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Table of Contents
MODULE ONE: ALGEBRA, RELATIONS and FUNCTIONS............................................................................................ 5
CHAPTER 1: INEQUALITIES ..............................................................................................................5
QUADRATIC INEQUALITIES..................................................................................................................................... 5
RATIONAL INEQUALITIES........................................................................................................................................ 7
CHAPTER 2: THE DISCRIMINANT ......................................................................................................9
CALCULATING THE DISCRIMINANT ........................................................................................................................ 9
THE DISCRIMINANT AND DISTINCT REAL ROOTS................................................................................................... 9
THE DISCRIMINANT AND EQUAL ROOTS ............................................................................................................. 10
THE DISCRIMINANT AND NO REAL ROOTS .......................................................................................................... 10
CHAPTER 3: SURDS ....................................................................................................................... 12
PROPERTIES OF SURDS ......................................................................................................................................... 12
SURD SIMPLIFICATION ......................................................................................................................................... 12
FRACTIONS INVOLVING SURDS ............................................................................................................................ 13
CHAPTER 4: LAWS OF INDICES ....................................................................................................... 15
MULTIPLICATION .................................................................................................................................................. 15
DIVISION ............................................................................................................................................................... 15
RAISING A POWER TO A POWER .......................................................................................................................... 15
NEGATIVE INDICES ............................................................................................................................................... 15
ZERO INDEX .......................................................................................................................................................... 16
FRACTIONAL INDICES ........................................................................................................................................... 16
FURTHER LESSONS ............................................................................................................................................... 16
CHAPTER 5: DISGUISED QUADRATIC EQUATIONS........................................................................... 18
CHAPTER 6: FUNCTIONS ................................................................................................................ 20
DEFINITION OF A FUNCTION ................................................................................................................................ 20
REPRESENTING A FUNCTION................................................................................................................................ 20
MAPPING DIAGRAMS ....................................................................................................................................... 20
ORDERED PAIRS................................................................................................................................................ 21
EQUATIONS ...................................................................................................................................................... 21
GRAPHS OF FUNCTIONS ................................................................................................................................... 21
THE VERTICAL LINE TEST ...................................................................................................................................... 22
THE RANGE OF A FUNCTION ................................................................................................................................ 22
POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS ................................................................................................................................ 22
SQUARE ROOT FUNCTIONS .............................................................................................................................. 23
RATIONAL FUNCTIONS ..................................................................................................................................... 23
CLASSES OF FUNCTIONS....................................................................................................................................... 24
INJECTIONS ....................................................................................................................................................... 24
DETERMINING WHETHER A FUNCTION IS ONE TO ONE ............................................................................. 24
THE HORIZONTAL LINE TEST ............................................................................................................................ 25
SURJECTIONS .................................................................................................................................................... 26
DETERMINING WHETHER A FUNCTION IS ONTO............................................................................................. 26
BIJECTIONS ....................................................................................................................................................... 26
FUNCTIONS AND THEIR INVERSES ....................................................................................................................... 28
ONE TO ONE QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS........................................................................................................... 29
PIECEWISE FUNCTIONS ....................................................................................................................................... 31
1
CHAPTER 7: POLYNOMIALS ........................................................................................................... 34
SYNTHETIC DIVISION ............................................................................................................................................ 34
REMAINDER AND FACTOR THEOREM .................................................................................................................. 35
ROOTS OF POLYNOMIALS .................................................................................................................................... 37
CUBIC POLYNOMIALS ....................................................................................................................................... 39
FACTORING POLYNOMIALS .................................................................................................................................. 42
CHAPTER 8: LOGARITHMS ............................................................................................................. 43
PROPERTIES OF LOGARITHMS.............................................................................................................................. 44
LOGARITHMIC EQUATIONS .................................................................................................................................. 44
THE EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION ............................................................................................................................. 46
THE NATURAL LOGARITHM .................................................................................................................................. 47
LOGARITHMIC AND EXPONENTIAL EQUATIONS .................................................................................................. 47
UNKNOWN INDICES ............................................................................................................................................. 49
CHAPTER 9: MODULUS/ ABSOLUTE VALUE FUNCTION ................................................................... 51
MODULUS EQUATIONS ........................................................................................................................................ 51
MODULUS INEQUALITIES ..................................................................................................................................... 52
GRAPHS OF MODULUS FUNCTIONS ................................................................................................................. 54
CHAPTER 10: SEQUENCES, SERIES and MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION............................................... 56
SEQUENCES .......................................................................................................................................................... 56
SERIES ................................................................................................................................................................. 57
SPECIAL SUMMATION FORMULAE............................................................................................................... 59
MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION ........................................................................................................................... 61
PROOF OF SUMMATION................................................................................................................................. 61
PROOF OF DIVISIBILITY ................................................................................................................................ 63
CHAPTER 11: THE REAL NUMBER SYSTEM ................................................................................... 65
BINARY OPERATIONS............................................................................................................................................ 65
CAYLEY TABLE....................................................................................................................................................... 65
CLOSURE ............................................................................................................................................................... 65
COMMUTATIVITY ................................................................................................................................................. 65
ASSOCIATIVITY...................................................................................................................................................... 66
IDENTITY AND INVERSE ........................................................................................................................................ 67
DIRECT PROOFS .................................................................................................................................................... 68
CHAPTER 12: REASONING AND LOGIC .......................................................................................... 69
TRUTH TABLES................................................................................................................................................... 69
CONVERSE, INVERSE AND CONTRAPOSITIVE................................................................................................ 70
LOGICAL EQUIVALENCE .................................................................................................................................... 70
LAWS OF BOOLEAN ALGEBRA .......................................................................................................................... 71
MODULE TWO: VECTORS, TRIGONOMETRY AND COORDINATE GEOMETRY ....................................................... 73
CHAPTER 13: TWO DIMENSIONAL VECTORS .................................................................................. 73
, REPRESENTATION ........................................................................................................................................... 73
, , REPRESENTATION ....................................................................................................................................... 74
UNIT VECTORS...................................................................................................................................................... 74
SCALAR (DOT) PRODUCT ...................................................................................................................................... 74
ANGLE BETWEEN TWO VECTORS......................................................................................................................... 75
THE VECTOR EQUATION OF A LINE ...................................................................................................................... 78
VECTOR EQUATION OF A PLANE .......................................................................................................................... 79
CHAPTER 14: THE EQUATION OF A CIRCLE ..................................................................................... 82
DETERMINING THE EQUATION OF A CIRCLE........................................................................................................ 82
2
FINDING THE CENTRE AND RADIUS OF A CIRCLE ................................................................................................. 82
TANGENTS AND NORMALS .................................................................................................................................. 83
THE INTERSECTION OF TWO CIRCLES .................................................................................................................. 85
EQUATION OF A CIRCLE GIVEN 3 POINTS ............................................................................................................ 85
CHAPTER 15: THE LOCUS OF A POINT ............................................................................................ 87
CHAPTER 16: RADIAN MEASURE.................................................................................................... 89
CONVERTING RADIANS TO DEGREES ................................................................................................................... 89
CONVERTING DEGREES TO RADIANS ................................................................................................................... 89
ARC LENGTH ......................................................................................................................................................... 89
AREA OF SECTOR .................................................................................................................................................. 89
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY ...................................................................................................... 92
TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES ............................................................................................................................... 92
PROVING TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES........................................................................................................... 93
GRAPHS OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS .......................................................................................................... 94
GRAPHS OF RECIPROCAL FUNCTIONS.............................................................................................................. 95
SKETCHING TRIGONOMETRIC GRAPHS ............................................................................................................ 95
TRIGONOMETRIC EQUATIONS ............................................................................................................................. 96
GENERAL SOLUTIONS ....................................................................................................................................... 96
SOLVING TRIGONOMETRIC EQUATIONS.......................................................................................................... 98
HARMONIC FORM............................................................................................................................................. 101
COMPOUND ANGLE FORMULAE ........................................................................................................................ 103
DOUBLEANGLE FORMULAE.............................................................................................................................. 105
HALFANGLE FORMULAE .................................................................................................................................. 106
FACTOR FORMULAE......................................................................................................................................... 107
CHAPTER 18: PARAMETRIC EQUATIONS..................................................................................... 112
MODULE THREE: CALCULUS.................................................................................................................................... 115
CHAPTER 19: LIMITS................................................................................................................... 115
LIMITS BY DIRECT SUBSTITUTION ................................................................................................................ 116
LIMIT PROPERTIES .......................................................................................................................................... 117
LIMITS AS APPROACHES INFINITY ............................................................................................................. 117
LIMITS AS APPROACHES 0 ........................................................................................................................... 118
Limit of ................................................................................................................................................ 118
LIMITS AND PIECEWISE FUNCTIONS............................................................................................................. 119
PIECEWISE FUNCTIONS AND CONTINUITY .............................................................................................. 120
DIFFERENTIATION FROM FIRST PRINCIPLES ...................................................................................................... 123
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION .................................................................................................. 125
HOW TO DIFFERENTIATE.................................................................................................................................... 125
THE DERIVATIVES OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS ..................................................................................... 126
PROPERTIES OF DERIVATIVES ........................................................................................................................ 126
DIFFERENTIATION RULES ............................................................................................................................... 126
THE SECOND DERIVATIVE............................................................................................................................... 128
PARAMETRIC DIFFERENTIATION .............................................................................................................. 129
APPLICATIONS OF DIFFERENTIATION................................................................................................................. 133
GRADIENTS AND DIFFERENTIATION............................................................................................................... 133
INCREASING AND DECREASING FUNCTIONS.................................................................................................. 134
POINTS OF INFLECTION .................................................................................................................................. 136
CURVE SKETCHING ...................................................................................................................................... 137
RATE OF CHANGE ........................................................................................................................................... 138
3
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION ........................................................................................................ 145
HOW TO INTEGRATE .......................................................................................................................................... 145
INTEGRATION NOTATION............................................................................................................................... 145
PROPERTIES OF INTEGRALS............................................................................................................................ 145
TRIGONOMETRIC INTEGRATION .................................................................................................................... 146
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS............................................................................................................................. 147
DEFINITE INTEGRALS ...................................................................................................................................... 147
INTEGRATION BY SUBSTITUTION.............................................................................................................. 148
APPLICATIONS OF INTEGRATION .................................................................................................................. 151
THE EQUATION OF A CURVE .......................................................................................................................... 151
THE AREA UNDER A GRAPH ........................................................................................................................... 151
VOLUME OF REVOLUTION ABOUT THE AXIS .............................................................................................. 156
VOLUMES OF REVOLUTION ABOUT THE AXIS ...................................................................................... 156
CAPE 2012 .................................................................................................................................. 168
CAPE 2013 .................................................................................................................................. 171
CAPE 2014 .................................................................................................................................. 175
CAPE 2015 .................................................................................................................................. 178
CAPE 2016 .................................................................................................................................. 181
CAPE 2017 .................................................................................................................................. 184
ANSWERS FOR CAPE PAST PAPERS .............................................................................................. 188
4
CHAPTER 1: INEQUALITIES
QUADRATIC INEQUALITIES
Quadratic inequalities deal with determining the 2 + + > 0
range of values of which satisfy { < 1 } { > 2 }
2 + + > 0, 2 + + < 0 as well as
2 + + 0 and 2 + + 0.
If 1 and 2 are the roots of a quadratic equation,
with 1 < 2, then we have the following possible
ranges as solutions to the varying quadratic
inequalities.
NB: WE ideally want the coefficient of 2 to be
positive so that the graphs have the shape below.
2 + + 0
{ 1 } { 2 }
2 + + 0
Solution: 1 2
5
CHAPTER 1: INEQUALITIES
6
CHAPTER 1: INEQUALITIES
RATIONAL INEQUALITIES +6
(h) >0
4
LESSON 5 Solve the inequality
3 3
0 (i) <0
2
+2
SOLUTION NB: We have to multiply +2
throughout by the square of the denominator. (j) <0
4
3
0 ( + 2)2 +1
+2 (k) 1
( 3)( + 2) 0 2
Roots = 2, 3 +1
{ < 2} { 3} (l) 3
3
NB: cannot equal 2 since that would lead to
1
division by zero. (m) 4 2
SOLUTION +2
2 3 (p) 10
5
1 ( + 1)2
+1 +3
(2 3)( + 1) ( + 1)2 (q) +31
5
2 2 3 2 + 2 + 1
2 3 4 0 1
(r) 21
( 4)( + 1) 0 4
Roots = 1, 4 +2
{1 < 4} (s) 40
3
NB: 1 since that would lead to division by
zero. +5
(t) +10
1
.. 3+1
(u) 1
+4
+10 2+3
(a) >0 2. Solve for the inequality 3+4 < 1. [10]
7
3 CAPE 2002
(b) >0
6 3. Find the range of values of for which
2
+10 > 0, 3. [6]
(c) <0 +3
4 CAPE 2004
+1
4. (i) Find , such that
(d) >0 3 +
+5 2=
+1 +1
5 where 1. [2]
(e) >0
+8 (ii) Hence, find the range of values of
3
+9 for which +1 > 2. [4]
(f) <0
10 CAPE 2006
+9 5. Solve, for , the inequality
(g) >0 2 3
+2 5 > 0
+1
[5]
7
CHAPTER 1: INEQUALITIES
CAPE 2010
6. Solve 3 2 + 4 + 1 5. [4]
CAPE 2013
SOLUTIONS
1. (a) { < 10} { > 7}
(b) { < 3} { > 6}
(c) 10 < < 4
(d) { < 5} { > 1}
(e) { < 8} { > 5}
(f) 9 < < 10
(g) { < 9} { > 2}
(h) { < 6} { > 4}
(i) 2 < < 3
(j) 2 < < 4
(k) > 2
(l) 3 < 5
(m) 4 < 7
14
(n) { 3 } { > 3}
(o) { < 3} { 9}
(p) > 5
7
(q) { 3} { > 5}
11
(r) 4 < 2
14
(s) { < 3} { }
3
(t) 2 < 1
3
(u) { < 4} { 2}
(v) 1 < 4
4
2. { < } { > 1}
3
3. { < 3} { > 2}
4. (i) = 1, = 2 (ii) { < 1} { > 2}
8
5. { < } { > 1}
3
2
6. 2 3
..
8
CHAPTER 2: THE DISCRIMINANT
(c) 2 2 3 + 4 = 0
= 2, = 3 and = 4
Discriminant is 2 4
(3) 2 4(2)(4) = 23
Since 2 4 < 0 the equation
2 2 3 + 4 = 0 has no real roots.
9
CHAPTER 2: THE DISCRIMINANT
SOLUTION EXERCISE 2
(a) For 2 + 2 5 = 0 to have 2 real and 1. If a quadratic equation has two distinct roots,
distinct roots, 2 4 > 0 the value of the discriminant is
= 1, = 2 and = 5 (A) Positive
(2) 2 4(1)(5) > 0 (B) Negative
42 + 20 > 0 (C) Zero
4( + 5) > 0 2. If a quadratic equation has no real roots, the
Roots: = 0, 5 value of the discriminant must be
{ < 5} { > 0} (A) Positive
(b) ( 2 1) = 3 + 3 (B) Negative
2 = 3 + 3 (C) zero
2 3 3 = 0 3. For a quadratic equation to have a repeated
= , = 3 and = 3 root the value of the discriminant
2 4 > 0 must be
(3) 2 4()( 3) > 0 (A) Positive
9 + 42 + 12 > 0 (B) Negative
42 + 12 + 9 > 0 (C) Zero
(2 + 3)2 > 0 4. For a quadratic equation to have a repeated
3
Root = 2 root the quadratic expression must be
3 (a) A perfect square
(b) Factorisable
2 (c) Unfactorisable
5. Calculate the discriminant of
THE DISCRIMINANT AND EQUAL (i) 2 3 + 5. [11]
ROOTS (ii) 3 2 + 9 + 10 [39]
6. (i) Calculate the discriminant of
LESSON 3 Find the values of for which the 2 2 6 + 11. [52]
expression 2 + ( + 3) + 2 + 3 is a perfect (ii) State the number of real roots of the
square. equation 2 2 6 + 11 = 0.
SOLUTION 7. (i) Calculate the discriminant of
For perfect squares 2 4 = 0 5 2 + 20 8. [560]
= 1, = + 3 and = 2 + 3 (ii) State the number of real roots of the
( + 3)2 4(1)(2 + 3) = 0 equation 5 2 + 20 8 = 0.
2 + 6 + 9 8 12 = 0 8. Find the set of values of for which the
2 2 3 = 0 equation 2 + ( 2) + (2 4) = 0 has
( 3)( + 1) = 0 real roots. { < 2} { > 10}
= 3, 1 2 (
9. The equation + + + 3) = 0, where
is a constant, has different real roots.
(A) Show that 2 4 12 > 0.
THE DISCRIMINANT AND NO REAL (B) Find the set of possible values of .
ROOTS { < 2} { > 6}
LESSON 4 Find the range of values of for 10. Find the set of values of for which the
which the equation 2 + + 25 = 0 has no real equation 2 + 4 + (5 ) = 0 has 2
roots. distinct real roots. { < 1} { > 4}
SOLUTION 11. Find the possible values of for which 2 +
For no real roots 2 4 < 0 ( 3) + (3 2) = 0 has two distinct real
2 4(1)(25) < 0 roots. { < 3} { > 1}
2 100 < 0 12. The equation ( + 3) 2 + 6 + = 5 has two
( + 10)( 10) < 0 distinct real roots. Determine the set of
Roots: = 10, 10 possible values of . [4 < < 6]
10 < < 10 13. Given that the equation 2 + 12 + = 0,
where is a positive constant, has equal
roots, find the value of . [ = 6]
10
CHAPTER 2: THE DISCRIMINANT
11
CHAPTER 3: SURDS
CHAPTER 3: SURDS
At the end of this section, students should be able = 75 + (3)(2)5 45
to: = 75 + 65 45
perform operations involving surds = (7 + 6 4)5
__________________________________________________________
= 95
INTRODUCTION
(c) 2(3 + 12)
Surds are numbers left in 'square root form'. They
are therefore irrational numbers. The reason we = 2(3 + 23)
leave them as surds is because in decimal form = 2(33)
they would go on forever and so this is a very = 63
clumsy way of writing them. LESSON 3 Simplify
Note: 9 = 3 which is a rational number. (a) (2 + 5)(2 5)
Roots such as 2, 3, 5 . are SURDS (b) (2 3)(2 + 3)
(c) (33 + 4)(33 4)
PROPERTIES OF SURDS SOLUTION
(a) (2 + 5)(2 5)
1. = = 2 =
= 4 25 + 25 55
2. = = 4 25
= 4 5 = 1
3. + = ( + ) By factorization
(b) (2 3)(2 + 3)
SURD SIMPLIFICATION = 22 + 32 32 9
A surd is simplified when the number under the = 4 9
square root sign does not have a perfect square as =29
one of its factors. = 7
LESSON 1 Simplify each of the following (c) (33 + 4)(33 4)
(i) 50 = 933 123 + 123 16
(ii) 80 = 99 16
SOLUTION = 27 16
(a) 50 = 25 2 = 11
= 25 2 ..
EXERCISE 3.1
= 52
(b) 80 = 16 5 1. Simplify each of the following surds.
= 16 5
a) 27
= 45 b) 63
LESSON 2 Simplify each of the following.
c) 32
(a) 520 + 245
d) 44
(b) 75 + 320 80
e) 54
(c) 2(3 + 12)
f) 72
SOLUTION
g) 80
(a) 520 + 245 = 55 4 + 29 5
h) 96
= 545 + 295
i) 112
= (5)(2) 5 + (2)(3)5
j) 108
= 105 + 65
k) 147
= (10 + 6) 5
l) 192
= 165
m) 352 + 2117
(b) 75 + 320 80
n) 418 + 98 28
=75 + 35 4 16 5
o) 180 3125 + 45
= 75 + 354 165
12
CHAPTER 3: SURDS
Number 6+2
13
CHAPTER 3: SURDS
12
3(3 + 6) (a) 108 , 3
= 3
20
(3 6)(3 + 6) (b) 45 + , 5
5
3(3 + 6) 15+40
= (c) , 5 + 2
3 36 5
3(3 + 6) 2. Express each of the following in the indicated
= form.
33 4
(a) 37 , + 7
3 + 6 (b)
12
, 5
= 3+5
11 832
2 + 2 (c) , + 2
(c) 4+32
2 2 5+3
(d) , 5 +
52
2 + 2 2 + 2 15+3
= (e) , + 3
2 2 2 + 2 33
8+7
(f) , + 7
2+7
(2 + 2)(2 + 2)
= SOLUTIONS
(2 2)(2 + 2) 1. (a) 23 (b) 75 (c) 35 + 22
4 + 22 + 22 + 2 2. (a) 6 + 27 (b) 9 35
=
42
(c) 25 + 182 (d) 11 + 55
4 + 42 + 2
= (e) 8 + 33 (f) 3 + 27
2
6 + 42 EXAM QUESTIONS
=
2 53
1. Express in the form + 3 where
= 3 + 22 2+3
, . [5]
3 + 24 CAPE 2007
(d) 2. Without using calculators or tables, show that
6 + 2 6+2
3 + 24 6 2 (i) = 2 + 3 [5]
62
= 6+2 62
6 + 2 6 2 (ii) + =4 [5]
62 6+2
(3 + 24)(6 2) CAPE 2008
=
(6 + 2)(6 2) 3. Without the use of the tables or a calculator,
36 6 224 246 simplify 28 + 343 in the form 7, where
= is an integer. [5]
64
36 6 264 144 CAPE 2009
= 4. Without using calculators, find the exact value
2 2 2
36 6 (2)(2)6 12 of (75 + 12) (75 12) [3]
= CAPE 2011
2
36 6 46 12 5. Without the use of a calculator, show that
= 3 1 3 + 1 2 1 2 + 1
2 + + + = 10
18 6 3 + 1 3 1 2 + 1 2 1
=
2 [5]
1035 CAPE 2014
= SOLUTIONS
5
= 235
.. 1. 13 73
2.
