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3Di explained

3Di explained

A little over four years ago, Ron Thiemann called me. He had two guys in his office with
an improbable tale, and wanted to know if I was interested. The two gentlemen in
question, Guus Stelling and Wytze Schuurmans, claimed that they could make water
calculations a hundred times faster. A highly unusual claim, which would need solid proof
to back it up. There would then also have to be people who dared to try it.

After hearing what they had to say, I contacted my colleague Luc Kohsiek and we decided
to go ahead. Pier Vellinga and Bas Verkerk soon came to help us, and so it all began.
We may not always have been able to follow everything that Guus told us, but his
enthusiasm was infectious and the results were spectacular. Last year, the municipalities
of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and the OAS (wastewater system optimisation)
project De Groote Lucht decided that wastewater also deserved a spot in 3Di. The
Valoriasation Programme Delta Technology supported 3Di as a prime example of inno-
vation that yielded a usable market product.

We are now rounding off a unique innovation project that is bringing in new ideas both
scientifically and on many other fronts. Above all, there is now something that is usable
for all water and wastewater managers.

I hope that you will become as convinced as I am and that you will dare to pick up
the gauntlet.

Michiel van Haersma Buma,

Chairman of the 3Di watermanagement steering committee

Delft, 20 March 2014

3Di explained 3Di explained


This brochure has been put together to mark the end of the four-year
3Di watermanagement project

Michiel van Haersma Buma, Dyke Warden for the Delfland Water Authority AUTOMATING MODELLING 7
Luc Kohsiek, Dyke Warden for the Hollands Noorderkwartier Water Authority
Ron Thiemann, Director of Deltares FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS 9
Pier Vellinga, Director of Kennis voor Klimaat
Peter Weesendorp, Director of Waternet A LOOK UNDER THE HOOD OF 3Di 17
Guus Stelling, Professor at Delft Technical University
Elmar Eisemann, Professor at Delft Technical University MANAGING AND USING 3Di AREA MODELS 23
Bas Verkerk, Mayor of Delft
Wytze Schuurmans, Director of Nelen & Schuurmans 3Di IN PRACTICE 29



Jan Strijker, Hollands Noorderkwartier Water Board

Peter Hollanders, Delfland Water Board
Marcel Boomgaard, Hollands Noorderkwartier Water Board
Carl Paauwe, Delfland Water Board
Danil Goedbloed, Municipality of Rotterdam, Waternet
Arthur van Dam, Deltares
Elgard van Leeuwen, Deltares
Kim van Nieuwaal, Kennis voor Klimaat
Olga Pleumeekers, Nelen & Schuurmans
Wytze Schuurmans, Nelen & Schuurmans

Published by the 3Di Waterbeheer consortium 2014.

No rights can be derived from the content of this brochure.

Designed by Theo Horstink

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3Di explained 3Di explained

Can you still remember your record collection? Or, for the younger generation, your
CD collection? You may well have kept everything, but your music is now probably
stored in digital form and you listen to it not only in the living room, but also en route
in a car or while doing sports. Your music collection is less tangible, but you can enjoy
it more often.

And what about your water system models? Do you have models of your water system?
If so, where do you keep them? And if you want to do calculations on them, do you have
to involve a department or consultancy firm? How many days or weeks is it then before
you get an answer?

Simple modelling, with easy access to your data and being able to see the results of your
calculations almost at once. This may sound like pie in the sky but, thanks to 3Di, it
is already a reality. 3Di models are stored centrally in the cloud and will never get lost.
A sophisticated version control system means that your earlier versions are also retained.
Calculations can be handled easily through your Internet browser. You will have an answer
to your question in just a few minutes.

Planning officers and spatial planners as well as water specialists can use 3Di to get
a clear picture of their interventions in water and spatial planning and quite literally
map out what the effects of these plans will be on watermanagement.

You still have all your records or CDs, but now you listen to your music
as digital files, at home or in the car or while jogging. Your music collection
is less tangible, but you can enjoy it more often.

