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CAPE PURE

MATHMATICS
UNIT 1

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Table of Contents
MODULE ONE: ALGEBRA, RELATIONS and FUNCTIONS............................................................................................ 5
CHAPTER 1: INEQUALITIES ..............................................................................................................5
QUADRATIC INEQUALITIES..................................................................................................................................... 5
RATIONAL INEQUALITIES........................................................................................................................................ 7
CHAPTER 2: THE DISCRIMINANT ......................................................................................................9
CALCULATING THE DISCRIMINANT ........................................................................................................................ 9
THE DISCRIMINANT AND DISTINCT REAL ROOTS................................................................................................... 9
THE DISCRIMINANT AND EQUAL ROOTS ............................................................................................................. 10
THE DISCRIMINANT AND NO REAL ROOTS .......................................................................................................... 10
CHAPTER 3: SURDS ....................................................................................................................... 12
PROPERTIES OF SURDS ......................................................................................................................................... 12
SURD SIMPLIFICATION ......................................................................................................................................... 12
FRACTIONS INVOLVING SURDS ............................................................................................................................ 13
CHAPTER 4: LAWS OF INDICES ....................................................................................................... 15
MULTIPLICATION .................................................................................................................................................. 15
DIVISION ............................................................................................................................................................... 15
RAISING A POWER TO A POWER .......................................................................................................................... 15
NEGATIVE INDICES ............................................................................................................................................... 15
ZERO INDEX .......................................................................................................................................................... 16
FRACTIONAL INDICES ........................................................................................................................................... 16
FURTHER LESSONS ............................................................................................................................................... 16
CHAPTER 5: DISGUISED QUADRATIC EQUATIONS........................................................................... 18
CHAPTER 6: FUNCTIONS ................................................................................................................ 20
DEFINITION OF A FUNCTION ................................................................................................................................ 20
REPRESENTING A FUNCTION................................................................................................................................ 20
MAPPING DIAGRAMS ....................................................................................................................................... 20
ORDERED PAIRS................................................................................................................................................ 21
EQUATIONS ...................................................................................................................................................... 21
GRAPHS OF FUNCTIONS ................................................................................................................................... 21
THE VERTICAL LINE TEST ...................................................................................................................................... 22
THE RANGE OF A FUNCTION ................................................................................................................................ 22
POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS ................................................................................................................................ 22
SQUARE ROOT FUNCTIONS .............................................................................................................................. 23
RATIONAL FUNCTIONS ..................................................................................................................................... 23
CLASSES OF FUNCTIONS....................................................................................................................................... 24
INJECTIONS ....................................................................................................................................................... 24
DETERMINING WHETHER A FUNCTION IS ONE TO ONE ............................................................................. 24
THE HORIZONTAL LINE TEST ............................................................................................................................ 25
SURJECTIONS .................................................................................................................................................... 26
DETERMINING WHETHER A FUNCTION IS ONTO............................................................................................. 26
BIJECTIONS ....................................................................................................................................................... 26
FUNCTIONS AND THEIR INVERSES ....................................................................................................................... 28
ONE TO ONE QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS........................................................................................................... 29
PIECE-WISE FUNCTIONS ....................................................................................................................................... 31

1
CHAPTER 7: POLYNOMIALS ........................................................................................................... 34
SYNTHETIC DIVISION ............................................................................................................................................ 34
REMAINDER AND FACTOR THEOREM .................................................................................................................. 35
ROOTS OF POLYNOMIALS .................................................................................................................................... 37
CUBIC POLYNOMIALS ....................................................................................................................................... 39
FACTORING POLYNOMIALS .................................................................................................................................. 42
CHAPTER 8: LOGARITHMS ............................................................................................................. 43
PROPERTIES OF LOGARITHMS.............................................................................................................................. 44
LOGARITHMIC EQUATIONS .................................................................................................................................. 44
THE EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION ............................................................................................................................. 46
THE NATURAL LOGARITHM .................................................................................................................................. 47
LOGARITHMIC AND EXPONENTIAL EQUATIONS .................................................................................................. 47
UNKNOWN INDICES ............................................................................................................................................. 49
CHAPTER 9: MODULUS/ ABSOLUTE VALUE FUNCTION ................................................................... 51
MODULUS EQUATIONS ........................................................................................................................................ 51
MODULUS INEQUALITIES ..................................................................................................................................... 52
GRAPHS OF MODULUS FUNCTIONS ................................................................................................................. 54
CHAPTER 10: SEQUENCES, SERIES and MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION............................................... 56
SEQUENCES .......................................................................................................................................................... 56
SERIES ................................................................................................................................................................. 57
SPECIAL SUMMATION FORMULAE............................................................................................................... 59
MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION ........................................................................................................................... 61
PROOF OF SUMMATION................................................................................................................................. 61
PROOF OF DIVISIBILITY ................................................................................................................................ 63
CHAPTER 11: THE REAL NUMBER SYSTEM ................................................................................... 65
BINARY OPERATIONS............................................................................................................................................ 65
CAYLEY TABLE....................................................................................................................................................... 65
CLOSURE ............................................................................................................................................................... 65
COMMUTATIVITY ................................................................................................................................................. 65
ASSOCIATIVITY...................................................................................................................................................... 66
IDENTITY AND INVERSE ........................................................................................................................................ 67
DIRECT PROOFS .................................................................................................................................................... 68
CHAPTER 12: REASONING AND LOGIC .......................................................................................... 69
TRUTH TABLES................................................................................................................................................... 69
CONVERSE, INVERSE AND CONTRAPOSITIVE................................................................................................ 70
LOGICAL EQUIVALENCE .................................................................................................................................... 70
LAWS OF BOOLEAN ALGEBRA .......................................................................................................................... 71
MODULE TWO: VECTORS, TRIGONOMETRY AND COORDINATE GEOMETRY ....................................................... 73
CHAPTER 13: TWO DIMENSIONAL VECTORS .................................................................................. 73
, REPRESENTATION ........................................................................................................................................... 73
, , REPRESENTATION ....................................................................................................................................... 74
UNIT VECTORS...................................................................................................................................................... 74
SCALAR (DOT) PRODUCT ...................................................................................................................................... 74
ANGLE BETWEEN TWO VECTORS......................................................................................................................... 75
THE VECTOR EQUATION OF A LINE ...................................................................................................................... 78
VECTOR EQUATION OF A PLANE .......................................................................................................................... 79
CHAPTER 14: THE EQUATION OF A CIRCLE ..................................................................................... 82
DETERMINING THE EQUATION OF A CIRCLE........................................................................................................ 82

2
FINDING THE CENTRE AND RADIUS OF A CIRCLE ................................................................................................. 82
TANGENTS AND NORMALS .................................................................................................................................. 83
THE INTERSECTION OF TWO CIRCLES .................................................................................................................. 85
EQUATION OF A CIRCLE GIVEN 3 POINTS ............................................................................................................ 85
CHAPTER 15: THE LOCUS OF A POINT ............................................................................................ 87
CHAPTER 16: RADIAN MEASURE.................................................................................................... 89
CONVERTING RADIANS TO DEGREES ................................................................................................................... 89
CONVERTING DEGREES TO RADIANS ................................................................................................................... 89
ARC LENGTH ......................................................................................................................................................... 89
AREA OF SECTOR .................................................................................................................................................. 89
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY ...................................................................................................... 92
TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES ............................................................................................................................... 92
PROVING TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES........................................................................................................... 93
GRAPHS OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS .......................................................................................................... 94
GRAPHS OF RECIPROCAL FUNCTIONS.............................................................................................................. 95
SKETCHING TRIGONOMETRIC GRAPHS ............................................................................................................ 95
TRIGONOMETRIC EQUATIONS ............................................................................................................................. 96
GENERAL SOLUTIONS ....................................................................................................................................... 96
SOLVING TRIGONOMETRIC EQUATIONS.......................................................................................................... 98
HARMONIC FORM............................................................................................................................................. 101
COMPOUND ANGLE FORMULAE ........................................................................................................................ 103
DOUBLEANGLE FORMULAE.............................................................................................................................. 105
HALFANGLE FORMULAE .................................................................................................................................. 106
FACTOR FORMULAE......................................................................................................................................... 107
CHAPTER 18: PARAMETRIC EQUATIONS..................................................................................... 112
MODULE THREE: CALCULUS.................................................................................................................................... 115
CHAPTER 19: LIMITS................................................................................................................... 115
LIMITS BY DIRECT SUBSTITUTION ................................................................................................................ 116
LIMIT PROPERTIES .......................................................................................................................................... 117
LIMITS AS APPROACHES INFINITY ............................................................................................................. 117
LIMITS AS APPROACHES 0 ........................................................................................................................... 118
Limit of ................................................................................................................................................ 118
LIMITS AND PIECEWISE FUNCTIONS............................................................................................................. 119
PIECEWISE FUNCTIONS AND CONTINUITY .............................................................................................. 120
DIFFERENTIATION FROM FIRST PRINCIPLES ...................................................................................................... 123
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION .................................................................................................. 125
HOW TO DIFFERENTIATE.................................................................................................................................... 125
THE DERIVATIVES OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS ..................................................................................... 126
PROPERTIES OF DERIVATIVES ........................................................................................................................ 126
DIFFERENTIATION RULES ............................................................................................................................... 126
THE SECOND DERIVATIVE............................................................................................................................... 128
PARAMETRIC DIFFERENTIATION .............................................................................................................. 129
APPLICATIONS OF DIFFERENTIATION................................................................................................................. 133
GRADIENTS AND DIFFERENTIATION............................................................................................................... 133
INCREASING AND DECREASING FUNCTIONS.................................................................................................. 134
POINTS OF INFLECTION .................................................................................................................................. 136
CURVE SKETCHING ...................................................................................................................................... 137
RATE OF CHANGE ........................................................................................................................................... 138

3
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION ........................................................................................................ 145
HOW TO INTEGRATE .......................................................................................................................................... 145
INTEGRATION NOTATION............................................................................................................................... 145
PROPERTIES OF INTEGRALS............................................................................................................................ 145
TRIGONOMETRIC INTEGRATION .................................................................................................................... 146
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS............................................................................................................................. 147
DEFINITE INTEGRALS ...................................................................................................................................... 147
INTEGRATION BY SUBSTITUTION.............................................................................................................. 148
APPLICATIONS OF INTEGRATION .................................................................................................................. 151
THE EQUATION OF A CURVE .......................................................................................................................... 151
THE AREA UNDER A GRAPH ........................................................................................................................... 151
VOLUME OF REVOLUTION ABOUT THE AXIS .............................................................................................. 156
VOLUMES OF REVOLUTION ABOUT THE AXIS ...................................................................................... 156
CAPE 2012 .................................................................................................................................. 168
CAPE 2013 .................................................................................................................................. 171
CAPE 2014 .................................................................................................................................. 175
CAPE 2015 .................................................................................................................................. 178
CAPE 2016 .................................................................................................................................. 181
CAPE 2017 .................................................................................................................................. 184
ANSWERS FOR CAPE PAST PAPERS .............................................................................................. 188

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4
CHAPTER 1: INEQUALITIES

MODULE ONE: ALGEBRA, RELATIONS


and FUNCTIONS
CHAPTER 1: INEQUALITIES
At the end of this section, students should be able
to:
find the solution set s of quadratics
inequalities using algebraic and graphical
methods
find the solution sets of inequalities of the
+
form + > 0; 0; < 0; 0 using
algebraic and graphical methods.

QUADRATIC INEQUALITIES
Quadratic inequalities deal with determining the 2 + + > 0
range of values of which satisfy { < 1 } { > 2 }
2 + + > 0, 2 + + < 0 as well as
2 + + 0 and 2 + + 0.
If 1 and 2 are the roots of a quadratic equation,
with 1 < 2, then we have the following possible
ranges as solutions to the varying quadratic
inequalities.
NB: WE ideally want the coefficient of 2 to be
positive so that the graphs have the shape below.

2 + + 0
{ 1 } { 2 }

LESSON 1 Solve the inequality


2 7 < 0
SOLUTION
2 7 < 0
2 + + < 0
( 7) < 0
Solution: 1 < < 2
Roots: = 0, 7
0<<7

LESSON 2 Solve the inequality


2 + 2 8 < 0
SOLUTION
2 + 2 8 < 0
( + 4)( 2) < 0
Roots = 4, 2
{4 < < 2}

2 + + 0
Solution: 1 2

5
CHAPTER 1: INEQUALITIES

LESSON 3 Determine the range of values of (r) 2 + 8 33 < 0


for which 3 2 5 2.
(s) 2 + 2 80 > 0
SOLUTION
3 2 5 2 (t) 2 + 6 7 > 0
3 2 5 2 0
(u) 2 2 12 2 > 0
(3 + 1)( 2) 0
1
Roots = 3 , 2 (v) 6 7 5 2 0
1 (w) 12 8 15 2 0
{ } { 2}
3
(x) 16 12 4 2 > 0
LESSON 4 Solve the inequality (y) 20 8 9 2 < 0
15 7 2 2 > 0
SOLUTION SOLUTIONS
15 7 2 2 > 0
2 2 + 7 15 < 0 1. (a) 14 2
(2 3)( + 5) < 0 (b) { 10} { 7}
3
Roots = 5, 2 (c) 16 < < 1
3 (d) { < 6} { > 4}
{5 < < } (e) 16 < < 4
2
(f) 10 8
NB: When we divide or multiply by a negative (g) { 7} { 3}
number the inequality sign MUST be REVERSED. (h) 5 1
(i) 15 4
..
(j) 14 < < 5
EXERCISE 1.1 (k) { 16} { 5}
Solve each of the following inequalities. (l) { < 12} { > 4}
(m) 4 < < 1
(a) 2 + 12 28 0
(n) 4 1
(o) { < 6} { > 1}
(b) 2 + 3 70 0
(p) { 8} { 10}
(c) 2 + 15 16 < 0 (q) 5 16
(d) 2 + 2 24 > 0 (r) 11 < < 3
(s) { < 10} { > 8}
(e) 2 + 12 64 < 0
(t) { < 7} { > 1}
(f) 2 + 2 80 0 1 1
(u) 2 < < 3
(g) 2 + 4 21 0 3
(v) 2 5
(h) 2 + 4 5 0 6 2
(w) { 5} { 3 }
2
(i) + 11 60 0
(x) 4 < < 1
(j) 2 + 9 70 < 0 10
(y) { < 2} { > }
9
(k) 2 + 11 80 0
..
(l) 2 + 8 48 > 0
(m) 2 + 3 4 < 0
(n) 2 + 3 18 < 0
(o) 2 + 5 6 > 0
(p) 2 2 80 0
(q) 2 11 80 0