EXERCISE 3.2 3. 97
4. 120
1. Express each of the following in the indicated
5.
form.
..
14
CHAPTER 4: INDICES
15
CHAPTER 4: INDICES
ZERO INDEX 4 = 2
0 1
=1 =
Any quantity, except zero, raised to the power 2
zero is 1
PROOF: LESSON 8 Without the use of a calculator
find the exact value of
1 1 = 1+(1) = 0 1 3 1
1 274 98 818
1 1 = = 1
SOLUTION
0 = 1 1 3 1 1 3 1
274 98 81 8 = (33 )4 (32 )8 (34 ) 8
3 3 1
FRACTIONAL INDICES = 34 34 32
1 3 3 1
= = 34+4++2
1 1 = 32
=
=9
= ( ) LESSON 8 Without the use of a calculator,
1 show that
= 42
( ) 1 = 24 (2)
LESSON 6 Write each of the following in the 2 8 3
form .
1 SOLUTION
(i) 92 LHS
1
(ii) 1253 42 (22 )2
2 1 = 1 1
(iii) 643 2 8 3 22 (23 ) 3
2
(iv) 5 24
3
= 1
(v) 2 4 22 21
SOLUTION 24
1 = 1
(i) 92 = 9 = 3 22
1 1
1 1
(ii) 1253 = 1 = 3
= 24 (22 )
125 3 125
2 2 = 24 2
(iii) 5 = ( 5 )
3 RHS
2 2
(iv) 2 4 = 3 = 3
( 4 )
GRAPHS OF EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS APH OF
4
16
CHAPTER 4: INDICES
EXERCISE 4
4
1. Solve the equation 1632 = 82 . [ = 3 ]
17
CHAPTER 5: DISGUISED QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
18
CHAPTER 5: DISGUISED QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
19
CHAPTER 6: FUNCTIONS
CHAPTER 6: FUNCTIONS
At the end of this section, students should be able
to:
DEFINITION OF A FUNCTION
A function is a rule that produces a
correspondence/relation between two sets of Figure 2
elements, say and , such that to each element
in the first set, , there corresponds one and only
one element in the second set, .
The first set is called the domain and the second
set is called the codomain. The set of all
corresponding elements in the second set is called
the range of the function.
REPRESENTING A FUNCTION
Functions can be represented using
 mapping diagrams Figure 3
 ordered pairs
 equations
 graphs
MAPPING DIAGRAMS
LESSON 1 State giving reasons for your
answer whether the following mapping diagrams
represent functions. If the mapping diagram
represents a function, state its domain, co
domain and range.
Figure 4
SOLUTION
: in Figure 1 represents a function since
each element in is mapped to one and only one
element in .
20
CHAPTER 6: FUNCTIONS
(a) = {(2, 4), (3, 6), (4, 8), (5, 10)} (3) = 32 = 9 (3, 9)
(b) = {(1, 4), (0, 3), (1, 2), (2, 1)}
(c) = {(10, 10) , (5, 5), (0, 0) , (5, 5), (10, 10)}
(d) 1 = {(10, 10), (5, 5), (0, 0) , (5, 5), (10, 10)}
(e) 1 = {(0, 1), (1, 1) , (2, 1), (3, 2), (4, 2) , (5, 2)}
(f) 1 = {(1, 1), (2, 1), (3, 1), (1, 2), (2, 2), (3, 2)}
21
CHAPTER 6: FUNCTIONS
() = 2 3 6 2 + 5 4.
(i) 2 2 10 + 3
3
= 2 [ 2 5 + ]
2
2
3 2 3 5 2
= 2 [ 5 + ( ) + ( ) ]
2 2 2
2
Figure 3 5 3 25
= 2 [( ) + ]
2 2 4
SOLUTION 2
5 19
Figure 1 represents a function since any vertical = 2 [( ) ]
line drawn through the graph will cut the graph in 2 4
only one place.
22
CHAPTER 6: FUNCTIONS
5 2 19
= 2 ( )
2 2
RATIONAL FUNCTIONS
LESSON 8 Determine the range of
4
(a) () = +3
2+5
19 (b) () = 31
(ii) Range of : 2
SOLUTION
SQUARE ROOT FUNCTIONS (a) We know that () is undefined when
= 3. Therefore, for the range we simply
For square root functions of the form
need to determine the value of which would
() = + + we have the following:
have corresponded to this undefined value.
() has a minimum value if > 0 with 4
Let = +3
range
() has a maximum value if < 0 with ( + 3) = 4
range + 3 = 4
= 3 4
3 4
=
Range: , 0
2+5
(b) = 31
(3 1) = 2 + 5
3 = 2 + 5
3 2 = + 5
(3 2) = + 5
+5
=
LESSON 7 Determine the range of 3 2
(a) () = 2 1 + 4 Range: , 0
(b) () = 8 31 2.
SOLUTION
(a) () has a minimum value since the
coefficient of 1 is positive.
Range: 4
23
CHAPTER 6: FUNCTIONS
24
CHAPTER 6: FUNCTIONS
LESSON 10 The function, , is defined on This is made possible by the restriction on the
by : 4 1. domain.
LESSON 13 Let = {: , 1}
A function : is defined as
() = 2 2. Show that is one to one.
SOLUTION
() = ()
2 2 = 2 2
( 1)2 1 = ( 1) 2 1
( 1)2 = ( 1) 2
1 = 1
=
25
CHAPTER 6: FUNCTIONS
SURJECTIONS 1
=
A function : is surjective or onto if every 2
1
is the image of at least one . Therefore, the real number 2 is the pre
1
image of by and 2 is in for
LESSON 15 Determine whether the
following functions are surjective. any in so is onto.
However, for : , () = 2 + 1 is not
1
onto since 2 is not in for every in . For
21 1
example, when = 2, 2 = 2
(b) Let = ()
= 2 3
+ 3 =
Therefore, the real number + 3 is the pre
image of by , but + 3 is a real number
only when > 3, so is not onto.
23 1
LESSON 17 Determine if () = ,
4+1 4
is surjective.
SOLUTION
2
Since there is a horizontal asymptote at = , is
4
NOT onto.
BIJECTIONS
SOLUTION A function that is both injective and surjective is a
: is surjective since every is the bijective function (onetoone and onto).
image of one
: is surjective because every is the LESSON18 Determine whether the
image of at least one following functions are bijective.
: is not surjective because 3 is not the
image of a
Consequently, for a function to be a surjection the
range of the function must be equal to the co
domain of the function.
NB: : illustrates that an injection can be a
surjection.
SOLUTION
(a) Let = ( )
= 2 + 1
26
CHAPTER 6: FUNCTIONS
The four possible combinations of injective and Does 1 exist? Give a reason for your answer.
surjective features are illustrated in the following
diagrams. 2. For surjective functions, the codomain of the
Injective and Surjective (Bijective) function is equal to its
(A) Domain
(B) Range
(C) Inverse
(D) Set of pre  images
3. If = {1, 2, 3} and = {, , , } explain why
: cannot be surjective.
4. Using = {, , , } and = {0, 4, 9},
construct a surjective function. Does the
function you created have an inverse? Give a
reason for your answer.
Injective and Non Surjective 5. For a function to be bijective the domain of
the function must contain the same number of
elements as its
(A) Codomain
(B) Range
6. For a function to have an inverse it must be
(A) Injective
(B) Surjective
(C) Bijective
(D) None of the above
Non Injective and Surjective 7. Show that each of the following functions are
1 1.
(i) () = 1 6
(ii) () = 3 + 4
2
8. Show that the function ( ) = 2 1 , 1, 1
is not one to one.
9. The functions, and , are defined by
2 1
: , 2 1 : 3
1 2 2
Non Injective and NonSurjective (a) Explain clearly why is not onetoone
(b) Find, and express in its simplest form,
()
10. Show that the function () = 2 5 is one
to one.
11. Show that : , () = 3 2 is onto.
1
12. Show that : , () = + 1 is not
2
onto.
13. Consider the following sets = {1, 2,3, 4} and
= {, , , , } and the set of ordered pairs
.. : {(1, ), (3, ),(2, ), (4, )}. Draw the arrow
diagram to represent and answer the
EXERCISE 6.2 following questions.
a. Is a function?
1. Given that = {, , , } and = {1, 5, 7}, b. Is it injective? Is it surjective?
(i) explain why : cannot be c. What is the image of 2?
injective.
d. What is the preimage of ?
(ii) construct the injective function e. What is the preimage of ?
: .
27
CHAPTER 6: FUNCTIONS
SOLUTIONS (ii) ()
3 2 + 2
(3 2) =
1. (i) A domain element would have to be 3
omitted for one to oneness. =
2. (B) Generally, 1 () = and 1 () = . Since
3. At least one element in would have to be () = , is the inverse of . Furthermore, (as
mapped to more than one element in . expected) since () = , is the inverse of .
4. No, since an element in co domain would not
be mapped to. The functions and written as sets of ordered
5. (B) pairs are as follows:
6. (C) = {(1, 1), (0, 1), (1, 3), (2, 5), (3, 7), (4, 9)}
= {(3, 9), (2, 4), (1, 1), (0, 0), (1, 1), (2, 4), (3, 9)}
7. (i) (ii)
We realise that is a one to one function while
8.
72 6 is a many to one function.
9. (a) Counter Example (b) 2(12 ) Now lets consider the inverses of each function by
10. simply switching the first and second elements of
11. each pair.
12. 1 = {(1, 1), (1, 0), (3, 1), (5, 2), (7, 3), (9, 4)}
13. (a) Yes (b) Non Injective, Non Surjective 1 = {(9, 3), (4, 2), (1, 1), (0, 0), (1, 1), (4, 2), (9, 3)}
(c) (d) 1, 2 (e) Does not exist The inverse of is clearly a function. However,
14. No 1 is not a function since an element in the
15. No domain, for example the element 9, is mapped to
16. more than one element in the range.
..
(A) Injective
(B) Surjective
(C) Bijective
VIEW SOLUTION
: 2 + 3,
29
CHAPTER 6: FUNCTIONS
30
CHAPTER 6: FUNCTIONS
(v) Using the result obtained in part (i), find LESSON 24 The function is defined by
an expression for 1 . 3; 5 < 2
SOLUTIONS () = { 2; 2 < < 0
+1
1. (i) 3 (ii) ; 0<9
+ 7, 2
SOLUTION 1. For ( ) = { , > 2 , evaluate
3
i. (0) (a) (2)
0 is in the interval 0 therefore we use the (b) (4)
formula + 5 (c) (15)
So (0) = 0 + 5 = 5 (d) (63)
ii. (5) 5, 9 < 3
5 is in the interval > 0, therefore we use the 2. For () = { , 3 < 8 , determine
2
formula 2 . (i) the domain of
So (5) = 52 = 25 (ii) (0)
iii. (2) = 2 + 5 = 3 since 2 is in the (iii) (4)
interval 0
iv. (1) = 1 + 5 = 4 and (1) = 12 = 1
SOLUTIONS
(1) + (1) = 4 + 1 = 5
1. (a) 9 (b) 3 (c) 5 (d) 21
2. (i) 9 < 8 (ii) 10 (iii) 3
..
31
CHAPTER 6: FUNCTIONS
SOLUTIONS
2
1. (ii) (a) 1 (2 3) ,
(b) 1 () = 2( + 3)
1 3
2. = 2,2
3. = 8
4. (i) 15 (ii) 33 (iii) 3
5. (i) 3 + 6 (ii) (iii) 3 6
12 2+1
6. (i) 2 (ii) +3
7. (i) (a) 8 4 + 8 2 + 3 (b)
8. (a) (i) = 2, = 1 (ii) 1 2
(b) (i) Yes (ii) No (iii) No
5
9. (i) 4 (ii) 1 (iii) 3
10.
11.
..
33
CHAPTER 7: POLYNOMIALS
CHAPTER 7: POLYNOMIALS
At the end of this section, students should be able = ( 1)( 2 + 6)
to: = ( 1)( + 3)( 2)
factorise polynomial expressions of
degree less than or equal to 4, leading to LESSON 3 If + 3 is a factor of
real linear factors; () = 2 3 + 9 2 + 6 9 find the remaining
apply the Remainder Theorem; factor(s).
use the Factor Theorem to find factors SOLUTION
and to evaluate unknown coefficients;
use the relationship between the sum of
the roots, the product of the roots, the
sum of the product of the roots of the
roots pair wise and the coefficients of
3 + 2 + + = 0
() =
extract all factors of for positive
integers 6;
LESSON 4 Find the quotient and remainder
__________________________________________________________ when () = 2 4 + 3 3 3 + 5 is divided by
INTRODUCTION 2 1.
() = + 1 1 + + 1 + 0 0 SOLUTION Dividing 2 1 by 2 we
1
is called an th degree polynomial function. is a have 2 which is then our divisor.
real number and is a non negative integer.
() = is a constant function. A zero
degree polynoimial.
() = + is a linear function. A 1st
degree polynomial
() = 2 + + is a quadratic
function. A 2nd degree polynomial.
( ) = 3 + 2 + + is a cubic Then we have
polynomial. A 3rd degree polynomial. 1
() ( ) (2 3 + 4 2 + 2 2) + 4
2
SYNTHETIC DIVISION 1
2 ( ) ( 3 + 2 2 + 1) + 4
LESSON 1 Divide 2 + 5 + 6 by + 2. 2
SOLUTION NB: 2 + 5 + 6 is called the (2 1)( 3 + 2 2 + 1) + 4
dividend whereas + 2 is the divisor.
EXERCISE 7.1
1. Divide
(a) 3 11 2 + 38 40 by 2
(b) 3 2 + 1 by + 1
(c) 3 2 2 25 + 50 by 2
(d) 2 3 + 11 2 + 18 + 9 by + 3
2 + 5 + 6
= +3 (e) 2 3 5 2 11 4 by 4
+2 (f) 9 3 27 2 + 23 5 by 1
(g) 3 3 + 2 by + 2
LESSON 2 If 1 is a factor of
(h) 4 3 + 20 2 + 29 + 10 by + 2
() = 3 7 + 6 find the remaining factor(s).
(i) 6 3 + 13 2 10 24 by + 2
SOLUTION
(j) 3 3 10 2 16 + 32 by 4
2. Divide
(a) 2 3 11 2 + 13 4 by 2 1
(b) 2 3 11 2 + 19 10 by 2 5
(c) 3 3 + 20 2 + 27 + 10 by 3 + 2
() = 3 7 + 6 (d) 4 3 + 16 2 3 45 by 2 + 5
34
CHAPTER 7: POLYNOMIALS
SOLUTIONS SOLUTION
1. (a) ( 4)( 5) (b) ( 1)2 By the Factor Theorem
(c) ( + 5)( 5) (d) (2 + 3)( + 1) (1) = 0
(e) (2 + 1)( + 1) (f) (3 1)(3 5) 2(1) 3 + (1) 2 + = 0
(g) ( 1)2 (h) (2 + 1)(2 + 5) + = 2
(i) (3 4)(2 + 3) (j) (3 4)( + 2) By the Remainder Theorem
2. (a) ( 1)( 4) (b) ( 1)( 2) (3) = 16
(c) ( + 1)( + 5) (d) (2 3)( + 3) 2(3) 3 + (3) 2 + = 16
9 + = 38
Solving (*) and (**) simultaneously
+ = 2
REMAINDER AND FACTOR 9 + = 38
THEOREM = 5 and = 7
INTRODUCTION
LESSON 7 Given that
If is the remainder after dividing the polynomial
( ) = 2 3 + 2 12 + is divisible by
() by + , then
2 2 3 show that = 1 and = 9.
() =
SOLUTION
It is clear that if + is a factor of the polynomial
() then the remainder () is zero. Therefore 2 2 3 = 0
( 3)( + 1) = 0
from (*) above we would have that () = 0.
= 1, 3
This leads us directly to the factor theorem.
The roots of 2 2 3 have to be roots of
If is a root of the polynomial (), then + is 2 3 + 2 12 +
a factor of (). Conversely, if + is a factor of By the Factor Theorem
(1) = 0
( ), then is a root of ().
2(1) 3 + (1)2 12(1) + = 0
+ = 10 (*)
LESSON 5 The expression
() = 2 3 3 2 7 + is divisible by 4, (3) = 0
determine 2(3) 3 + (3) 2 12(3) + = 0
9 + = 18 (**)
(i) the value of ,
(ii) the remainder when ( ) is divided by 2 1 Solving (*) and (**) simultaneously
+ = 10
9 + = 18
SOLUTION
= 1 and = 9
4 is a factor = 4 is a root
(4) = 0 by Factor Theorem
LESSON 8 Factorise 3 + 2 2 2.
(4) = 2(4)3 3(4) 2 7(4) +
2(4) 3 3(4)2 7(4) + = 0
SOLUTION
128 48 28 + = 0
= 52 Let () = 3 + 2 2 2
We now need to find a root of (), therefore we
2 3 3 2 7 52
1 try various values of until we get () = 0. By
2 1 corresponding is = inspection we see that (1) = 13 + 2(1) 2 1
2
2 = 0, therefore ( 1) is a factor of (). We can
1 1 3 1 2 1
( ) = 2 ( ) 3 ( ) 7 ( ) 52 = 56 continue by guessing the other 2 roots (a cubic
2 2 2 2 equation has at most three roots) or we can use
polynomial long division
LESSON 6
Let () = 2 3 + 2 4 +
(i) Given that 1 is a factor of () and that
there is a remainder of 9 when ( ) is divided
by + 2, find the values of and .
(ii) Hence
(a) factor ()
(b) solve the equation () = 0.
35
CHAPTER 7: POLYNOMIALS
SOLUTIONS
1. 5
2. 21
3. = 11, = 6
4. (i) = 3, = 2 (ii) ( 2)( + 1) 2
5. (2 1)( 3)( + 5)
5
6. = 2, 2 , 3
1 1
7. (i) 3, , 2 (ii) 4, 2,
2 3
3 1
8. 2 , 2 , 2
EXAM QUESTIONS
or synthetic division. 1. The function () = 3 2 2 + 2 has
remainder 5 when it is divided by + 1.
Find the possible values of . [6]
CAPE 2004
2. The function () is given by
() = 4 ( + 1) 2 + , .
(i) Show that ( 1) is a factor of ()
for all values of . [2]
() = ( 1)( 2 + 3 + 2)
(ii) If ( 2) is a factor of (), find the
= ( 1)( + 1)( + 2)
value of . [2]
CAPE 2006
EXERCISE 7.2
3. If 1 is a factor of the function
1. Use the remainder theorem to find the
( ) = 3 + 2 2, , find
remainder when 2 3 + 3 2 + 9 is divided by
(a) the value of [2]
+ 2.
(b) the remaining factors [4]
2. The expression 3 4 2 + 5 has a
CAPE 2007
factor of + 1 and leaves a remainder of 4
4. The roots of the cubic equation
when divided by 3. Calculate the
3 + 3 2 + + = 0 are 1, 1 and 3. Find
remainder when the expression is divided by
the values of the real constants , and . [7]
2.
CAPE 2008
3. Find the value of and for which
5. Find the values of the constant such that
2 5 6 is a factor of 2 3 + 2 7 + .
is a factor of
4. The cubic polynomial () is given by
( ) = 4 3 (3 + 2) 2 (2 1) + 3.
() = 3 + +
[5]
where and are constants. It is given that
6. Let () = 3 9 2 + + 16
( + 1) is a factor of () and that the
(i) Given that ( + 1) is a factor of (),
remainder when () is divided by ( 3) is
show that = 6. [2]
16.
(ii) Factorise () completely. [4]
(i) Find the values of and .
(iii) Hence, or otherwise, solve () = 0.
(ii) Hence verify that (2) = 0, and factorise
[3]
() completely.
CAPE 2013
5. Factorise 2 3 + 3 2 32 + 15.
7. The polynomial () = 3 + 2 + has
6. Factorise 2 3 7 2 7 + 30, hence solve
a factor ( 5) and a remainder of 24 when
the equation 2 3 7 2 7 = 30.
divided by ( 1).
7. Solve the following equations
(i) Find the values of and . [4]
(i) 2 3 + 2 13 + 6 = 0
(ii) Hence, factorise
(ii) 3( 2 + 6) = 8 17 2
() = 3 + 2 + completely.