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3Di explained 3Di explained

2014 will be a watershed in modelling, just as 1908 was for car production. Although
cars had been around for some time, this was when the automobile became available to
the masses, thanks to the mass production methods of the famous Model T-Ford. 3Di
watermanagement is not only quick at the calculations: area models are also put together
rapidly by means of a computerised production technique. A large group of experts
with backgrounds in database techniques, GIS expertise, (groundwater) hydrology and
hydraulics are working closely together on an automated computer environment. This
improves the quality of the 3Di area models, as well as making them more maintainable
and of course cheaper. This means that every water board and any municipality can now
afford 3Di area models.

2014 will be a watershed in modelling, just as

1908 was for car production.

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3Di explained 3Di explained

This section discusses a number of questions that are often asked during workshops
and presentations. What is 3Di? What exactly can it do? What is its relationship
with the modelling packages? Is 3Di an open system? And what is Stichting 3Di, the
3Di Foundation?

What is 3Di?

3Di comprises a number of innovative, interrelated developments. These allow 3Di to

make water calculations interactively as a whole, performing calculations in the cloud
and visualising the results realistically on an iPad or touch table, as well as using 3D
stereo visualisation. The so-called area models act as a kind of underlay in 3Di, made up
of various cartographic layers of geographical information, such as the soil type, ground
level height and ground usage. The 3Di calculation core can then carry out water cal-
culations on this underlay. 3Di generates these area models automatically as far as possible
from the source files.

The high level of detail, the ultrafast calculation times and the interactive access via
a web browser make the area models suitable for a broad target group, varying from
water specialists, spatial planners, operational managers and communications advisers
through to disaster coordinators.

What can 3Di do?

3Di area models can quite literally map out water flows and the effects of flooding, heavy
precipitation and drought, both for the current situation for example during heavy rain-
fall and for climatological scenarios in urban and rural environments.
The users can play interactively with 3Di, altering the map that is used for the calculations.
Thanks to the 3Di sub-grid technique, flooding and high water can be These could for example be modifications in the external situation, for example in terms
calculated in fine detail. A realistic visualisation of the calculation of ground levels, urban expansion, permeability, type of road surfacing, etc.
results in the digital terrain height model then makes the calculations
clear for laymen.

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3Di explained 3Di explained

The layout and transport capacities of water, sewer and groundwater systems can also
be altered, for instance by changing the flow profiles and the civil engineering structures.
The combination of high calculation speeds and the fine level of detail of the external
areas in the model mean that 3Di is an excellent tool for decision support in crisis
management, interactive planning processes and investment decisions. The effects of
possible interventions can be visualised in next to no time, providing maximum support
for the evaluations. The high level of detail also means that laymen can recognise the
situation and non-specialist users are also able to come up with ideas and try them out.
Additionally, the advanced GIS environment gives specialists the capability to make much
larger numbers of changes behind the scenes.

What is the relationship between 3Di and modelling packages?

3Di is an instrument for exploring measures for improvement that could be taken in
outside areas. It is ideal for questions about how water can be given a place in spatial
planning, crisis management and the local approaches to dealing with high water. It is
not intended to replace modelling packages for designing and testing water and waste-
water systems. 3Di focuses primarily on policy officers at water boards, managers
of external areas, planning specialists, urban planners, disaster coordinators and other
water safety professionals. Unlike the specialised modelling packages, 3Di works with
predefined area models in which the user can implement measures in the outside areas or
the water system, for instance through a user-friendly interface, in order to get a picture
of the effects.

What is Stichting 3Di, the 3Di Foundation?

3Di has been developed over the course of the last four years by a consortium of Deltares,
Delft Technical University and Nelen & Schuurmans. The development was made financially
possible by the following water boards, municipalities and subsidy providers: Delfland
Water Board, Hollands Noorderkwartier Water Board, Municipality of Rotterdam,
Municipality of The Hague, Waternet, OAS De Groote Lucht, Kennis voor Klimaat and
Waterkader Haaglanden.