6
CHAPTER 1: INEQUALITIES

RATIONAL INEQUALITIES +6
(h) >0
4
LESSON 5 Solve the inequality
3 3
0 (i) <0
2
+2
SOLUTION NB: We have to multiply +2
throughout by the square of the denominator. (j) <0
4
3
0 ( + 2)2 +1
+2 (k) 1
( 3)( + 2) 0 2

Roots = 2, 3 +1
{ < 2} { 3} (l) 3
3
NB: cannot equal 2 since that would lead to
1
division by zero. (m) 4 2

LESSON 6 Determine the range of values of 2


for which (n) 4
+3
2 3
1 +3
+1 (o) 2
3

SOLUTION +2
2 3 (p) 10
5
1 ( + 1)2
+1 +3
(2 3)( + 1) ( + 1)2 (q) +31
5
2 2 3 2 + 2 + 1
2 3 4 0 1
(r) 21
( 4)( + 1) 0 4
Roots = 1, 4 +2
{1 < 4} (s) 40
3
NB: 1 since that would lead to division by
zero. +5
(t) +10
1

.. 3+1
(u) 1
+4

EXERCISE 1.2 (v)


23
1
1. Determine for each of the following. +1

+10 2+3
(a) >0 2. Solve for the inequality 3+4 < 1. [10]
7

3 CAPE 2002
(b) >0
6 3. Find the range of values of for which
2
+10 > 0, 3. [6]
(c) <0 +3
4 CAPE 2004
+1
4. (i) Find , such that
(d) >0 3 +
+5 2=
+1 +1
5 where 1. [2]
(e) >0
+8 (ii) Hence, find the range of values of
3
+9 for which +1 > 2. [4]
(f) <0
10 CAPE 2006
+9 5. Solve, for , the inequality
(g) >0 2 3
+2 5 > 0
+1
[5]

7
CHAPTER 1: INEQUALITIES

CAPE 2010
6. Solve 3 2 + 4 + 1 5. [4]
CAPE 2013

SOLUTIONS
1. (a) { < 10} { > 7}
(b) { < 3} { > 6}
(c) 10 < < 4
(d) { < 5} { > 1}
(e) { < 8} { > 5}
(f) 9 < < 10
(g) { < 9} { > 2}
(h) { < 6} { > 4}
(i) 2 < < 3
(j) 2 < < 4
(k) > 2
(l) 3 < 5
(m) 4 < 7
14
(n) { 3 } { > 3}
(o) { < 3} { 9}
(p) > 5
7
(q) { 3} { > 5}
11
(r) 4 < 2
14
(s) { < 3} { }
3
(t) 2 < 1
3
(u) { < 4} { 2}
(v) 1 < 4

4
2. { < } { > 1}
3
3. { < 3} { > 2}
4. (i) = 1, = 2 (ii) { < 1} { > 2}
8
5. { < } { > 1}
3
2
6. 2 3

..

8
CHAPTER 2: THE DISCRIMINANT

CHAPTER 2: THE DISCRIMINANT


At the end of this section, students should be able
to:
determine the nature of roots of a
quadratic equation
___________________________________________________________
INTRODUCTION
For the quadratic equation 2 + + = 0 we
have that
2 4
=
2 2 + + > 0
The Discriminant is 2 4 from the above
formula and this gives us useful information about CALCULATING THE DISCRIMINANT
the corresponding roots as shown below
Discriminant and Roots LESSON 1 For each of the following
Discriminant Roots of 2 + + = 0 quadratic equations determine the discriminant.
, and real numbers, 0 (a) 2 2 3 4 = 0
Positive Two distinct roots (b) 4 2 4 + 1 = 0
0 Equal roots. One real root (c) 2 2 3 + 4 = 0
(a double/repeated root) SOLUTION
Perfect Squares (a) 2 2 3 4 = 0
= 2, = 3 and = 4
Negative No real roots.
Discriminant is 2 4
2 + + > 0, > 0
(3) 2 4(2)(4) = 41
Since 2 4 > 0 the equation 2 2 3 4
This is explained graphically.
has 2 real and distinct roots
(b) 4 2 4 + 1 = 0
= 4, = 4 and = 1
Discriminant is 2 4
(4) 2 4(4)(1) = 0
Since 2 4 = 0 the equation
4 2 4 + 1 = 0 has a repeated (double)
root.

(c) 2 2 3 + 4 = 0
= 2, = 3 and = 4
Discriminant is 2 4
(3) 2 4(2)(4) = 23
Since 2 4 < 0 the equation
2 2 3 + 4 = 0 has no real roots.

THE DISCRIMINANT AND DISTINCT


REAL ROOTS
LESSON 2 Find the range of values of for
which the following equations has two distinct
real roots.
(a) 2 + 2 5 = 0
(b) ( 2 1) = 3 + 3

9
CHAPTER 2: THE DISCRIMINANT

SOLUTION EXERCISE 2
(a) For 2 + 2 5 = 0 to have 2 real and 1. If a quadratic equation has two distinct roots,
distinct roots, 2 4 > 0 the value of the discriminant is
= 1, = 2 and = 5 (A) Positive
(2) 2 4(1)(5) > 0 (B) Negative
42 + 20 > 0 (C) Zero
4( + 5) > 0 2. If a quadratic equation has no real roots, the
Roots: = 0, 5 value of the discriminant must be
{ < 5} { > 0} (A) Positive
(b) ( 2 1) = 3 + 3 (B) Negative
2 = 3 + 3 (C) zero
2 3 3 = 0 3. For a quadratic equation to have a repeated
= , = 3 and = 3 root the value of the discriminant
2 4 > 0 must be
(3) 2 4()( 3) > 0 (A) Positive
9 + 42 + 12 > 0 (B) Negative
42 + 12 + 9 > 0 (C) Zero
(2 + 3)2 > 0 4. For a quadratic equation to have a repeated
3
Root = 2 root the quadratic expression must be
3 (a) A perfect square
(b) Factorisable
2 (c) Unfactorisable
5. Calculate the discriminant of
THE DISCRIMINANT AND EQUAL (i) 2 3 + 5. [11]
ROOTS (ii) 3 2 + 9 + 10 [39]
6. (i) Calculate the discriminant of
LESSON 3 Find the values of for which the 2 2 6 + 11. [52]
expression 2 + ( + 3) + 2 + 3 is a perfect (ii) State the number of real roots of the
square. equation 2 2 6 + 11 = 0.
SOLUTION 7. (i) Calculate the discriminant of
For perfect squares 2 4 = 0 5 2 + 20 8. [560]
= 1, = + 3 and = 2 + 3 (ii) State the number of real roots of the
( + 3)2 4(1)(2 + 3) = 0 equation 5 2 + 20 8 = 0.
2 + 6 + 9 8 12 = 0 8. Find the set of values of for which the
2 2 3 = 0 equation 2 + ( 2) + (2 4) = 0 has
( 3)( + 1) = 0 real roots. { < 2} { > 10}
= 3, 1 2 (
9. The equation + + + 3) = 0, where
is a constant, has different real roots.
(A) Show that 2 4 12 > 0.
THE DISCRIMINANT AND NO REAL (B) Find the set of possible values of .
ROOTS { < 2} { > 6}
LESSON 4 Find the range of values of for 10. Find the set of values of for which the
which the equation 2 + + 25 = 0 has no real equation 2 + 4 + (5 ) = 0 has 2
roots. distinct real roots. { < 1} { > 4}
SOLUTION 11. Find the possible values of for which 2 +
For no real roots 2 4 < 0 ( 3) + (3 2) = 0 has two distinct real
2 4(1)(25) < 0 roots. { < 3} { > 1}
2 100 < 0 12. The equation ( + 3) 2 + 6 + = 5 has two
( + 10)( 10) < 0 distinct real roots. Determine the set of
Roots: = 10, 10 possible values of . [4 < < 6]
10 < < 10 13. Given that the equation 2 + 12 + = 0,
where is a positive constant, has equal
roots, find the value of . [ = 6]

10
CHAPTER 2: THE DISCRIMINANT

14. The equation 2 + 3 + = 0, where is a


non zero constant, has equal roots. Find the
4
value of . =9
15. The equation 2 2 3 ( + 1) = 0, where
is a constant, has no real roots. Find the set
17
of possible values of . [ < 8 ]
16. The equation 2 + + 8 = has no real
solutions for .
(A) Show that satisfies 2 + 4 32 < 0.
(B) Find the set of possible values of .
[8 < < 4]

11
CHAPTER 3: SURDS

CHAPTER 3: SURDS
At the end of this section, students should be able = 75 + (3)(2)5 45
to: = 75 + 65 45
perform operations involving surds = (7 + 6 4)5
__________________________________________________________
= 95
INTRODUCTION
(c) 2(3 + 12)
Surds are numbers left in 'square root form'. They
are therefore irrational numbers. The reason we = 2(3 + 23)
leave them as surds is because in decimal form = 2(33)
they would go on forever and so this is a very = 63
clumsy way of writing them. LESSON 3 Simplify
Note: 9 = 3 which is a rational number. (a) (2 + 5)(2 5)
Roots such as 2, 3, 5 . are SURDS (b) (2 3)(2 + 3)
(c) (33 + 4)(33 4)
PROPERTIES OF SURDS SOLUTION
(a) (2 + 5)(2 5)
1. = = 2 =
= 4 25 + 25 55

2. = = 4 25

= 4 5 = 1
3. + = ( + ) By factorization
(b) (2 3)(2 + 3)
SURD SIMPLIFICATION = 22 + 32 32 9
A surd is simplified when the number under the = 4 9
square root sign does not have a perfect square as =29
one of its factors. = 7
LESSON 1 Simplify each of the following (c) (33 + 4)(33 4)
(i) 50 = 933 123 + 123 16
(ii) 80 = 99 16
SOLUTION = 27 16
(a) 50 = 25 2 = 11
= 25 2 ..
EXERCISE 3.1
= 52
(b) 80 = 16 5 1. Simplify each of the following surds.
= 16 5
a) 27
= 45 b) 63
LESSON 2 Simplify each of the following.
c) 32
(a) 520 + 245
d) 44
(b) 75 + 320 80
e) 54
(c) 2(3 + 12)
f) 72
SOLUTION
g) 80
(a) 520 + 245 = 55 4 + 29 5
h) 96
= 545 + 295
i) 112
= (5)(2) 5 + (2)(3)5
j) 108
= 105 + 65
k) 147
= (10 + 6) 5
l) 192
= 165
m) 352 + 2117
(b) 75 + 320 80
n) 418 + 98 28
=75 + 35 4 16 5
o) 180 3125 + 45
= 75 + 354 165

12
CHAPTER 3: SURDS

2. Express 18 2 in simplified surd form. 1075


=
3. Express 300 48 in the form 3, where 5
is an integer. 107 5
=
4. Express each of the following in the form 2, 5
where is an integer. = 235
(i) 200 445
(d)
(ii) 58 32 58
49 5
SOLUTIONS =
54 2
1. (a) 33 (b) 37 (c) 42
495
(d) 211 (e) 36 (f) 62 =
542
(g) 45 (h) 46 (i) 47 125
(j) 63 (k) 73 (l) 83 =
102
(m) 1213 (n) 152 (o) 65
65
2. 22 =
52
3. 63
65(2)
4. (i) 102 (ii) 72 =
52(2)
.. 610
=
10
FRACTIONS INVOLVING SURDS =
310
When surds appear in the denominator of a 5
fraction, it is usual to eliminate them from. This is
called RATIONALISING THE DENOMINATOR i.e. LESSON 5 Express each of the following in
+
converting it from a SURD to a RATIONAL the form ; , , ,

Number. To do this we use two (2) facts 1
(a) 2+3
3
1. = (b)
36
2. Difference of two Squares: 2+2
(2 2 ) = ( + )( ) (c) 22
where (2 2 ) is ALWAYS a Rational (d)
3+24

Number 6+2

LESSON 4 Express each of the following in SOLUTION



1
the form ; , , (a)
3
2 + 3
(a) 1 2 3
2 =
5
(b) 2 + 3 2 3
3
107 2 3
(c) =
5 (2 + 3)(2 3)
445
(d) 2 3
58 = 2
SOLUTION 22 (3)
3 3 2 32 2 3
(a) = =
2 2 2 2 =
43
5 5 3 53 = 2 3
(b) = =
3 3 3 3
107 3
(c) (b)
5 3 6
107 5 3 3 + 6
= =
5 5 3 6 3 + 6

13
CHAPTER 3: SURDS

12
3(3 + 6) (a) 108 , 3
= 3
20
(3 6)(3 + 6) (b) 45 + , 5
5
3(3 + 6) 15+40
= (c) , 5 + 2
3 36 5
3(3 + 6) 2. Express each of the following in the indicated
= form.
33 4
(a) 37 , + 7
3 + 6 (b)
12
, 5
= 3+5
11 832
2 + 2 (c) , + 2
(c) 4+32
2 2 5+3
(d) , 5 +
52
2 + 2 2 + 2 15+3
= (e) , + 3
2 2 2 + 2 33
8+7
(f) , + 7
2+7
(2 + 2)(2 + 2)
= SOLUTIONS
(2 2)(2 + 2) 1. (a) 23 (b) 75 (c) 35 + 22
4 + 22 + 22 + 2 2. (a) 6 + 27 (b) 9 35
=
42
(c) 25 + 182 (d) 11 + 55
4 + 42 + 2
= (e) 8 + 33 (f) 3 + 27
2
6 + 42 EXAM QUESTIONS
=
2 53
1. Express in the form + 3 where
= 3 + 22 2+3
, . [5]
3 + 24 CAPE 2007
(d) 2. Without using calculators or tables, show that
6 + 2 6+2
3 + 24 6 2 (i) = 2 + 3 [5]
62
= 6+2 62
6 + 2 6 2 (ii) + =4 [5]
62 6+2
(3 + 24)(6 2) CAPE 2008
=
(6 + 2)(6 2) 3. Without the use of the tables or a calculator,
36 6 224 246 simplify 28 + 343 in the form 7, where
= is an integer. [5]
64
36 6 264 144 CAPE 2009
= 4. Without using calculators, find the exact value
2 2 2
36 6 (2)(2)6 12 of (75 + 12) (75 12) [3]
= CAPE 2011
2
36 6 46 12 5. Without the use of a calculator, show that
= 3 1 3 + 1 2 1 2 + 1
2 + + + = 10
18 6 3 + 1 3 1 2 + 1 2 1
=
2 [5]
1035 CAPE 2014
= SOLUTIONS
5
= 235
.. 1. 13 73
2.
EXERCISE 3.2 3. 97
4. 120
1. Express each of the following in the indicated
5.
form.
..