8. Factorise completely the expression
[5]
4 3 13 6 and hence solve the equation
3 CAPE 2015
2 (2 2 ) = 13
36
CHAPTER 7: POLYNOMIALS
SOLUTIONS ()
1. = 2, 1 += = =
1
2. (ii) = 4
= =
3. (i) = 2 (ii) ( 1)( + 2)( + 1)
4. = 1, = 1, = 3 LESSON 10 If and are the roots of the
3
5. = 1, 2 equation 2 4 2 = 0, find the values of
a) + b) c) 2 + 2
6. (iii) 1, 2, 8
7. (i) = 6, = 30 (ii) ( 5)( + 2)( 3)
SOLUTION
4
a) += = =4
1
ROOTS OF POLYNOMIALS 2
b) = = 1 = 2
INTRODUCTION
A number is called a root of the polynomial ()
if () = 0. For a quadratic equation we have c) ( + )2 = 42
2 + + = 0 2 + 2 + 2 = 16
2 + 2 = 16 2
2 + + = 0 = 16 2(2) = 20
Also if and are the roots of a quadratic
equation then LESSON 11 If and are the roots of the
( )( ) = 0 equation 2 + 2 = 0, find equations whose
2 ( + ) + = 0 roots are
Equating coefficients of we then have: a) , b) 2 , 2 c) 1, 1
( + ) = SOLUTION
1
+ = + = = = 1
1
i.e. the sum of the roots of a quadratic equation = 2
= = = 2
1
a) ( ) + () = ( + ) = (1) = 1
Equating constants we have: ()() = = 2
= 2 (sum of roots) + (product of roots) = 0
2 (1) + (2) = 0
i.e. the product of the roots of a quadratic
2 2 = 0
equation = b) 2 + 2 = ( + )2 2
Thus, we know that given the roots of a quadratic = (1)2 2(2)
equation the corresponding equation is =5
2 (sum of roots) + (product of roots) = 0 ( 2 )( 2 ) = ()2 = (2) 2 = 4
2 (sum of roots) + (product of roots) = 0
2 5 + 4 = 0
LESSON 9 Find the sums and products of the
c) ( 1) + ( 1) = + 2
roots of the following equations.
a) 3 2 5 2 = 0
= 1 2 = 3
b) 2 + = 0
( 1)( 1) = + 1
= ( + ) + 1
SOLUTION
Let and be the roots of the equations = 2 (1) + 1
=0
a) 3 2 5 2 = 0
2 (sum of roots) + (product of roots) = 0
= 3, = 5, = 2 2 (3) + 0 = 0
5 5
(sum of roots): + = = = 2 + 3 = 0
3 3
2
(product of roots): = =
3
b) 2 + = 0
= 1, = , =
37
CHAPTER 7: POLYNOMIALS
38
CHAPTER 7: POLYNOMIALS
39
CHAPTER 7: POLYNOMIALS
1 1 SOLUTION
(b) Let = =
1 1 2 (i) By the Factor Theorem
+ 4 ( ) 1 =0
3 (1) = 0
1 4 2(1) 3 + (1) 2 + (1) + 3 = 0
+ 1 =0
3 2 + = 5 (*)
1 + 4 3 = 0 (3) = 0
3 4 1 = 0 2(3) 3 + (3) 2 + (3) + 3 = 0
3 = 17 (**)
LESSON 16 The cubic equation Solving (*) and (**) simultaneously
3 + 5 2 + 2 = 0 has roots , and . + = 5
Determine the cubic equations with roots 3 = 17
= 3 and = 8
(a) , ,
() = 2 3 + 3 2 8 + 3
(b) 2 , 2, 2
(ii) Let the roots be , and where is the
SOLUTION third root
= 3
(1)(3) = 3
+ + = = 5 =1
+ + = = 1
EXERCISE 7.4
= = 2 1. Write down the sums and products of the
(a) Equation with roots , and is roots of the following equations.
3 ( + + )2 + ( + + ) (a) 2 3 + 3 2 8 12 = 0
=0 (b) 2 3 + 5 2 3 = 0
Therefore with the roots , and the (c) 3 3 + 4 2 5 2 = 0
equation is (d) 3 11 6 = 0
3 ( + + ) 2 2. Given that
+ [()() + ()() + + = 0,
+ ()()] ()()() 2 + 2 + 2 = 14,
=0 = 18
3 (1) 2 + [( + + )] ()2 = 0 find a cubic equation whose roots are , , .
3 + 2 + [2(5)] (2)2 = 0 3. A cubic equation has roots , , and such
3 + 2 + 10 4 = 0 that
(b) Required equation is + + = 4,
3 ( 2 + 2 + 2 ) 2 + [( 2 2) + ( 2 2) + ( 2 2)] 2 + 2 + 2 = 14,
( 2 2 2) = 0 3 + 3 + 3 = 34
Now, Find the value of + + .
2 + 2 + 2 = ( + + )2 2( + + ) Show that the cubic equation is
= (5)2 2(1) 3 4 2 + + 6 = 0 and solve this equation.
= 27
( 2 2 ) + ( 2 2 ) + ( 2 2 ) 4. Given that , and are the root of the
= ( + + )2 2( + + ) equation 3 2 5 = 0, find the value of
= ( 1)2 2(2)(5) 3 + 3 + 3.
40
CHAPTER 7: POLYNOMIALS
41
CHAPTER 7: POLYNOMIALS
1. (a) (3 + 2)(3 2)
FACTORING POLYNOMIALS (b) (2 + 3)(2 3)
(c) ( )( + )
(i) 3 3 = ( )(2 + + 2 )
(d) ( + 3)( 3)
Difference of Cubes
(e) (2 + )(2 )
(ii) 3 + 3 = ( + )(2 + 2 )
(f) ( )( 2 + 2 + 2 )
Sum of Cubes
(g) ( + )(2 + 2 )
(iii) 4 4 = ( )(3 + 2 + 2 + 3 )
(h) ( 1)( 3 + 2 + + 1)
= ( )( + )(2 + 2 )
(i) 2( 3)( 3 + 3 2 + 9 + 27)
In general, (j) ( 2)(4 + 23 + 42 + 8 + 16)
(k) (2 )(16 + 8 + 42 + 23 + 4 )
= ( )(1 + 2 1 + + 1 2 + 1 ) (l) ( )(5 + 4 + 3 2 + 2 3 + 4 + 5 )
LESSON 1 Factorise, completely, each of the
EXAM QUESTIONS
following.
12. Let and be positive real numbers such that
(a) 83 1
.
(b) 3 + 27 3 4 4
(c) 4 16 (i) Simplify
. [6]
(ii) Hence, or otherwise, show that
SOLUTION ( + 1)4 4 = ( + 1)3 + ( + 1)2 + ( + 1) 2 + 3
[4]
(a) 83 1 (iii) Deduce that
= (2) 3 13 ( + 1)4 4 < 4( + 1)3 . [2]
= (2 1)[(2) 2 + (1)(2) + 12 ] CAPE 2009
= (2 1)(42 + 2 + 1) (i) 3 + 2 + 2 + 3
(b) 3 + 27 3
= 3 + (3) 3
= ( + 3)[ 2 ()(3) + (3) 2 ]
= ( + 3)( 2 3 + 9 2 )
(c) 4 16
= 4 24
= ( 2)( 3 + 2 (2) + (2) 2 + 23 )
= ( 2)( 3 + 2 2 + 4 + 8)
42
CHAPTER 8: LOGARITHMS
CHAPTER 8: LOGARITHMS
At the end of this section, students should be able LESSON 1 Write the following in
to; logarithmic form
43
CHAPTER 8: LOGARITHMS
44
CHAPTER 8: LOGARITHMS
2 = + 12 SOLUTION
2 12 = 0 log 3
log 9 =
( 4)( + 3) = 0 log 3 9
= 3, 4 log 3
= 3 is INVALID since substituting this value =
2
into the original equation will result in us having log 9 = 1 + log 3 3
to find logarithms of a negative number. 1
log = log 3 3 + log 3 3
2 3
LESSON 8a Solve the equations log 3 = 2 log 3 3 + 2 log 3 3
log 3 (4) + log 3 ( 1) = 1 log 3 = log 3 9 + log 3 9 2
SOLUTION log 3 = log 3 81 2
log 3 (4) + log 3 ( 1) = 1 = 81 2
log 3 [(4)( 1)] = log 3 3 81 2 = 0
4 2 4 = 3 (81 1) = 0
1
4 2 4 3 = 0 = since > 0
81
(2 3)(2 + 1) = 0
3 1
= , LESSON 11 Given that
2 2 3 + 3 + 32 = 242 show that
1
= 2 is INVALID since substituting this value +
3 log [ ] = log + 2 log
into the original equation will result in us having 3
to find logarithms of a negative number. SOLUTION
+
LESSON 8b Solve the equation 3 log [ ] = log + 2 log
3
3
lg(10 ) lg( 9) = 2 +
SOLUTION log [ ] = log + log 2
3
lg(10) lg( 9) = 2 ( + ) 3
lg(10) lg( 9) = lg(102 ) log = log 2
33
10 ( + )3
lg ( ) = lg 100 = 2
9 27
10
= 100 3 + 32 + 32 + 3 = 272
9 3 + 3 + 32 = 242
10 = 100 900
900 = 90 ..
10 = EXERCISE 8.1
LESSON 9 Solve the equation 1. Write the following in logarithmic form.
log 2 + 4 log 2 = 5 (a) 34 = 81
SOLUTION 1
45
CHAPTER 8: LOGARITHMS
46
CHAPTER 8: LOGARITHMS
47
CHAPTER 8: LOGARITHMS
+ = 5 (3) 800
=
2 + = 12 (4) 1
1 + ( )
Subtracting (4) from (3)
= 7 800
=
=7 1
1 + ( )
= 2
= 800
(ii) when = 0, = 50
LESSON 15 Solve the equation
15 800
2 ln + ln = 11, giving your answers as exact 50 =
1 + (0)
values of . 800
50 =
SOLUTION 1+
15 1 + = 16
2 ln + = 11
ln = 15
Let = ln when = 1, = 200
15 800
2 + = 11 200 =
1 + 15 (1)
2
2 + 15 = 11 1 + 15 = 4
2 2 11 + 15 = 0 15 = 3
(2 5)( 3) = 0 1
=
5 5
= ,3 1
2
ln = ln ( )
5 5
ln = 1
2 = ln ( )
5 5
ln = 2 1 1
5 = ln ( )
= 2 5
= ln 5
ln = 3 800
(iii) = 1
(ln5 )
ln = 3 1+15
= 3 when = 3
800
= 1
LESSON 16 The enrolment pattern of 1 + 15 3 ln5
membership of a country club follows an 800
exponential logistic function , = 1
1 + 15 ln125
800 800
= , , =
1 + 1
1 + 15 (125)
where is the number of members enrolled 715 members
years after the formation of the club. The initial
membership was 50 persons and after one year,
there are 200 persons enrolled in the club.
SOLUTION
48
CHAPTER 8: LOGARITHMS
49
CHAPTER 8: LOGARITHMS
15. Solve the equation 241 = 352 , giving your (ii) By substituting = log 2 , or otherwise,
lg solve, for , the equation
answer in the form .
lg
log 2 = log 2 .
16. Solve the equation 73 4 = 180, giving [6]
your answer correct to 3 significant figures. CAPE 2011
3. Solve the equation
17. Solve the following equations, giving your log 2 ( + 3) = 3 log 2 ( + 2)
answer correct to 3 significant figures. [5]
(i) 51 = 120 CAPE 2013
(ii) 7 = 2+1 4. Solve the equation
(iii) 531 = 4250 log 2( + 1) log 2(3 + 1) = 2
[4]
SOLUTIONS CAPE 2014
5. Let () = 3 + 2 and () = 2 .
ln (i) Find
1. (i) (0, 1) (ii)
1
2
+1
a) 1 () and 1 () [4]
2. (a) > 1 (b) ln ( ) b) [()] (or ()) [1]
3 2
3. = ln 4 (ii) Show that ( ) 1 () = 1 ()
4 1 (). [5]
4. (b) (i) (ii) = ln 5 , ln (3)
2
CAPE 2013
5. = 3, 4 6. Given that 3 + 3 + 32 = 52 , show that
+
6. 3 log ( 2 ) = log + 2 log . [5]
1
7. ln = 1 CAPE 2014
2
ln 3
8. 7. The population growth of bacteria present in
2
ln(+3) a river after time, hours, is given by
9. (a) > 3 (b) (i) (ii) = 2 = 300 + 5
2
1 2
(c) (i) 32 5 (ii) = 2 Determine
10. (i) (ln 3 , 0) , (0, 8) (ii) the number of bacteria present at = 0.
11. (1, 2 ) [1]
12. (3, 2) (ii) the time required to triple the number of
13. (i) 73 (ii) 65 (iii) 23.5 hours bacteria. [4]
14. (a) 2.32 (b) 1.68 (c) 0.26 CAPE 2015
(d) 5.81 8. Solve the equation
lg 486 4 4
15. 3 = 0.
lg 144 9 81
16. 5.68
17. (i) 3.97 (ii) 0.80 (iii)72.1 SOLUTIONS
1
EXAM QUESTIONS 1. (a) = 9, 27 (b) = ,2
256
2. (i) = 2 (ii) 1
1. (i) Find such that
log 5 ( + 3) + log 5 ( 1) = 1 3. (i) (2, 3) (ii) = 1, 16
[5] 4. =
5+33
2
(ii) Without the use of calculators, or tables, 3
evaluate 5. =
11
1 2 3 8 9 2
log10 ( ) + log10 ( ) + log10 ( ) + + log10 ( ) + log10 ( )
2 3 4 9 10
6. (i) (a) (b) 3 2 + 2
3
[3] 7.
CAPE 2008 8. (i) 301 (ii) 4 hours
2. (i) Solve, for and , the simultaneous 9. 0.315
equations
log( 1) + 2 log = 2 log 3
log + log = log 6
[8]
50
CHAPTER 9: THE MODULUS FUNCTION
51
CHAPTER 9: THE MODULUS FUNCTION
3 7 1 7 b. 23 = 4 + 10
3 ( ) + 1 = and 3 ( ) + 1 =
2 2 4 4 c. 2 1 3 =
1
Therefore, = 4 is the only answer. d. 3 9 = 3 9
(ii)  2 = 2 e. 2 3 = 3 2
f.  + 4 = ( + 4)
2 = 2 or 2 = ( 2)
It is quite clear that 2 = 2 for all 3. Solve the following equations
values of . But since  2 is positive, a. 3 + 4 = 2 3
2 0 2. This solution covers b.  3 =  + 2
both of the above equations. c. 3 + 1 = 3 2
d. 2 3 2 + 52 3 + 6 = 0
LESSON 3 Solve the equations e. 35 12 165 1 + 5 = 0
f. 6 + 7 2 14 + 7 = 4
(i) 2 1 = 4 + 9 g. 2 5 + 6 = 0
(ii)  + 3 2  + 3 2 = 0 h. 2 7 44 = 0
(iii) 2 4 + 3 = 0 i. 3 2 5 2 = 0
SOLUTION SOLUTIONS
1. (a) = 7 (b) = 5
(i) 2 1 = 4 + 9 or 2 1 = (4 + (c) = 7, 13 (d) = 35
9) = 4 9 (e) = 21 (f) No Solution
2 = 10 or 6 = 8 5
2. (a) = 3 (b) = 1, 5
4
= 5 or = 2
3 (c) = 3 , 4 (d) 3
Both sides of the equations contain 3
(e) 2 (f) 4
absolute values ensuring that both sides 1 1
are positive. Consequently, there is no 3. (a) = 5 , 7 (b) = 2
2
need to check. But it is still a good (c) = 4, 5 (d) No Solution
practice to do so. 4 2 4 6 22 20
(ii)  + 32  + 3 2 = 0 (e) = , , , (f) = 9, , , 5
5 15 15 5 3 3
Let =  + 3 (g) = 2, 3 (h) = 11
2 2 = 0 (i) = 2
( 2)( + 1) = 0 ..
either 2 = 0 or + 1 = 0
= 2 or = 1 MODULUS INEQUALITIES
 + 3 = 2 or  + 3 = 1 INVALID
+ 3 = 2 = 1 Before we examine inequality questions dealing
+ 3 = 2 = 5 with absolute value; lets take a look at the
(iii) 2 4 + 3 = 0 number line to help us understand the concept of
2 4 + 3 = 0 modulus inequalities.
( 3)( 1) = 0
either ( 3) = 0 or ( 1) = 0
 = 3  = 1
= 3 = 1
.. The red line on the graph above represents the
EXERCISE 9.1 interval (3, 3). If is any number within this
1. Solve the following equations interval then 3 < < 3. More precisely,  < 3.
a. 6 = 42 In general, if  < , then < < .
b. 6 = 30 What if  > 3?
c.  10 = 3

d. 7 = 5
e.   = 3
7
f. 10 + 2 = 70 From the graph our solution would be { < 3}
{ > 3}. Therefore, if  > , then { < }
2. Solve the following equations
{ > }
a. 5  = 2
52
CHAPTER 9: THE MODULUS FUNCTION
(i)  < 7
(ii) 2 5 < 9
(iii) 9 + 2 1
(iv) 8 3 > 9
(v) 3 <  < 7
(i) At first glance we assume that we have
SOLUTION the following inequality to solve
(3 + 2) < 5 < 3 + 2 but what
(i)  < 7
about the inequality
7 < < 7
3 + 2 < 5 < (3 + 2)? If we take
(ii) 2 5 < 9
some time to think about it; since we do
9 < 2 5 < 9
not know the value of we do not know
4 < 2 < 14
whether 3 + 2 is positive or negative.
2 < < 7
Hence, we have the before mentioned
(iii) 9 + 2 1
possibilities. To counteract this potential
1 9 + 2 1
problem we proceed as follows:
3 9 1
 5 < 3 + 2
(iv) 8 3 > 9
( 5) 2 < (3 + 2) 2 We square both
8 3 > 9 8 3 < 9
sides to avoid negativity
8 > 12 8 < 6
3 3 2 10 + 25 < 9 2 + 12 + 4
{ > } { < } 2
8 22 + 21 < 0
2 4
(v) 3 <  < 7 8 2 + 22 21 > 0
(4 3)(2 + 7) > 0
Before we attempt to solve as a double
3 7
inequality we will split up our inequality { > } { < }
into two parts so that we get some 4 2
valuable insight into how to solve this as a
double inequality.
 < 7 {7 < < 7}
  > 3 { < 3} { > 3}
These intervals are represented on the
number lines below. Combining our
(ii) 2 7 + 10 < 0
intervals we get {7 < < 3} ( 5)( 2) < 0
{3 < < 7}.
Roots are   = 2, 5
If we try the double inequality approach
From graph 2 7 + 10 < 0 when
we should get 3 < < 7 and 3 < <
2 <  < 5
7. But the signs of the second inequality
We thus have the following inequalities
are reversed. How do we correct this? As
(a) 2 < < 5 and
follows:
(b) 2 < < 5
3 < < 7 and 3 < < 7
2 > > 5
3 > > 7
5 < < 2
7 < < 3
Therefore the solution set is:
With this approach the intervals are more {5 < < 2} {2 < < 5}
easily identifiable
When is 2 7 + 10 > 0? Lets see.
Roots are = 2, 5
LESSON 5 Find the range of values of for 2 7 + 10 > 0 when
which  > 5 and  < 2
 > 5 { < 5} { > 5}
(i)  5 < 3 + 2   < 2 {2 < < 2}
(ii) 2 7 + 10 < 0 Therefore, we have
{ < 5} { > 5} {2 < < 2}
53
CHAPTER 9: THE MODULUS FUNCTION
..
EXERCISE 9.2
1. Solve the following inequalities.
a. 7 42
b. 1 +  < 8
c. 1010 8 80
2. Solve the following inequalities
a. 5 > 20
b. 4 + 5 24
c. 2  + 9 > 13 LESSON 7 Draw the graph of
d. ( 4)( + 1) < 0 () =  2 + 12.
e. 2 2 3 < 0 SOLUTION
f. 22 + 2 > 5 () =  2 + 12
g.  1 < 2 + 1
SOLUTIONS
1. (a) 6 6
(b) 9 < < 7
8
(c) 0 5
2. (a) { < 4} { > 4}
28
(b) { 5 } { 4}
(c) { < 8} { > 8}
(d) 4 < < 4
(e) 3 < < 3
1 1
(f) { < < } { < 2} { > 2}
2 2 ..
(g) { < 2} { > 0}
.. EXERCISE 9.3
54
CHAPTER 9: THE MODULUS FUNCTION
3. Let = {: 2 7} and
= {:  4 }, .
Find the LARGEST value of for which .
[6]
CAPE 2006
CAPE 2013
SOLUTIONS
1. = 4, 1
2. = 2, = 4
3. =2
4. { < 2} { > 10}
5. 4 < < 4
7 3
6. = ,
4 2
7.
55
CHAPTER 10: SEQUENCES, SERIES and MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION
56
CHAPTER 10: SEQUENCES, SERIES and MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION
(c) 3, 7, 11, 15, 19 (f) Each numerator is 1 and the first number of
(d) 3, 8, 13, 18, 23 the denominator is and the second is + 1.
1
(e) 2, 2, 0, 4, 10 Therefore = (+1)
3 4 5 6
(f) 2, 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 (g) The numerators are the natural numbers but
3 4 5 6
(g) 2, 4 , 9 , 16 , 25 they begin with 2, i.e. + 1 and the
1 1 1 1 1 denominators are the square numbers.
(h) 2 , 4 , 8 , 16 , 32 +1
1 2 3 4 5
Therefore = 2
(i) , , , ,
3 9 27 81 243 ..
(j) 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 EXERCISE 10.2
(k) 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 1. (i) For each of the following sequences
1 1 1 1
(l) 1, 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 determine an expression for the term,
1 1 1 1 .
(m) 1, 2 , 3 , 4 , 5
(ii) Determine the 50th term of sequence.
(a) 5, 8, 11, 14, .
LESSON 2 For each of the following
(b) 8, 6, 4, 2, 0, 2,
sequences determine an expression for the 1 2 3 4 5
term, . (c) , , , , ,
3 4 5 6 7
1 1 1 1
(d) 1, 2, , 4, ,
(a) 5, 8, 11, 14, . 3 5
1 1 1 1
(b) 8, 6, 4, 2, 0, 2, (e) 1, , , , ,
2 4 8 16
1 2 3 4 5 1 1 1 1 1
(c) , , , , , (f) , , , , , .
