clear. Also in
this step you can choose the paper size you want.

*
For Landscape Print, you have to rotate the print in the PDF combined file.

4.6 Computer Aided Design and Analysis Software

General Structural Analysis

ETABS 2015 (v 15.2.0) Computers & Structures, Inc. (CSI), Three


Dimensional Static and Dynamic Analysis of Building
Systems.

SAP2000 (v 17.3.0) Structural Analysis and Design Program by CSI

SAFE (v 12.3.2) Slab Analysis by Finite Element Method

STAAD PRO (v 8i) Structural Analysis and Design Program by Bentley

Structural Steel and Reinforced Concrete Design

PCACOL (v 3.64) Reinforced Concrete Column Section Design


Software, Portland cement Association

CSI COL (v 8.4.0) R.C.C & Composite Column design by CSI.

Various Design work sheets developed in house.

Graphics (Drafting)

AutoCAD 2009 / 2014 Drafting software by AUTODESK


REVIT Structure 2014 Building Information Modeling (BIM) software for
structural engineering by AUTODESK

5 Records
Signed original calculations, including independent check
calculations if used, shall be retained in the project files.
If retained, superseded calculations shall be marked VOID or
SUPERSEDED.
All the computer files of worksheets and the input / output of the
computer analysis and design software used shall be placed in the
Project folder.

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After completion of the soft copy project design calculations and
drawings shall be saved on a CD, labeled with the project title and
date.

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STRUCTURAL DEPARTMENT
GULF CONSULT

SOP NO ST- 07

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR

DRAWING PREPARATION

Author: .

Approved: .

Prepared on:

Revised on:

Pages I of ..

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SOP NO ST-07

DRAWING PREPARATION

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0 Purpose 1

2.0 Scope 1

3.0 Responsibility 1

4.0 Procedure 1

5.0 Records 3

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SOP NO ST-07

DRAWING PREPARATION

1 Purpose
This procedure describes the minimum requirements for preparing
drawings.

2 Scope
This procedure applies to all engineering design drawings prepared as
project deliverables.

3 Responsibility
Task leaders are responsible for the preparation of the drawings, and
for identifying project staff responsible for developing, drafting,
reviewing and checking the drawings.

4 Procedure

4.1 General

Drawings are used for communicating concepts and details and for
guiding others in producing the desired end product. It is essential that
they show complete information clearly so that conflicts and
misunderstandings of the requirements are avoided.

4.2 Preparation

Drawings are prepared under the supervision of the task leader. It is


the responsibility of the design engineer and drafter to develop the
drawings in conformance with the project requirements. The design
engineer is responsible for developing the concepts and details either
manually or by CADD. The drafter is responsible for producing the
drawings in accordance with the project drafting standards. The design
engineer shall review and back-checks the drawings during the various
stages of preparation.

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4.3 Drawing Information Matrix


At the initiation of each Project a Drawings information matrix which
describes in detail the level of information required for each submission
shall be filled and kept with the Engineer and Cad In charge. A
representative form is included in the Forms section.

4.4 Checking / Verification


The checker, a project team member independent of the design
engineer, checks the drawing for conformance with the design and the
requirements of the drawing standards applicable to the project and
verifies that the design output conforms to the design input
requirements. This process may include activities such as performing
alternative calculations; comparing the details presented with similar
proven details, if applicable; and undertaking tests and demonstrations
to confirm the information presented on the drawing.

Check list table for checking drawings is in the Forms and Templates
part at the end of this document.

4.5 Corrections
The checker clearly marks the drawing with any alterations or
corrections.
The drafter incorporates any alterations or corrections on the drawing,
and indicates that each correction has been completed.

4.6 Final Check Print


Prior to each deliverable submittal, a final check print is prepared for
each drawing. The drawing designated as the final check print
contains the following information
Final Check Print designation
Indication of Checked by with signature or initials of checker and
date of check.
Indication of Reviewed By with signature or initials of task leader
(and other reviewers, if applicable) and date, as evidence of
review.

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Indication of Corrected By with signature or initials of drafter and
date, as evidence of incorporation of corrections on the final
check print.

4.7 Submittals
Drawings shall be submitted in accordance with identified project
milestone requirements. The submittals shall be marked with the
completion stage and the date.

5 Records
The following records shall be maintained in the project files:
Record copies of each submittal of the drawings, including
revisions, at least until a subsequent submittal is made.
Final check prints, until a subsequent submittal is made.