14
CHAPTER 4: INDICES

CHAPTER 4: LAWS OF INDICES


SOLUTION
MULTIPLICATION (i) (2 )3 = 2 2 2
LESSON 1 Simplify each of the following. = 2+2+2
(i) 2 3 = 6
(ii) 4 (ii) (23 )4 = 23 23 23 23
(iii) 27 35 = 24 3+3+3+3
(iv) 3 2 4 5 7 = 24 12
2 2
(v) 22 4 2
(iii) ( 56 ) = (52 )
SOLUTION
(i) 2 3 = = 5 22 2
=
(ii) 4 = = 5 52 4
(iii) 27 35 = 2 4 2
=
3 25 4
= 612 (iv) ( ) =
(iv) 3 2 4 5 7
= 3 4 NEGATIVE INDICES
1 1
= 12 7 8 = =

(v) = + LESSON 4 Write each of the following using
positive indices.
1
(i) 23 (ii) 4 (iii) 5
DIVISION SOLUTION
2

LESSON 2 Simplify each of the following. 1


3 (i) 23 = 23
(i) 1
3 (ii) 4 =
9 4
(ii) 1 1 1 1
5 (iii) 5 = =
6 4 2 2 5 25
(iii)
2
23 8 LESSON 4 Write each of the following in the
(iv) 63 form .
1
(v) (i)
3
SOLUTION 2
(ii)
3 7
(i) 3
=
=1
9 1
(ii) = = 4 (iii)
5 32
6 4 5
(iii) = = 6 2 (iv)
2 74
23 8 2 2 SOLUTION
(iv) = 1 3
63 4 (i) 3 =
6

1 2 5 2
= (ii) = 2 7
3 2 7

(v) = 1 1

(iii) = 3 2
32
5 5
(iv) = 7 4
74
RAISING A POWER TO A POWER
LESSON 3 Simplify each of the following.
(i) (2 )3
(ii) (23 )4
2
22 4
(iii) ( 56 )
(iv) ( )

15
CHAPTER 4: INDICES

ZERO INDEX 4 = 2
0 1
=1 =
Any quantity, except zero, raised to the power 2
zero is 1
PROOF: LESSON 8 Without the use of a calculator
find the exact value of
1 1 = 1+(1) = 0 1 3 1
1 274 98 818
1 1 = = 1
SOLUTION
0 = 1 1 3 1 1 3 1
274 98 81 8 = (33 )4 (32 )8 (34 ) 8
3 3 1
FRACTIONAL INDICES = 34 34 32
1 3 3 1
= = 34+4++2
1 1 = 32
=
=9

= ( ) LESSON 8 Without the use of a calculator,
1 show that
= 42
( ) 1 = 24 (2)
LESSON 6 Write each of the following in the 2 8 3
form .
1 SOLUTION
(i) 92 LHS
1
(ii) 1253 42 (22 )2
2 1 = 1 1

(iii) 643 2 8 3 22 (23 ) 3
2
(iv) 5 24
3
= 1
(v) 2 4 22 21
SOLUTION 24
1 = 1
(i) 92 = 9 = 3 22
1 1
1 1
(ii) 1253 = 1 = 3
= 24 (22 )
125 3 125
2 2 = 24 2
(iii) 5 = ( 5 )
3 RHS
2 2
(iv) 2 4 = 3 = 3
( 4 )
GRAPHS OF EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS APH OF
4

FURTHER LESSONS EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS


= = Any function of the form () = , > 0 is an
LESSON 7 Solve for the equations exponential function and they have the shape as
(i) (3 )2 = 273 shown in the diagram.
1
(ii) 32 = ( )
27
SOLUTION
(i) (3 ) 2 = 273
32 = 33(3)
2 = 3( 3)
2 = 3 9
=9
1
(ii) 32 = ( )
27
2
1
3 = ( 3)
3
32 = (33 ) It is important to note that the graphs all cross the
32 = 33 axis at the same point and that the graphs will
2 = 3 NEVER touch or cross the axis since > 0.

16
CHAPTER 4: INDICES

EXERCISE 4

4
1. Solve the equation 1632 = 82 . [ = 3 ]

2. Solve the equation 921 = 27 . [ = 2]

3. Solve the equation (234 )(4+4 ) = 2. [ = 5]


1 5
4. (i) Express as a power of 2. [22 ]
32
1 6
(ii) Express (64) as a power of 2. [2 ]
1
(64) 1
(iii) Hence solve the equation = .
2 32
3
[ = 2]
5. Solve, for and , the simulatneous equations
125 = 25(5 )
7 49 = 1
4 2
[ = , = ]
5 5
EXAM QUESTIONS
1 1
6. Solve for , the equation 235 = ( ) . [3]
64
CAPE 2000
[ = 3]
7. Without using a calculator, find the exact
1 3 1
value of 274 98 818 . [3]
CAPE 2011
[Ans: 9]

17
CHAPTER 5: DISGUISED QUADRATIC EQUATIONS

CHAPTER 5: DISGUISED QUADRATIC EQUATIONS


1
At the end of this section, students should be able 3 = 4 = 64
to:
solve equations in reducible to a LESSON 5 Solve the equation
quadratic equation; 4 2+1 8 = 0.
__________________________________________________________ SOLUTION Rewrite expressions in using a
It is often possible to solve equations by the use of common base
a substitution. In this section we look at equations (22 ) 2(2 ) 8 = 0
which can be solved by being transformed into (2 ) 2 2(2 ) 8 = 0
quadratic equations. Let = 2
LESSON 1 Solve the equation 2 2 8 = 0
4 5 2 6 = 0 ( + 2)( 4) = 0
SOLUTION Let = 2 since 2 = ( 2 )2 = 4 = 2, 4
2
5 6 = 0 Re substituting = 2
( 6)( + 1) = 0 2 = 2 NO REAL ROOTS
= 1, 6 2 = 4 = 2
Re substitute = 2
2 = 1 NO REAL ROOTS LESSON 6 Determine the values of for
2 = 6 = 6 which 3 + 32 = 10.
SOLUTION
LESSON 2 Solve the equation 3 + 32 10 = 0
6 9 3 + 8 = 0. 32
SOLUTION Let = 3 since 2 = ( 3 )2 = 6 3 + 10 = 0
2
3
9 + 8 = 0 Let = 3
( 1)( 8) = 0 9
= 1, 8 + 10 = 0

Re substituting = 3 2
+ 9 10 = 0
3 = 1 = 1 2 10 + 9 = 0
3 = 8 = 2 ( 1)( 9) = 0
= 1, 9
LESSON 3 Solve the equation Re substituting = 3
3 + 2 = 0. 3 = 1 = 0
2
SOLUTION Let = since 2 = () = 3 = 9 = 2
2 3 + 2 = 0
( 1)( 2) = 0 LESSON 7 Solve the equation
= 1, 2 23 8(23 ) = 7
Re substituting =
SOLUTION
= 1 = 1 8
= 2 = 4 23 3 = 7
2
8
LESSON 4 Solve the equation =7
2 1
2 5 = 12.
3 3 2 8 = 7
1 2
SOLUTION
1
Let = 3 since 2 = ( 3 ) = 3
2
2 7 8 = 0
( 8)( + 1) = 0
2 2 5 12 = 0 = 1, 8
(2 + 3)( 4) = 0
Re substituting = 23
3
= ,4 23 = 1 INVALID
2 23 = 8 = 1
1
Re substituting = 3
1 3 27
3 = =
2 8

18
CHAPTER 5: DISGUISED QUADRATIC EQUATIONS

EXERCISE 5 EXAM QUESTIONS


1. Solve the equations 1.
1 1
Solve for the equation 3 4 3 = 3. [5]
(i) 4 10 2 + 9 = 0 [ = 1, 3] [ = 64]
(ii) 4 + 36 = 13 2 [ = 2, 3] 2. By using the substitution = 2 , or
2. Find the real roots of the equations otherwise, solve 4 3(2 +1 ) + 8 = 0. [7]
(i) 2 4 = 2 + 1 [ = 1] CAPE 2010
1
(ii) 4 4 + 3 2 1 = 0. [ = 2] [ = 1, 2]
7 6
3. Solve the equations 3. Solve the equation 3 = 0. [5]
9 81
(i) 6 + 7 3 = 8 [ = 2, 1] 1
6 3 1 [ = ]
(ii) 8 + 7 1 = 0. [ = 1, 2] 2
4. Solve the equation
(i) = 2 + 3 [ = 9]
(ii) 8 + 12 = 0. [ = 4, 36]
(iii) + 3 = 4 [ = 1, 9]
25
(iv) 2 + 15 = 11 [ = 4 , 9]
5. Solve the following equations.
1 1
(i) 2 7 2 + 3 = 0 [ = 4 , 9]
2 1
(ii) 3 + 3 3 10 = 0 [ = 8]
2 1 8
(iii) 3 + 2 = 0
3 3 [ = 27 ]
1 1 16
(iv) 3 2 8 4 + 4 = 0 [ = 81 , 16]
2 1 64 1
(v) 6 3 + 5 3 = 4 [ = 27 , 8]
6. Solve the equations
(i) 22 5(2 ) + 4 = 0 [ = 0, 2]
(ii) 3(9 ) 10(3 ) + 3 = 0 [ = 1]
(iii) 4 12(2 ) + 32 = 0 [ = 2, 3]
(iv) 4 + 8 = 9(2 ) [ = 0, 3]
(v) 22 + 1 = 2+1 [ = 0]
(vi) 22 + 128 = 3(2+3 ) [ = 3, 4]

7. Find the real roots of the equation


3 10
8 =0
4 2
1
[ = 2]
1
8. Solve the equation 6 2 + 2 = 0, giving
your answer in the form , where ,
and are integers. [ = 16 67]
9. Solve the equation 8 + 13 = 0, giving
your answer in the form , where ,
and are integers. [ = 19 83]
10. By using the substitution = ( + 2)2 , find
the real roots of the equation
( + 2) 4 + 5( + 2)2 6 = 0.
[ = 1, 3]
11. By using the substitution = (3 2)2 , find
the roots of the equation
(3 2) 4 5(3 2)2 + 4 = 0.
1 4
[ = 0, , 1, ]
3 3

19
CHAPTER 6: FUNCTIONS

CHAPTER 6: FUNCTIONS
At the end of this section, students should be able
to:

use terms to functions;


determine the range of a function given
its domain;
determine whether a given function is
many to one or one to one;
determine the inverse of a given function,
(if it exists); Figure 1
plot and sketch functions and their
inverse, (if they exist);
state the geometrical relationship
between = () and its inverse 1 ();
find the composition of two functions;
recognise that, if is the inverse of ,
then [()] = , for all , in the domain
of .

DEFINITION OF A FUNCTION
A function is a rule that produces a
correspondence/relation between two sets of Figure 2
elements, say and , such that to each element
in the first set, , there corresponds one and only
one element in the second set, .
The first set is called the domain and the second
set is called the co-domain. The set of all
corresponding elements in the second set is called
the range of the function.

REPRESENTING A FUNCTION
Functions can be represented using
- mapping diagrams Figure 3
- ordered pairs
- equations
- graphs

MAPPING DIAGRAMS
LESSON 1 State giving reasons for your
answer whether the following mapping diagrams
represent functions. If the mapping diagram
represents a function, state its domain, co
domain and range.

Figure 4

SOLUTION
: in Figure 1 represents a function since
each element in is mapped to one and only one
element in .

20
CHAPTER 6: FUNCTIONS

Domain = {0, 2, 3, 5} SOLUTION


Co Domain = {1, 4, 6, 8}
Range = {1, 4, 6, 8} (a) is a function with domain = {2, 3, 4, 5} and
This type of function is a one to one function range = {4, 6, 8 , 10}
since each element of the domain is mapped to (b) is a function with domain = {1, 0, 1, 2} and
only one element of the co domain. Furthermore, range = {4, 3, 2, 1}
since the range and the co domain are identical (c) is not a function since the first number 10 is
the function is said to be onto. mapped to 2 elements, as well as 5.
(d) 1 is a function with domain = {10, 5, 0, 5, 10}
: in Figure 2 represents a function because and range = {10, 5, 0}
each element in is mapped to one and only one (e) 1 is a function with domain = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5} and
element in . range = {1, 2}
Domain = {, , , } (f) 1 is not a function since the first numbers 1, 2
Co domain = {0, 1, 2, 3} and 3 are each mapped to more than 1 element.
Range = {1, 2, 3}
This type of function is called a many to one EQUATIONS
function since 1 is mapped onto by more than Functions can be of the form = (). This is read
one (many) element from the domain. as equals of . is the function, represents
the members of the domain and represents the
: in Figure 3 does not represent a function members of the range. These functions can be
since which is an element of the domain is not represented graphically.
mapped to any element in .
GRAPHS OF FUNCTIONS
: in Figure 4 does not represent a function Since the coordinates on a graph are of the form
because 1 which is an element of the domain is (, ) and functions can be written in the form
mapped to more than 1 element in the co = (), corresponding (domain) and
domain. (range) values can be illustrated as coordinates
and plotted to form a graph.
ORDERED PAIRS
A function is a set of ordered pairs with the LESSON 3 Graph the function () = 2 for
property that no two ordered pairs have the same 3 3.
first component and different second components.
SOLUTION
The set of all first components in a function is
called the domain of the function, and the set of all () = 2
second components is called the range.
(3) = (3)2 = 9 (3, 9)

LESSON 2 Write the functions from Figure 1 (2) = (2)2 = 4 (2, 4)


and Figure 2 as sets of ordered pairs.
SOLUTION (1) = (1)2 = 1 (1, 1)
: = {(0, 1), (2, 4), (3, 6), (5, 8)}
: = {(, 1) , (, 1) , (, 2), (, 3)} (0) = 02 = 0 (0, 0)

LESSON 2 Indicate whether each set of (1) = 12 = 1 (1, 1)


ordered pairs defines a function. Find the domain
(2) = 22 = 4 (2, 4)
and range of each function.