3 4 5 6 7 12 23 34 45 56
1 1 1 1 3 4 5
(d) 1, , , , , (g) 2, , , ,
2 3 4 5 4 9 16
1 1 1 1
(e) 1, , , , , SOLUTIONS
2 4 8 16
1 1 1 1 1
(f) , , , , , . (a) = 3 + 2, 50 = 77
12 23 34 45 56
3 4 5 (b) = 10 2, 50 = 90
(g) 2, 4
, 9
, 16
, 50
(c) = +3 , 50 = 53
(1)+1 1
SOLUTION (d) = , 50 = 50
1 1
(a) Consecutive terms differ by 3 therefore we try (e) = , 50 =
21 249
1 1
3. To create the right formula we add 2 i.e. (f) = , 50 =
(+1) 50(51)
= 3 + 2 +1 51
(g) = 2 , 50 = 2500
(b) Consecutive terms differ by 2 therefore we
..
try 2. To create the correct expression we
need to add 10 i.e. = 10 2 SERIES
(c) The numerators are the natural numbers INTRODUCTION
and the denominators are two more than the If 1 , 2 , 3 , , , is a sequence, then the
numerator i.e. = +2 expression 1 + 2 + 3 + + + is called a
series. If a sequence is finite, the corresponding
(d) Ignoring the signs, each numerator is 1 and
series is a finite series. If the sequence is infinite,
the denominators are the natural numbers . the corresponding series is an infinite series. For
Since the signs alternate between positive and example,
negative, starting with positive, we use 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 Finite sequence
(1) +1 . Therefore = (1) +1 ( )
1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 Finite series
+1 Series are often represented in a compact form
(e) Each numerator is 1 and the denominators called summation notation using the symbol ,
1
are powers of 2 i.e. = which is a stylized version of the Greek letter
21
sigma, meaning the sum of. Consider the
following examples:
57
CHAPTER 10: SEQUENCES, SERIES and MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION
4 3 + 2
= 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 =1
=1 (ii) Consecutive terms differ by 2 therefore we
7
try 2. To create the correct expression we
= 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 need to add 10 i.e. 10 2
=3
10 2
= 0 + 1 + 2 + +
=1
=0
(iii) The numerators are the natural numbers
The terms on the right are obtained from the and the denominators are two more than the
expression on the left by successively replacing numerator i.e. +2
the summing index, with integers, starting with
the first number indicated below and ending
with the number that appears above . Thus, for +2
=1
example, if we are given the sequence (iv) Ignoring the signs, each numerator is 1 and
1 1 1 1 the denominators are the natural numbers .
, , , ,
2 4 8 2 Since the signs alternate between positive and
the corresponding series is
1 1 1 1 negative, starting with positive, we use
+ + + + (1) +1 . Therefore
2 4 8 2
or, more compactly,
1 (1) +1 ( )
+1
=1
2 (v) Each numerator is 1 and the denominators
=1
The letter as used here is called the index of 1
are powers of 2 i.e. 21
summation. It is a dummy variable, so called
because it does not appear in the final result, and 1
this result would be unchanged if some other 21
=1
letter was used. In fact any other letter can be
(vi) Each numerator is 1 and the first number of
used. For LESSON,
the denominator is and the second is + 1.
= 1 + 2 + 3 + + Therefore
=1 1
( + 1)
LESSON 3 Write each of the following series =1
using sigma notation. (vii) The numerators are the natural numbers
but they begin with 2, i.e. + 1 and the
(a) 5 + 8 + 11 + 14 + denominators are the square numbers.
(b) 8 + 6 + 4 + 2 + 0 + (2) + Therefore
1 2 3 4 5
(c) +4+5+6+7+
3 +1
1 1 1 1
(d) 1 + ( 2) + 3 + ( 4) + 5 + 2
=1
1 1 1 1
(e) 1 + 2 + 4 + + 16 +
8
1 1 1 1 1
(f) + 23 + 34 + 45 + 56 + Some basic rules for manipulating expressions
12
3 4 5 involving can be established as follows:
(g) 2 + 4 + 9 + 16 +
= + + + =
SOLUTION =1
= 40
= (b) 16
=10
3
=1 16 9
( + ) = (1 + 1 ) + (2 + 2 ) + + ( + ) = 3 3
=1 =1 =1
= (1 + 2 + + ) + (1 + 2 + + ) 162 92
= (16 + 1) 2 (9 + 1)
4 4
= + = 16 471
=1 =1
This also holds for subtraction. That is,
LESSON 6 Express in its simplest form
2
( ) =
=1 =1 =1
=+1
SOLUTION
2 2
LESSON 4 Evaluate 2
4 = = (2 + 1) ( + 1)
2 2
(2 + 3) =+1 =1 =1
=1 = [2(2 + 1) ( + 1)]
SOLUTION 2
= [(4 + 2) ( + 1)]
4 4 4 2
(2 + 3) = 2 + 3 = (3 + 1)
2
=1 =1 =1
= 2[1 + 2 + 3 + 4] + 4(3) LESSON 7 Express each of the following in a
= 32 factorized form.
59
CHAPTER 10: SEQUENCES, SERIES and MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION
4. Evaluate
= 3 + 2 2 (a) 20
=1
=1 =1 (b) 40
=1 3
2 (c) 24
= ( + 1)2 + 2 [ ( + 1)(2 + 1)] =1( + 3)
4 6 (d) (d) 6=1( 2 + 2 + 7)
32 ( + 1) 2 + 4( + 1)(2 + 1) (e) 100
= =51
12 5. Express each of the following in a factorised
( + 1)[3( + 1) + 4(2 + 1)]
= form.
12 (c) =1( + 1)( 1)
( + 1)[32 + 3 + 8 + 4]
= (d) =1 ( 2 + 1)
12
(e) =1 2 ( 1)
.. (f) =1 2 ( + 2)
6. Use standard series formulae to show that
EXERCISE 10.3 1
(a) =1[( + 1)( 2)] = (2 7)
3
1. State the first 5 terms, the th term and the 1
(b) =1( + 2)( 3) = 3 (2 19)
( + 1)st of
1
(c) =1 2 ( + 1) = 12 ( + 1)( + 2)(3 + 1)
a. (3 2) 1
(d) =1 (2 3) = 4 ( + 1)( + 3)( 2)
=1
1
(e) =1 2 (3 4) = 2 ( + 1)(1 22 )
b. 2 2
=1
SOLUTIONS
c. (2 2 + 5) 1. (a) 1 + 4 + 7 + 10 + 13 + + (3 2) +
=3 (3 + 1)
d. 3 (b) 2 + 8 + 18 + 32 + 50 + + 22 + 2( + 1) 2
=2 (c) 23 + 37 + 55 + 77 + 103 + + (22 + 5) +
(2( + 1) 2 + 5)
2. Evaluate each of the following. (d) 8 + 27 + 64 + 125 + 216 + + 3 + ( + 1) 3
7 73
2. (a) 21 (b) 45 (c) 405 (d) 12
(a) (7 )
3. (a) =1(5 + 3) (b) =1 2(31 )
=1
5 (c) =1(27 ) (d) =1( + 1) 2
1 1
(b) (20 2 ) (e) =1 2 (f) =1 ( 2 )
=1
4. (a) 210 (b) 2460 (c) 372
8 (d) 5668 (e) 3775
(c) (2 2 + 5) EXAM QUESTIONS
=4
5
1. Given that
(d)
1
=2 = ( + 1),
3. Write the following series using sigma 2
=1
notation [assume that there are terms in the show that
series]
1
(a) 8 + 13 + 18 + 23 + (3 + 1) = (3 + 5)
(b) 2 + 6 + 18 + 54 + 162 + 2
=1
(c) 64 + 32 + 16 + 8 + [4]
(d) 4 + 9 + 16 + 25 + CAPE 2006
1 1 1 1
(e) + + + +
2 4 8 16
1 1 1 1
(f) + +
2 4 8 16
60
CHAPTER 10: SEQUENCES, SERIES and MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION
2 1 = 2 1 + ( + 1)st term
..
=1 =1
= 2 + 2( + 1) 1
= 2 + 2 + 2 1
= 2 + 2 + 1
= ( + 1) 2
Therefore, +1 is true whenever is true.
Hence, by Mathematical Induction
2 1 = 2 for all
=1
(6 + 5) = 32 + 8
=1
for all positive integers .
PROOF
Let : (6 + 5) = 32 + 8
=1
1 : 6(1) + 5 = 3(1) 2 + 8(1)
6+5 =3+8
11 = 11
Thus, 1 is true.
Assume is true for =
61
CHAPTER 10: SEQUENCES, SERIES and MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION
1
( + 1)( + 2) + ( + 1)( + 2)
=
: (6 + 5) = 3 2 + 8 3
=1 1
= ( + 1)( + 2)[ + 3]
3
+1
Thus, +1 is true whenever is true.
+1 : (6 + 5) = 3( + 1)2 + 8( + 1)
=1 Hence, by Mathematical Induction
= 3( 2 + 2 + 1) + 8 + 8 1
= 3 2 + 6 + 3 + 8 + 8 ( + 1) = ( + 1)( + 2) for all
3
= 3 2 + 14 + 11 =1
Now,
+1 = + ( + 1)st term LESSON 5 Prove by Mathematical Induction
+1
1
+1 : (6 + 5) = (6 + 5) + ( + 1)st term =
( + 1)( + 2) 2( + 2)
=1 =1 =1
2
= 3 + 8 + 6( + 1) + 5 for all positive integers .
= 3 2 + 8 + 6 + 6 + 5 PROOF
= 3 2 + 14 + 11
Thus, +1 is true whenever is true. 1
Hence, by Mathematical Induction Let : =
( + 1)( + 2) 2( + 2)
=1
1 1
(6 + 5) = 32 + 8 for all 1 : =
=1
(1 + 1)(1 + 2) 2(1 + 2)
1 1
=
6 6
LESSON 4 Prove by Mathematical Induction Therefore, 1 is true.
1 Assume is true for = .
( + 1) = ( + 1)( + 2)
3 1
=1 : =
( + 1)( + 2)
=1
for all positive integers . +1
PROOF: 1 +1
+1 : =
( + 1)( + 2) 2( + 3)
1 =1
Let : ( + 1) = ( + 1)( + 2) Now,
3
=1 +1 = + ( + 1)st term
1 +1 1
1 : 1(1 + 1) = (1)(1 + 1)(1 + 2) +1 = +
3 2( + 3) ( + 2)( + 3)
2=2 ( + 3) 1(2)
Therefore, 1 is true. = +
Assume is true for = . 2( + 2)( + 3) 2( + 2)( + 3)
1 2 + 3 + 2
: ( + 1) = ( + 1)( + 2) =
3 2( + 1)( + 2)
=1
+1
1 ( + 1)( + 2)
+1 : ( + 1) = ( + 1)( + 1 + 1)( + 1 + 2) =
3 2( + 2)( + 3)
=1 +1
1 =
= ( + 1)( + 2)( + 3) 2( + 3)
3 Thus, +1 is true whenever is true.
Now,
+1 = + ( + 1)st term
+1 Hence, by Mathematical Induction
+1 : ( + 1) = ( + 1) + ( + 1)st term 1
= for all
=1 =1 ( + 1)( + 2) 2( + 2)
=1
1
= ( + 1)( + 2) + ( + 1)( + 1 + 1)
3
62
CHAPTER 10: SEQUENCES, SERIES and MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION
PROOF ..
EXERCISE 10. 4
1
: 2 ( 1) = (2 1)(3 + 2) 1. (i) Find the th term of the series
12
=1 1(2) + 2(5) + 3(8) +
(ii) Prove, by Mathematical Induction, that
1
1 : 12 (1 1) = (1)(12 1)(3(1) + 2) the sum to terms of the series in (i)
12 above is 2 ( + 1).
0=0 2. Prove, by mathematical induction, that
Therefore, 1 is true. (4 + 1) = (2 + 3)
=1
Assume is true for =
for all positive integers .
1 3. Prove the following by Mathematical
: 2 ( 1) = ( 2 1)(3 + 2)
12 Induction for all +
=1
+1 a. 2 = ( + 1)(2 + 1)
+1 : 2 ( 1) =
1
( + 1)(( + 1)2 1)(3( + 1) + 2)
6
=1
12
=1
1 2
= ( + 1)( 2 + 2 )(3 + 5) b. 3 = ( + 1)2
12 4
=1
1
= ( + 1)( + 2)(3 + 5) 1
12 c. =
( + 1) + 1
=1
Now, +1 = + ( + 1) term
1
1 d. =
+1 = ( 2 1)(3 + 2) + ( + 1) 2 ( + 1 1) ( + 1)( + 2) 2( + 2)
=1
12
1 12( + 1)2 1
= ( + 1)( 1)(3 + 2) + e. =
12 12 ( + 3)( + 4) 4( + 4)
=1
1
= ( + 1)[ 1)(3 + 2) + 12( + 1)] ..
12
1 PROOF OF DIVISIBILITY
= ( + 1)(3 2 2 + 12 + 12) LESSON 7 Use Mathematical Induction to
12
show that 43 is divisible by 3, whenever is
1 a positive integer.
= ( + 1)(3 2 + 11 + 10)
12 PROOF
State the proposition
1 Let be the proposition that 43 is divisible by
= ( + 1)( + 2)(3 + 5)
12 3.
Using the definition of divisibility we have
Therefore +1 is true whenever is true.
: 43 = 3 for some integer
63
CHAPTER 10: SEQUENCES, SERIES and MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION
64
CHAPTER 11: THE REAL NUMBER SYSTEM
CLOSURE COMMUTATIVITY
Let and be members of a set, , and be a Given that and are members of the set and
binary operation on . The operation is said to the operation is defined on the set , then is
COMMUTATIVE if = .
65
CHAPTER 11: THE REAL NUMBER SYSTEM
LESSON 3 An operation is defined by State, giving a reason for your answers, which
= 2 3 where and are real numbers. tables represent operations which are
State, with a reason, whether commutative.
SOLUTION
i) is Closed under the set of Real numbers, A binary operation is commutative if its
ii) is Commutative under the set of Real corresponding table is symmetric about the
numbers, leading diagonal. Therefore, and are
SOLUTION commutative.
(i) 2 is a real number and 3 is a real
number. ASSOCIATIVITY
The sum of 2 real numbers is real is Given that , and c are members of the set and
closed on . the operation is defined on the set , is
(ii) If is commutative = associative if ( ) = ( ) .
= 2 3
= 2 3 LESSON 4 An operation is defined by
2 3 2 3 is not = 2 3 where and are real numbers.
commutative State, with a reason, whether is Associative
under the set of Real numbers.
LESSON 3 The following tables represent
binary operations. SOLUTION
(a)
If is associative ( ) = ( ) where
1 2 3 4
1 0 1 2 3 ( ) = (2 3)
= 2(2 3) + 3
2 1 2 3 4 = 4 6 + 3
( ) = (2 3)
3 2 3 4 5 = 2 3(2 3)
4 3 4 5 6 = 2 6 + 9
4 6 + 3 2 6 + 9 is not
associative
(b)
1 2 3 4 LESSON 4 Given that the operation is
defined on the set of real numbers such that
1 1 3 5 7 = 5 + + , prove that is associative on .
SOLUTION
2 2 4 6 8 If is associative on then
( ) = ( ) for all , , .
3 3 5 7 9
4 4 6 8 10 =5++
( ) = ( )
(5 + + ) = (5 + + )
(c) 5+5++ + =5++5+ +
10 + + + = 10 + + +
66
CHAPTER 11: THE REAL NUMBER SYSTEM
3 =2
d) SOLUTION
0 0 0 (i)
0 1 0
1 0 0 0 0 1
1 1 1 0 1 1
This is a contingency. 1 0 0
e) 1 1 1
(ii)
0 0 1 1
0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1
1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0
1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1
This is a contingency. 1 1 0 0 1
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
70
CHAPTER 12: REASONING AND LOGIC
EXERCISE 12
Complement:
1. Given that is the statement, I will go to the
1
beach and is the statement It is extremely
0
hot represent the following as Boolean
expressions.
Double Negation:
(i) I will not go to the beach.
( )
(ii) It is extremely hot and I will go to the
Associative:
beach.
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) (iii) If it is extremely hot then I will go to the
beach.
2. Construct truth tables for each of the
Distributive:
( ) ( ) ( ) following.
( ) ( ) ( ) (a) ~
(b) ~
(c)
Absorbtion:
( ) (d)
( ) and state whether the proposition is a
tautology, contradiction or a contingency.
De Morgans:
( ) 3. Construct truth tables for
( ) (a) ( )
(b) ( )
4. Construct truth tables for
LESSON 7 Use the laws of algebra of (a)
propositions to show that (b) ( )
( ) . (c) ( ) ( )
SOLUTION 5. State the converse, inverse and contrapositive
LHS of ( ) ( ).
( ) 6. Show that ( ) and are
= ( )
logically equivalent.
Since and are logically equivalent.
7. Simplify
= ( ) ( ) (a) ( )
= 0 ( )
(b) [ ( )] [ ( )]
= 8. Prove the following statements, using the
RHS laws of Boolean Algebra
(i) ( ) ( ) = ( )
LESSON 8 Show that (ii) ( ) ( ) = ( )
{ ( )} { ( )} .
(iii) ( ) ( ) =
SOLUTION
(iv) [( ) ( )] =
LHS (v) ( ) = ( )
{ ( )} { ( )} (vi) [ ( )] [ ( )] =
71
CHAPTER 12: REASONING AND LOGIC
(vii) [( ) ( )] = 1
(viii) ( ( )) = 0
EXAM QUESTIONS
SOLUTIONS
SEE PAGE 166
72
CHAPTER 12: REASONING AND LOGIC
= + +
29 29 29 SCALAR (DOT) PRODUCT
We define the scalar (dot) product of 2 vectors
= + and = + as
UNIT VECTORS . = ( + ). ( + ) = +
LESSON 1 Given the position vectors of the LESSON 4 If = 2 + and = 3 4
points and relative to a fixed point are determine .
= (2) and
= (1), determine SOLUTION
5 4 . = (2 + ). (3 4)
in the form + = (2)(3) + (1)(4)
(i)
= 10
(ii) 

(iii) .
the unit vector in the direction of Given 3 dimensional vectors we define their dot
product as follows;
SOLUTION If = + + and = + + then
. = ( + + ). ( + + )
(i) = 2 + 5 and
= + 4 = + +
=
+
= (2 + 5) + ( + 4) LESSON 5 If = + 3 2 and
= 3 = 2 4 determine .
(ii)  = (3) 3 + ( 1)2 = 10
 SOLUTION
(iii) Unit vector in the direction of . = ( + 3 2). (2 4)
1 = ( 1)(2) + (3)(0) + (2)( 4)
(3 ) =6
10
74
CHAPTER 13: VECTORS
75
CHAPTER 13: VECTORS
(i) Find the unit vector parallel to . 11. The position vectors of three points , and
The point lies on such that = 2 . with respect to a fixed origin are
(ii) Find the position vector of . 2 2 + , 4 + 2 + and + + 3
3. The position vectors of points and relative respectively. Find the unit vectors in the
to an origin are 3 and + 2 directions of and
.
respectively. The point lies on and is Calculate angle in degrees, correct to 1
= 3
such that . Find the position vector decimal place.
5 12. Relative to an origin , the position vectors of
of and show that it is a unit vector. points and are 2 + + 2 and
17 4
4. Given that
= ( ) and
= ( ), find 3 2 + respectively.
25 5
, (i) Find the value of for which and
(i) the unit vector parallel to
are perpendicular.
(ii) the vector , such that = 3 .
(ii) In the case where = 6, use a scalar
5. The position vectors of the points and , product to find angle , correct to the
relative to an origin , are 7 and 4 + nearest degree.
respectively, where is a scalar. The unit in terms of and
(iii) Express the vector
vector in the direction of is 0.6 + 0.8,
hence find the values of for which the
find the value of . length of is 3.5 units.
6. The points and are such that the unit 13. Relative to an origin , the position vectors of
vector in the direction of is 0.28 + , the points and are given by
where is a positive constant.
= 2 8 + 4 and = 7 + 2
(i) Find the value of .
(i) Find the value of .
and hence
state whether angle is acute,
The position vectors of and , relative to an
origin , are 7 and 12 + 17 obtuse or a right angle.
(ii) The point is such that = 2
.
respectively. 5
(ii) Find the value of the constant . Find the unit vector in the direction
7. The position vectors, relative to an origin , of of .
three points , and are + 3, 5 + 11 SOLUTIONS
and 9 + 9 respectively.
(i) By finding the magnitude of the 1. = + 2,
(i) = 2 + 5, = 4
vectors
,
and , show that
(ii) =
angle is 90. 1
2. (i) 5 (3 + 4) = 12 + 5
(ii)
(ii) Find the unit vector parallel to .
3. = 3 + 4
(iii) Given that = +
, where 5 5
and are constants, find the value 1 21 = ( 46 )
4. (i) Unit vector: 29 ( ) (ii)
of and . 20 35
8. Given that = 2 + and = + 3, 5. = 3
24
show that is perpendicular to . 6. (i) = (ii) = 5
25
9. In a triangle , the position vectors of , 1 8 2
and are respectively 7. (i) (ii) Unit vector: 10 ( ) (iii) = 3, = 9
6
+ , 3 + 4, and 4
8.
(i) Find and
9. = 2 3,
= 3 2
(ii) Show that = 90
10. (a) The position vectors of points and
10. (a) (i) = 6 (ii) 37
with respect to the origin are given by (b) not perpendicular
1 1
= 3 + 2 and
= 2 4. 11. ( 3 2), (3 + 2) = 73.4
14 14
Find 12. (i) = 2 (ii) = 40 (iii) = 0.5, 3.5
(i) in terms of and 4
1
(ii) The magnitude of 13. (i) Obtuse (ii)
= 6 (4)
(b) Determine whether is perpendicular 2
to
.
