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(Online) Instructional Design &


Strategies

Tim Pengajar PBK


Semester Genap Tahun Ajaran 2015/2016
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Universitas Indonesia

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Tujuan
Mahasiswa dapat menjelaskan konsep
instructional design & strategies dan
representasinya dalam konteks pembelajaran
online

Instructional Design
Apa itu Instructional Design?

www.comhelp.us

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Instructional Design
Creating Instruction
The chief aim of ID is to improve employee performance and
to increase organizational efficiency and effectiveness.
Performance is perhaps best understood as the achievement
of results, the outcomes (ends) to which purposeful activities
(means) are directed.

Model #1

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Model #1

Model #2

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Model #3

Model #3

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Instructional Strategies

Seven Principles of Good Practice in


Undergraduate Education
(Chickering and Gamson, 1987)

1. Good Practice Encourages Contacts Between Students


and Faculty
2. Good Practice Develops Reciprocity and Cooperation
Among Students
3. Good Practice Uses Active Learning Techniques
4. Good Practice Gives Prompt Feedback
5. Good Practice Emphasizes Time on Task
6. Good Practice Communicates High Expectations
7. Good Practice Respects Diverse Talents and Ways of
Learning

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Principle 1: Encourages Contact Between


Students and Faculty
Lesson for online instruction: Instructors
should provide clear guidelines for interaction
with students
Establish policies describing what kinds of
communications are to take place in different
channels.
Set clear standards for instructors timelines
for responding to messages.

Principle 2: Develops Reciprocity &


Cooperation Among Students
Lesson for online instruction: Well-design discussion assignments facilitate
meaningful cooperation among students
Learners should be required to participate (and their grade should
reflect this requirement).
Discussions should focus on task, and task should result in a product
(such as a review).
Learners should receive feedback on their discussions from the
instructor.
Grades should be based on the quality of the postings, and not the
length or number.
Instructors should post expectations for discussions

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Principle 3: Uses Active Learning


Techniques
Lesson for online instruction: Students should
present course projects.
Projects are often part of face-to-face course, and
online instructors should provide opportunities
for projects to be shared asynchronously, so that
students can learn from each other.

Principle 4: Gives Prompt Feedback

Lesson for online instruction: Instructors need to


provide two types of feedback: information feedback
and acknowledgement feedback.
Information feedback provides information or evaluation
(i.e., an assignment grade or a comment) while
acknowledgement feedback confirms that some event has
occurred.
When time constraints increase as the semester
progresses, instructors can still give prompt feedback on
assignment by responding to the class as a whole.

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Principle 5: Emphasizes Time on Task

Lesson for online instruction: Online courses


need deadlines.
Regularly-announced deadlines encourage
students to spend time on task and help students
with busy schedules avoid procrastination.

Principle 6: Communicates High


Expectations
Lesson for online instruction: Challenging
Tasks, sample cases, and praise for quality
work communicate high expectations.
Provide students with models to follow, along
with comments explaining why the example are
good. Publicly praising exemplary work
communicate high expectations.

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Principle 7: Respects Diverse Talents and


Ways of Learning
Lesson for online instruction: Allowing
students to choose project topics incorporates
diverse views into online courses.
Instructors can provide guidelines to help
students selects topics relevant to the course
while still allowing students to share their unique
perspectives.

Diskusi

Sampai jumpa pada sesi selanjutnya ..

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Referensi
Lisa M. Baumgartner, Andragogy: A Foundational
Theory/ Set of Assumptions
Drs. Fakhruddin Arbab, M.Pd, Andagogi dan
Implikasinya dalam Pembelajaran dan Pelatihan,
Perspekif Ilmu Pendidikan, Volume II, Oktober 2000.
http://www.icvet.tafensw.edu.au/ezine/year_2006/j
ul_aug/litreview_equity_diversity.htm

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