(a) = {(2, 4), (3, 6), (4, 8), (5, 10)} (3) = 32 = 9 (3, 9)
(b) = {(1, 4), (0, 3), (1, 2), (2, 1)}
(c) = {(10, 10) , (5, 5), (0, 0) , (5, 5), (10, 10)}
(d) 1 = {(10, 10), (5, 5), (0, 0) , (5, 5), (10, 10)}
(e) 1 = {(0, 1), (1, 1) , (2, 1), (3, 2), (4, 2) , (5, 2)}
(f) 1 = {(1, 1), (2, 1), (3, 1), (1, 2), (2, 2), (3, 2)}

21
CHAPTER 6: FUNCTIONS

Figure 2 represents a function since any vertical


line drawn through the graph does not cut the
graph in more than one place.
Figure 3 does not represent a function since any
vertical line drawn through the graph of the
function will cut the graph in two places.

THE RANGE OF A FUNCTION


POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS
The domain is assumed to be .

For polynomials of odd degree the range is .

LESSON 5 State the range of the function,

() = 2 3 6 2 + 5 4.

THE VERTICAL LINE TEST SOLUTION Since the function is of degree 3


The vertical line test states that if any vertical line the range of is .
drawn through a graph cuts the graph in only one
place then the graph represents a function.

LESSON 4 State which of the following graphs


represent functions.

For polynomials of even degree the range can be


determined via a sketch obtained by substituting
values for . However, for quadratics written in
the form ( + ) 2 + the range is if > 0.
If < 0 the range is .
Figure 1
LESSON 6

(i) Write () = 2 2 10 + 3 in the form


( + ) 2 + where , and are real
numbers.
(ii) Hence, state the range of .
Figure 2
SOLUTION

(i) 2 2 10 + 3
3
= 2 [ 2 5 + ]
2
2
3 2 3 5 2
= 2 [ 5 + ( ) + ( ) ]
2 2 2
2
Figure 3 5 3 25
= 2 [( ) + ]
2 2 4
SOLUTION 2
5 19
Figure 1 represents a function since any vertical = 2 [( ) ]
line drawn through the graph will cut the graph in 2 4
only one place.
22
CHAPTER 6: FUNCTIONS

5 2 19
= 2 ( )
2 2

(b) () has a maximum value since the


coefficient of 1 2 is negative.
Range: 8

RATIONAL FUNCTIONS
LESSON 8 Determine the range of
4
(a) () = +3
2+5
19 (b) () = 31
(ii) Range of : 2
SOLUTION
SQUARE ROOT FUNCTIONS (a) We know that () is undefined when
= 3. Therefore, for the range we simply
For square root functions of the form
need to determine the value of which would
() = + + we have the following:
have corresponded to this undefined value.
() has a minimum value if > 0 with 4
Let = +3
range
() has a maximum value if < 0 with ( + 3) = 4
range + 3 = 4
= 3 4
3 4
=

Range: , 0
2+5
(b) = 31
(3 1) = 2 + 5
3 = 2 + 5
3 2 = + 5
(3 2) = + 5
+5
=
LESSON 7 Determine the range of 3 2
(a) () = 2 1 + 4 Range: , 0
(b) () = 8 31 2.
SOLUTION
(a) () has a minimum value since the
coefficient of 1 is positive.
Range: 4

23
CHAPTER 6: FUNCTIONS

.. 5. Determine the range of each of the following


EXERCISE 6.1 functions.
210
(a) () = 34
1. The diagram below shows an assignment
2+4
from . (b) () = 7
23
(c) () = 3
4+7
(d) () = 2(+3)
4+9
(e) () = +10
53
(f) () = 7
2
(a) 3 (b) 2 (c) 2
a. Write as a set of ordered pairs (d) 2 (e) 4 (f) 5
b. State 2 reasons why is not a function. ..
c. The assignment can be transformed
into a function, : , by moving a
CLASSES OF FUNCTIONS
single arrow. Draw the function .
Functions are classified by three classes:
d. Under , what is
(i) Injections (ii) Surjections and (iii) Bijections.
(i) the pre image of 4
(ii) the image of INJECTIONS
A function : is injective, or onetoone, if
(a) {(, 1), (, 3), (, 2), (, 5), (, 5)} is the image of only one .
(b) is not mapped to and is mapped to 2
elements (c) (d) (i) (ii) 1 LESSON 9 Determine whether the following
functions are injective
2. State the range of the function
() = 5 4 3 + 2 1

3. State the range of each of the following
functions.
(a) () = 2 4 6
(b) () = 2 5 5
(c) () = 2 2 7 + 3
(d) ( ) = 3 2 6 + 5
(e) () = 2 2 + 3 + 10
(f) () = 3 2 2 6
45 25
(a) 10 (b) 4 (c) 8
71 17
(d) 8 (e) (f) SOLUTION In the diagrams above : is
8 3
injective since every element in is the image of
only one element in . However, : is not
4. Determine the range of each of the following
functions. injective since, for example, 1 is the image of
, .
(a) () = 3 2 6
(b) () = 2 + 8 + 4 DETERMINING WHETHER A FUNCTION IS ONE
(c) () = 3 1 + 4 TO ONE
(d) () = 5 + 3 7 : is one-to-one if and only if for all ,
(e) () = 24 + 10 the following exists
(f) () = 3 8 8 () = () =
(a) 6 (b) 4 (c) 4
(d) 7 (e) 0 (f) 8

24
CHAPTER 6: FUNCTIONS

LESSON 10 The function, , is defined on This is made possible by the restriction on the
by : 4 1. domain.

(i) Show that is one to one. THE HORIZONTAL LINE TEST


(ii) Hence find the value of for which This test states that any if any horizontal line drawn
(( + 2)) = ( 5). through the graph of a function cuts the graph in only
one place then the graph represents a one to one
SOLUTION function.
(i) () = () LESSON 14 State which of the following graphs
4 1 = 4 1 represent one to one functions.
4 = 4
=
Therefore is one to one.
(ii) Since is one to one
( + 2) = 5
4( + 2) 1 = 5
4 + 8 1 = 5
3 = 12
= 4
Figure 1
2+1
LESSON 11 Determine if () = is
15
injective.
SOLUTION
() = ()
2 + 1 2 + 1
=
1 5 1 5
(2 + 1)(1 5) = (2 + 1)(1 5)
2 10 + 1 5 = 2 10 + 1 5
Figure 2
2 5 = 2 5
SOLUTION
7 = 7
Figure 1 does not represent a one to one function
=
since any horizontal line drawn through the graph of
Therefore is injective.
the function will cut the function in more than one
place. The function is many to one.
Figure 2 represents a one to one function since
LESSON 12 Determine if ( ) = 2
any horizontal line drawn through the graph of the
represents a one - to one function.
function will cut the function in only one place.
SOLUTION
() = ()
2 = 2
=
either = or = or = or =
Therefore is not one to one.

LESSON 13 Let = {: , 1}
A function : is defined as
() = 2 2. Show that is one to one.
SOLUTION
() = ()
2 2 = 2 2
( 1)2 1 = ( 1) 2 1
( 1)2 = ( 1) 2
1 = 1
=
25
CHAPTER 6: FUNCTIONS

SURJECTIONS 1
=
A function : is surjective or onto if every 2
1
is the image of at least one . Therefore, the real number 2 is the pre-
1
image of by and 2 is in for
LESSON 15 Determine whether the
following functions are surjective. any in so is onto.
However, for : , () = 2 + 1 is not
1
onto since 2 is not in for every in . For
21 1
example, when = 2, 2 = 2
(b) Let = ()
= 2 3
+ 3 =
Therefore, the real number + 3 is the pre-
image of by , but + 3 is a real number
only when > 3, so is not onto.
23 1
LESSON 17 Determine if () = ,
4+1 4
is surjective.
SOLUTION
2
Since there is a horizontal asymptote at = , is
4
NOT onto.

BIJECTIONS
SOLUTION A function that is both injective and surjective is a
: is surjective since every is the bijective function (onetoone and onto).
image of one
: is surjective because every is the LESSON18 Determine whether the
image of at least one following functions are bijective.
: is not surjective because 3 is not the
image of a
Consequently, for a function to be a surjection the
range of the function must be equal to the co-
domain of the function.
NB: : illustrates that an injection can be a
surjection.

DETERMINING WHETHER A FUNCTION IS


ONTO
A function : is onto if and only if for every
there exist at least one such that
= ().
SOLUTION
LESSON 16 Prove whether the following
: is bijective since it is injective and
functions, , are surjective.
surjective
(a) () = 2 + 1 : is surjective but not injective therefore it
(b) () = 2 3 is not bijective.

SOLUTION
(a) Let = ( )
= 2 + 1

26
CHAPTER 6: FUNCTIONS

The four possible combinations of injective and Does 1 exist? Give a reason for your answer.
surjective features are illustrated in the following
diagrams. 2. For surjective functions, the codomain of the
Injective and Surjective (Bijective) function is equal to its
(A) Domain
(B) Range
(C) Inverse
(D) Set of pre - images
3. If = {1, 2, 3} and = {, , , } explain why
: cannot be surjective.
4. Using = {, , , } and = {0, 4, 9},
construct a surjective function. Does the
function you created have an inverse? Give a
reason for your answer.
Injective and Non Surjective 5. For a function to be bijective the domain of
the function must contain the same number of
elements as its
(A) Codomain
(B) Range
6. For a function to have an inverse it must be
(A) Injective
(B) Surjective
(C) Bijective
(D) None of the above
Non Injective and Surjective 7. Show that each of the following functions are
1 1.
(i) () = 1 6

(ii) () = 3 + 4

2
8. Show that the function ( ) = 2 1 , 1, 1
is not one to one.
9. The functions, and , are defined by
2 1
: , 2 1 : 3
1 2 2
Non Injective and Non-Surjective (a) Explain clearly why is not one-to-one
(b) Find, and express in its simplest form,
()
10. Show that the function () = 2 5 is one
to one.
11. Show that : , () = 3 2 is onto.
1
12. Show that : , () = + 1 is not
2
onto.
13. Consider the following sets = {1, 2,3, 4} and
= {, , , , } and the set of ordered pairs
.. : {(1, ), (3, ),(2, ), (4, )}. Draw the arrow
diagram to represent and answer the
EXERCISE 6.2 following questions.
a. Is a function?
1. Given that = {, , , } and = {1, 5, 7}, b. Is it injective? Is it surjective?
(i) explain why : cannot be c. What is the image of 2?
injective.
d. What is the pre-image of ?
(ii) construct the injective function e. What is the pre-image of ?
: .

27
CHAPTER 6: FUNCTIONS

14. If : and has 5 elements while has SOLUTION


4 elements, can be injective?
15. If : and has 5 elements while has (i) ()
6 elements, can be surjective? +2 +2
( ) = 3( )2
16. Construct a surjective function that is not 3 3
injective between {, , , } and {, , } =

SOLUTIONS (ii) ()
3 2 + 2
(3 2) =
1. (i) A domain element would have to be 3
omitted for one to oneness. =
2. (B) Generally, 1 () = and 1 () = . Since
3. At least one element in would have to be () = , is the inverse of . Furthermore, (as
mapped to more than one element in . expected) since () = , is the inverse of .
4. No, since an element in co domain would not
be mapped to. The functions and written as sets of ordered
5. (B) pairs are as follows:
6. (C) = {(1, 1), (0, 1), (1, 3), (2, 5), (3, 7), (4, 9)}
= {(3, 9), (2, 4), (1, 1), (0, 0), (1, 1), (2, 4), (3, 9)}
7. (i) (ii)
We realise that is a one to one function while
8.
72 6 is a many to one function.
9. (a) Counter Example (b) 2(12 ) Now lets consider the inverses of each function by
10. simply switching the first and second elements of
11. each pair.
12. 1 = {(1, 1), (1, 0), (3, 1), (5, 2), (7, 3), (9, 4)}
13. (a) Yes (b) Non Injective, Non Surjective 1 = {(9, 3), (4, 2), (1, 1), (0, 0), (1, 1), (4, 2), (9, 3)}
(c) (d) 1, 2 (e) Does not exist The inverse of is clearly a function. However,
14. No 1 is not a function since an element in the
15. No domain, for example the element 9, is mapped to
16. more than one element in the range.
..

FUNCTIONS AND THEIR INVERSES


LESSON 19 For a function to have an inverse
it has to be

(A) Injective

(B) Surjective

(C) Bijective

(D) None of the above.

VIEW SOLUTION

LESSON 20 Given that () = 3 2 and


+2
() = , determine
3
Generally, if is one to one and onto, then
(i) () exists.
(ii) ( )
State the relationship between and . Here are the graphs of and 1, along with the
line = . In the diagram we realise that the
graph of 1 is a reflection of the graph of in the
28
CHAPTER 6: FUNCTIONS

line = . This is the geometric relation between Diagram 1


a function and its inverse. That is to say, if has an
inverse then this inverse, 1, is a reflection of in
the line = .

LESSON 21 The functions is defined by

: 2 + 3,

Sketch, in a single diagram, the graphs of = ()


and = 1 (), making clearly the relationship
between the two graphs.
SOLUTION Diagram 2

We will construct a table for corresponding pairs


of and values for ()
2 0 2
1 3 7

We will plot these values to graph () and plot


the reverse values for 1 ()
= {(2, 1), (0, 3), (2, 7)}
1 = {1, 2), (3, 0), (7, 2)}
Diagram 3

In diagram 1 it is clear that the graph does not


pass the horizontal line test and therefore it is not
one to one. However, by restricting the domain,
we can create a one to one relation. The largest
one to one relation will be created by using
line of symmetry as seen in the latter 2 diagrams
above.