76
CHAPTER 13: VECTORS
(i) and
Find . [2] 7. The vectors and are given by = 6 + 4
(ii) Show that = 90. [2] and = 8 9
CAPE 2000 (i) Calculate, in degrees, the angle
between and . [5]
2. If the position vector of the point is 3 (ii) (a) Find a non zero vector such
and the position vector of the point is that . = 0.
2 + 5, find (b) State the relationship between
(i) 
 [4] and . [5]
(ii) the position vector of the mid point CAPE 2010
of . [3] SOLUTIONS
CAPE 2002
1. = 2 3,
(i) = 3 2
3. The position vector of a point is + 3. Find 2.  = 65, (ii)
(i)  = 3 +
2
(a) the unit vector in the direction of . [2] 1 10
3. (a) =
( + 3) (b) ( + 3)
(b) the position vector of a point on 10 2
produced such that   = 5. [2] (c) = 4
(c) the value of such that the vector 3 + 4 4. (a) = 3, = 1
.
is perpendicular to the vector [2] 5. = 6
(i)
CAPE 2004  = 37 not perpendicular
(ii) 
4. Given the vectors = 2 + 3 and = 3 2, 6. (i) (a) 30.01, (b) (i) 13 units 2
(a) Find , such that (ii) (a) = + 7 (b) = 4 + 2
+ = 3 11. [7] 7. (i) 165.32
(b) Show that and are perpendicular. [2] (ii) (a) = 2 3 (1 possibility)
CAPE 2006 (b)
77
CHAPTER 13: VECTORS
2 4
THE VECTOR EQUATION OF A LINE = (3) + ( 0 )
INTRODUCTION 1 5
2
=( 3 )
6
2 2
= (3) + ( 3 )
1 6
NB: could have been used as the needed
as the required parallel
position vector and
vector.
78
CHAPTER 13: VECTORS
LESSON 12 Show that the following pair of LESSON 13 Determine the equation of the
lines intersect and determine the point of plane, in vector form and Cartesian form, which
intersection. contains the point (2, 3, 1) with normal
: = 4 3 + + ( + 2 ) 2 + 3.
: = 2 + 6 + (5 + 3 + ) SOLUTION
SOLUTION There must exist and such The equation of a plane can be written in the form
that . = .
4 3 + + ( + 2 ) where is a vector perpendicular to the plane and
= 2 + 6 + (5 + 3 + ) is a position vector of a point on the plane.
Equating coefficients of : 1 2 1
4 + = 2 5 . ( 2) = (3) . (2)
+ 5 = 2 (1) 3 1 3
1
. ( 2) = 2(1) + (3)(2) + 1(3)
Equating coefficients of :
3
3 + 2 = 6 + 3 1
2 3 = 9 (2) . ( 2) = 11
Solving (1) and (2) 3
(1) 2: 2 + 10 = 4 Cartesian form
2 3 = 9
13 = 13 Let = ( )
= 1
1
=3
( ) . (2) = 11
We will now equate the coefficients of to 3
determine if the values of and are consistent. 2 + 3 = 11
Equating coefficients of :
1 = 1 +
1 3 = 1 + (1) EXERCISE 13.2
2 = 2
The values are consistent therefore and 1. Determine the equation of the line which
intersect. passes through the point
We simply substitute = 3 into or = 1 into
to determine the point of intersection. (i) (1, 1, 3) and is parallel to the vector
4 3 + + 3( + 2 ) = 7 + 3 2 2
7 ( 0 ).
Point is ( 3 ) 1
2 (ii) (4, 3, 2) and is parallel to the vector
NB: If the values for and are inconsistent and 9
the lines are not parallel they are referred to as (2).
SKEWED. 1
(iii) (3, 4, 3) and is parallel to the vector
8
VECTOR EQUATION OF A PLANE (3).
7
(iv) (5, 2, 3) and is parallel to the vector
4
(5).
7
(v) (3, 5, 5) and is parallel to the vector
8
(8).
3
The vector equation of a plane can be written as
= + +
where is a position vector of a point on the plane
and and are vectors parallel to the plane.
79
CHAPTER 13: VECTORS
2. Find the equation of the line which passes (b) The line passes through (2, 3, 1)
through the points and with position and (4, 1, 1).
vectors (i) Find the vector equation of .
(ii) Find the angle between and
5 0 .
(i) (4) and (3) respectively. 7. The position vectors of the points and
3 4 with respect to an origin are 5 + 2 9
and 4 + 4 6 respectively.
5 1
(i) Find a vector equation for the line
(ii) (2) and ( 0 ) respectively.
.
2 4
The position vector of the point is
3 2 + 2 .
(iii) ( 0 ) and ( 0 ) respectively. (ii) Write down a vector equation for the
3 2 line and show that is
3 4 perpendicular to .
(iv) ( 0 ) and (3) respectively. It is given that intersects .
5 0 (iii) Find the position vector of the point
of intersection of and .
5 4 8. Lines 1 , 2 and 3 have vector equations
(v) ( 5 ) and ( 5 ) respectively. 1 : = (5 2) + (6 + 8 2)
5 0 2 : = (3 8) + ( + 3 + 2)
3 : = (2 + + 3) + (3 + + )
3. The points and have position vectors
(i) Calculate the acute angle between 1 and
2 9 5 and 10 3 respectively,
2 .
relative to an origin . The line passes
(ii) Given that 1 and 3 are parallel, find the
through and . Obtain a vector equation of .
value of .
4. Determine the vector equation of the line (iii) Given instead that 2 and 3 intersect,
which passes through (8, 3, 2) and is parallel find the value of .
to the vector + 3 2 in 9. (i) Show that the straight line with equation
2 1
(i) Vector form = (3) + ( 4 ) meets the line
(ii) Parametric form and 5 2
passing through (9, 7, 5) and (7, 8, 2), and
(iii) Cartesian form.
find the point of intersection of these
5. The line 1 has equation lines.
= 2 + 3 4 + ( + 2 + ) where is a (ii) Find the acute angle between these lines.
scalar parameter.
10. Find the equation of the plane, in vector form
The line 2 has equation and Cartesian form, through the point
= 9 3 + (5 + 2) where is a scalar (4, 3, 1) that is perpendicular to the vector
parameter. = 4 + 7 2.
Given that 1 and 2 meet at the point , find
11. Find an equation of the plane through the
the coordinates of .
point (6, 3, 2) and perpendicular to the vector
6. The quadrilateral has vertices
(2, 1, 5). Check if (2, 1, 0) and (1, 2, 1) are
(2, 1, 3), (6, 5, 3), (6, 1, 1) and
in that plane.
(2, 3, 1). The line has vector equation
6 1 12. Find an equation of the plane through the
= ( 1 ) + (1 ). point (4, 2, 3) and parallel to the plane
1 0 3 7 = 12.
(a) (i) Find the vector . 13. Find an equation for the plane through
(ii) Show that the line is parallel to . (1, 1, 3) parallel to the plane
(iii) Verify that lies on . 3 + + = 7.
14. Find an equation of the plane through the
points (0, 1, 1), (1, 0, 1) and (1, 1, 0).
80
CHAPTER 13: VECTORS
3
SOLUTIONS 8. (i) 68.5 (ii) = 4 (iii) = 5
1 2 9. (i) (ii) 62.2
1. (i) = ( 1 ) + ( 0 ) 4
10. . ( 7 ) = 35, 4 + 7 2 = 35
3 1
4 9 2
(ii) = ( 3 ) + ( 2) 2
11. . ( 1 ) = 1, No, Yes
2 1
3 8 5
(iii) = ( 4 ) + (3) 3
12. . ( 0 ) = 9
3 7
5 4 7
3
(iv) = ( 2 ) + (5)
13. . ( 1) = 7
3 7
3 8 1
(v) = ( 5 ) + ( 8) 1
14. . ( 1) = 2
5 3
5 5 1
2. (i) = (4) + ( 1 )
3 7 EXAM QUESTIONS
5 6 1. The points (3, 1, 2), (1, 2, 4) and
(ii) = (2) + ( 2) (1, 1, 2) are three vertices of a
2 6 parallelogram .
3 1
(iii) = ( 0 ) + ( 0 ) (i) Express the vectors and
in the
3 5 form + + . [3]
3 1
(iv) = ( 0 ) + (3) (ii) Show that the vector = 16 8 is
perpendicular to the plane through ,
5 5
5 9 and . [5]
(v) = ( 5 ) + ( 0 ) (iii) Hence, find the Cartesian equation
5 5 through , and . [4]
3. = 2 9 5 + (8 + 6 + 4 ) CAPE 2013
81
CHAPTER 14: THE EQUATION OF A CIRCLE
2
( 0) 2 + ( 0) 2 = (7) need to show that there is only one point of
contact.
Centre: (, ) = (0, 0)
= 1 (1)
Radius: = 7
2 + 2 + 12 + 2 = 19 (2)
Solving (1) and (2) simultaneously
2 + ( 1)2 + 12 + 2( 1) + 19 = 0
TANGENTS AND NORMALS 2 2 + 12 + 18 = 0
LESSON 3 The circle has equation 2 + 6 + 9 = 0
( 4) 2 + ( 3) 2 = 25.
( + 3) 2 = 0
(i) State the radius and the coordinates of the = 3
centre of . = 4
(ii) Find the equation of the tangent at the point Since (3, 4) is the only point of contact, the line
(8, 6) on . = 1 is a tangent to the curve.
(iii) Calculate the coordinates of the points of
intersection of with the straight line
= + 8.
SOLUTION
(i) Centre (4, 3) radius is 5
63 3
(ii) Gradient of radius is 84 = 4 gradient of
4
tangent is 3
4
= + using (8, 6) and = LESSON 5 A curve is defined by the
3
4 equation 2 + 2 6 2 + 1 = 0.
6 = (8) + (i) Show that the centre and the radius of the
3
50 circle, , are (3, 1) and 3 respectively.
= (ii) (a) Find the equation of the normal to the
3
4 50 circle at the point (6, 1).
= +
3 3 (b) Show that the tangent to the circle at the
(iii) Solving the two equations simultaneously point (6, 1) is parallel to the axis.
( 4) 2 + ( 3) 2 = 25 (1) SOLUTION
= + 8 (2) (i) 2 + 2 6 2 = 1
Subbing (2) into (1) 2 6 + 9 + 2 2 + 1 = 1 + 9 + 1
( 4) 2 + ( + 8 3)2 = 25 ( 3) 2 + ( 1) 2 = 9
2 8 + 16 + 2 10 + 25 = 25 Centre (3, 1) radius is 3
11
2 2 18 + 16 = 0 (ii) (a) = =0
36
2 9 + 8 = 0
Gradient of normal is undefined
( 8)( 1) = 0
Equation of normal is = 6
= 1, 8
(b) Gradient of the axis is 0 and the
= 7, 0
gradient of the tangent is 0, therefore,
(1, 7) and (8, 0)
they are parallel.
83
CHAPTER 14: THE EQUATION OF A CIRCLE
LESSON 6 Find the length of the tangent 4. Prove that the line + = 9 is a tangent to
drawn from the point (4, 2) to the circle the curve 2 + 2 4 2 = 13.
2 + 2 6 4 = 8. 5. A curve is defined by the equation
SOLUTION 2 + 2 + 8 + 6 15 = 0.
2 + 2 6 4 = 8 (i) Determine the coordinates of the
( 2 6 ) + ( 2 4 ) = 8 centre of and its radius.
( 2 6 + 9) + ( 2 4 + 4) = 8 + 9 + 4 (ii) Find the equation of the normal to the
( 3) 2 + ( 2) 2 = 5 circle at the point (2, 5).
Centre (3, 2) and radius is 5 6. The circle has equation
Distance between centre and is 7 and the radius 2 + 2 + 2 4 = 15.
is 5, so by Pythagoras Theorem (i) Determine the radius and the
2 coordinates of the centre of .
72 = (5) + 2 (ii) Find the equation of the tangent at
49 5 = 2 the point (5, 4) on .
44 = 2 (iii) Calculate the coordinates of the
211 = points of intersection of with the
straight line = + 3.
7. Find the length of the tangent drawn from the
point (2, 4) to the circle
2 + 2 10 + 4 = 11.
SOLUTIONS
1. (a) 2 + 2 = 64 (b) 2 + 2 = 81
.. 49
(c) 2 + 2 = 81
EXERCISE 14.1 (d) 2 + 2 = 107 + 207
(e) ( 1)2 + ( 3) 2 = 9
1. Find the equations of the circles with the (f) ( 1) 2 + ( + 3) 2 = 25
following radii and centres 2. (ii) 10 (iii) (7, 2)
(a) Centre (0, 0), radius =8 (iv) 7) + ( + 2)2 = 25
( 2
(b) Centre (0, 0), radius = 9 3. (a) (0, 0), = 9 (b) (0, 0), = 7
7
(c) Centre (0, 0), radius = 9 1
(c) (0, 0), = 8 (d) (2, 1), = 5
(d) (0, 0),radius = 10 + 7 (e) (2, 5) , = 4 (f) (0, 3), = 7
(e) Centre (1, 3), radius = 3 4.
(f) Centre (1, 3), radius = 5
2. The points , and have coordinates 5. (i) (4, 3), = 40
1 13
(3, 5), (4, 6) and (11, 1) respectively. (ii) = 3 3
(i) Show that is perpendicular to . 6. (i) (1, 2), = 20
(ii) Find the length of . (ii) = 2 + 14
(iii) Find the coordinates of the mid (iii) (3, 6) (3, 0)
point of .
7. 67
(iv) Hence find the equation of the circle
which passes through the points ,
..
and .
3. Find the centre and radius of the circle with
equation
(a) 2 + 2 = 81
(b) 2 + 2 = 49
1
(c) 2 + 2 =
64
(d) ( 2) 2 + ( + 1) 2 = 25
(e) 2 + 2 4 + 10 + 13 = 0
(f) 2 + 2 + 6 + 2 = 0
84
CHAPTER 14: THE EQUATION OF A CIRCLE
SOLUTIONS
EQUATION OF A CIRCLE GIVEN 3
POINTS 1. (i) (1, 0) (ii) (0, 8) (2, 0)
LESSON 8 Find the equation of the circle (iii) (5, 8) ( 5, 2) (iv) (1, 5) (2.08, 3.62)
which passes through the points (1, 0), (1, 2) and 2. (i) 2 + 2 + 4 6 = 11
(5, 4). (ii) 2 + 2 6 = 11
(iii) 2 + 2 + 4 14 = 40
(iv) 2 + 2 + 2 4 = 20
85
CHAPTER 14: THE EQUATION OF A CIRCLE
86
CHAPTER 15: THE LOCUS OF A POINT
87
CHAPTER 15: THE LOCUS OF A POINT
SOLUTIONS
1. = + 1
5 27
2. = 2 4
15
3. = 4 + 2
4. 2 = 8 8
5. 2 = 24 + 24
6. = 36
7. ( 1) 2 + ( 2) 2 = 9
8. ( + 4) 2 + ( 5) 2 = 49
9. 2 + ( 3) 2 = 10
EXAM QUESTIONS
88
CHAPTER 16: RADIAN MEASURE
89
CHAPTER 16: RADIAN MEASURE
LESSON 6
SOLUTION
(i) Arc length =
= 5(1.2)
= 6 cm
(ii) Area of segment = Area of sector
Area of triangle
1 1 The diagram shows a circle with centre and
= 2 sin radius 5 cm. The point lies on the circle, is a
2 2
1 tangent to the circle and = 12 cm. The line
2
= (5) (1.2) cuts the circle at the point .
2
1 (i) Find the perimeter of the shaded region
(5)(5) sin 1.2 (ii) Find the area of the shaded region.
2
= 25.88 cm
(i) angle in radians
(ii) the perimeter of the shaded region
(ii) Shaded area = Area of Area of
(iii) the area of the shaded region
sector
1 1
SOLUTION = (12)(5) (5)2 (1.176)
2 2
3 = 15.3 cm2
(i) sin = 5
3 EXERCISE 16
= sin1 (
) = 0.64 radians
5 1. Convert the following angles measured in
(ii) Perimeter = + + arc radians to degrees, stating your answer to 1
decimal place where necessary.
= 3 + (5 4) + 5(0.64)
= 7.2 cm 5 3 5
N.B. The value of 4 cm is obtained by the use of a. b. c.
12 5 4
Pythagoras Theorem d. 1.2 e. 2
(iii) Area of shaded region = Area of sector 2. Convert the following angles measured in
Area of triangle degrees to radians correct to 2 decimal places.
90
CHAPTER 16: RADIAN MEASURE
a. 72 b. 54 c. 45 Calculate
d. 60 e. 202.5 (a) the size, in radians, of the angle . [3]
(b) the length of the arc . [3]
3. Find the length of an arc of a circle with radius CAPE 2004
10 m that subtends a central angle of 6 . 3. The diagrams shown below, not drawn below,
4. A central angle of a circle with radius 16 cm represent
subtends an arc of 19.36 cm. Find . a. a sector, , of a circle with centre at
5. Find the area of a sector of a circle with central and a radius of 7 cm, where angle
angle 3 if the radius of the circle is 3 m. measures 3 radians.
b. a right circular cone with vertex and a
SOLUTIONS circular base of radius cm which is
1. (a) 75 (b) 108 (c) 225 formed when the sector is folded
(d) 68.8 (e) 114.6 so that coincides with .
2 3
2. (a) 5 (b) 10 (c) 4
9
(d) 3 (e) 8
5
3. 3
4. 1.21 radians
3
5. 2
EXAM QUESTIONS
91
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY
1. 1 + cot 2 = cosec2
2. tan2 + 1 = sec 2
92
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY
SOLUTION SOLUTION
cos
LHS: (sin + cos )(sin + cos ) LHS:
1 sin
= sin2 + 2 sin cos + cos 2 cos 1 + sin
= sin2 + cos 2 + 2 sin cos = .
1 sin 1 + sin
= 1 + 2 sin cos cos (1 + sin)
= RHS =
1 sin2
cos (1 + sin )
LESSON 1c Prove that =
cos 2
tan2 sin2 tan2 sin2 1 + sin
SOLUTION =
cos
LHS: tan2 sin2 1 sin
sin2 = +
= sin2 cos cos
cos 2 = sec + tan
sin2 cos2 sin2 = RHS
=
cos 2
sin2 (1 cos 2 ) EXERCISE 17.1
=
cos2
sin2 1. Prove the following identities.
= sin2 (b)
sin
+
cos 1
=0
cos 2 cos +1 sin
= tan2 sin2 cos2
(c) = 1 sin
= RHS 1+sin
cos2
LESSON 2a Prove that (d) sin + =1
1+sin
sin tan + cos = sec
(e) tan sin cos = sin2
SOLUTION 1 cos
LHS: sin tan + cos (f) sin cos sin = tan
93
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY
(g)
sin2
1+cos
= 1 cos GRAPHS OF TRIGONOMETRIC
(h)
1 1
+ sin2
1 FUNCTIONS
cos2 sin2 cos2
sin2 INTRODUCTION
(i) cos + 1+cos = 1 Here is a list of the graphs of the trigonometric
cos2 sin2 functions of = sin , = cos and = tan .
(j) = cos 2
1tan2 NB: For this section ALL angles will be assumed to
1 1
(k) tan be in radians unless otherwise stated.
cos sin tan
cos sin 1
(l) + =
sin cos sin cos
94
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY
SOLUTION
95
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY
TRIGONOMETRIC EQUATIONS
INTRODUCTION
Before we look at how to solve trigonometric
equations we need to develop what is called the
QUADRANT RULE.
GENERAL SOLUTIONS
LESSON 6 Solve the following equations
1
(a) sin = 2 for 0 2
(b) cos = 0.5 for 0 2
(c) tan = 0.5 for 0 2
Hence state the general solutions.
SOLUTION
(a) We need to find the angle in Quadrant I and
then determine the corresponding angles in
the appropriate quadrant(s) using the
information below. This initial angle we will
refer to as a Reference Angle, .
: =
96
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY
General Solutions:
0.464 +
={
3.606 +
General Solutions:
+ 2
6
= {11
+ 2
General Solutions: 6
+ 2 (b) 2 sin + 1 = 0
3
= {5 2 sin = 1
+ 2 1
3 sin =
2
1
1
(c) tan = 0.5 = sin ( ) =
1 2 6
= tan1 ( ) = 0.464 Sine is negative in and .
2
97
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY
98
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY
5(sec 2 1) + 7 = 11 sec 3
5 sec 2 5 + 7 = 11 sec cos ( ) =
2 2
5 sec 2 11 sec + 2 = 0 3
(5 sec 1)(sec 2) = 0 = cos1 ( ) =
2 6
1
sec = sec = 2 Cosine is positive in I and IV but IV is outside the
5
1 1 1 range of 2
= =2
cos 5 cos : =
1 2 6
cos = 5 cos =
2 =
INVALID 3
99
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY
100
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY
101
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY
NB: The absolute values of and are to be used = 168.46 + 36.87 = 205.33
in the above calculations.
Summarising we have LESSON 17
sin cos = 2 + 2 sin( ) ; = tan1 ( ) a) Express () = 2 cos + sin in the form
1
cos( ) where > 0 and is acute.
2 2
cos sin = + cos( ) ; = tan ( )
b) Hence, find the minimum value of
Thus, we are now equipped to solve the required (), where 0 2.
equations c) Determine the value of , 0 2, at
which the minimum value of () occurs.