3Di is a highly successful co-operative venture in the so-called Golden Triangle. Top-
class specialists and developers in IT, hydraulics and GIS systems are working together
3Di area models are integrated right into the heart of the calculations. This for 3Di in a small team. The inspirational and efficient way in which this is being done
means there is no time-consuming exchange of data in files, giving very fast and the exceptionally good cooperation with those working in the field are essential
calculation times as a result. The models also include all interactions, so that
the effects of measures can be examined very precisely.

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3Di explained 3Di explained

aspects. The foundation called Stichting 3Di was set up to ensure this approach remains
possible in the future and to enable successful further development. This foundation
manages 3Di and is working on further development of 3Di.

In concrete terms, Stichting 3Di develops and manages area models and supports con-
tinued development of 3Di. The board of the foundation consists of representatives of
the consortium members and water managers. The board determines the top-level of
vision and defines an annual development plan in consultation with the Programme Board.
The bodies funding the continued development can join the Supervisory Board, which
monitors the administration and running of the foundation. There is also a Programme
Board consisting of experts in the fields, who draw up the development plan. In addition,
there is a user community. The users who take part in this provide details of their experien-
ces with 3Di and draw up wish-lists for further development.

3Di is open and transparent. As a 3Di user, you will be involved with the 3Di Foundation
for the one-off creation of one or more area models and the hosting and management
of the area models and 3Di calculations servers. A charge is made for this, clearly linked
to water system characteristics (see overview at the back). The income that the Foundation
receives from the users covers the costs of the area models plus cloud services such as
hosting and storage. In addition, there is an ongoing search for subsidies to support new
3Di developments.

How can I join?

You can start using 3Di and support its continued development. If you use 3Di, you will
be supporting the 3Di Foundation and you can take part in the 3Di user community.
This meets twice a year and issues advice about desired modifications and expansions
based on practical experience with 3Di.

The 3Di pilot phase has been completed and the implementation of 3Di has been started
in the areas managed by the Delfland and Hollands Noorderkwartier water boards.

New fields of application are naturally also being explored, such as integration of e.g.
water quality and dyke strength. Partners who support any new developments financially
or who have knowledge or technology that might be interesting can join 3Di and
help define the direction in which it will develop. 3Di is an open development in that
sense too.
Water is only one of the spatial structures in spatial planning. It must therefore be
possible to display water information combined with other relevant information.
3Di provides this capability, which therefore makes it ideal for developing structural
visions and climate adaptation strategies.

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3Di explained 3Di explained

Is 3Di open?

3Di is a fully open development. The substantive background (how 3Di works) has been
published in scientific journals, articles in professional magazines and tutorials on the
website Progress over recent years has been exhaustively tested in work-
shops and practically oriented studies, an approach that has hugely benefited the quality
of 3Di. A number of graduate students are also actively involved with elements of 3Di.
Those who are interested are always welcome to visit the 3Di lab at Drieharingstraat 6
in Utrecht, where they can discuss content-related aspects with the programmers and

The formats and the structure of the input and output files of the calculation core are
fully open and accessible; the interface has been published. An area model is developed
as a one-off by the 3Di Foundation and placed in the cloud. This means that the quality
and problem-free functioning can be guaranteed in the cloud. Users can then make what-
ever changes they want using open GIS models.

The links with universities and colleges come clearly to the fore in joint projects. By
applying 3Di in graduate and doctoral studies, the 3Di Academy maintains contacts with
the scientific staff, graduates and university students.

The partners in 3Di want to make 3Di into open source software. A number of develop-
ment and validation stages are still required for that. The software components that
have been developed will be published under a GPLv3 licence (open source). By doing so,
we are making it possible for other parties to develop new functionality and add it to
3Di. New functions are assessed and, if found suitable, will be included in new releases
after thorough testing. The calculation core for flooding is expected to be published
under GPLv3 within a year.

Amsterdam, showing part of the detailed ground level model one of the
information layers in the 3Di area models. The selection shows a transverse
cross-section through the Arena. The roof is open.