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STRUCTURAL DEPARTMENT
GULF CONSULT

SOP NO ST- 08

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR

DESIGN REPORTS FOR VARIOUS DESIGN STAGES

Author: .

Approved: .

Prepared on:

Revised on:

Pages I of ..

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SOP NO ST-08

DESIGN REPORTS FOR VARIOUS DESIGN STAGES

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0 Purpose 1

2.0 Scope 1

3.0 Responsibility 1

4.0 Procedure 1

5.0 Records 4

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SOP NO ST-08

DESIGN REPORTS FOR VARIOUS DESIGN STAGES

1 Purpose
This procedure describes the requirements for the for the final design
steps for all the projects carried out in structural department.

2 Scope
This procedure applies to all calculations performed in support of a
project.

3 Responsibility
The task leader is responsible for ensuring that the steps given in this
document are followed while performing the final structural design
calculations for any project in the department. The calculation
originator is responsible for preparing the calculations in accordance
with the steps outlined here in this section under section 4 Procedure.

4 Procedure
Design Steps for CD stage:
1. Take latest architectural and structural drawings.
2. Compare both and mark any necessary changes.
3. Look at architectural drawings and study them carefully.
4. Check any partitions and calculate their weight.
5. Check finishes and write the value on plans.
6. Check if there is any additional load that may be applied at any part
and mark it.
7. Check building occupancy and mark the live loads as per ASCE or
IBC.
8. Check any block walls, or reinforced concrete walls that are not
structural to mark their locations and calculate their weights.
9. Now a drawing with all the gravity loads marked clearly is prepared
and can be referred to in future very easily.

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10. For wind load, check the below from UBC or ASCE and apply in
ETABS model to automatically generate wind load cases.
a. Check Building exposure.
b. Building Category.
c. Topography around building.
d. Wind Velocity.
11. For seismic load, check the below from UBC 1997 and apply in
ETABS model to automatically generate seismic load:
a. Seismic Zone Zone 1
b. Seismic Zone Factor Z Table 16.I
c. Soil Profile Type Sc Table 16.J
d. Seismic Coefficient Ca Table 16.Q
e. Seismic Coefficient Cv Table 16.R
f. Occupancy Category Table 16.K
g. Numerical Coefficient: Ct Section 1630.2.2
h. Ductility Factor: R Table 16.N
i. Importance factor I Table 16.K
12. For seismic load, check the below from ASCE/SEI 7-10 and apply
in ETABS model to automatically generate seismic load:

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13. Start modeling in ETABS.
a. Geometry of model.
b. Define sections.
c. Apply loads.
d. Take print outs:
i. Geometry (3D and Plans) with dimensions wherever
possible.
ii. Sections used at each floor level.
iii. Loadings at each level. (Slab loads separate and
beam loads separate).
14. Check the model. All applied loads must match the loads on plans
prepared earlier.
15. Add all the loads applied together to get a Total Dead load (TDL),
Total Live load (TLL) and any other load case applied.
16. Check the model before running for any warnings.
17. Run the model.
18. Take the summation of all reactions in x, y, and z directions
according to cases defined in model.
RSIDL = Reaction summation for Superimposed dead load.
RLL = Reaction summation for live load.
RWx = Reaction summation for wind load in x-direction.
RWy = Reaction summation for wind load in y-direction.
Rxyz = Reaction summation for xyz load case.
19. Compare each reaction summation with the total load applied on
the structure. The difference between the two should NOT be more
than 15%.
20. Start taking printouts of results for Beams.
21. Slabs must be transferred to SAFE and continue there.
22. Start beam design.
a. Print moment, shear, torsion and deflection diagrams
b. Design for moment, shear and torsion. Most beams can be
designed by ETABS, remaining by excel sheets.

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c. Check deflection. Must be less than allowable.
d. Mark the design on drawings.
23. Start column design.
a. Design columns using ETABS.
b. Print design.
24. Collect column reactions and start foundation design:
a. If isolated footings:
i. Divide the reactions into groups according to their
values.
ii. Design for the maximum load in each group.
iii. Prepare a table and write the results and give to
draftsman to do the drawing.
b. If raft:
i. Export the reactions of the model into SAFE and start
design of raft.
25. Check deflected shape and deflection values.

5 Records
Signed original calculations, including independent check
calculations if used, shall be retained in the project files.
If retained, superseded calculations shall be marked VOID or
SUPERSEDED.
All the computer files of worksheets and the input / output of the
computer analysis and design software used shall be placed in the
Project folder.
After completion of the soft copy project design calculations and
drawings shall be saved on a CD, labeled with the project title and
date.