LESSON 15 SOLUTION
102
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY
103
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY
2
sin ( ) = (sin cos ) 5. i. State the exact value of
4 2
3 (a) cos 6 and (b) sin 6
(ii) Using the fact that sin 3 = 2 and
1
ii. Hence, show that
cos = , find the exact value of sin 1
3 2 12 cos ( + ) = (3 cos sin )
showing ALL steps in your working. 6 2
1+tan
SOLUTION 6. Prove that 1tan tan ( 4 + )
(i) By the compound angle formula for
sin( ) SOLUTIONS
6+2 6+2
sin ( ) = sin cos cos sin 1. (i) 4 (ii) (iii) 2 3
4 4 4 4
2 2 2 1 3 1
= sin ( ) cos ( ) 2. (a) (b) 0 (c) 2 (d) (e) 3 (f) 2
2 3
2 2
16 56
2 3. (a) 65 (b) 65
= (sin cos ) 6+2
2 4.
4
(ii) =34
12 3 1
5. (i) (a) (b) 2
sin = sin ( ) 2
12 3 4 6.
sin ( ) = sin cos cos sin
3 4 3 4 3 4
3 2 1 2 ..
= ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
6 2
=
4 4
6 2
=
4
104
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY
105
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY
106
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY
(tan (2 ) + 1) (tan (2 ) + 1) FACTOR FORMULAE
= INTRODUCTION
(1 tan (2 )) (1 + tan (2 )) +
sin + sin = 2 sin( ) cos ( )
tan2 (2 ) + 2 tan (2 ) + 1 2 2
= +
sin sin = 2 cos ( ) sin( )
1 tan2 (2 ) 2 2
+
tan2 (2 ) + 1 2 tan (2 ) cos + cos = 2 cos ( ) cos ( )
= 2 2
+ +
1 tan2 (2 ) 1 tan2 (2 ) cos cos = 2 sin ( ) sin ( )
2 2
sin2 (2 )
+1 LESSON 27 Find the exact value of
cos 2 (2 )
= + tan a) sin 105 sin 15
sin2 (2 )
1 b) sin 105 sin15
cos 2 (2 ) SOLUTION
We rewrite the difference as a product
sin2 (2 ) + cos2 (2 )
sin 105 sin 15
105 + 15 105 15
cos2 ( )
2 = 2 cos ( ) sin( )
= + tan 2 2
cos (2 ) sin2 (2 )
2
= 2 cos 60 sin 45
1 1
cos2 ( ) = 2( )( )
2 2 2
1
= 1
+ tan =
cos 2 (2 ) sin2 (2 ) 2
1 Comparing sin105 sin 15 with
= + tan
cos
= sec + tan +
cos cos = 2 sin ( ) sin ( )
2 2
=RHS
We see that
.. 1 +
(cos cos ) = sin ( ) sin( )
EXERCISE 17.6 2 2 2
1. Use a halfangle formula to find +
= 105 + = 210 (1)
a. sin ( ) b. cos 165 2
8
c. sin 75 d. tan 22.5 = 15 = 30 (2)
2
12 Solving (1) and (2) simultaneously we get
2. Find the value ofsin (2 ) if cos = 13
,0< < 2
= 120, = 90
3. Prove that 2 sin2 (2 ) + cos = 1 1
sin 105 sin15 = (cos 120 cos 90)
4. Prove that 2 cos2 (2 ) sec = sec + 1 2
1 1
= ( 0)
5. Prove that cos 2 (2 ) cos = sin2 (2 ) 2 2
1
=
SOLUTIONS 4
22
1. (a) LESSON 28 Simplify
sin +sin
2
cos cos
62
(b) SOLUTION
4
6+2
+
(c) sin + sin 2 sin( 2 ) cos ( 2 )
4 =
(d) 2 1 cos cos 2 sin ( + ) sin ( )
26 2 2
2.
26 cos ( 2 )
3. = = cot ( )
2
4. sin ( 2 )
5.
107
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY
108
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY
CAPE 2006
109
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY
110
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY
111
CHAPTER 18: PARAMETRIC EQUATIONS
112
CHAPTER 18: PARAMETRIC EQUATIONS
113
CHAPTER 18: PARAMETRIC EQUATIONS
(iii) Show that the coordinate of the points 3. (i) (ii) (22, 1 + 22); (22, 1 22)
of intersection of this circle with the line (iii) = 4, = 0, = 1
3 2 2
+ = 1 are = 1 2 2. [4] (iv) ( 22) + ( (1 22) = 16
CAPE 2006 2
4. (i) 2 =1
3. The line has equation + 1 = 0 and the 9
circle has equation 2 + 2 2 15 = 0. (ii) (45 + 1214, 29.98); (45 1214, 1)
(i) Show that passes through the centre of 5.
(1)
. [2] 6. =
21
(ii) If intersects at and , determine the 7. (i) 1 :( + 3)2 + ( 2)2 = 10,
coordinates of and . [3]
2 : ( 3)2 + ( 2)2 = 16
(iii) Find the constants , and such that 1 15 1 15
= + cos and = + sin are (ii) ( 2 , 2 + ) ; ( 2 , 2 )
2 2
parametric equations of . [3]
(iv) Another circle 2 , with the same radius as ..
, touches at the centre of . Find the
possible equations of 2 . [7]
CAPE 2011
4. (i) Determine the Cartesian equation of the
curve, , defined by the parametric
equations = sec and = 3 tan . [5]
(ii) Find the points of intersection of the curve
= 10 with . [9]
CAPE 2012
SOLUTIONS
3 9 17
1. = 4 2 2 + 2
2. (i) (1, 2); = 3
114
CHAPTER 19: LIMITS
115
CHAPTER 19: LIMITS
SOLUTION
2 23
Thus, we have the following limit as approaches 1. lim
3 3
10 from the left (lefthand limit) ( + 1)( 3)
lim 3 + 5 = 35 () = lim
10 3 3
and from the right (righthand limit) = lim + 1
3
lim+ 3 + 5 = 35 ()
10 =3+1
Therefore, since converges to 10 from both the =4
left and right, () approaches 35 we conclude Substituting = 3 immediately will lead directly
lim 3 + 5 = 35 () to division by zero. Therefore, we factor and
10
cancel before substituting.
() and () are one sided limits, whereas, ()
is a two sided limit. 2 4
2. lim
2 2
( 2)( + 2)
LIMITS BY DIRECT SUBSTITUTION = lim
LESSON 1 Determine 2 2
= lim + 2
2
(i) lim 3 + 5 =2+2
10
(ii) lim 3 3 2 + 2 1 =4
3
2 +3+1
(iii) lim 2
1 2 +1
3. lim
SOLUTION 2 4
2
(i) lim 3 + 5 = lim
2 ( 2)( + 2)
10
= 3(10) + 5 1
= 35 = lim
2 ( + 2)
(ii) lim 3 3 2 + 2 1 1
3
=
= 3 (3)3 32 + 2(3) 1 4 + 2
= 77 1
2 +3+1 =
(iii) lim 4
1 2 +1
(1)2 + 3(1) + 1
=
(1)2 + 1
1
=
2
In general, if () is continuous then:
lim () = ()
It is important to note that all polynomial
functions are continuous.
116
CHAPTER 19: LIMITS
LIMIT PROPERTIES small? Yup, the graph is again getting closer and
1. lim () = or () closer to the axis
(which is 0.) It's
as iff lim () = and just coming in from
lim () = below this time.
+
2. . lim () = lim . () 1
lim ( ) = 0
53
() lim () LESSON 3 Find lim (6+1)
5. lim =
() lim () SOLUTION In solving these questions please
53()
APPLICATIONS OF LIMIT LAWS do not write 6()+1 , this does not make
lim 5 = 5. lim = 5 . 4 = 20 mathematical sense. Instead we use the fact
4 4 1
thatlim = 0. Therefore, we divide throughout by
lim(3 + 1)(2 1)
2 to get an expression that can be evaluated
= lim (3 + 1) lim(2 1) 5 3
2 2 lim ( )
= (3 (2) + 1)(2(2) 1) 6 + 1
=73 5
3
= 21 = lim ( )
1
6+
1 03
lim =
3 2 + 1 6+0
lim 1 3
= 3 2 =
lim + 1 6
3 1
31 =
= 2
91 32 2
LESSON 4 Evaluate lim 52 +4+1
1
= SOLUTION Divide throughout by the highest
4
power of
3 2 2
2 2 2
LIMITS AS APPROACHES INFINITY lim
5 2 4 1
+ 2+ 2
2
INTRODUCTION 1 2
3 2
1
Now lets look at the graph of () = from = lim
4 1
another perspective. We are now going to examine 5+ + 2
the limit as approaches infinity (both positive 300
=
and negative infinity). 5+0+0
1
Now, let's look at the graph of () = and see 3
=
5
what happens!
As gets really, really big, the graph gets closer
and closer to the axis which has a height of 0. So,
as approaches +, () is approaching 0. This is
called a limit at infinity.
1
lim ( ) = 0
+
Now let's look at the green line... What is
happening to the graph as gets really, really
117
CHAPTER 19: LIMITS
LIMITS AS APPROACHES 0
INTRODUCTION
Although we cannot divide by 0 there are some
interesting, and important, limits where there is a
limiting value as approaches 0 and where it
would appear that we have a 0 denominator.
sin 3
LESSON 5 Evaluate lim
0
SOLUTION
The same graphical process can be used to derive
that
sin3
lim =3
0
118
CHAPTER 19: LIMITS
119
CHAPTER 19: LIMITS
0. As a result we are left to conclude that lim () LESSON 11 The function on is defined by
0
does not exist. 2 + 1 3
() = {
1 + < 3
Determine
LESSON 9 Use the graph of () to find
lim () if (a) (3)
1
3 , 1 (b) lim+ ()
() = { 3
1, =1
(c) lim () in terms of the constant
3
(d) the value of such that is continuous at
= 3.
SOLUTION
(a) (3) = 32 + 1 = 10
(b) lim+ () = lim+ 2 + 1 = 32 + 1 = 10
3 3
(c) lim ( ) = lim 1 + = 1 + 3
3 3
(d) If is continuous at = 3 then
SOLUTION From the graph we see that lim+ ( ) = lim ( )
lim () = 1 and lim+ () = 1 3 3
1 1 10 = 1 + 3
Therefore, 3=
lim () = 1
1
120
CHAPTER 19: LIMITS
3. Determine the values of for which the 2. (a) 2 (b) 3 (c) DOES NOT EXIST
1
function () = 2 is continuous. 3. 3, 1
+23 81
4. Determine the values of for which the 4. = 4
1 2 1 3
function () = 29 is discontinuous. 5. (i) 3 (ii) 3 (iii) 2 (iv) 5 (v) 2 (vi) 1
1
5. Find (vii) DOES NOT EXIST (viii) 2
11
2 9 6. 4
(i) lim 2 7. 72
3 3 9
5
2 + 2 8.
(ii) lim 2 2
2
1 3 + 2
9. 2, 5
2 2 3
(iii) lim 2 10. = 2, = 1
3 4 + 3 7 7
2 + 2 11. (i) 2 (ii) = 2 (iii) = 3, 6
(iv) lim 2
2 + 5 + 6 (iv) = 3
3 + 8
(v) lim 3 EXAM QUESTIONS
2 4
+4
(vi) lim 1. Given that lim {4()} = 5, evaluate
+ 2 2
1 lim {() + 2}. [5]
(vii) lim 2 2
0
CAPE 2004
3 + 2
(viii) lim
1 + 2 2 2 23
2. (a) Evaluate lim 2 4+3. [4]
3
6. Given that lim {4()} = 5, evaluate (b) Determine the values of for which
2
+2
lim {() + 2} the function (+1) is NOT continuous.
2
7. Given that lim {() + 3} = 1, [3]
3
evaluate lim 9()
3 CAPE 2004
8. Given that lim( + ) = 9, calculate the
4
value of . 3. (a) Find the real values of for which the
sin function
9. Given that lim = 1,
0
sin2 sin 2
evaluate lim and lim sin 5 . () =
0 0 2 2 8
10. The function is defined by is discontinuous. [3]
1
( ) = 2 +2
( + 2)( 1) (b) Find lim 2 3+2 [3]
1
and is continuous for all values of except
(c) Find the values of such that the
and , where < . Find the values of and . 92
function () = (2 3)(3) is
11. Determine the real values of for which the discontinuous. [4]
following functions are continuous.
CAPE 2006
i. () = 3 +8
2 7 4. (a) Determine lim . [4]
2 3 4
ii. () = (b) Obtain the real values of such that the
2 7 2 +1
2 + 1 function () = 239 is continuous.
iii. () = [4]
2 3 9
 
iv. () = 2 CAPE 2007
 9
SOLUTIONS 3 27
5. Find lim 2 +12 . [4]
3
1. (a) Discontinuous (b) Continuous CAPE 2008
(c) Discontinuous
121
CHAPTER 19: LIMITS
3 8 (i) Find
6. (a) Find lim 3 6+8. [5]
2 (a) lim+ () [2]
(b) The function on is defined by 1
3 1 (b) the value of the constant such
() = { that lim () exists. [4]
1+ <1 1
(i) Sketch the graph of () for the (ii) Hence, determine the value of ()
domain 1 2. [2] for to be continuous at the point
(ii) Find = 1. [1]
(a) lim+ () [2]
1
(b) lim () [2] CAPE 2012
1
(iii) Deduce that () is continuous at 10. A function () is defined as
= 1. [3] +2 <2
CAPE 2009 () = { 2
>2
(i) Find lim (). [4]
2
7. (a) Find
2 9
(ii) Determine whether () is continuous at
(i) lim 3 27 [4] = 2. Give a reason for your answer. [2]
3
tan 5
(ii) lim sin24 . [5] CAPE 2013
0 11. Let () be a function defined as
(b) The function on is defined by + 2 < 3
3 7 > 4 () = { 2
() = { 3
1 + 2 4 (i) Find the value of if () is continuous at
(i) Find = 3. [4]
(a) lim+ () [2] 2 +2
4 (ii) Let ( ) = 2 ++4.
(b) lim () [2]
4 Given that lim 2() = lim ( ), find the
1 0
(ii) Deduce that () is discontinuous at
value of . [5]
= 4. [2]
CAPE 2014
CAPE 2010
2 +5+6 12. Let be the function defined as
8. (a) Find lim [4] sin()
2 2 6
() = { 0, 0
(b) The function on is defined by
2 4 =0
() = { + 1 2 If continuous at = 0, determine the value
1 + < 2
of . [4]
Determine CAPE 2015
SOLUTIONS
(i) (2) [2]
(ii) lim+ ( ) [2] 1. 4
11
2
(iii) lim () in terms of the constant . 2. (a) 2 (b) = 1, 0
2
[2] 3. (a) = 2, 4 (b) 3 (c) = 3, 3
3
(iv) the value of such that is 4. (a) 2 (b) 3, 6
continuous at = 2. [4] 27
5.
CAPE 2011 7
6. (a) 0 (b) (i) (ii) (a) 2 (b) 2 (iii)
3 +8 2
9. (a) (i) Find the values of for which 2 4 is 7. (a) (i) 9 (ii) 2 (b) (i) (a) 5 (b) 9 (ii)
1
discontinuous. [2] 8. (a) 5 (b) (i) 5 (ii) 5 (iii) 1 + 2
3 +8
(ii) Hence, or otherwise, find lim . (iv) = 2
2 2 4
[3] 9. (a) (i) = 2 (ii) 3 (iii) 2
sin (b) (i) (a) 5 (b) 1 (ii) 5
(iii) By using the fact that lim = 1, or
0 10. (i) 4 (ii) Yes
23 +4 1
otherwise, find, lim . [5] 11. (i) (ii) 7
0 sin2 3
(b) The function on is defined by 12. 4
2 + 1 > 1
() = { ..
4 + < 1
122
CHAPTER 19: LIMITS
1
=
SOLUTION
1
() =
1
( + ) =
+
1 1
( + ) () =
+
( + )
=
( + )
We choose an arbitrary point close to say
=
( + , ( + )) and then move this point ( + )
closer and closer to . Eventually the line will 1
=
become the tangent of () at . As gets closer ( + )
and closer to , , the distance between and + ( + ) ()
gets closer and closer to 0. Remember, we are = lim
0
interested in determining the rate of change of a 1
variable, , compared to another . Hence, we = lim 2
0 +
need to determine 1
= lim 2
( + ) () 0 +
lim 1
0 = 2
where [( + ) ()] is the change in and
is the change in
LESSON 13 Differentiate = 2 from first LESSON 15 Differentiate from first principles
principles.
() = 3 + 2
SOLUTION
SOLUTION
() = 2
() = 3 + 2
( + ) = ( + ) 2
( + ) = ( + ) 3 + 2( + )
( + ) () = ( + ) 2 2
= 3 + 3 2 + 32 + 3 + 2 + 2
= 2 + 2 + 2 2
( + ) ()
= 2 + 2
= 3 + 3 2 + 32 + 3 + 2 + 2 3 2
= (2 + )
= 3 2 + 32 + 3 + 2
(2 + ) = (3 2 + 2 + 2 + 2)
lim (3 2 + 3 + 2 + 2)
0 () = lim
= lim 2 + 0
0 = lim 3 2 + 3 + 2 + 2
= 2 0
= 3 2 + 2
123
CHAPTER 19: LIMITS
() = SOLUTIONS
6 1
SOLUTION (a) 0 (b) 2 (c) 4 (d) (e) 2 cos 2
() =
(f) sin
( + ) = +
( + ) () = + EXAM QUESTIONS
1. (a) Use the result that
+ ( + + )( + ) = to
() = lim
0 show that
( + )( + + ) + 1
= lim lim = . [5]
0 2
0 ( + + ) (b) Deduce, from first principles, the
+
= lim derivative with respect to of = .
0 ( + + ) [1]
CAPE 2005
= lim
0 ( + + ) 2. Differentiate from first principles, with
1
1 respect to , the function = 2 . [6]
= lim
0 ( + + )
1 CAPE 2009
= ..
2
() = sin 2
SOLUTION
() = sin 2
( + ) = sin2( + )
( + ) ( )
= sin(2 + 2) sin 2
2 + 2 + 2 2 + 2 2
= 2 cos ( ) sin ( )
2 2
= 2 cos(2 + ) sin
2 cos(2 + ) sin()
( ) = lim
0
2 cos(2 + ) sin()
= lim
0
sin
= lim 2 cos(2 + ) lim
0 0
= 2 cos 2 1
= 2 cos 2
..
EXERCISE 19.3
1. Differentiate each of the following from first
principles.
(a) = 3
(b) = 2
2
(c) = 3
(d) = 2
(e) = sin2
124
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION
(c) () = sin , 4
5. =
(d) () = cos ; 5
3
use the sum, product and quotient rules for SOLUTION
differentiation; 1. = 2
differentiate sums, products and quotients of:
= 2
(b) polynomials,
(c) trigonometric functions; 2. = 3 5
apply the chain rule in the differentiation of
= 15 4
(b) composite functions (substitution),
(c) functions given by parametric equations;
solve problems involving rates of change;
125
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION
1
3. = = 2 4. = 4 2 12 + 9 5 cos
1 (1)
= 2 = 8 12 5( sin )
2
1 1 = 8 12 + 5 sin
4. = 23 = 2 3
3 3 42 12+9
= 4 = 4 5. =
2 2
9
3 = 4 12 + = 4 12 + 9 1
4
5. = 5 = 4 5
9
3
= 4 9 2 = 4 2
12 8
= 5
5
DIFFERENTIATION RULES
THE DERIVATIVES OF TRIGONOMETRIC
FUNCTIONS The Chain Rule
= sin = cos [()] = [()]1 ()
= cos = sin [(())] = (()). ()
LESSON 3 Differentiate each of the
= tan = sec 2 following.
1. = (3 + 5)5
= sec = sec tan 1
2. = (4 + 5 )3
= csc = csc cot 3. = 2 + 5 8
= cot = csc 2 SOLUTION
1. = (3 + 5)5
PROPERTIES OF DERIVATIVES
= 5(3 + 5)4 (3) = 15(3 + 5) 4
1. [ ()] = [ ()]
1
2. [() ()] = () () 2. = (4 + 5 )3
1 2
= (4 + 5 ) 3 (4 5 6 )
LESSON 2 Find in each of the following 3
cases. 1
1 3. = 2 + 5 8 = ( 2 + 5 8) 2
1. = 3 5
+ 2 1 2 1
2 = ( + 5 8) 2 (2 + 5)
2. = 5 3 + 2 sin 2
12 2
3. = 7 4 + 5 2
2 LESSON 4 Differentiate
57
2
4. = (2 3) 5 cos SOLUTION
(2 3) 2 2 1
5. = = = 2(5 7)2
5 7
SOLUTION 3
1 = (5 7)2 (5)
1. = 3 5 + 2
2
5
4
= 15 + =
(5 7)3
1
2. = 5 3 2 + 2 sin LESSON 5 Determine the derivative of each
1 1 of the following
= 15 2 2 + 2 cos 1. = sin2
2
2 2. = 3 sin(4 1)
3. = 7 4 + 12 1 2 5
3. = 5 cos( 2 + 4)
4 7
= 28 3 12 2 + 5
5
126
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION
SOLUTION 2. = ( 3 + 7 1)(5 + 2)
1. = sin2
= (3 2 + 7)(5 + 2) + ( 3 + 7 1)(5)
= 2 cos 2
= (3 2 + 7)(5 + 2) + 5( 3 + 7 1)
1
2. = 3 sin(4 1) 3. = + 3 = ( + 3)2
1 1 1
= 3 cos(4 1) 4 = 1( + 3)2 + [ ( + 3)2 (1)]
2
1 1
= 12 cos(4 1) = ( + 3) 2 + ( + 3) 2
2
3. = 5 cos( 2 + 4) 1
= ( + 3) 2 [1 + ( + 3)1 ]
= 5( sin( 2 + 4) 2) 2
4. = ( 2 + 3 + 5) sin
= 10 sin( 2 + 4)
= (2 + 3) sin + ( 2 + 3 + 5) cos
LESSON 6 Differentiate each of the
following 5. = cos sin
1. = sin2
2. = 3 cos 2 2 = ( sin) sin + cos (cos )
3. = 2 cos 3(4 3 + 2) = cos 2 sin2
SOLUTION
1. = sin2 = ( sin )2
LESSON 8 Differentiate = 2( + 3) cos
= 2 sin cos
SOLUTION
2. = 3 cos 2 2 = 3(cos 2)2
= 2( + 3) cos
= 6(cos 2)(2 sin 2)
12 sin 2 cos 2 = 2[1( cos ) + ( + 3)( sin )]
3. = 2 cos 3(4 3 + 2) = 2[cos(4 3 + 2)]3 = 2[cos ( + 3) sin]
= 6[cos(4 3 + 2)]2 ( sin(4 3 + 2) (12 2)
= 72 2 sin(4 3 + 2) cos 2(4 3 + 2)
The Quotient Rule
() ()() () ()
[ ]=
The Product Rule () [()]2
()() = ()() + ()()
LESSON 9 Find the derivatives of the
following functions
LESSON 7 Find the derivative of the 23 (4)2
1. 2. (+3)2
following functions 4
sin 2
1. ( + 5)( 6) 3. 2+cos 4. sin2
2. ( 3 + 7 1)(5 + 2) SOLUTION
3. + 3 23
1. = 4
4. ( 2 + 3 + 5) sin
5. cos sin 6 2 (4 ) 2 3 (1)
=
SOLUTION (4 )2
1. = ( + 5)( 6) 24 6 3 + 2 3
2
=
= 1( 6) + ( + 5)(1) = 2 1 (4 )2
24 4 3
2
=
(4 )2
127
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION
sin
3. = 2+cos LESSON 11 Determine the second derivative
cos (2 + cos ) sin ( sin ) for each of the following.