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3Di explained 3Di explained



3Di is a dynamic water model. The water movements in 3Di are described using two
laws of conservation, namely conservation of mass and conservation of momentum.
One special feature of 3Di is that conservation of mass is handled extremely strictly, as
accurately as the machine precision will allow. The momentum equation describes the
water movements in accordance with the Saint-Venant equations as 1D and 2D flows.

The groundwater flow in 3Di is described using the Darcy equation. The moisture in the
soil is described using CAPSIM. All the equations are put into a matrix which is efficiently
solved implicitly so that calculations can be performed using larger time intervals with-
out stability issues. This also implies complete interaction between 1D, 2D, groundwater
and sewerage.

A 3Di area model can consist of one or several model layers, namely:
a raster terrain layer (for flooding and precipitation)
a raster subsoil layer (for soil moisture content and groundwater)
a 1D open water network layer (for the canal system)
a 1D sewer network layer (for the sewer system)

Raster terrain layer, for flooding and precipitation

The 2D flows in 3Di are suitable for flooding and for the flows in lakes and estuaries. The
2D flows are entirely hydrodynamic and suitable for dry bed flow. The calculations make
accurate allowances for detailed height differences in the landscape (or the ground,
thanks to these sub-grid technique with irregular quadtrees. This also allows rivers and
canals in the sub-grid raster to be excavated.

It is possible to include 1D levees in the scheme to give a more accurate picture. The 1D
A 3Di area model can be made up of multiple layers. This example is levees can be modified over the course of time, for example to simulate the growth of
a model with three layers: a raster subsoil layer, a raster terrain layer and
a 1D open water network layer.

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3Di explained 3Di explained

a breach. Precipitation and evaporation can be input as well as flooding. In principle, the
1 hour precipitation uses weather radar images, but it is also possible to add precipitation
from weather stations. The calculation core can use more than one billion sub-grid cells
and can perform the calculations about 1000 times faster than comparable models on the
same hardware configuration. Wind effects are also going to be added.

Raster subsoil layer, for soil moisture content and groundwater

12 hours The groundwater flow is restricted to shallow groundwater in the unsaturated zone.
The unsaturated zone describes a variety of processes such as evaporation (e.g. through
crops), infiltration, percolation, storage, drying and capillary rising. The soil properties
are specified per sub-grid and the soil moisture content is calculated per sub-grid.

The groundwater flow between calculation cells is described in two dimensions using the
Darcy equation. Seepage and infiltration are specified spatially. High groundwater levels
result in water on the surface. The groundwater flows then become two-dimensional sur-
face flows. The deep groundwater flow is not included in 3Di.
24 hours
1d open water network layer

The 1D flow through canals is calculated fully hydrodynamically. A profile can be given for
the canals showing resistance and bed height. Civil engineering structures in the canals
can be modelled, including pumping stations, weirs, underflows, culverts and bridges.
Flows at civil engineering structures make allowances for the direction of flow and various
flow conditions, such as free and submerged flows. Real-time control of these structures
is possible, although that is still custom work at the moment.
Compared to other 1D models, 3Di conserves mass completely, avoiding calculation
time steps needing to be shortened even when canals dry out or in supercritical flows.

There are three variants for the linkage between 1D and 2D flows: embedded, connected
and isolated. There are three ways of connecting the 1D canals up to the groundwater.
This allows any system to be described properly.
The rainfall runoff process is described in 3Di using these linkages, with slow removal via
the groundwater and rapid removal via surface flows.

Example of a test calculation working out

how the groundwater level will progress.

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3Di explained 3Di explained

1D sewer network layer

The calculation core is capable of handling the sewer system fully hydrodynamically
right down to the sewer pit and drain level. Underground constructions can be
described in detail using storage height functions. Civil engineering structures may be
included in the sewer network, such as pumping stations, weirs and underflows. Just
like the 1D open water network, the sewer network can be linked to the 2D raster
network and the 2D groundwater network. The same type of connections are used for
this as for the 1D surface waters, i.e. embedded, connected and isolated.

The sewer layer calculation conserves mass completely, does the calculations without
time step reduction and is suitable for both subcritical and supercritical flows.

