Anda di halaman 1dari 2


1.Freidberg SR, Magge SN. Chapter 60. Trauma to the Spine and Spinal Cord. In: Jones HR,
Srinivasan J, Allam GJ, Baker RA. Netters Neurology. 2nd edition. Elsevier, Saunders.
2012. p.562-71
2. National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center. Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures at a lance.
Birmingham, Alabama. 2012.
3. Baron BJ, McSherry KJ, Larson, Jr. JL, Scalea TM. Chapter 255. Spine and Spinal Cord
Trauma. In: Tintinalli JE, Stapczynski JS, Cline DM, Ma OJ, Cydulka RK, Meckler GD,
eds.Tintinallis Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide. 7th ed. New York:
McGraw-Hill; 2 011.
4. Snell RS. Chapter 4. The Spinal Cord and the Ascending and Descending Tracts. In: Snell RS.
Clinical Neuroanatomy. 7th Edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia. 2010. p.
5. Gondim FAA, Gest TR. Topographic and Functional Anatomy of the Spinal Cord. Emedicine
Medscape 2013. http://emedicine.medscape/article/1148570-overview#showall
6. Chin LS. Spinal Cord Injuries. Emedicine Medscape 2013.
7. Sheerin F. Spinal Cord Injury: Causation and Pathophysiology. Emerg Nurse 2005; 12(9):29-
8. Waxman SG. Chapter 6. The Vertebral Column and Other Structures Surrounding the Spinal
Cord. In: Waxman SG, ed.Clinical Neuroanatomy. 26th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2010.
9. Dumont et al. Acute Spinal Cord Injury, Part I: Pathophysiologic Mechanisms. Clinical
Neuropharmacol 2001;24(5):254-64
10.Gondim FAA. Spinal Cord Trauma and Related Diseases. Emedicine Medscape 2013.
11. Derwenskus J, Zaidat OO. Chapter 23. Spinal Cord Injury and Related Diseases. In: Suarez
JI. Critical Care Neurology and Neurosurgery. New Jersey. Humana Press. 2004. p.417-32
12. Ropper AH, Samuels MA. Chapter 44. Diseases of the Spinal Cord. In: Ropper AH, Samuels
MA, eds.Adams and Victors Principles of Neurology. 9th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill;
13. Kaye AH. Chapter 16. Spinal Injuries. In: Kaye AH. Essential Neurosurgery. 3rd Edition.
Victoria, Blackwell Publishing. 2005. p. 225-33
14. Kirshblum et al. International standards for neurological classification of spinal cord injury
(Revised 2011). J Spinal Cord Med 2011;34(6):535-46
15. Gruener G, Biller J. Spinal Cord Anatomy, Localization, and Overview of Spinal Cord
Syndromes. Continuum: Lifelong Learning Neurol 2008;14(3):11
16. Bill II CH, Harkins VL. Chapter 29. Spinal Cord Injuries. In:Shah SM, Kelly KM. Principles
And Practice of Emergency Neurology. Cambridge University Press, New York. 2003 p.286-
17. Stiell et al. The Canadian C-Spine Rule versus the NEXUS Low-Risk Criteria in Patients
with Trauma. N Eng J Med 2003;349:2510-8
18. Grundy D, Swain A, Morris A. Chapter 3. Radiological Investigations. In: Grundy D, Swain
A. ABC of Spinal Cord Injury. 4th edition. BMJ Publishing Group, London. 2002. p. 11-6
19. Castellano JM. Prehospital Management of Spinal Cord Injuries. Emergencias 2007; 19:25-
20. Swain A, Grundy D. Chapter 4. Early Management and Complications I In: Grundy D,
Swain A. ABC of Spinal Cord Injury. 4th edition. BMJ Publishing Group, London. 2002. p.
21. Wahjoepramono EJ. Medula Spinalis dan Tulang Belakang. Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas
Pelita Harapan, Lippo Karawaci. 2007. p. 131-56
22. Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine. Early Acute Management in Adults with Spinal Cord
Injury: A Clinical Practice Guideline for Health-Care Providers. J Spinal Cord Med
23. Grundy D, Swain A. Chapter 5. Early Management and Complications II. In: Grundy D,
Swain A. ABC of Spinal Cord Injury. 4th edition. BMJ Publishing Group, London. 2002. p.