LESSON 22 Given that () = 3 2 12 + 4


(a) Express ( ) in the form ( + )2 + , where
, and are real numbers.
(b) State the least value of for which () is one
ONE TO ONE QUADRATIC to one.
FUNCTIONS (c) State the range of () for which 1 ()
Diagram 1 shows the graph of exists.
( ) = 3 2 12 + 4 with its line of symmetry. (d) Determine the inverse of ().
Diagram 2 and diagram 3 show the right half and
the left half of the graph respectively. SOLUTION
(a) () = 3 2 12 + 4
4
() = 3 [ 2 4 + ]
3
4
() = 3 [ 2 4 + + ]
3
4 2
=( ) =4
2
4
() = 3 [ 2 4 + 4 + 4]
3

29
CHAPTER 6: FUNCTIONS

8 (ii) Express each of 1 () and 1 () in


() = 3 [( 2)2 ]
3 terms of .
() = 3( 2)2 8 (iii) Show that the equation
(b) The equation for the axis of symmetry is 1 () = 1 () has no real roots.
= 2, therefore the least value of for which (iv) Sketch, on a single diagram, the
() is one to one is = 2. graphs of = () and = 1 (),
(c) The minimum value of () is 8, therefore making clear the relationship
the corresponding range is 8. between these two graphs.
(d) Let = ( )
= 3( 2)2 8 4. Functions and are defined by
+ 8 = 3( 2)2
+8 () = 2 + 1, , > 0
= ( 2)2 2 1
3 () = , , 0
+3
+8 (i) Solve the equation () = .
= 2
3 (ii) Express 1 () and 1 () in terms of .
(iii) State the range of .
+8 (iv) Show that the equation 1 () = has no
2+ =
3 solutions.
Replacing with (v) Sketch, in a single diagram the graphs of
= () and = 1 (), making clear
+8 the relationship between the graphs.
1 () = 2 +
3
5. (i) Express 3 2 12 + 8 in the form
NB: is not used since the function is one to
one. Since the least value of was required ( + ) 2 + , where , and are
integers.
we want the right half of the graph and
A function is defined by
consequently + was used. would have been
used if the left half of the graph was required. () = 3 2 12 + 8, .
..
EXERCISE 6.3 (ii) Find the coordinates of the minimum
1. The function is defined as () = 3 1. point on the graph of = ().
(i) Determine 1 ()
(ii) On a single graph, sketch the graphs of A function is defined by
() and 1 (). Clearly show the () = 3 2 12 + 8, , where .
relationship between and its inverse. (iii) State the greatest value of for which
2. The functions and are defined by has an inverse.
(iv) Using the result obtained in part (i), find
: 2 2, an expression for 1 .
: 3 + 5,
6. (i) Express 2 2 8 + 3 in the form
(i) Find the set of values for which ( + ) 2 + , where , and are
() > 15. integers.
(ii) Show that () = 0 has no real solution.
(iii) Sketch in a single diagram the graphs of A function is defined by
= () and = 1 (), clearly showing () = 2 2 8 + 3, .
the relationship between the two graphs. (ii) Find the coordinates of the minimum
point on the graph of = ().
3. Functions and are defined by
(iii) Find the value of 2 (0).
() = 2 5, A function is defined by
4 () = 2 2 8 + 3, , where .
() = , , 2 (iv) State the greatest value of for which
2
(i) Find the value of for which () = 7. has an inverse.

30
CHAPTER 6: FUNCTIONS

(v) Using the result obtained in part (i), find LESSON 24 The function is defined by
an expression for 1 . 3; 5 < 2
SOLUTIONS () = { 2; 2 < < 0
+1
1. (i) 3 (ii) ; 0<9

2. (i) { < 3} { > 5} 1. State the domain of .


(ii) Discriminant is negative (iii) 2. Determine the values of the following.
4 +5 24
3. (i) 3 (ii) 1 () = 2 , 1 () = i. (4)
(iii) Discriminant is negative ii. (1)
iii. (4)
1 1 3+1
4. (i) = 2 (ii) 1 () = , 1 () = SOLUTION
2 2
(iii) 2 (iv) Discriminant is negative
1. Placing the intervals on a number line we
have
5. (i) 3( 2)2 4 (ii) (2, 4) (iii) 2
+4
(iv) 2 + 3
6. (i) 2( 2)2 5 (ii) (2, 5) (iii) 3 The domain of : {: 5 < 9, 2}
+5 2. i. (4) using
(iv) 2 (v) 2 +
2 = [4]
.. = (2) using
= 2
PIECE-WISE FUNCTIONS ii. (1) using 2
A Piece-wise function is a function whose formula
= (2) using
changes depending upon the input values used.
= 2
iv. (4) using 3
LESSON 23 The function () is defined as
+ 5; 0 = (7)
() = { 2 Undefined: 7 is outside domain of
; >0
Evaluate:
NB: For compositions of piece-wise functions DO
1. (0) NOT create a formula for the composition.
2. (5)
3. (2) ..
4. (1) + (1) EXERCISE 6.4

+ 7, 2
SOLUTION 1. For ( ) = { , > 2 , evaluate
3
i. (0) (a) (2)
0 is in the interval 0 therefore we use the (b) (4)
formula + 5 (c) (15)
So (0) = 0 + 5 = 5 (d) (63)
ii. (5) 5, 9 < 3
5 is in the interval > 0, therefore we use the 2. For () = { , 3 < 8 , determine
2
formula 2 . (i) the domain of
So (5) = 52 = 25 (ii) (0)
iii. (2) = 2 + 5 = 3 since 2 is in the (iii) (4)
interval 0
iv. (1) = 1 + 5 = 4 and (1) = 12 = 1
SOLUTIONS
(1) + (1) = 4 + 1 = 5
1. (a) 9 (b) 3 (c) 5 (d) 21
2. (i) 9 < 8 (ii) 10 (iii) 3

..

31
CHAPTER 6: FUNCTIONS

EXAM QUESTIONS 7. The functions and are defined as follows:


() = 2 2 + 1
1. (i) The function is defined by 1
: 1 2 , . () = where 1 < , .
2
(i) Determine, in terms of ,
Show that is NOT one to one. (a) 2 () [3]
(b) [()] [3]
(ii) The function is defined by
1 (ii) Hence, or otherwise, state the
: 3, . relationship between and . [1]
2
CAPE 2014
(a) Find (), and clearly state its 8. The diagram below (not drawn to scale)
domain. represents the graph of the function
(b) Determine the inverse, 1 , of and () = 2 + 1, 1 1 and , .
sketch on same pair of axes, the
graphs of and 1 .
ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS 2014

2. The functions and are defined on by


: 2
: 2 3
Determine the set of values of for which
(()) = (()). [7] (a) Find
CAPE 2000 (i) the value of and . [2]
3. The function and are defined on by (ii) the range of the function ( ) for the
: 3 + 6, : + 7 given domain. [1]
(b) determine whether ()
Solve, for , the equation ((2 + 1)) = 30
(i) is surjective (onto) [1]
[5]
(ii) is injective (one to one) [1]
CAPE 2004
(iii) has an inverse. [1]
4. The function () has the property that
CAPE 2006
(2 + 3) = 2 ( ) + 3, .
9. The function on is defined by
If (0) = 6, find the value of
3 if 3
(i) (3) [4] () = {
(ii) (9) [2] if > 3
4
(iii) (3) [3]
CAPE 2011 Find the value of
5. The function and are defined by
(i) [(20)] [3]
() = 3 + 1, 03 (ii) [(8)] [2]
() = + 5, (iii) [(3)] [2]
where is the set of real numbers.
(i) Determine the composition function CAPE 2009
(()). [1]
10. Let = {: , 1}.
(ii) State the range of (()). [1]
A function : is defined as
(iii) Determine the inverse of (()). [2] () = 2 . Show that is one to one. [7]
ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS 2012
21
CAPE 2013
6. A function () is given by () = . 11. The relations : and : are
+2
functions which are both one to one and
(i) Find an expression for the inverse onto. Show that ( ) is
function 1 (). [3] (i) one to one [4]
(ii) The function is given by () = + 1. (ii) onto [4]
Write an expression for the composite CAPE 2015
function, (). Simplify your answer. [2]
ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS 2013
32
CHAPTER 6: FUNCTIONS

SOLUTIONS
2
1. (ii) (a) 1 (2 3) ,
(b) 1 () = 2( + 3)
1 3
2. = 2,2
3. = 8
4. (i) 15 (ii) 33 (iii) 3
5. (i) 3 + 6 (ii) (iii) 3 6
12 2+1
6. (i) 2 (ii) +3
7. (i) (a) 8 4 + 8 2 + 3 (b)
8. (a) (i) = 2, = 1 (ii) 1 2
(b) (i) Yes (ii) No (iii) No
5
9. (i) 4 (ii) 1 (iii) 3
10.
11.

..

33
CHAPTER 7: POLYNOMIALS

CHAPTER 7: POLYNOMIALS
At the end of this section, students should be able = ( 1)( 2 + 6)
to: = ( 1)( + 3)( 2)
factorise polynomial expressions of
degree less than or equal to 4, leading to LESSON 3 If + 3 is a factor of
real linear factors; () = 2 3 + 9 2 + 6 9 find the remaining
apply the Remainder Theorem; factor(s).
use the Factor Theorem to find factors SOLUTION
and to evaluate unknown coefficients;
use the relationship between the sum of
the roots, the product of the roots, the
sum of the product of the roots of the
roots pair wise and the coefficients of
3 + 2 + + = 0
() =
extract all factors of for positive
integers 6;
LESSON 4 Find the quotient and remainder
__________________________________________________________ when () = 2 4 + 3 3 3 + 5 is divided by
INTRODUCTION 2 1.
() = + 1 1 + + 1 + 0 0 SOLUTION Dividing 2 1 by 2 we
1
is called an th degree polynomial function. is a have 2 which is then our divisor.
real number and is a non negative integer.
() = is a constant function. A zero
degree polynoimial.
() = + is a linear function. A 1st
degree polynomial
() = 2 + + is a quadratic
function. A 2nd degree polynomial.
( ) = 3 + 2 + + is a cubic Then we have
polynomial. A 3rd degree polynomial. 1
() ( ) (2 3 + 4 2 + 2 2) + 4
2
SYNTHETIC DIVISION 1
2 ( ) ( 3 + 2 2 + 1) + 4
LESSON 1 Divide 2 + 5 + 6 by + 2. 2
SOLUTION NB: 2 + 5 + 6 is called the (2 1)( 3 + 2 2 + 1) + 4
dividend whereas + 2 is the divisor.
EXERCISE 7.1
1. Divide
(a) 3 11 2 + 38 40 by 2
(b) 3 2 + 1 by + 1
(c) 3 2 2 25 + 50 by 2
(d) 2 3 + 11 2 + 18 + 9 by + 3
2 + 5 + 6
= +3 (e) 2 3 5 2 11 4 by 4
+2 (f) 9 3 27 2 + 23 5 by 1
(g) 3 3 + 2 by + 2
LESSON 2 If 1 is a factor of
(h) 4 3 + 20 2 + 29 + 10 by + 2
() = 3 7 + 6 find the remaining factor(s).
(i) 6 3 + 13 2 10 24 by + 2
SOLUTION
(j) 3 3 10 2 16 + 32 by 4

2. Divide
(a) 2 3 11 2 + 13 4 by 2 1
(b) 2 3 11 2 + 19 10 by 2 5
(c) 3 3 + 20 2 + 27 + 10 by 3 + 2
() = 3 7 + 6 (d) 4 3 + 16 2 3 45 by 2 + 5

34
CHAPTER 7: POLYNOMIALS

SOLUTIONS SOLUTION
1. (a) ( 4)( 5) (b) ( 1)2 By the Factor Theorem
(c) ( + 5)( 5) (d) (2 + 3)( + 1) (1) = 0
(e) (2 + 1)( + 1) (f) (3 1)(3 5) 2(1) 3 + (1) 2 + = 0
(g) ( 1)2 (h) (2 + 1)(2 + 5) + = 2
(i) (3 4)(2 + 3) (j) (3 4)( + 2) By the Remainder Theorem
2. (a) ( 1)( 4) (b) ( 1)( 2) (3) = 16
(c) ( + 1)( + 5) (d) (2 3)( + 3) 2(3) 3 + (3) 2 + = 16
9 + = 38
Solving (*) and (**) simultaneously
+ = 2
REMAINDER AND FACTOR 9 + = 38
THEOREM = 5 and = 7
INTRODUCTION
LESSON 7 Given that
If is the remainder after dividing the polynomial
( ) = 2 3 + 2 12 + is divisible by
() by + , then
2 2 3 show that = 1 and = 9.
() =
SOLUTION
It is clear that if + is a factor of the polynomial
() then the remainder () is zero. Therefore 2 2 3 = 0
( 3)( + 1) = 0
from (*) above we would have that () = 0.
= 1, 3
This leads us directly to the factor theorem.
The roots of 2 2 3 have to be roots of
If is a root of the polynomial (), then + is 2 3 + 2 12 +
a factor of (). Conversely, if + is a factor of By the Factor Theorem
(1) = 0
( ), then is a root of ().
2(1) 3 + (1)2 12(1) + = 0
+ = 10 (*)
LESSON 5 The expression
() = 2 3 3 2 7 + is divisible by 4, (3) = 0
determine 2(3) 3 + (3) 2 12(3) + = 0
9 + = 18 (**)
(i) the value of ,
(ii) the remainder when ( ) is divided by 2 1 Solving (*) and (**) simultaneously
+ = 10
9 + = 18
SOLUTION
= 1 and = 9
4 is a factor = 4 is a root
(4) = 0 by Factor Theorem
LESSON 8 Factorise 3 + 2 2 2.
(4) = 2(4)3 3(4) 2 7(4) +
2(4) 3 3(4)2 7(4) + = 0
SOLUTION
128 48 28 + = 0
= 52 Let () = 3 + 2 2 2
We now need to find a root of (), therefore we
2 3 3 2 7 52
1 try various values of until we get () = 0. By
2 1 corresponding is = inspection we see that (1) = 13 + 2(1) 2 1
2
2 = 0, therefore ( 1) is a factor of (). We can
1 1 3 1 2 1
( ) = 2 ( ) 3 ( ) 7 ( ) 52 = 56 continue by guessing the other 2 roots (a cubic
2 2 2 2 equation has at most three roots) or we can use
polynomial long division
LESSON 6
Let () = 2 3 + 2 4 +
(i) Given that 1 is a factor of () and that
there is a remainder of 9 when ( ) is divided
by + 2, find the values of and .
(ii) Hence
(a) factor ()
(b) solve the equation () = 0.