The municipal sewer network in the area covered by OAS De Groote Lucht
in 3Di. The sewerage is also integrated into the 3Di calculation core. Calculations
down to the level of storm drains are then feasible. The zoom level determines
which details are shown.

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3Di explained 3Di explained


A great deal of attention was paid in the setup of 3Di to creating and managing model
schematics, also known as area models. The key points are:
connecting to the source control files of the water manager
flexible updating of the area models with new data
checking, correcting and adding the necessary data
processing and modifying area models by the modeller or consultant
version control of the area models and model scenarios
interactive use of the area models

Control at the source

Every water manager has source data and the corresponding software for managing
data about waterways, sewers and civil engineering objects. When an area model is
produced, data standards are used along with standard management software. The
data that is required for the area model is read into an object database and a raster
database. Changes to the source files can be read in again later into these databases.

Checks, corrections and additions

The object database is checked, with corrections and additions being made as necessary.
These checks are fully automated, which makes them extremely flexibly when updates
are needed. The corrections and additions are needed for making the area model. The
supplementary and adjusted values are also reported back to the manager of the source

The level of detail of 3Di makes it possible to make detailed calculations

of high water problems and find tailored solutions for them.

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3Di explained 3Di explained

files. The managers can then make their own decisions as to whether or not the changes
should be implemented in the source files.

Data mining

The checks are carried out at two levels. The basic checks ensure that the model is com-
plete. An optional detailed check can be performed, based on big data mining. This
involved correction and supplementation of missing profiles, connections, culverts, weirs
and level limits, using numerous source files. Data mining turns out to be particularly
useful for secondary and tertiary water systems, yielding better quality area models.

Creating an area model

The area models are generated automatically from the object database and the raster
database by a 3Di specialist. The object database and the area models are stored in the
cloud. All the variants of an area model are managed automatically in the cloud and it is
possible to retrieve older variants.

Updating an area model

Area models are stored in a SpatiaLite database. The user can download and edit an
area model and then upload it again. Editing is done using QGIS v2.2. All raster data
and object data in the area model can be accessed and edited using standard GIS tools.

3Di area models can be modified by the specialist right down to the
finest level of detail using QGIS, an open source GIS package.

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3Di explained 3Di explained

Interactive use

When a calculation is to be carried out, the user has a 3Di web interface for choosing
an area model and a scenario. The user can start up a calculation with the play button
and follow the calculation on the map as it progresses. During the calculation, the user
can retrieve information and make changes. These modification may relate to the
spatial planning or the water and wastewater systems and civil engineering structures.

3Di and FEWS

OIn order to validate area models and to use them in a high water prediction system,
there are links with FEWS and ControlNext. In this combination, the 3Di area model
is updated every 15 or 60 minutes with the latest radar data and predictions. Dis-
crepancies between the values measured and calculated are logged and can be adjusted
if so desired.

In 3Di area models, the 1D watercourses are fully integrated into the 2D flow
model. Visualisation of the culverts, weirs, pumping stations (rotating impellers for
pumping stations removing water) and the water flow (a stream of white balls)
quickly provide insights into how the water system works.

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3Di explained 3Di explained

3Di area models can be used for numerous applications. Various practical case studies
have been carried out over the last few years.

A 3Di area model can be used for a desktop study, as an interactive tool in workshops
and as part of a system for fire brigade support or high water prediction. Alternatives
can be input immediately during working sessions and the effects calculated. Consensus
is achieved much more rapidly this way about the usefulness and necessity of measures,
making a distinction between those that are sensible and those that are pointless.

We have listed a number of applications below for illustrative purposes. Getting 3Di
properly embedded in your organisation obviously needs more than just a properly
functioning model. Thanks to the 3Di cloud solution, the technical implementation has
been made as simple as possible, at any rate.

Disaster management

A 3Di area model is ideal for use in an emergency or in a disaster exercise. When an actual
or impending breach is signalled, it can be entered into the area model instantaneously.
Within just a few minutes, a realistic picture of the flooding is available. A 3Di area model
can also be used for flooding problems due to extreme precipitation. This can also use
weather radar images to get an accurate spatial picture.