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STRUCTURAL DEPARTMENT
GULF CONSULT

SOP NO ST- 09

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR

REPORT PREPARATION

Author: .

Approved: .

Prepared on:

Revised on:

Pages I of ..

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SOP NO ST-09

REPORT PREPARATION

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0 Purpose 1

2.0 Scope 1

3.0 Responsibility 1

4.0 Procedure 1

5.0 Records 2

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SOP NO ST-09

REPORT PREPARATION

1 Purpose
This procedure describes the minimum requirements for the
preparation of reports developed as project deliverables.

2 Scope
The requirements apply to all reports prepared and issued to clients as
project deliverables, including brief reports, such as letter reports, as
well as more elaborate reports, such as inspection reports,
geotechnical reports, alternative study reports, engineering design
reports, infra structure planning studies, environmental impact
statements, Major Investment Studies or other multi-discipline reports.

3 Responsibility
The task leader is responsible for determining the content of the report
and, in conjunction with the respective discipline leaders, identifies
appropriate personnel to prepare and check the report.

4 Procedure

4.1 Preparation
The task leader communicates the objectives of the report and any
specific requirements for content or format to the preparer, contributors
and checker. Report preparation includes the following activities:
For elaborate reports, the preparer develops an outline or table of
contents and distributes it to the contributors.
The contributors develop their designated sections conforming to the
outline, format and style established, collecting technical information as
required. Technical input involving calculations is subject to the
requirements of the procedures for preparation of calculations.
Graphs, figures and other supporting materials are included as
required. The preparer collects the contributors input and assembles
the draft report.

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4.2 Checking
The checker investigates materials included in the report and verifies
that the information presented conforms to the requirements
established for the project, that the presentation is effective and
orderly, and that the material included has been checked for accuracy.
The checker also evaluates the report to establish that the material
presented justifies any conclusions drawn and that the report
addresses the appropriate issues in accordance with the scope of the
assignment.
For brief reports, such as letter reports, a single person customarily
prepares the report and the report is checked by the task leader, or if
prepared by the task leader, checked by the PM, prior to submittal to
the client.
Revisions resulting from the internal checking process are incorporated
and the report is ready for submission.

5 Records
The following records shall be maintained in the project files:
For elaborate reports, the table or contents or outline of the report,
with the names of the preparer, the contributors, and the checker.
A copy of comments or notes made during the checking process,
signed and dated by the checker.
A record copy of the final report, as submitted to the client.

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6. LIST OF DELIVERABLES

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Drawing Drg.
TITLE Concept Preliminary Final
Series Nos.
1 General Notes 0.01 -

Column & Wall Layout, Foundation and


2 Grade Slab
- Column & Wall Layout 1.01
- Foundations Plan / Raft Foundation 1.02
- Grade Slab and Tie Beams. 1.03
3 Foundations Details and Column Schedule
- Foundations Sections and Details 2.01
- Column Schedule 2.02 *
4 Floor Slab Plans and Reinforcement
- Basements Framing Plan 3.01 *
- Ground Floor Framing plan (with
Reinforcement) 3.02 *
- Mezzanine Framing Plan (with Reinforcement) 3.03 *
- Typical Framing Plan 3.04
- All Floor FramingPlan 3.05
- Roof Framing Plan
5 Building Sections.
- Overall building sections 4.01
- Slab sections 4.02
6 Beams Elevations
- Basements Beams Elevations 5.01
- Ground Floor Beams Elevations 5.02
- Mezzanine Beams Elevations 5.03
- All Floor Beams Elevations 5.04
- Roof Beams Elevations
7 Staircases
- Typical Staircase 6.01
- All Staircase 6.02
8 Elevators and Walls
- Typical Elevators Details 7.01
- Elevators Details 7.02
- Wall Elevations 7.03
9 Steel Structures
- Details 8.01
10 Miscellaneous Deatails 9.01
11 Preliminary Calculation Report
12 Final Calculation Report

* Drawings without Reinforcement Details

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7. FORMS AND TEMPLATES

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Structural Calculation Check List
Check
1 DESIGN CRITERIA
Design criteria of project should be checked as noted below-
-Check concrete strength & properties with general notes
-Check structural steel strength with general notes
-Check wind load criteria with loading plans
-Check seismic load criteria in design criteria with loading plans

-Check bearing capacity of soil with the Soil Investigation Report in foundation
plan/general notes.