=
(2 + cos )2 2
2 cos + cos2 + sin2 (a) = 3 4 + 3
=
(2 + cos )2
2 cos + 1 (b) ( ) = 3 cos 2
=
(2 + cos )2
SOLUTION
2 2
4. = sin2 (a) = 3 4 + 3 = 3 4 2 1 + 3
2(sin2 ) 2 (2(sin ) cos )
=
(sin2 )2 = 12 3 + 2 2
2 sin2 2 2 sin cos
=
sin4
2 sin (sin cos ) 2 4
= 2 = 36 2 3
sin4
2(sin cos )
= (b) () = 3 cos 2 = 3(cos )2
sin3
() = 6 cos ( sin ) = 6 sin cos
LESSON 10 Find ( ) for the function
3 () = 6 cos cos 6 sin ( sin )
() = 2
+2
SOLUTION = 6 cos 2 + 6 sin2
3
() = 2 +2
= 6(sin2 cos2 )
3 2 ( 2 + 2) 3 (2)
() =
( 2 + 2)2 LESSON 12 Given that = 7 2 + 3,
3 + 6 2 2 4
4
=
( 2 + 2) 2 (i) obtain
4 + 6 2 (ii) show that = 7
= 2
( + 2) 2 2 2
2 ( 2 + 6) (iii) hence show that 2 + ( ) = 7.
=
( 2 + 2) 2
SOLUTION
1
(i) = (7 2 + 3) 2
1 1
= (7 2 + 3) 2 (14)
2
128
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION
1 3
= 7(7 2 + 3)2 (ii) = 2(1 + 2 ) 2
(ii) 2 5
7 = 3(1 + 2 )2 (2)
2
= 7 2 + 3 ( ) 6
7 2 + 3 = 5
= 7 (1 + 2 )2
1
(iii) = 7(7 2 + 3) 2 2 3
+
2 1 1 3 2 (1 + 2 )2
= 7(7 2 + 3)2 + 7 [ (7 2 + 3) 2 (14)] 6 2 1
2 2 = 5+ 3( 1 ) ((1 )
7 49 2 (1 + 2 )2 + 2)2
= (1 + 2 )2
7 2 + 3 (7 2 + 3)3 6 6
= +
2 2
2 7 49 2 7 5 5
2 + ( ) = 7 2 + 3 ( 3 )+ ( ) (1 + 2 )2 (1 + 2 )2
7 2 + 3 (7 2 + 3) 7 2 + 3
49 2 49 2 =0
=7 2 + 2
7 + 3 7 + 3
=7
PARAMETRIC DIFFERENTIATION
2
LESSON 13 If = 2
show that LESSON 14 A curve is represented
1+
parametrically by
(i)
= 1+2
2
= 2, = 3 2
2 3
(ii) + (1+2 )2 = 0
Find in terms of .
2
SOLUTION SOLUTION
2 2
(i) = = 2 = 2 2
1+2
1 1 1
2 2 4
2(1 + )2 2 [2 (1 + ) 2 (2)] = 3
=
1 2
[(1 + 2 )2 ] = 3 2
1 1
2(1 + 2 )2
2 2 (1 + 2 )2 = 3 2 2
=
1 + 2
1 2 2 1
= (2(1 + 2 )2 1 ) (1 + 2 ) =
(1 + 2 )2
2 2 2 3
= = (3 2 2) ( )
1 3 4
(1 + 2 )2 (1 + 2 )2 3 (3 2 2)
2(1 + 2 ) 2 2 =
= 4
3
(1 + 2 )2
2 LESSON 15 The parametric equations of a
= 3 curve are given by
(1 + 2 )2 = sin , = cos , 0 2
2 Find in terms of .
= ( 3
)
Simplify the answer as far as possible.
(1 + 2 )2
2
= 3 SOLUTION
(1 + 2 )2 = sin
2 1 = cos
=(
1 + 2 1 ) (1 + 2 ) = cos
(1 + 2 )2
2 = sin
= 3
(1 + 2 )2
129
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION
f. = (6 1)3
=
g. = (3 2 + 1) 4
1 4. Differentiate, with respect to, ,
= sin
cos (i) () = sin2
= tan (ii) () = sin2 2
(iii) () = sin2 (2 + 3)
(iv) () = cos 2
1
5. Given that = 3 cos 3 cos , show that
EXERCISE 20.1
= sin3 .
1. Determine for each of the following. 6. Given that () = sin + sin 2, show that for
1+33
(a) = 7 () = 0, = 8 .
(b) = 8 7. Use the product rule to differentiate the
(j) = 3
1
(h) 3 (4 2 1)3
2 (i) ( + 2) 2 ( 5)3
(k) = 5
(j) (2 1) 3 ( + 4) 2
(l) =
(k) (5 + 2) 4 (4 3) 3
(m) = 3
(l) (2 )6 (5 + 2)4
1
(n) = 3 (m) (3 + 5)2 (4 7)7
2
2. Find in each of the following cases. (n) 3 7 2
2
(a) + 2 (o) (2 1) + 3
(b) 2 +
16 (p) (1 3)2 + 5
6 (q) (5 4)3
(c) 4 +
2
(r) (3 + 5) 2 2
27
(d)10 + 2
(s) 2 34 + 1
163 +42 +1
(e) (t) 6 + 3 2
22
54
(f) + 8 2 (u) ( 1)(2 + 1)
130
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION
+3
(b) (c) 25 + 4 sec
1
(d) csc 6 2
3
(c) (e) tan
4+
(f) 2 tan 3
43
(d) (g) (6 sec 2)3
+2
25 12. Differentiate 5 3 4, with respect to .
(e) 13. Given that = 2 2 + 3,
+4
5 (i) obtain
(f) +2
(ii) show that = 2
1+3
(g) 2 2
25
(iii) hence show that 2 + ( ) = 2
4+3
(h) 14. Find the value of for which
21
2 + 3
2 ( )=
(i) 4 ( 4) 2
+3
2
(3)3
2 15. Given that = ((+3)(+5)2 ) , show that
(j) 4
2( 3)5 ( 3 + 27 2 + 69 45)
3 =
(k) ( + 3) 3 ( + 5)5
23
5
(l) 16. Determine for each of the following
3
(32)2 (a) = + 4, =
(m)
4
(b) = , = + 4
4
(5+1)3
(n) (c) = 2 2 , = + 1
5 17. Determine for each of the following
(2 4)
(o) a. = cos , = 3 sin
b. = 3 sin , = cos
(p) c. = 4 + cos , = 1 + sin
21
d. = 4 + cos , = 9 sin
3
(q) e. = 2 cos , = cos 2
(2+) 2
f. = 2 sec , = 3 + 2 tan
5+2 g. = csc cot , = csc 2 cot
(r) (54) 3 18. A curve has parametric equations
(32 +2)
4 = 2 cos , = sin + cos
(s) where 0 2 .
21
1
(23) 2 Show that = (cot 1)
(t) 2
12
131
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION
132
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION
APPLICATIONS OF DIFFERENTIATION
GRADIENTS AND DIFFERENTIATION
When you find , we get a formula for the
gradient of the tangent to the curve any point, . If
you want to find the gradient at a specific point we
then substitute the value of that point.
= 2
when = 3
= 2(3) = 6
133
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION
134
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION
2
> 0 indicates that the graph is increasing is the derivative of
2
2
= 0 indicates a stationary point If for a stationary point 2 < 0 then the point is a
135
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION
2
= 6( 1)
2
when = 1
2
= 6(1 1) = 0
2
SOLUTION
136
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION
2
(iii) 2 = 2( + 3) + 2( + 3) + 2(1)
= 3 + 2
+
= 6 + 12
= 3 2 + 2 when = 1
2 2
= 6 + 2 = 6(1) + 12 = 6 Minimum
2 2
6 + 2 = 0 at (1, 3) when = 3
6(1) + 2 = 0 2
= 6(3) + 12 = 6 Maximum
=3 2
Sub = 3 into equation (1) (iv) We need to determine where the graph
4 = + crosses the and axes.
4 =3+ When = 0
1= ( + 3)2 = 0
(b) Gradient at (1, 3): = 3, 0
(0, 0) and (3, 0)
= 3 2 + 2 = 3 2 + 6
3(1) 2 + 6(1) = 3 When = 0
0(0 + 3) 2 = 0
1 (0, 0)
Gradient of normal: 3
1
= + using = 3 and (1, 3)
1
3 = (1) +
3
10
=
3
1 10
= +
3 3
CURVE SKETCHING
LESSON 11 The equation of a curve is given
by NB: To sketch polynomial functions we need to
() = ( + 3)2 know
137
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION
3 1 = 2(5)
0=
+2 When = 6
0 = 3 1
1 = 2(6)(5) = 60 cms2
=
3
1 LESSON 14 A sector of a circle of radius has
( , 0)
3 an angle of 6 radians. Given that is increasing at a
constant rate of 5 cms1, calculate, correct to two
Asymptotes
decimal places, the rate of increase, when = 6
Vertical asymptotes occur when the denominator
cm, of
is equal to zero.
(i) the area of the sector,
+2 =0
(ii) the perimeter of the sector.
= 2
SOLUTION
(i) Since is increasing at a rate of 5 cms 1,
Horizontal asymptotes investigate the limit as
tends to infinity = 5. We are therefore trying to determine ,
3 1 the rate of increase of (the area of the sector)
3 1 30
lim = = =3 when = 6. Hence we begin with the formula for
+ 2 2 1+0 the area of a sector.
+
1
=3 = 2
2
= Differentiating with
respect to . is a constant.
= Treating like a
fraction and cross multiplying
= Dividing throughout by
= 6 ( ) (5)
6
= 5
= 15.71 cm2 1
(ii) The perimeter of a sector is 2 + . We
need to determine .
= 2 +
= 2+
RATE OF CHANGE = (2 + )
change in
The rate of change of = = = (2 + )
change in time
= (2 + ) (5)
LESSON 13 The length of the side of a square 6
is increasing at the rate of 5 cms 1. Find the rate 5
= 10 +
of increase of the area when the length is 6 cm. 6
SOLUTION = 12.62 cms1
=5
LESSON 15 A spherical balloon is released
from rest and expands as it rises. After rising for
= 2 where is the length of the side of the seconds its radius is cm, and its surface area is
square cm2 , where = 4 2 . The initial radius of the
balloon is 16 cm. Given that the rate of increase of
= 2
the radius is constant and has value 0.8 cms1,
find the rate of increase of when = 5.
=
138
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION
SOLUTION We know that = 0.8 and we are ..
trying to determine when = 5. EXERCISE 20.2
= 4 2 1. Find the gradient of the curve = 8 + at
the point whose coordinate is 9.
= 8 5
2. Find the gradient of the curve = 2 at the
= 8
point where = 4.
= 8 3. A curve has the equation = 5(1 cos 2)
and is defined for 0 2 radians. Find
At this stage we know the value for but not for
(i) the value of when = 1
. To determine we use the fact that the initial
(ii) the value of when = 3
value for is 16 cm and increases 0.8 cms 1.
Therefore, when = 5, = 16 + (0.8)5 = 20 cm. (iii) the gradient of the curve when = 4
4. Find the coordinates of the points on the
= 8(20)(0.8) = 128 cm2 1 1 9
curve = 3 + at which the tangent is
3
parallel to the line = 8 + 3.
LESSON 16 Suppose a water tank has the 5. Find the equation of the normal to the curve
shape of an inverted cone with base radius 2 m
= 3 4 2 + 7 at the point (2, 1).
and height 4 m. If the water is being pumped into
the tank at a rate of 2 m3 /min, find the rate at 6. A curve has equation = 2 + .
which the water level is rising when the water is 3 (i) Find the gradient of the curve at the
m deep. point for which = 2.
1
SOLUTION Volume of Cone = 2 (ii) Find the equation of the normal at the
3
point for which = 2.
=2
7. Find the equation of the normal to the curve
1 6
= 2 5 at the point on the curve where
= 2
3 = 2.
8. Find the equation of the normal to the curve
2+4
= 2 at the point where = 4.
9. The equation of a curve is = 3 8. Find the
equation of the normal to the curve at the
point where the curve crosses the axis.
10. The curve = 2 + passes through point
(1, 1)and has a gradient of 5 at .
We have a slight problem since we do not know Find
the rate of change of . The truth is, we are not i. the values of the constants and
interested in it. From the diagram we see that ii. the equation of the tangent to the curve at
2 1
= = the point where = 2.
4 2
1 2 11. (i) Find the coordinates of the stationary
= ( ) points on the curve = 3 + 2 + 3.
3 2
3 (ii) Determine whether each stationary point
=
12 is a maximum or minimum point.
2
= (iii) For what values of does 3 + 2 + 3
4
decrease as increases?
= 2
4 12. (i) Find the coordinates of the stationary
2 points of the curve = 2 3 + 5 2 4.
=
4 (ii) State the set of values for for which
2 = (3)2 2 3 + 5 2 4 is a decreasing function,
4
8
= m3 /min
9
139
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION
140
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION
increase of when = 1. 2. 20
31. A trough has the shape of the prism shown in 3. (i) 7.08 (ii) 0.58 (iii) 5
the diagram. The vertical ends and 4. (3, 12) (3, 12)
1 3
are identical isosceles triangles of height 20 5. =
4 2
cm with = 16 cm and = . The open 6.
1
(i) 5 (ii) = 5 +
32
5
top is horizontal and rectangular in 2 29
7. = 3
shape with = 30 cm. 6
1
8. = 2 + 4
141
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION
1 1 2 1
9. = +6 2. (a) Given that = ,
12 2 +1
10. (i) = 2, = 1 (ii) 6 (i) find in terms of [5]
1 76 4
11. (i) (1, 4), (3 , 27) (ii) show that ( 2 + 1) 4 = 2 +1 .
1
(ii) max, min (iii) 1 < < [5]
3
1 19 (b) By investigating the sign of (),
12. (i) (2, 12), (3 , 27) determine the range of real values of for
1
(ii) 2 < < (iii) which 5 5 + 3 is decreasing. [8]
3
CAPE 2004
13. (i) (1, 7) (ii) minimum
9 2 27
3. is the point on the curve = 2 3 + 5
14. (i) = 3 , 2
= 5 (iii) minimum where = 1 and the gradient is 2. Find
2 2 4 2
(a) the value of the constant [3]
15. (ii) minimum (iii) (0, 2) 2
(b) the value of 2 at [2]
16. (i) = 5 (ii) minimum (iii) (2, 27)
17. (i) (2, 48) (ii) minimum (iii) > 2 (c) the equation of the normal to the curve at
. [4]
18. = 6, minimum
CAPE 2005
19. (a) (0, 0), (1, 1) (b) (0, 0) (c) (1, 0) 4. (a) Find the coordinates of the stationary
3 11
(d) (1, 3) (e) ( , ) (f) (0, 5)
2 2
points of the function
20. (i) (2, 16), (2, 16) (ii) (0, 0) (iii) =
1
: 3 3 2 9 + 6. [6]
12 (b) Determine the nature of the stationary
21. (i) 3 2
6 (ii) (0, 4), (2, 0) points of . [3]
(iii) max, min (iv) CAPE 2005
22. 5. (a) The function () is defined by
23. = 2, = 2, = 1 2
() = 2 for , 0.
24. 1600, minimum
3 Determine the nature of the critical
25. (i) 2 (ii) 300
value(s) of (). [6]
1
26. (b) Differentiate, with respect to ,
2
3 () = sin2 ( 2 ) [3]
27. (i) (ii) 3 CAPE 2006
4
28. 72 6. The curve = 3 + + passes through
29. 128 the origin and the point (1, 2). The
8 gradient of the curve at is equal to 8.
30. (i) = 3 (ii) 25 (a) Calculate the values of the constants ,
4 1
31. = 5 , cms 1 and . [6]
4
(b) Obtain the equation of the normal to the
32. (i) = 2 cos , = 2 sin (ii) (3, 4), = 2 curve at . [3]
22
33. (i) 2+3 (ii) (4, 1) CAPE 2007
7. For the function : 12 3 , determine
(a) the stationary points [4]
EXAM QUESTIONS
(b) the nature of EACH of the stationary
points. [3]
1. (a) Given that () = 3 5 2 + 3, find
CAPE 2007
(i) the coordinates of the stationary
points of (). [6] 8. A chemical process is controlled by the
(ii) the second derivative of (), and
function = + 2 , where and are
hence, determine which stationary
point is a local maximum and which constants. Given that = 1 when = 1 and
is a local minimum. [5] the rate of change of with respect to is 5
1 2
(b)If = 2 +2 , show that 2 = 2(3 2) 3 .
2 1
when = 2 , find the values of and . [6]
[7] CAPE 2008
CAPE 2003 9. Given that = sin2 + cos 2, show that
2
+ 4 = 0. [6]
2
142
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION
143
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION
1 +2
(ii) If = , determine an expression 18. (a) (i) 3 (ii) 3 (b) cot
1+
2 2 2(+1)2
for . Simplify your answer FULLY. 19. (a) 2 cos(2) (b) (i) (ii)
[4]
(b) The parametric equations of a curve are ..
given by = cos , = sin ,
0 2. Find in terms of . Simplify
your answer as far as possible. [4]
CAPE 2014
19. (a) Using first principles, determine the
derivative of () = sin(2). [6]
2
(b) If = 2 , show that
1+
(i) = [7]
1+2
2 3
(ii) + (1+2 )2 = 0 [8]
2
CAPE 2015
SOLUTIONS
1 13
1. (a) (i) (3 , 27) , (3, 9)
(ii) maximum,  minimum
4
2. (a) (i) (2 +1)2
(b) 1 < < 1
1 23
3. (a) = 8 (b) 12 (c) = 2 2
4. (a) (1, 11), (3, 21)
(b) maximum, minimum
5. (a) minimum
(b) 2 sin(2 2 )
6. (a) = 3, = 1, = 0
1 17
(b) = 8 + 8
7. (a) (2, 16), (2, 16)
(b) minimum, maximum
4 9
8. = 5, = 5
9.
10. (ii) = 2
1 15
11. (i) = 7, = 7 (ii) = 7 + 7
(iii) 14
12. = 2, = 3
13. (i) 3 2 (ii) (a) (i) 2 + (ii) 2
2
(b) 2 + = 0 and < 0 (c) 4
(iii) = 10, = 13
5
14. (a) (i) 2
(ii) (iii)
5 +3
(b)(i) 4 (ii) 450
(iii)
450
15. (i) 3 cos(3 + 2) + 5 sec 2(5)
(3 +3+2)
(ii) (3 1)2
16. (i) (ii)
17. (a) (b) 2 cot
144
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION
145
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION
3 1 1
= + cos = sin +
1
3
= +
sec 2 = tan +
ALTERNATELY, 1
sec 2 = tan +
3 2 = 3 2
2+1 csc 2 = cot +
= 3[ ]+
2 + 1 1
1 csc 2 = cot +
= 3[ ]+
1
sec tan = sec +
3
= + 1
sec tan = sec +
4 1
3. (5 2 3 + 3 ) = (5 2 2 3 + csc cot = csc +
5
5
4 )
3
1
csc cot = csc +
1 5
5 2+1 2 3+1 4 3+1
= + +
1 3+1 5
+ 1 + 1 LESSON 2 Evaluate each of the following.