Emergency measures can be tried out first in the area model. The effects of raising dykes,
emergency pumping or closures of waterways, cycle tunnels and viaducts can be pre-
sented in just a few minutes. This makes 3Di the perfect tool for helping take the correct
emergency measures.

The pictures can be shared using the watch function of the Internet interface. Images
can also be sent to the Disaster Management System.

A good picture of the current situation is crucial in an actual or impending

emergency, as is a picture of the consequences of any actions that might be
taken. Using a 3Di area model makes it possible to estimate which
roads could still be used for evacuation if the water retention structures fail.

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3Di explained 3Di explained

Classification of embankments

Regional embankments and areas with variable water levels are standardised by the
provincial authorities into so-called (Dutch) IPO classes (1 to 5). These provincial classes
are related to the damage that would occur if the embankment broke. The high level
of detail in the 3Di area models allows the calculation of the damage to be made much
more accurately.

Tens of thousands of dyke breach scenarios can be calculated in just a short time with
3Di, allowing the correct IPO classes to be determined for each section. This let the
Hollands Noorderkwartier water authority save over a hundred million euros on proposed
dyke reinforcement work. Thanks to the more accurate classification, unnecessary dyke
strengthening work as a result of excessively high classifications can be avoided.

Rivers and estuaries

2D models of rivers and estuaries have been around for a long time, but they are too
slow or too large for many applications. The new 3Di calculation core means that it is
now possible to do 2D calculations. Putting the outer flood fields underwater or draining
them again and how this affects water transport by the river are described exceptionally
well in a 3Di area model.

The 3Di area model also allows the effects of deeper dredging, harbour expansions and
bypasses to be examined. The effects of nature development in the flood fields or the
utilisation of overflow areas can be made clear to everyone.

3Di has been used abroad to make 2D models of Jamaica Bay in New York and San
Francisco Bay. The calculation time for these models is just a few minutes, although the
models contain a billion cells.

Tackling water problems

Water problems as a result of heavy precipitation have led many water authorities to test
their water systems. The Dutch National Administrative Agreement on Water standards
state that the vulnerable areas, such as urban areas, need greater protection than the less
vulnerable areas such as grasslands.
The 3Di calculation schema is suitable for calculating 2D flow
patterns in rivers because appropriate allowances are made for
the effects of floodable field areas.

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A 3Di area model allows the impact of extreme precipitation to be mapped out very
accurately at a fine level of detail. A 3Di case study carried out in Delfland showed that
the water burden in a vulnerable polder could be reduced by eighty per cent. That is
a massive difference and it generated correspondingly substantial savings.
Instead of having to purchase land for water storage in the open, a tailored solution is
now being realised together with the municipality that fits in with the spatial planning.
Determining the water burden and looking for tailored solutions is many times quicker
and more accurate with 3Di area models than was previously possible.

Urban environment plans

New environmental legislation is on the way, creating a need for integral spatial analysis
of water behaviour. Extreme precipitation can involve vastly more rainwater on the
streets than the bui08 standard scenario. If you are interested in what would happen
in your municipality if 100mm of rain were to fall in one go, a water scan can be carried
out using a 3Di area model. For Amsterdam, for instance, a 3Di area model has been
made down to the level of paving stones. This area model has allowed the vulnerable
areas in the city to be mapped out accurately.

Optimising urban drainage systems (UDS)

An optimisation study (also known as an OAS) can be carried out for UDS. A 3Di area
model is particularly well suited for obtaining a good picture of how the UDS actually
functions. A model such as this contains the entire sewer system of all municipalities
down to the individual pipes, combined with a 3Di surface model.
A 3Di area model has been developed for the OAS De Groote Lucht. This has allowed
the functioning of the UDS to be examined accurately, including studies of optimisation
measures such as disconnecting residential areas, real-time control and alterations to the
sewer system or the wastewater purification.