2 LOADINGS
Loading plans should be checked with architectural drawings
-Finishes
-Partitions
-Usage, occupancies
3 3D DESIGN MODEL with structural drawings (Framing layout/stability).
3-1 Floor Framing to be checked with drawings as listed-
-Check Slab thickness (ETABS printout with drawing - floor by floor)
-Check Beam sections (ETABS printout with drawing - floor by floor)

-Check Columns sections(ETABS printout with drawing), Plan view in


perspective toggle)

-Check Wall thickness


3-2 Check DESIGN MODEL input as listed-
-Check connectivity of all elements in model
-Story data (check with drawings)
-Material Properties (Check with design criteria)
-Frame sections properties - Check section names and input values

-Frame sections properties - Check stiffness modifiers (as per ACI code or as
calculated)

-Concrete column properties (Reinforcement with column schedule drawing)


-Slab section properties-Check section names and input values
-Slab section properties-Stiffness modifiers(as per ACI code or as calculated)
-Static load cases (Check factors, self-weight should be considered once)
-Load combinations
-Auto seismic loads (Check with design criteria)
-Auto wind loads (Check with design criteria)

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-Check diaphragm type and extent of all floors


-Check moment releases if any considered.
3-3 Check applied loads in DESIGN MODEL with loading plans as listed-
Area loads
-All Dead load cases (Print each dead load case to PDF per floor)
-All Live load cases (Print each live load case to PDF per floor)
-All Wind load cases
Line loads
-All Dead load cases (Print each dead load case to PDF per floor)
-All Live load cases (Print each live load case to PDF per floor)
Point loads
-All Dead load cases (Print each dead load case to PDF per floor)
-All Live load cases (Print each live load case to PDF per floor)
4 Check the Strength Design and Serviceability of the structure
4-1 Column Design Check
-RC Column design. Check ID, size, rebar with column schedule.
-Check Steel Columns (concrete casing outside) design with drawings.
4-2 Wall Design Check
-Basement walls design for lateral pressure and surcharge.
-Core walls design with all openings in wall.
-Shear walls design if any.
4-3 Foundation/Raft Design Check
-Check modulus of subgrade reaction.
-Compare soil pressure with soil bearing capacity.
-Check positive and negative reinforcement of overall raft.
-Check positive reinforcement at column locations.(thickened or unthickened)
-Check negative reinforcement at heavy loaded areas.
-Check negative reinforcement at critical areas.
-Check punching shear at all column locations.
4-3 Beams Design Check
-Simply supported beam design with simple beam schedule drawing.
-Continuous beams design calculations with beam elevations.
-Steel beam design (Plate girder / standard sections etc.)
-Prestressed Beam Design if any
4-4 Slabs Design Check
-Flat Slab and drop panel design

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-Ribbed slab design


-One-way/Two-way slab design.
-Floor vibration check for special case if required.
4-5 Check deformed shape and lateral movement.
- For service load combination check gravity deflection
- For lateral load check horizontal displacement
5 Miscellaneous

2D frames (critical frames) deformed shape should be printed and discussed with
senior engineer. (DL+LL , Lateral forces). Write maximum values.

3D deformed shape should be printed and discussed with senior engineer.


(DL+LL, Lateral forces). Write maximum values.

Columns by tributary area. Only highlighted ones.


Beams with long spans or heavily loaded by manual check.
Slabs with large spans or heavily loaded.
Raft design check. Check punching manually for major columns.
6 Design 3D Model Additional features / guide line
Go to Analyze menu, set analysis options. Print screen and paste in word.
Go to Dynamic analysis and print screen and paste in word document.
Go to Include P-Delta and print screen and paste in word document.

Go to Define menu, special seismic load effects. Print screen and paste in word
document. Check with attached

Go to Define menu, mass source. Print screen and paste in word document.
Check with attached.

Check if inertia modifiers are used or not in model (cross check if it is assigned to
specific frames by displaying property modifiers from Special Frame Items)
Analyze menu, check model with tolerance 0.001 m. No warnings should appear.
Print screen when check is done (showing no warnings) and paste in word
document. If any warning appears, check location and inform supervisor
engineer.

Go to Options menu, Preferences, concrete/steel frame design. Print screen and


paste in word document. Check with attached.

7 Check design of Water Tank


Design for full height of water.
Design wall for 0.1 crack width.
Dividing walls to be designed separately.