2 3
3 2
5 2 2 4 4 3 1. (1 + sin 2)
= + + 3
3 2 4 1
2. (2 sec 2(5) + 2 2 )
2 3
10 3 1 4 2
= 2 6 3 + SOLUTION
3 2
1. (1 + sin 2)
4. 2 (3 ) = (3 2 3 )
= 1 + sin2
3 2+1 3+1
= + 0+1 1
2+1 3+1 =1( ) + ( cos 2) +
4 0+1 2
= 3 +
4 1
= cos 2 +
2
5. (2 1) 3 1 3
1 (+) +1
2. (2 sec 2(5) + 2 2 )
N.B ( + ) = [ (+1) ] + 1 3
= 2 sec 2(5) + 2
1 (2 1)3+1 2
= [ ]+ 3
2 (3 + 1) 1 1 2+1
(2 1)4 = 2 [ tan(5)] + ( )+
= + 5 2 3 + 1
8 2
These are referred to as Indefinite Integrals since 1
2 1 2
they contain the arbitrary constant . = tan(5) + ( )+
5 2 1
2
2 1
TRIGONOMETRIC INTEGRATION = tan(5) +
2
5
sin = cos +
1
sin = cos +
cos = sin +
146
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
3
= 3 5
0
SOLUTION
4 a. We integrate the function, excluding the
= 5 +
4 constant
3+1 3 4 3
2. = 6 2 5 = [( )] = [ ]
3+1 0 4 0
b. Substituting the upper limit into the integral we
= (6 2 5) 34 81
get [ 4 ] = 4
1 = (6 2 5) c. Substituting the lower limit into the integral we
= 2 3 5 + 04
get =0
4
2 1 d. Subtracting the value from (c) from the value
3. = 6 3 + 3 81 81
from (b) 4 0 = 4 which is the definite
2
2 integral
2 =
The next LESSON illustrates the general way in
= 6 3 + 3 which a question involving definite integrals is
solved.
3 4 2
= +
2 2 LESSON 4b Evaluate
3 4 2 4
= +
2 2 ( 2 4 + 4 2 )
5
3 1 1
= + + +
10 2 SOLUTION
4
DEFINITE INTEGRALS ( 2 4 + 4 2 )
If () is the integral of () then the definite 1
integral is defined as 2+1 0+1 2+1 4
=
=[ 4( )+4( )]
() = [()] = () () 2+1 0+ 1 2 + 1 1
= 3 4 3 4 4
where and is called the upper limit of () = [ 4 4 1 ] = [ 4 ]
3 1 3 1
is the lower limit of ()
43 4 13 4
() is the value of the integral at the upper limit = [ 4(4) ] [ 4(1) ]
= 3 4 3 1
() is the value of the integral at the lower limit 64 1
= [ 16 1] [ 4 4]
= 3 3
It is accepted to simply write = 12
147
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION
1
= [ cos ] =
2
= [ cos()] [ cos()] 1 2
= [ (1)] [ (1)] = ( )+
2 2
= 2 2
= +
INTEGRATION BY SUBSTITUTION 4
sin2 2
LESSON 5 = +
4
Find (2 3 + 5) 4 (6 2 )
0
SOLUTION LESSON 8 Find 1 2 (1 2 3 )4
SOLUTION
= 2 3 + 5 then = 6 2 2 =
6 Let = 1 2 3 then = 6 2 2 =
So our integral can be rewritten as 6
Since the limits are in terms of an we will be
(4 )(6 2 ) 2 = 4 integrating in terms of we need to determine the
6
4+1 limits in terms of , as follows
4 = + When = 0; = 1 2(0)3 = 1 (Upper Limit)
4+1
5 When = 1; = 1 2(1)3 = 3 (Lower Limit)
= + Therefore,
5 0
Resubstituting we get that 2 (1 2 3 )4
(2 3 + 5)5 1
(2 3 + 5)4 (6 2 ) = +
5
148
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION
1 1 6
(e) 3
= 2 (4 ) = 4
3 6 2 3 6 (f) (5 3 6 + 1)
1 1
= 4 (g) ( 3 + 8 5)
6 3
(h) ( 2 + 4)( 6)
1 4+1 1 6
= [ ] (i) (4 + 2 )
6 4+ 1 3
1 5 1 (j) (2 6)
= [ ]
6 5 3 (k) 12
1 15 35 (l) ( 2 4)
= ([ ] [ ])
6 5 5 (m) 3 ( 2 + 5)
1 1 243
= ( ) (n) ( 1)2
6 5 5 1
121 3 +3 2
= (o)
15
(p) (2 1) 7
1
LESSON 9 Using the substitution = sin 4 (q) (3 + 1) 2
evaluate
8
2. Evaluate
sin4 cos 4 (a) cos 2
0 (b) + 2 sin(3)
SOLUTION Instead of adjusting the limits we 3. Find the general solution of each differential
will integrate firstly and then use the original equation.
limits.
(a) = 2 + 1
= sin 4
(b) = 1 3
1
= 4 cos 4 (c) () = 3
(d) = cos 2
=
4 cos 4 4. Evaluate each of the following.
6
sin 4 cos 4 (a) 1 ( 2 4)
1
(b) 0 3 + 1
= cos 4 ( ) 4
4 cos 4 (c) 2 6 2 4 + 5
1 3
= (d) 0 5 2 9
4
1 0 3 +22
= 2 (e) 2
8
4 10
8 (f) 2 ( 3 2 )
1 /8 8
sin 4 cos 4 = [ sin2 4] 5.
2
Express 1 (3 + ) in the form
8 0
0
1 1 + 2, where and are integers.
= [ sin2 (4 )] [ sin2(4 0)]
8 8 8 6. The positive constant is such that
1 2 23 52 +4
= ( 2
) = 0.
8
(i) Show that 33 52 + 2 = 0.
(ii) Show that = 1 is a root of
EXERCISE 21.1
33 52 + 2 = 0, and hence find the
1. Evaluate each of the following
(a) 6 4 other possible value of , giving your
(b) 24 3 answer in simplified surd form.
1
(c) 18 4 7. (i) Prove that sin2 cos 2 = 8 (1 cos 4).
8
(d) 3
149
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION
150
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION
APPLICATIONS OF INTEGRATION
2 + = 0
THE EQUATION OF A CURVE =2
Thus, for the curve = + 2
LESSON 1 The gradient of a particular curve
is given by the formula 3 2 2. Given that this = ( + 2)
curve passes through the point (2, 5), find the 1+1 0+1
equation of the curve. = ( )+2( )+
1+1 0+1
SOLUTION
2 1
= 3 2 2 = ( ) + 2( )+
2 1
2
= (3 2 2) = + 2 +
2
3 2+1 2 2 Curve passes through (2, 3) so
= + 22
2+1 2
3
= + 2 3 = + 2(2) +
2
Since the curve passes through (2, 5), this point 3 = 2 + 4 +
must satisfy the equation of the curve. 1=
5 = 23 22 + 2
1= = + 2 + 1
2
= 3 2 + 1
LESSON 3 The curve for which = + ,
where is a constant, has a stationary point at
(2, 3). Find the equation of the curve.
SOLUTION (2, 3) is a stationary point
therefore this point LESSON 4b What is the area region bounded
by the curve () = 2 + 1, the axis and the
=0 lines = 1 and = 3?
+ = 0
151
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION
SOLUTION SOLUTION
3
2 + 1
1
2 1+1 3
=[ + ]
1+1 1
3
= [ 2 + ]
1
= [32 + 3] [11 + 1]
= 10 units 2 The graph cuts the axis when = 0
9 2 = 0
2 = 9
= 3
3
(9 2 )
3
3 3
= [9 ]
3 3
33 (3)3
= [9(3) ] [9(3) ]
3 3
LESSON 5 Find the area of the region = [27 9] [27 + 9]
6
bounded by the curve = 2 , the axis and the = 18 (18)
lines = 1 and = 2. = 36 units 2
SOLUTION
2 2
6
2 = 6 2 SUM FORMULA FOR THE AREA UNDER
1 1 A GRAPH
2+1 2 1 2 INTRODUCTION
= [6 ( )] = [6 ( )]
2 + 1 1 1 1 While we have alreadu looked at how to
2 6 2 determine the area under a curve bounded by the
= [6 1 ] = [ ] axis and the lines = and = we now
1 1
6 6 look at it from a more theoretical aspect to see
= [ ] = (3) 6 how the formula wich you already know was
2 1
= 3 + 6 developed.
= 3 units 2
152
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION
lim ()
0
=
The standard notation for this area is
6 2
0 0
3/2
3/2 1
= (6)2 2
0
0
3 3 3
1 (6)2 2 2
=[ ]2 [ ]2
6 3 0 2 0
SOLUTION 2
3 3 3
3 3
AREA = 2 (6 2 5) 2 ( 2 4 + 7) 1(6)2
=[ ] [ ] 2
2 2
9 0 0
153
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION
3
15 (2)5
3 2 = ([ 20(1)] [ 20(2)])
(6 ( )) 3 5 5
2 6(0) 2 3 2
= [( ) 02 ] 99 32
9 9 2 = ([ ] [ + 40])
5 5
267
[ ] =
9 5
= [3 0] [ ] 267
4 =  
3 5
2 267
= units
4 = units 2
5
() =  () 
LESSON 9 Determine the area under the
curve = sin between the axis and the lines
= 0 and = .
SOLUTION
sin
0
SOLUTION
= [(1)( cos )]
0 We have to separate the graphs into sections: (1)
= [cos ] [cos 0]
above the axis and (2) below the axis.
= (1) 1 1 0
= 2
3 +  3 
=  2
= 2 units 2 0 1
4 1 4 0
= [ ] + [ ] 
4 0 4 1
4 4
LESSON 10 Find the area of the shaded 1 0 04 (1)4
region. = [ ] + [ ]
4 4 4 4
1 1
= +  
4 4
1
=
2
 ( 4 20) 
2
5 1
=[ 20]
5 2
154
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION
AREA BETWEEN A CURVE AND THE  SOLUTION First of all we need to determine
the limits of integration. One limit is = 3 and the
AXIS
other occurs when along the cuve = 4 2 at
In general, the area bounded by the curve
= () and the axis between the lines the point where = 0.
= () and = () is determined by when = 0; = 4
() Therefore, we need to evaluate
4
()
()
3
To find (), we make the subject = 4 2
LESSON 12 Determine the area of the shaded () = 4
region 4 4
1
4 = (4 ) 2
3 3
3
(4 ) 2 4
= [ ]
3 3
2
3 3
2(4 4) 2 2(4 3) 2
= [ ] [ ]
3 3
2
SOLUTION = 0 ( )
3
Area of : 2
= 3 units 2
Since = 2 1
= + 1
where = ()
1 1
1
+ 1 = ( + 1)2
0 0
3
( + 1) 2 1
=[ ]
3 0
2
3 3
2(1 + 1)2 2(0 + 1) 2
=
3 3
42 2
=
3 3
42 2
= units 2
3
155
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION
VOLUME OF REVOLUTION ABOUT THE AXIS VOLUMES OF REVOLUTION ABOUT THE AXIS
The volume when the area bounded by the curve, When the shaded region is rotated 360 about the
= (), the axis and the lines = and = axis, the volume that is generated by the
is rotated 360 about the axis is determined by formula
[()]2 OR 2 = 2 or [()]2
LESSON 14 Find the volume obtained when where
the region bounded by the line
= 3, the axis and the lines = 0 and = 2 is = () is the equation of the curve
rotated 360 about the axis. expressed in terms of
SOLUTION and are the upper and lower limits of the
2 area being rotated
= (3)2 indicates that the area is being rotated
0 about the axis
2
156
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION
157
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION
16. Find the areas of the shaded regions. 18. Determine the areas of the shaded regions.
(a) (a)
(b)
(b)
(c)
(c)
(d)
Find
(i) the coordinates of the points , , and
(ii) the area of the three shaded regions.
158
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION
20. The diagram shows part of the curve = 23. The diagram shows part of the curve
( 3) 2 intersected by a straight line at 3 = 5( 2 1). Calculate the volume
(0, 9) and (4, 1). Evaluate the area of the generated when the shaded region is rotated
shaded region. through 360 about the axis.
159
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION
EXAM QUESTIONS
42
1. (i) Show that for () = 2 +4, () = (2 +4)2
.
[4]
2 1232
(ii) Hence, evaluate 0 (2 +4)2
[4]
CAPE 2003
2. In the diagram (not drawn to scale), the line
= 2 + 3 cuts the curve = 2 at the points
and .
SOLUTIONS
3 2 3 2
1. (i) 4 2 + (ii) = 4 2 7
2 2
3
2. = 8 14 2
3 32
3. (i) = 2 (ii) = 3 +2
4
4. = 3 + 2 + 5
5. (i) = cos(2) + 2 (a) Determine the coordinates of and .
1 163
(ii) = 2 + 8 [4]
6. (i) = 3 cos 2 + 5 (ii) = 0, (b) Calculate the area of the shaded portion
1 40+ shown in the diagram. [5]
(iii) = 6 + CAPE 2007
8
7. 2
16 3. The curve passes through the point (1, 0)
8.
3
116
and its gradient at any point (, ) is given by
9.
3 = 3 2 6.
10. (i) 8 (ii) = 4 (i) Find the equation of . [3]
1 2
11. (i) (4, 0), ( , 0) (ii) 10 (ii) Find the coordinates of the stationary
2 3
12. (i) (0.64, 5) (ii) 7 points of and determine the nature of
13. 15 EACH point. [7]
482 (iii) Sketch the graph of and label the
14.
3 intercepts. [5]
+2
15. ( ) CAPE 2008
4
4 3 4. The function () is such that
16. (a) 3 (b) 15 4 (c) 2
2
() = 3 2 + 6 + where is a constant.
17. (i) (7, 0), (1, 0), (0, 7), (6, 7) (ii) 44 3 Given that (0) = 6 and (1) = 3, find the
18. (a)
125
(b) 3 (c)
4 11
(d) 0.29 function (). [5]
3 6 CAPE 2009
256
19. 5
2
20. 10
3
2
21.
3
16
22. 3
23. 35
24. 2
25. 8
160
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION
5. In the diagram m (not drawn to scale), the 7. The diagram (not drawn to scale) shows the
line + = 2 intersects the curve = 2 at curve = 2 + 3 and the line = 4.
the points and .
(i) Find the coordinates of the point and . (i) Determine the coordinates of the points
[5] and at which the curve and the line
(ii) Calculate the area of the shaded region of intersect. [4]
the diagram bounded by the curve and (ii) Calculate the area of the shaded region.
the straight line. [5] [5]
CAPE 2010 CAPE 2013
6. The curve, , passes through the point (1, 0) 8. The gradient of a curve which passes through
and its gradient at the point (, )is given by the point (1, 4) is given by
= 3 2 6. = 3 2 4 + 1.
161
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION
9. (a) In the diagram given, not drawn to scale, (c) Show that the curve () touches the
the area under the curve axis at = 1. [4]
= (1 + )1, 0 1, is (d) Sketch the curve, () = 3 3 + 2,
approximated by a set of rectangular 2 2. [6]
1
strips of width units. (e) Find the area bounded by this curve and
the axis for 2 1. [6]
CAPE 2004
12. The three points , and , on the curve
= 2 2 are shown in the diagram (not
drawn to scale).
162
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION
CAPE 2006
14. Use the result
0 () = 0 ( ) , > 0, to show
that
(a) 0 sin = 0 sin
0 sin [2]
(b) 0 sin = [5]
CAPE 2006
15. (a) Differentiate, with respect to , the (i) Taking units as the radius of the
2 4 cylinder and units as its height,
function () = 3 +1. [4]
show that
(b) Using the substitution = sin 2, or 45 2
(a) = 2 3 [3]
otherwise, evaluate 04 sin2 cos 2 . 52 90
(b) = + , where units is
[4] 3
the external surface area of the
CAPE 2007 can. [3]
(ii) Hence, find the value of for which
16. (a) (i) Use the result is a minimum and the corresponding
0 () = 0 ( ) , > 0, to minimum value of . [5]
4 3
show that if = 02 sin2 , then Volume of a sphere = ,
[ 3 ]
= 02 cos 2 . Surface area of a sphere = 4 2
[2] Volume of a cylinder = 2 ,
[ ]
(ii) Hence, or otherwise, show that = 4. Curved surface area of a cylinder = 2
[6] CAPE 2008
(b) (i) Sketch the curve = 2 + 4. [4]
(ii) Calculate the volume created by
18. Given that 0 ( + 1) = 3 0 ( 1) ,
rotating the plane figure bounded by
= 0, = 4, = 5 and the curve > 0, find the value of the constant .
[6]
= 2 + 4 through about the
axis. CAPE 2009
1 1 2
[8] 19. (i) Evaluate 1 ( ) . [6]
CAPE 2007 (ii) Using the substitution = + 4, or 2
17. (a) Differentiate with respect to otherwise, find 2 + 4 . [4]
(i) 2 1 [3] CAPE 2010
(ii) sin2( 3 + 4) [4] 4
6 20. The function () satisfies 1 () = 7.
(b) (i) Given that 1 () = 7, 4
6 (i) Find 1 [3() + 4] [4]
evaluate 1 [2 ()]
(ii) Using the substitution = + 1, evaluate
(ii) The area under the curve 3
0 2( + 1) . [4]
= 2 + 5, above the axis and
bounded by the lines = 1 and = 3 CAPE 2010
2 21. (a) The diagram (not drawn to scale) is a
is 14 3 units 2.
sketch of the section of the function
Find the value of the constant . [4] () = ( 2 12) which passes through
(c) The diagram below not drawn to scale the origin . and are the
represents a can in the shape of a closed stationary points on the curve.
cylinder with a hemisphere at one end.
The can has volume of 45 units 3
163
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION
164
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION
SOLUTIONS
3
1. (ii) 4
22
2. (a) (1, 1), (3, 9) (b) 3
3. (i) = 3 3 2 + 4
(ii) (0, 4) max, (2, 0) min
4. () = 3 + 3 2 6
9
5. (i) (2, 4), (1, 1) (ii) 2
6. (i) = 3 3 2 + 4 (ii) (0, 4), (2, 0)
(iii) max, min
4
7. (i) (1, 4), (3, 12) (ii) 3
1 4
8. (i) (a) = 3 2 2 + (b) ( , ) max,
3 27
5
9. (a) (b) (i) (ii) 3
4
10. (a) (0, 2) , (2, 0) (b)
3
11. (a) (1, 4), (1, 0)
(b) maximum, minimum (c)
3
(d) (e) 6
4
8
12. (a) (1, 3) , (1, 1), (2, 0) (b) 3
3 16 3 1 29
13. (a) 2 2
2 (2 1) (b) (c) 12
14. (a) (b)
(3 122) 1
15. (a) (3 +1)2
(b) 4
16. (a) (i) (ii) (b) (i) (ii)
3 1
17. (a) (i) (ii) 3 2 sin(2( 3 + 4))
21
(b) (i) 3 (ii) = 4
(c) (i) (a) (b) (ii) = 3, = 45
18. = 4
16 1 3
19. (i) (ii) 3 ( 2 + 4) 2 +
3
20. (i) 33 (ii) 14
1
21. (a) (i) (2, 16), (2, 16) (ii) = 12 (iii) 36
(b) (i) (ii) (a) (b)
(1) 4 (1)3
22. (a) (i) + (ii)
4 3
2400
(b) (i) (ii) = 16+4
(c) (i) (ii) = sin 2 cos + 11 + 3
2 544
23. (i) 3 (1010 1) (ii) 15
24. (a) (ii) 4 (b) (i) = 3 + 4 2 3 6
1 176
(ii) (3, 12) max, (3 , 27 ) min (iii)
165
ANSWERS FOR REASONING AND LOGIC
1. (i) ~ (b)
(ii)
(iii) (
2. (a) )
0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
This is a contingency. 0 1 0 1 0 0 0
(b) 0 1 1 1 0 0 1
~ 1 0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1
0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
1 1 0 1
This is a contingency. 4. (a)
(c)
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 1 1 1
0 1 1 1 0 0 1
1 0 1 1 1 0 1
1 1 1
This is a contingency.
(b)
(d) c ( )
~ ~ 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1
0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1
1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
This is a contingency. 1 0 1 0 1
1 1 0 1 0
3. (a) 1 1 1 1 1
( )
0 0 0 0 0 (c)
0 0 1 0 1 ( )
0 1 0 0 0 ( )
0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0
1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0
1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0
1 0 1 1 1 1
1 1 0 1 0 0
1 1 1 1 1 1
5. Converse: ( ) ( )
Inverse: ( ) ( )
Contrapositive: ( ) ( )
6.
7. (a) (b)
166
8.
9. (i) ( ~) ( ) (ii)
10.
( )
( )
0 0 0 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 0 0
0 1 0 1 1 1
0 1 1 1 1 1
1 0 0 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 0 0
1 1 0 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1
11. (i)
(ii)
T T F F T T
T F F T F F
F T T F T T
F F T T T T
167
CAPE 2012 PAST PAPER
CAPE 2012
SECTION A
divided by + 1.
Find
(ii) Show that no real solution, , exists for the inequality 3 7 + 5 0. [2]
Total 25 marks
(ii) 99
=1 log 10 (+1) [4]
Total 25 marks
168
CAPE 2012 PAST PAPER
SECTION B
3. (a) (i) Given that cos( + ) = cos cos sin sin and cos 2 = 2 cos 2 1, prove that
1
cos 3 2 cos [cos2 sin2 ]
2
[7]
1
[sin 6 sin2] (2 cos 2 2 1) sin 2
2
[5]
(iii) Hence, or otherwise, solve sin 6 sin2 = 0 for 0 . [5]
2
(b) Find ALL possible values of cos such that 2 cot 2 + cos = 0. [8]
Total 25 marks
4. (a) (i) Determine the Cartesian equation of the curve, , defined by the parametric equations = 3 sec
(b) Let and be two position vectors with endpoints (3, 4) and (1, 6) respectively.
(iv) Let the angle between and be . Use the result of (iii) above to calculate in degrees. [5]
Total 25 marks
169
CAPE 2012 PAST PAPER
SECTION C
3 +8
5. (a) (i) Find the values of for which 2 4 is discontinuous. [2]
3 +8
(ii) Hence, or otherwise, find lim [3]
2 2 4
sin 23 +4
(iii) By using the fact th
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