The ability of areas (particularly urban areas) to handle climate issues can
be examined, including looking at severe extremes of precipitation, alone
or combined with dyke breaches. 3Di brings climate scans within reach
for any water authority or municipality.

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3Di explained 3Di explained


You now know what 3Di is worth. But what will it cost to use it? This chapter gives
a picture of the pricing, with a number of worked examples at the end.

The costs can be subdivided into:

Annual usage costs for calculations with a 3Di area model.
One-off costs for creating one or more 3Di area models.
The costs of realistic three-dimensional stereo visualisation.

The prices stated below are exclusive of Dutch VAT. Users can make any desired modi-
fication to an area model and analyse scenarios or measures that could be taken. This is
done using the basic area model and your calculation subscription.

3Di usage costs

You do not have to purchase a licence and you hardly need to install any software your-
self in order to do calculations with 3Di. The 3Di calculation core is hosted on calculation
servers in a professional data centre. To perform calculations with a 3Di area model, you
need a modern Internet browser such as Chrome and a 3Di subscription. The approach is
similar to a package for a mobile phone: you purchase a 3Di package that gives an annual
amount of calculation time and data storage.


BASIS 5 GB 10 HOURS L5.000

MEDIUM 50 GB 100 HOURS L10.000

LARGE 500 GB 1000 HOURS L50.000

PREMIUM 2 TB 2000 HOURS L75.000

The 3Di calculation core can show flow velocities at the sub-grid level. This was
capable of giving a detailed picture of the changing flow patterns at high and
low tide in San Francisco Bay, for example. Where would escaped prisoners from
Alcatraz have made landfall? 3Di has the answers.

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3Di explained 3Di explained

The calculation times are quick enough that the Basic package is sufficient for occa-
sional use. The Medium package is more suitable for a medium-sized municipality.
A water authority with numerous 3Di area models should find Large to be enough. 1 MILLION L10.000 1000 L10.000
Premium is the best option for intensive, large-scale use.
10 MILLION L20.000 5000 L20.000
Multiple users can work with a single account. You can also give external consultants
access to your account. Every user is a registered and can be granted more or fewer 50 MILLION L30.000 10000 L30.000
100 MILLION L40.000 15000 L40.000
If you want to work with multiple users at the same time, then you will need to extend
your subscription. The extended subscription can be a smaller type. There are 500 MILLION L60.000 20000 L50.000
discounts that apply to equivalent subscriptions; these also apply to multiple models.
1 BILLION L80.000 25000 L60.000
For operationally critical applications, such as when used in a disaster organisation
or as part of a decision support system, a higher service level agreement may be 1.5 BILLION L100.000 50000 L100.000
needed. This can be sent to you on request.
2 BILLION L120.000 75000 L125.000

3Di area models

Discounts: cooperating pays off
You need a 3Di area model if you are going to work with 3Di. A 3Di area model can
consist of one or several model layers, namely: Considerable efficiency gains can be achieved when several models are created at once.
a raster terrain layer (for flooding and precipitation) The discounts that are given for this can be as much as 90%.
a raster subsoil layer (for soil moisture content and groundwater)
a 1D open water network layer (for the canal system)
a 1D sewer network layer (for the sewer system) NUMBER OF 3Di MODELS DISCOUNT

1 0%
The basic area model can only be made by the 3Di Foundation. Once an area model has
been created, it may be modified by everyone who has the appropriate rights. 2 50%

3 60%
The one-off costs of an area model are determined by the number of model layers and
the number of schema elements per model layer. The costs can be worked out using the 4 70%
table on page 37.
5 10 80%

11 AND MORE 90%

The discounts only apply for orders that are placed at the same time.
The highest discounts are applied to the cheapest models.

The costs of an area model include reading in the data from the management system
according to the standard exchange formats and protocols. Missing or inconsistent data
in the dataset supplied will be corrected and you will be notified of the corrections made.