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Structural Drawings Check List
Check
A Engineering Review/Check
1 General Notes
Check Concrete strength values with design criteria.
Check Strength of Reinforcing steel with design criteria.
Check strength of Structural Steel with design criteria.
Check soil investigation report data in Foundations and Earthworks part.
2 Loading Plans
Check loading plans are matching design calculations
Check seismic loads parameters with design criteria
Check wind load parameters with design criteria
3 Columns and wall layout
Check column labels with column design.
4 Foundation plan
Check all drops are properly addressed or not in raft
Check bearing capacity of soil in Notes section.
Check raft/footing thicknesses.
Check Drop/footing types.
5 Floor plans
Check slab/drop panel thicknesses with slab design.
Check slab/drop panel reinforcement with slab design.
Check slab/drop panel reinforcement for steel column
Check simple beam labels with design calculations.
Check simple beam labels with simple beam schedule.
Check continuous beam sizes with beam elevations.
Check all beams are well supported.
Check beam ledge if any ( unless special reason End section to avoided)
Check bracket/corbel detail
6 Column Schedule
Check all column numbers as per design/schedule
Check ties are correctly marked.
Check Corbel detail if any(specially for overhead crane support)
7 Beam elevations
Check reinforcement in beam elevations with beam design.

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Check reinforcement detailing at critical locations.(e.g. Planted column, stopping


col)
Check beam ledges and reinforcement arrangements
Check connection detail of steel beam to concrete column and reverse.

8 Simply supported beam schedules and details


Check provided number of bars per beam width. Should be as per Code.
Check percentage of steel. Steel % exceeding 1% to be discussed with Seniors.
9 Staircase drawing
Check provided reinforcement with stair design.
10 Wall drawings
Check reinforcement with wall design.
11 Steel Drawings
Check steel sections with design.
Check connections are correctly marked and shown.
12 Prestressed beams details
Check prestressed tables with design. (Loadings/ spans/bearing pad size)
Check Flange width
Check total length of precast
Check Size
Check Number of strands
Check Number of debonded strands
Check placement of strands and debonded strands as per design (C.G.
should be as per design)

Check Number of reinforcement bars


Check Stirrups
Check Live load
Check Super Imposed dead load
Check bearing pad size
Check dapped end design
13 Check water tank drawing
All internal walls to have CIM 1000 water proofing.
A fillet 200 x 200 to be provided on internal sides and bottom of the walls,
with dia 12 at 100 c/c additional fillet reinforcement, even if it not shown in
the details.

The internal surface of the water tank to be coated with CIM 1000, even if
the specifications ask for cementations water proofing.

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All water tanks within the building in basement or on any other floor
except roof to have a separate top slab with 1 meter clearance for
maintenance. The water tank wall will stop below this top slab and will not
extend to floor slab except for basement earth retaining walls.

All square columns to be made circular inside the tank with the circle
inscribed to contain all edges of the columns. Additional skin
reinforcement to be provided.

All rectangular columns to be made circular on the short side with


additional skin reinforcement.

During construction of water tank vertical shrinkage strip of at least lap


length of horizontal bar but not less than 600 mm to be provided, and cast
at least seven days after casting of the walls. Water stops to be provided
on all vertical construction joint, including that of shrinkage strip.

B CAD Review/Check
1 Columns and wall layout
Check all walls and columns have dimensions with reference to grids.
Check wall thicknesses.
2 Foundation plan
Check setting out of all Drop/footing types.
3 Foundation details drawings
Check foundation section and their reference to drawings.
Check foundation section with foundation plan. (Make sure it is drawn correctly)
Check base plate connection detail for steel columns on raft
4 Column Schedule
Check all level differences are properly marked or not
Check all beams have labels/sizes.
Check notes section.
Check slab openings/framings with Arch. Layout
5 Building sections
Check the section location in plan whether convey sufficient info or not
Check building sections with floor plans.
Check floor levels, column/wall locations.
6 Slab sections
Check all required details covered or not
Check slab sections with floor plans.
7 Beam elevations

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Check beam sizes in elevation with floor plan


Check sections of beam elevations.
8 Staircase drawing

Check all stairs are covered or not


Check Plans with sections.
Check levels in stair plans and sections.
9 Wall drawings
Check all wall openings are shown or not
Check in wall corbel details and all beams are shown properly or not
10 Steel Drawings
Check necessary steel connection detail provided or not
11 Prestressed beams details
Dimension and spacing to be cross checked with floor plan

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