35
CHAPTER 7: POLYNOMIALS

SOLUTIONS
1. 5
2. 21
3. = 11, = 6
4. (i) = 3, = 2 (ii) ( 2)( + 1) 2
5. (2 1)( 3)( + 5)
5
6. = 2, 2 , 3
1 1
7. (i) 3, , 2 (ii) 4, 2,
2 3
3 1
8. 2 , 2 , 2

EXAM QUESTIONS
or synthetic division. 1. The function () = 3 2 2 + 2 has
remainder 5 when it is divided by + 1.
Find the possible values of . [6]
CAPE 2004
2. The function () is given by
() = 4 ( + 1) 2 + , .
(i) Show that ( 1) is a factor of ()
for all values of . [2]
() = ( 1)( 2 + 3 + 2)
(ii) If ( 2) is a factor of (), find the
= ( 1)( + 1)( + 2)
value of . [2]

CAPE 2006
EXERCISE 7.2
3. If 1 is a factor of the function
1. Use the remainder theorem to find the
( ) = 3 + 2 2, , find
remainder when 2 3 + 3 2 + 9 is divided by
(a) the value of [2]
+ 2.
(b) the remaining factors [4]
2. The expression 3 4 2 + 5 has a
CAPE 2007
factor of + 1 and leaves a remainder of 4
4. The roots of the cubic equation
when divided by 3. Calculate the
3 + 3 2 + + = 0 are 1, 1 and 3. Find
remainder when the expression is divided by
the values of the real constants , and . [7]
2.
CAPE 2008
3. Find the value of and for which
5. Find the values of the constant such that
2 5 6 is a factor of 2 3 + 2 7 + .
is a factor of
4. The cubic polynomial () is given by
( ) = 4 3 (3 + 2) 2 (2 1) + 3.
() = 3 + +
[5]
where and are constants. It is given that
6. Let () = 3 9 2 + + 16
( + 1) is a factor of () and that the
(i) Given that ( + 1) is a factor of (),
remainder when () is divided by ( 3) is
show that = 6. [2]
16.
(ii) Factorise () completely. [4]
(i) Find the values of and .
(iii) Hence, or otherwise, solve () = 0.
(ii) Hence verify that (2) = 0, and factorise
[3]
() completely.
CAPE 2013
5. Factorise 2 3 + 3 2 32 + 15.
7. The polynomial () = 3 + 2 + has
6. Factorise 2 3 7 2 7 + 30, hence solve
a factor ( 5) and a remainder of 24 when
the equation 2 3 7 2 7 = 30.
divided by ( 1).
7. Solve the following equations
(i) Find the values of and . [4]
(i) 2 3 + 2 13 + 6 = 0
(ii) Hence, factorise
(ii) 3( 2 + 6) = 8 17 2
() = 3 + 2 + completely.
8. Factorise completely the expression
[5]
4 3 13 6 and hence solve the equation
3 CAPE 2015
2 (2 2 ) = 13

36
CHAPTER 7: POLYNOMIALS

SOLUTIONS ()
1. = 2, 1 += = =
1
2. (ii) = 4
= =
3. (i) = 2 (ii) ( 1)( + 2)( + 1)
4. = 1, = 1, = 3 LESSON 10 If and are the roots of the
3
5. = 1, 2 equation 2 4 2 = 0, find the values of
a) + b) c) 2 + 2
6. (iii) 1, 2, 8
7. (i) = 6, = 30 (ii) ( 5)( + 2)( 3)
SOLUTION
4
a) += = =4
1
ROOTS OF POLYNOMIALS 2
b) = = 1 = 2
INTRODUCTION
A number is called a root of the polynomial ()
if () = 0. For a quadratic equation we have c) ( + )2 = 42
2 + + = 0 2 + 2 + 2 = 16
2 + 2 = 16 2
2 + + = 0 = 16 2(2) = 20

Also if and are the roots of a quadratic
equation then LESSON 11 If and are the roots of the
( )( ) = 0 equation 2 + 2 = 0, find equations whose
2 ( + ) + = 0 roots are
Equating coefficients of we then have: a) , b) 2 , 2 c) 1, 1

( + ) = SOLUTION

1
+ = + = = = 1
1
i.e. the sum of the roots of a quadratic equation = 2
= = = 2

1
a) ( ) + () = ( + ) = (1) = 1
Equating constants we have: ()() = = 2

= 2 (sum of roots) + (product of roots) = 0
2 (1) + (2) = 0
i.e. the product of the roots of a quadratic
2 2 = 0
equation = b) 2 + 2 = ( + )2 2

Thus, we know that given the roots of a quadratic = (1)2 2(2)
equation the corresponding equation is =5
2 (sum of roots) + (product of roots) = 0 ( 2 )( 2 ) = ()2 = (2) 2 = 4
2 (sum of roots) + (product of roots) = 0
2 5 + 4 = 0
LESSON 9 Find the sums and products of the
c) ( 1) + ( 1) = + 2
roots of the following equations.
a) 3 2 5 2 = 0
= 1 2 = 3
b) 2 + = 0
( 1)( 1) = + 1
= ( + ) + 1
SOLUTION
Let and be the roots of the equations = 2 (1) + 1
=0
a) 3 2 5 2 = 0
2 (sum of roots) + (product of roots) = 0
= 3, = 5, = 2 2 (3) + 0 = 0
5 5
(sum of roots): + = = = 2 + 3 = 0
3 3
2
(product of roots): = =
3
b) 2 + = 0
= 1, = , =

37
CHAPTER 7: POLYNOMIALS

LESSON 12 The roots of the equation a. 2 + 2


3 2 4 + 1 = 0 are and . b. ( )2
Without solving the equation c. 3 + 3
1 1
(i) write down the values of + and d. +

(ii) find the value of 2 + 2 1 1
e. + 2
(iii) obtain a quadratic equation whose roots are 2
1 1
and 2 f. + 2
2 2

SOLUTION 7. If and are the roots of the equation


4 2 + 4 = 0, find equations whose roots are
(i) + = 3
a) ,
b) 2 , 2
(ii) 2 + 2 = ( + )2 2 c) 1, 1
4 2 1
= ( ) 2( )
3 3 SOLUTIONS
10 1. A
=
9 2. B
1 1 1 1
(iii) 2 (2 + 2 ) + ( ) () = 0 3. C
7 4 1
2 + 10 + 9 = 0 4. (a) 1, 125 (b) 8, 10 (c) 0, 3 (d) 3 , 3
3
EXERCISE 7.3 5. (a) 3 (b) 2 (c) 12 (d) 40.5
1. For 2 5 9 = 0 the sum of the roots is 6. (a)
17
(b)
33
(c)
25 1
(d) 4 (e) 16
17
(A) 5 4 4 8
25
(B) 5 (f)
1 32
(C) 7. (a) 2 4 = 0 (b) 2 9 + 16 = 0
5
1
(D) 5 (c) 2 + 3 2 = 0
2. What is the value of the sum of the roots of
the equation 2 2 8 + 3 = 0?
(A) 4 EXAM QUESTIONS
(B) 4 1. Let and be the roots of the equation
(C) 8
4 2 3 + 1 = 0
(D) 8 (a) Without solving the equation, write down
3. What is the value of the product of the roots of the values of
the equation 3 2 8 + 25 = 0? (i) +
3
(A) 25 (ii) [1]
3
(B) 25 (b) Find the value of 2 + 2. [2]
25 (c) Find the equation whose roots are
(C) 2 2
3
25 2
and 2. [3]

(D) 3
CAPE 2000
4. Find the sum and product of the roots of the 2. Given that and are the roots of the
following equations. equation 2 3 1 = 0, find the equation
a. 5 + 2 = 0 whose roots are 1 + and 1 + . [5]
b. ( 3) = 5( 2) CAPE 2004
c. 3 2 7 = 0 3. The roots of the quadratic equation
1
d. 3 = 4 2 2 + 4 + 5 = 0 are and . Without
5. If and are the roots of the equation solving the equation
2 2 + 6 3 = 0, determine the values of (i) write down the values of + and
a. + [2]
b. (ii) calculate
c. 2 + 2 (a) 2 + 2 [2]
d. 3 + 3 (b) 3 + 3 [4]
6. If and are the roots of the equation (iii) find a quadratic equation whose roots
2 2 4 = 0, find the values of are 3 and 3 . [4]

38
CHAPTER 7: POLYNOMIALS

CAPE 2008 LESSON 13 For the following equations


4. The roots of the quadratic equation determine the values of + + , + +
2 2 + 4 + 5 = 0 are and . Without and .
solving the equation, find a quadratic (i) 3 + 2 2 5 6 = 0
2 2
equation with roots and . [6]
(ii) 4 3 + 2 + 11 + 6 = 0
CAPE 2009
5. The quadratic equation 2 + 24 = 0, SOLUTION
, has roots and .
(i) Express in terms of (i) = 1, = 2, = 5, = 6
(a) + [1] 2
+ + = = = 2
(b) 2 + 2 [4] 1
(ii) Given that 2 + 2 = 33, find the possible 5
+ + = = = 5
values of . [3] 1
CAPE 2010 6
= = =6
1
SOLUTIONS
3
1. (a) (i) 4
1
(ii) 4 (b) 16
1 (ii) = 4, = 1, = 11, = 6
1
(c) 2 2 + 64 = 0 + + = =
4
2. 2 5 + 3 = 0 11
5 + + = =
3. (a) (i) 2, 2 (ii) (a) 1 (b) 7 4
6 3
4. 5 2 + 8 + 8 = 0 = = =
4 2
5. (i) (a) (b) 24 (ii) = 9
LESSON 14 Find the cubic equation with
roots, , and given that + + = 6,
2 + 2 + 2 = 38 and = 30.
CUBIC POLYNOMIALS
INTRODUCTION SOLUTION
For a cubic polynomial we have NB: 2 + 2 + 2 = ( + + )2 2
3 + 2 + + = 0 ( + + )
Required equation is
3 + 2 + + = 0
3 ( + + ) 2 + ( + + ) = 0
Now, if , and are the roots of the polynomial
then Using equation
( )( )( ) = 0 38 = (6)2 2( + + )
3 ( + + ) 2 + ( + + ) = 0 38 36
Equating coefficients of 2 : = + +
2
1 = + +
( + + ) =

3 + 6 2 30 = 0
++ =

Equating coefficients of : LESSON 15 The cubic equation

+ + = 3 + 4 2 1 = 0 has roots , and . Determine
the cubic equations with roots
Equating constants:
(a) 2, 2, 2
=
1 1 1
(b) , ,
=

Therefore, for a cubic polynomial SOLUTION

(sum of roots) = and (product of roots) = (a) We know that for the given equation

39
CHAPTER 7: POLYNOMIALS

= , , and for the required equation we = 19


will let = 2, 2, 2. Therefore we see that ( 2 2 2) = ()2 = (2)2 = 4

= 2 = 2 Required equation is
Substituting we get, 3 27 2 19 4 = 0
3 2 LESSON 17 Two of the roots of the cubic
( ) + 4( ) 1 = 0
2 2 equation 2 3 + 2 + + 3 are 1 and 3. Find
3 2
+ 4( ) 1 = 0
8 4 (i) the values of and
3 + 82 8 = 0 (ii) the third root

1 1 SOLUTION
(b) Let = =

1 1 2 (i) By the Factor Theorem
+ 4 ( ) 1 =0
3 (1) = 0
1 4 2(1) 3 + (1) 2 + (1) + 3 = 0
+ 1 =0
3 2 + = 5 (*)
1 + 4 3 = 0 (3) = 0
3 4 1 = 0 2(3) 3 + (3) 2 + (3) + 3 = 0
3 = 17 (**)
LESSON 16 The cubic equation Solving (*) and (**) simultaneously
3 + 5 2 + 2 = 0 has roots , and . + = 5
Determine the cubic equations with roots 3 = 17
= 3 and = 8
(a) , ,
() = 2 3 + 3 2 8 + 3
(b) 2 , 2, 2
(ii) Let the roots be , and where is the
SOLUTION third root
= 3
(1)(3) = 3
+ + = = 5 =1


+ + = = 1

EXERCISE 7.4
= = 2 1. Write down the sums and products of the

(a) Equation with roots , and is roots of the following equations.
3 ( + + )2 + ( + + ) (a) 2 3 + 3 2 8 12 = 0
=0 (b) 2 3 + 5 2 3 = 0
Therefore with the roots , and the (c) 3 3 + 4 2 5 2 = 0
equation is (d) 3 11 6 = 0
3 ( + + ) 2 2. Given that
+ [()() + ()() + + = 0,
+ ()()] ()()() 2 + 2 + 2 = 14,
=0 = 18
3 (1) 2 + [( + + )] ()2 = 0 find a cubic equation whose roots are , , .
3 + 2 + [2(5)] (2)2 = 0 3. A cubic equation has roots , , and such
3 + 2 + 10 4 = 0 that
(b) Required equation is + + = 4,
3 ( 2 + 2 + 2 ) 2 + [( 2 2) + ( 2 2) + ( 2 2)] 2 + 2 + 2 = 14,
( 2 2 2) = 0 3 + 3 + 3 = 34
Now, Find the value of + + .
2 + 2 + 2 = ( + + )2 2( + + ) Show that the cubic equation is
= (5)2 2(1) 3 4 2 + + 6 = 0 and solve this equation.
= 27
( 2 2 ) + ( 2 2 ) + ( 2 2 ) 4. Given that , and are the root of the
= ( + + )2 2( + + ) equation 3 2 5 = 0, find the value of
= ( 1)2 2(2)(5) 3 + 3 + 3.