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3Di explained 3Di explained

If a raster subsoil layer is included in the area model in addition to the raster terrain layer, The total cost for a 3Di area model for the municipality is thus:
a discount of 50% is given on the second raster layer.
J100.000,- (terrain model, subsoil model and sewer model), or
J80.000,- (terrain model plus sewer model).
3Di visualisatie

The results of a 3Di calculation can be visualised in a realistic setting using what is POLDER
known as the point cloud. This point cloud data must first be processed as a one-off
from aerial photographs. This example assumes a polder area of 1.500 ha. If a resolution of 0.25m2 is used for
the terrain layer, it will consist of 60 million sub-grids. The cost of making this layer is
The one-off costs per hectare for processing the point cloud data visualisation are: J40.000,-.

The subsoil layer for this polder also contains 60 million sub-grids. Doing the subsoil
AREA COSTS layer at the same time costs 50% x J40.000,- = J20.000,-.

0 5000 HA L5000,-
The number of one of the elements in the open water network for the polder is 4.000.
5000 100.000 HA L1,- PER HA Of these, 1.500 are weirs, culverts, pumping stations and bridges. The costs for the 1D
open water network are therefore J20.000,-.
> 100.000 HA L50.000,- + L0,50 PER HA

Making a three-layer schema of a 3Di area model for this polder therefore comes to
Displaying 3D images requires a stereo video projector and a laptop. This equipment J40.000,- + J20.000,- + J20.000,- = J80.000,-.
can be rented or you may purchase it yourself. Renting the equipment costs J1.500 per
day. Purchasing the equipment, including installation of the software, costs J20.000,-.

Example cost calculations If a decision is made to create several models at the same time, then the costs for sub-
sequent models are:
Costs for model 1: J80.000,-
MEDIUM-SIZED MUNICIPALITY Costs for model 2: J40.000,- (50% discount)
Take a municipality with 80.000 residents and a built-up area of 1.570 ha. At a resolution Costs for model 6: J16.000,- (80% discount)
of 0.25m2, the terrain layer for this area consists of 63 million sub-grids. The cost of making
an area model containing only this terrain layer is J40.000,-. The total cost for making the polder models for the entire area you are managing is there-
fore easy to determine.
The subsoil layer also contains 63 million sub-grids. If the two are done at once, a discount
of 50% applies, so the extra cost of the second one is then J20.000,-. Municipalities are able to obtain a substantial discount by having several 3Di area models
made at the same time; this can also be done jointly with other municipalities.
The municipal sewer system contains 15.000 items (manholes, overflows, pumping stations
and so forth). The costs for the 1D sewer network are therefore J40.000,-.

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3Di explained




Onno van den Akker Fritz van Deventer
Fedor Baart Wouter van Esse
Ruben Dahm Jack Ha
Arthur van Dam Olivier Hoes
Klaas-Jan van Heeringen Alexander Hoff
Olga Kleptsova Ernst Kuilder
Robert Leander Anne Leskens
Elgard van Leeuwen Coen Nengerman
Arnejan van Loenen Gijs Nijholt
Jan Noort Olga Pleumeekers
Danil Twigt Jan-Maarten Verbree
Govert Verhoeven Bram de Vries
Toine Vergroesen Bastiaan Roos
Jarno Verkaik Reinout van Rees
Wytze Schuurmans
DELFT TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY Jonas van Schrojenstein Lantman
Elmar Eisemann Martijn Siemerink
Gerwin de Haan Sander Smits
Christian Kehl Arjan Verkerk
Frits Post Arjen Vrielink
Guus Stelling Danil Zijderveld
Tim Tutenel
Nicolette Volp 3Di ACADEMY
Lars Wijtemans Louise Klingen (Van Hall Larensteijn College)
Tessa van Rosmalen (Utrecht University)
NELEN & SCHUURMANS Anna Cruijsen (Delft Technical University)
Ber Albers Benno Fakkert (University of Twente)
Thomas Berends Frank Tibben (University of Twente)
Berto Booijink Kelly van der Elst (Radboud University, Nijmegen)
Dimitri van Breemen Yasmin Faraji (Utrecht University)
Pieter Buijs Floor Speet (University of Twente)
Carsten Byrman Arnold van t Veld (Delft Technical University)