40
CHAPTER 7: POLYNOMIALS

5. Given that , and are the roots of the Find and .


equation 3 3 2 4 1 = 0, find the = 4, = 5
exact values of 2 + 2 + 2 and 3. The equation 3 + 2 + + = 0 has roots
3 + 3 + 3. , and , where
6. The roots of the cubic equation ++ = 3
3 7 2 + 2 3 = 0 are , and . Find the = 7
values of 2 + 2 + 2 = 13
(i) 2 + 2 + 2 (i) Write down the values of and .
(ii) 3 + 3 + 3 (ii) Find the value of .
7. The equation 8 3 + 12 2 + 4 1 = 0 has (i) = 3, = 7 (ii) = 2
roots , , . Show that the equation with root 4. The cubic equation 3 5 2 + + = 0 has
2 + 1, 2 + 1 and 2 + 1 is 3 1 = 0. roots , 3 and + 3. Find the values of ,
8. The cubic equation 3 2 2 3 + 4 = 0 has and .
roots , and , find a cubic equation whose = 8, = 12
roots are + , + , + . 5. The cubic equation 3 3 + 8 2 + + = 0
9. If the roots of the equation 3 + 5 2 + +
has roots , 6 and 7. Find the values of
= 0 are , 2 and + 3, find the values of
, and . , and .
= 2, = 33, = 10
NB: 6. The roots of the cubic equation
2 + 2 + 2 = ( + + )2 2( + + ) 2 3 + 2 + + = 0 are 2, 6 and 3.
3 + 3 + 3 = ( + + )3
3( + + )( + + ) Find the values of the roots and the values of
+ 3 and .
3
Roots: 1, 3, 2 = 12, = 9
( + )( + )( + ) = ( + + )( + +
) . 7. The cubic equation 3 + 3 2 7 + 1 = 0 has
roots , and .
SOLUTIONS (i) Write down the values of + + ,
3 5 4 2
1. (a) 2 , 6 (b) 2 , 0 (c) 3 , 3 (d) 0, 6 + + and .
2. 3
7 + 18 = 0 (ii) Find the cubic equation with roots
3. + + =1, = 1, 2, 3 2, 2 and 2, simplifying your
4. 66 answers as far as possible.
5. 17, 66 (i) 3, 7, 1 (ii) 3 + 6 2 28 + 8 = 0
6. (i) 45 (ii) 310 8. The roots of the cubic equation
7. 2 3 + 2 3 + 1 = 0 are , and .
8. 3 4 2 + + 2 = 0
Find the cubic equation whose roots are
9. = 2, = 2, = 8 2, 2 and 2, expressing your answer in a
form with integer coefficients.
3 + 2 6 + 4 = 0
EXERCISE 7.4.1 9. The roots of the cubic equation
1. The cubic equation 3 + 4 2 3 + 1 = 0 has 3 + 3 2 7 + 1 = 0 are , and .
roots , and . Find the cubic equation whose roots are
(i) Write down the values of + + , 3, 3 and 3, expressing your answer in a
form with integer coefficients.
+ + and .
3 + 9 2 63 + 27 = 0
(ii) Show that 2 + 2 + 2 = 22.
10. The roots of the cubic equation 3 2 2
(i) 4, 3, 1 8 + 11 = 0 are , and . Find the cubic
2. The equation 3 + 2 + + 3 = 0 has roots
equation with roots + 1, + 1 and + 1.
, and , where
3 5 2 + 16 = 0
++ = 4
11. The roots of the cubic equation
2 + 2 + 2 = 6
2 3 3 2 + 4 = 0 are , and .

41
CHAPTER 7: POLYNOMIALS

Find the cubic equation whose roots are


2 + 1, 2 + 1 and 2 + 1, expressing your EXERCISE 7.5
answer in a form with integer coefficients. 1. Factorise each of the following completely.
3 6 2 + 11 22 = 0 (a) 9 2 4
12. The roots of the cubic equation (b) 42 92
3 4 2 + 8 3 = 0 are , and . (c) 2 2 2
Find the cubic equation whose roots are (d) 3 9 3
2 1, 2 1 and 2 1, expressing your (e) 43 3
answer in a form with integer coefficients. (f) 3 3
3 5 2 + 19 + 1 = 0 (g) 3 + 3
13. The cubic equation 3 5 2 + 3 6 = 0 has (h) 4 14
roots , and . Find a cubic equation with (i) 2 5 162
(j) 5 32
roots 3 + 1, 3 + 1 and 3 + 1, simplifying your (k) 32 5
answer as far as possible. (l) 6 6
9 3 42 2 + 60 29 = 0
SOLUTIONS

1. (a) (3 + 2)(3 2)
FACTORING POLYNOMIALS (b) (2 + 3)(2 3)
(c) ( )( + )
(i) 3 3 = ( )(2 + + 2 )
(d) ( + 3)( 3)
Difference of Cubes
(e) (2 + )(2 )
(ii) 3 + 3 = ( + )(2 + 2 )
(f) ( )( 2 + 2 + 2 )
Sum of Cubes
(g) ( + )(2 + 2 )
(iii) 4 4 = ( )(3 + 2 + 2 + 3 )
(h) ( 1)( 3 + 2 + + 1)
= ( )( + )(2 + 2 )
(i) 2( 3)( 3 + 3 2 + 9 + 27)
In general, (j) ( 2)(4 + 23 + 42 + 8 + 16)
(k) (2 )(16 + 8 + 42 + 23 + 4 )
= ( )(1 + 2 1 + + 1 2 + 1 ) (l) ( )(5 + 4 + 3 2 + 2 3 + 4 + 5 )


LESSON 1 Factorise, completely, each of the
EXAM QUESTIONS
following.
12. Let and be positive real numbers such that
(a) 83 1
.
(b) 3 + 27 3 4 4
(c) 4 16 (i) Simplify
. [6]
(ii) Hence, or otherwise, show that
SOLUTION ( + 1)4 4 = ( + 1)3 + ( + 1)2 + ( + 1) 2 + 3
[4]
(a) 83 1 (iii) Deduce that
= (2) 3 13 ( + 1)4 4 < 4( + 1)3 . [2]
= (2 1)[(2) 2 + (1)(2) + 12 ] CAPE 2009
= (2 1)(42 + 2 + 1) (i) 3 + 2 + 2 + 3
(b) 3 + 27 3
= 3 + (3) 3
= ( + 3)[ 2 ()(3) + (3) 2 ]
= ( + 3)( 2 3 + 9 2 )

(c) 4 16
= 4 24
= ( 2)( 3 + 2 (2) + (2) 2 + 23 )
= ( 2)( 3 + 2 2 + 4 + 8)

42
CHAPTER 8: LOGARITHMS

CHAPTER 8: LOGARITHMS
At the end of this section, students should be able LESSON 1 Write the following in
to; logarithmic form

use the fact that log = = 1. 52 = 25 2.


1
643 = 4
where is any positive whole number; 1
3. 22 =
simplify expressions by using the laws: 4
(a) log () = log + log ; SOLUTION
1. 52 = 25 log 5 25 = 2
(b) log () = log log ; 1 1
(c) log = log ; 2. 643 =4 log 64 4 =
3
1
(d) log = 1 3. 22 = 4 log 1 2 = 2
(e) log 1 = 0 4
1
(f) log = log LESSON 2 Find or as indicated below

log
(g) log = log
1. log 2 = 3 2. log 3 = 2
solve logarithmic equations; 3. log 9 27 =
1
4. log 5 25 =
use logarithms to solve equations of the
5. log 7 0 = 6. log 5(5) =
form = ;
apply logarithms to problems involving
SOLUTION
the transformation of a given relationship
to linear form. 1. log 2 = 3
solve logarithmic equations = 23
use logarithms to solve equations of the =8
form = ; 2. log 3 = 2
define an exponential function = for = 32
=9
sketch the graph of = ; 3. log 9 27 =
define the exponential function = 9 = 27
and its inverse = ln , where (32 ) = 33
ln = log ; 32 = 33
solve problems involving changing of the 2 = 3
base of a logarithm 3
=
2
Logarithm is another word for index of power. 1
Any statement in index (exponent) form has an 4. log 5 =
25
equivalent Logarithmic Form 1
5 =
Now, 23 = 8 25
(index form) 1
5 = 2 = 52

i.e. 3 is the power to which the base 2 must 5
be raised to obtain 8 or log base 2 of 8 is 3 = 2
log 2 8 = 3 (logarithmic form) 5. log 7 0 =
7 = 0
Similarly, 32 = 9 (index form) is undefined
i.e. log base 3 of 9 is 2 or log 3 9 = 2 6. log 5 (5) =
(logarithmic form) 5 = 5
1 2 is undefined
Also ( ) = 25 (index form)
5
1 NB: We can only find logarithms of positive
i. e. log base of 25 is 2 or log 1 25 = 2 numbers, since > 0
5 5
(logarithmic form)

43
CHAPTER 8: LOGARITHMS

LESSON 3 Find the logarithms to base 4 of = lg 9 lg 3 + lg 10


1 9
a) 16 b) 2 c) = lg 3 + lg 10
4
d) 4 e) 1 f) 8
90
SOLUTION = lg 3
a) 16 = 42 log 4 16 = 2
1 1
b) 2 = 42 log 4 2 = LESSON 5 Given that = log 9 , find in
2 terms of
1 1
1
c) = 4 log 4 = 1 (i) (ii) log 9 (27)
4 4 (iii) log 3 (iv) log 81
d) 4 = 41 log 4 4 = 1
e) 1 = 40 log 4 1 = 0 SOLUTION
3 3 (i) log 9 = = 9
f) 8 = 42 log 4 8 = (ii) log 9(27)
2
= log 9 27 + log 9
3
= log 9 92 +
PROPERTIES OF LOGARITHMS 3
= +
(a) log () = log + log ; 2
(iii) log 3
(b) log ( ) = log log ;
log 9
(c) log = log ; =
log 9 3
(d) log = 1
(e) log 1 = 0 = 1
(f) log =
1 log 9 92
log
log = = 2
(g) log = log 1
2
(h) lg = log 10
(iv) log 81
LESSON 4 Write each of the following as a log 9 81
=
single logarithm. log 9
1. log 2 + log 7 log 9 92 2
2. log 3 log 8 = =

3. 2 log 3 log
log 6
4.
3 LOGARITHMIC EQUATIONS
5. 3 log 2 + log 4 log 16 Solving equations involving logarithms generally
6. 2 lg 3 3 lg + 1 require the application of the properties of
logarithms. In most cases the use of the property
SOLUTION log = log = is needed to obtain an
1. log 2 + log 7 = log(2 7) = log 14 equation (linear, quadratic or otherwise) which
3
2. log 3 log 8 = log 8 can then be easily solved.
3. 2 log log 2 LESSON 6 Solve the equation
= log 2 log 2 3 lg( 1) = lg 27
= log 2 log 2 SOLUTION
2 3 lg( 1) = lg 27
= log lg( 1)3 = lg 33
2
log 6 1 1
( 1) 3 = 33
4. = log 6 = log 63
3 3 1 =3
=4
5. 3 log 2 + log 4 log 16
= log 23 + log 4 log 16 LESSON 7 Find the value(s) of which
= log 8 + log 4 log 16 satisfy 2 log 3 = log 3 ( + 12)
84 SOLUTION
= log ( ) = log 2
16 2 log 3 = log 3( + 12)
6. 2 lg 3 3 lg + 1 log 3 2 = log 3( + 12)
= lg 32 lg 3 + lg 10

44
CHAPTER 8: LOGARITHMS

2 = + 12 SOLUTION
2 12 = 0 log 3
log 9 =
( 4)( + 3) = 0 log 3 9
= 3, 4 log 3
= 3 is INVALID since substituting this value =
2
into the original equation will result in us having log 9 = 1 + log 3 3
to find logarithms of a negative number. 1
log = log 3 3 + log 3 3
2 3
LESSON 8a Solve the equations log 3 = 2 log 3 3 + 2 log 3 3
log 3 (4) + log 3 ( 1) = 1 log 3 = log 3 9 + log 3 9 2
SOLUTION log 3 = log 3 81 2
log 3 (4) + log 3 ( 1) = 1 = 81 2
log 3 [(4)( 1)] = log 3 3 81 2 = 0
4 2 4 = 3 (81 1) = 0
1
4 2 4 3 = 0 = since > 0
81
(2 3)(2 + 1) = 0
3 1
= , LESSON 11 Given that
2 2 3 + 3 + 32 = 242 show that
1
= 2 is INVALID since substituting this value +
3 log [ ] = log + 2 log
into the original equation will result in us having 3
to find logarithms of a negative number. SOLUTION
+
LESSON 8b Solve the equation 3 log [ ] = log + 2 log
3
3
lg(10 ) lg( 9) = 2 +
SOLUTION log [ ] = log + log 2
3
lg(10) lg( 9) = 2 ( + ) 3
lg(10) lg( 9) = lg(102 ) log = log 2
33
10 ( + )3
lg ( ) = lg 100 = 2
9 27
10
= 100 3 + 32 + 32 + 3 = 272
9 3 + 3 + 32 = 242
10 = 100 900
900 = 90 ..
10 = EXERCISE 8.1
LESSON 9 Solve the equation 1. Write the following in logarithmic form.
log 2 + 4 log 2 = 5 (a) 34 = 81
SOLUTION 1

log 2 + 4 log 2 = 5 (b) 3433 = 7


1
4 (c) 54 = 625
log 2 + =5 2
log 2 (d) 4 = 83
Letting = log 2 we have 3
4 (e) 64 = 162
+ =5 ( ) 1 1
(f) 814 = 3
2
+ 4 = 5 2 1
(g) 325 = 4
2 5 + 4 = 0
( 1)( 4) = 0 (h) 5 = 3125
= 1, 4 2. Find or as indicated below
log 2 = 1 = 21 = 2 (a) log 5 125 =
log 2 = 4 = 24 = 16 (b) log 3 = 5
(c) log 2 (8) =
LESSON 10 Solve the equation (d) log 4 1 =
log 9 = 1 + log 3 3, > 0. (e) log 3 = 3

45
CHAPTER 8: LOGARITHMS

3. Find the logarithm to base 2 of SOLUTIONS


(a) 1
1
(b) 2 1. (a) log 3 81 = 4 (b) log 343 7 = 3
(c) 8 1 2
1 (c) log 5 (625) = 4 (d) log 8 4 = 3
(d) 2
3 1 1
4. Find the logarithms to base 10 of (e) log 16 64 = (f) log 81 3 = 4
2
1 2 1
(a) 1 (g) log 32 (4) = 5 (h) log 125 5 = 3
(b) 10
2. (a) = 3 (b) = 243
(c) 100
(d) 0.001 (c) INVALID (d) = 0
1
5. Evaluate each of the following (e) = 27
(a) log 4 16 3. (a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 3
(b) log 2 16 (d) 1
(c) log 6 216 4. (a) 0 (b) 1 (c)2
1
(d) log 5 (d) 3
125
(e) log 1 81 5. (a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 3
3
27 (d) 3 (e) 4 (f) 3
(f) log 3 3
2 8 6. lg 1000
6. Express lg + 3 lg 3 as a single logarithm.
2
7. Express each of the following as a single 7. (i) log 6 (ii) log 10 3
logarithm: 9
(i) log 2 + log 3 8. (i) (ii) 9 (iii) 15
2
(ii) 2 log 10 3 log 10 (iv)
3
8. Given that log = 9 and log = 6, find 2
1
9. (i) 2 + 2 (ii) 1
(i) log
(ii)
1
log (), 10. (i) 4 (ii) 2
11. = 1
(iii) log () ,
12. = 10
(iv) log 1
13. (a) = 3 (b) = 2 (c) = 18
9. Given that log 8 = and log 8 = , express 1 1
14. (a) = 2 , 8 (b) = 4 , 4
in terms of and/or 1 1
(i) log 8 + log 8 2, (c) = 9 , 9 (d) = 2 , 64
(ii)

log 8 ( ), 15. 2
8
10. Given that = log 4 , find, in its simplest form ..
in terms of ,
(i) ,
16
THE EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION
(ii) log 4 ( ) INTRODUCTION
11. Solve the equation 4 lg( + 2) = lg 81. The function () = where > 0, 1 is
12. Solve the equation 2 log 2( 1) = 4 log 2 3. called an exponential
13. Solve the following equations. function. 2 , 3 , 7.56
(a) log 4 + log 4 (2 4) = log 4( + 3) are LESSONs of
(b) log 5 (4) + log 5 ( + 2) = 1 exponential
(c) lg(8) lg( 2) = lg 9 functions. The
14. Solve for function () = is
a) log 2 log 8 2 = 0 known as The
b) log 2 = log 16 Exponential Function
c) log 3 = 4 log 3 where =
d) 3 log 8 = 2 log 8 + 5 2.71828 . The
log3 graph of = is
15. Find the value of .
log9 shown below.
From the graph we see, as for all exponential
functions, that = does not cross the -axis.

46
CHAPTER 8: LOGARITHMS

This indicates that exponential functions can > 0 is the range of


never be negative. It should also be noted that ALL (iii) when = 0, = 32(0) + 4 = 7
exponential functions cross the -axis at 1, i.e.
they all pass through the point (0, 1).

THE NATURAL LOGARITHM


The Natural Logarithm is a logarithm taken of
base , log e . Generally, logarithms of base are
referred to simply as ln . The diagram below
shows the graphs of = , = and = ln .
What is the relationship between = and
= ln ?
= is the inverse of = ln , therefore
ln = and ln = .
LESSON 13a Solve the equation
2 7 8 = 0.
SOLUTION
2 7 8 = 0
( ) 2 7 8 = 0
Let =
2 7 8 = 0
( + 1)( 8) = 0
= 1, 8
= 1 INVALID
= 8
ln = ln 8
= ln 8

LESSON 13b Solve the equation


LOGARITHMIC AND EXPONENTIAL 3 + 9 3 = 6
EQUATIONS
SOLUTION
LESSON 12 Given that () = 3 2 + 4, . 3 + 9 3 = 6
9
3 + 3 6 = 0
(i) Determine 1 ().
(ii) State the range of . Let = 3
(iii) Sketch the graph of . 9
+ 6=0

SOLUTION 2 + 9 6 = 0
2 6 + 9 = 0
(i) Let = () ( 3)2 = 0
= 3 2 + 4 =3
4 3 = 3
= 2
3 ln 3 = ln 3
4 3 = ln 3
ln ( ) = ln 2
3 ln 3
4 =
ln ( ) = 2 3
3
1 4 LESSON 14 Solve for and the pair of
ln ( )=
2 3 simultaneous equations
1 4
1 ( ) = ln ( ) = 5
2 3 ln(2 + ) = ln 3 + ln 4
(ii) Since log is defined ONLY when > 0 SOLUTION
4
>0 = 5 + = 5
3 ln(2 + ) = ln 3 + ln 4 2 + = 12

47
CHAPTER 8: LOGARITHMS

+ = 5 (3) 800
=
2 + = 12 (4) 1
1 + ( )
Subtracting (4) from (3)
= 7 800
=
=7 1
1 + ( )
= 2
= 800
(ii) when = 0, = 50
LESSON 15 Solve the equation
15 800
2 ln + ln = 11, giving your answers as exact 50 =
1 + (0)
values of . 800
50 =
SOLUTION 1+
15 1 + = 16
2 ln + = 11
ln = 15
Let = ln when = 1, = 200
15 800
2 + = 11 200 =
1 + 15 (1)
2
2 + 15 = 11 1 + 15 = 4
2 2 11 + 15 = 0 15 = 3
(2 5)( 3) = 0 1
=
5 5
= ,3 1
2
ln = ln ( )
5 5
ln = 1
2 = ln ( )
5 5
ln = 2 1 1
5 = ln ( )
= 2 5
= ln 5
ln = 3 800
(iii) = 1
(ln5 )
ln = 3 1+15
= 3 when = 3
800
= 1
LESSON 16 The enrolment pattern of 1 + 15 3 ln5
membership of a country club follows an 800
exponential logistic function , = 1
1 + 15 ln125
800 800
= , , =
1 + 1
1 + 15 (125)
where is the number of members enrolled 715 members
years after the formation of the club. The initial
membership was 50 persons and after one year,
there are 200 persons enrolled in the club.

(i) What is the LARGEST number reached by the


membership of the club?
(ii) Calculate the exact value of and .
(iii) How many members will there be in the club
3 years after its formation?
CAPE 2006

SOLUTION

(i) The largest membership will occur when


time goes on indefinitely. As

48
CHAPTER 8: LOGARITHMS

UNKNOWN INDICES (ii) Hence solve the equation


LESSON 17a Solve, correct to 2 decimal places, 3 + 20 = 19, giving your
the equation 3 = 7 answers as exact values.
8
SOLUTION 5. Solve the following equation 3 ln + ln = 14.
3 = 7 6. A curve has equation = ln( 2 + 5), show
ln 3 = ln 7 that this equation can be written in the form
ln 3 = ln 7 2 = 5.
ln 7 7. Express 2 = 2 in the form ln = + .
=
ln 3
= 1.77 8. Given that 2 = 3, find the exact value of .
LESSON 17b Determine such that 9. The functions and are defined with their
2+1 = 15. respective domains by
SOLUTION () = 2 3, or all values of
2+1 = 15 1 4
() = 3+4 , for all real values of , 3
ln 2+1 = ln 15
( + 1) ln 2 = ln 15 (a) Find the range of .
ln 15 (b) The inverse of is 1.
+1 = i. Find 1
ln 2
ln 15 ii. Solve the equation 1 () = 0
= 1 (c) (i) Find an expression for ().
ln 2
= 2.91 (ii) Solve the equation () = 1,
giving your answer in an exact form.
LESSON 17c Determine such that 10. The graph = 2 9 cuts the -axis at and
42 = 32+1 . the -axis at .
SOLUTION (i) Determine the coordinates of and .
42 = 32+1 (ii) Show that 2 = 4 18 2 + 81.
ln 42 = ln 32+1 11. The curve = +1 and = 42 meet at .
( 2) ln 4 = (2 + 1) ln 3 Find the coordinates of .
ln 4 2 ln 4 = 2 ln 3 + ln 3
ln 4 2 ln 3 = 2 ln 4 + ln 3 12. Given that 2 4 = 128 and that
(ln 4 2 ln 3) = 2 ln 4 + ln 3 ln(4 ) = ln 2 + ln 5, calculate the value of
2 ln 3 + ln 3 and of .
=
ln 4 2 ln 3
= 4.77 13. The temperature of water, , in an insulated
tank at time, hours, may be modelled by the
equation
EXERCISE 8.2 = 65 + 8 0.02

1. Given that () = 2 , Determine the


(i) Sketch the graph of and state the
coordinates of the point where the (i) initial temperature of the water in the
graph crosses the -axis. tank [2]
(ii) Determine 1. (ii) temperature at which the water in the
2. A function is defined by () = 2 3 1 for tank will eventually stabilize [2]
all real values of . (iii) time when the temperature of the water
(a) Find the range of in the tank is 70 [4]
(b) Find an expression for 1 (). 14. Solve correct to 2 decimal places the following
3. By using the substitution = , find the equations
value of such that 2 = + 12. (a) 2 = 5
4. (a) Given that 3 = 4, find the exact value of (b) 5 = 15
. (c) 3+2 = 12
(b) (i) By substituting = , show that the (d) 23 = 7
equation 3 + 20 = 19 can be (e) 3+1 = 225
written as 3 2 19 + 20 = 0

49
CHAPTER 8: LOGARITHMS

15. Solve the equation 241 = 352 , giving your (ii) By substituting = log 2 , or otherwise,
lg solve, for , the equation
answer in the form .
lg
log 2 = log 2 .
16. Solve the equation 73 4 = 180, giving [6]
your answer correct to 3 significant figures. CAPE 2011
3. Solve the equation
17. Solve the following equations, giving your log 2 ( + 3) = 3 log 2 ( + 2)
answer correct to 3 significant figures. [5]
(i) 51 = 120 CAPE 2013
(ii) 7 = 2+1 4. Solve the equation
(iii) 531 = 4250 log 2( + 1) log 2(3 + 1) = 2
[4]
SOLUTIONS CAPE 2014
5. Let () = 3 + 2 and () = 2 .
ln (i) Find
1. (i) (0, 1) (ii)
1
2
+1
a) 1 () and 1 () [4]
2. (a) > 1 (b) ln ( ) b) [()] (or ()) [1]
3 2
3. = ln 4 (ii) Show that ( ) 1 () = 1 ()
4 1 (). [5]
4. (b) (i) (ii) = ln 5 , ln (3)
2
CAPE 2013
5. = 3, 4 6. Given that 3 + 3 + 32 = 52 , show that
+
6. 3 log ( 2 ) = log + 2 log . [5]
1
7. ln = 1 CAPE 2014
2
ln 3
8. 7. The population growth of bacteria present in
2
ln(+3) a river after time, hours, is given by
9. (a) > 3 (b) (i) (ii) = 2 = 300 + 5
2
1 2
(c) (i) 32 5 (ii) = 2 Determine
10. (i) (ln 3 , 0) , (0, 8) (ii) the number of bacteria present at = 0.
11. (1, 2 ) [1]
12. (3, 2) (ii) the time required to triple the number of
13. (i) 73 (ii) 65 (iii) 23.5 hours bacteria. [4]
14. (a) 2.32 (b) 1.68 (c) 0.26 CAPE 2015
(d) 5.81 8. Solve the equation
lg 486 4 4
15. 3 = 0.
lg 144 9 81
16. 5.68
17. (i) 3.97 (ii) 0.80 (iii)72.1 SOLUTIONS
1
EXAM QUESTIONS 1. (a) = 9, 27 (b) = ,2
256
2. (i) = 2 (ii) 1
1. (i) Find such that
log 5 ( + 3) + log 5 ( 1) = 1 3. (i) (2, 3) (ii) = 1, 16
[5] 4. =
5+33
2
(ii) Without the use of calculators, or tables, 3
evaluate 5. =
11
1 2 3 8 9 2
log10 ( ) + log10 ( ) + log10 ( ) + + log10 ( ) + log10 ( )
2 3 4 9 10
6. (i) (a) (b) 3 2 + 2
3
[3] 7.
CAPE 2008 8. (i) 301 (ii) 4 hours
2. (i) Solve, for and , the simultaneous 9. 0.315
equations
log( 1) + 2 log = 2 log 3
log + log = log 6
[8]

50
CHAPTER 9: THE MODULUS FUNCTION

CHAPTER 9: MODULUS/ ABSOLUTE VALUE FUNCTION


At the end of this section, students should be able (iii) |2 5| = 11
to:
SOLUTION
define the modulus function;
use the properties: (i) It is clear that 4 and 4 both have a
(a) || is the positive square root of 2 ; distance of 4 units from the origin.
(b) || < || if, and only if 2 < 2 Therefore, = 4 or = 4
(c) || < || iff < < Note: || is the positive square root of 2 .
(d) | + | || + || (ii) |3| = 9
solve equations and inequalities involving 3 = 9 or 3 = 9
the modulus function, using algebraic or
graphical methods. = 3 or = 3
Illustrate by means of graphs, the
relationship between the function Alternatively
= () given in graphical form and |3|2 = 92
= |()|. 9 2 = 81
2 = 9
__________________________________________________________ = 3
Consider a number line, what is the distance from
the origin, 0, to 5 and 5? The answer in both (iii) 2 5 = 11 or 2 5 = 11
instances is 5. If is the ordinate of a point on a 2 = 16 or 2 = 6
real number line, then the distance from the origin = 8 or = 3
Alternatively,
|2 5| = 11
|2 5| 2 = 112
4 2 20 + 25 = 121
4 2 20 96 = 0
2 5 24 = 0
( + 3)( 8) = 0
to is represented by || and is referred to as the either + 3 = 0 or 8 = 0
modulus of . Thus, |2| = 2 since the point with = 3 or =8
ordinate 2 is two units from the origin,
9 9 9 From the previous examples we see that squaring
|2 | = 2 since the point with ordinate 2 is 4.5 units
both sides of the equation and solving the
from the origin and |3| = 3, since the point resulting quadratic is an alternative method.
with ordinate 3 is three units from the origin However, linear equations are generally easier to
(Fig 1). Thus, this provides us with a geometric solve than quadratics, thus we will be using this
definition of modulus. method.
Symbolically, and more formally, we define LESSON 2 Solve the equations
modulus as follows:
Modulus (i) | 2| = 3 + 1
; < 0 (ii) | 2| = 2
|| = {
; 0
|4| = 4 |7| = (7) = 7 SOLUTION
[Note: is positive if is negative]
Both the geometric and non-geometric definitions (i) 2 = 3 + 1 or 2 = (3 + 1)
of modulus are useful. = 3 1
NB: The modulus is never negative. 3 = 2 or 4 = 1
3 1
= or =
MODULUS EQUATIONS 2 4
LESSON 1 Solve the equations Caution: We cannot have a negative absolute
value; therefore, we now need to check our
(i) || = 4 solutions to verify that the right hand side of the
(ii) |3| = 9 equation is not negative.

51
CHAPTER 9: THE MODULUS FUNCTION

3 7 1 7 b. 2|3| = 4 + 10
3 ( ) + 1 = and 3 ( ) + 1 =
2 2 4 4 c. |2 1| 3 =
1
Therefore, = 4 is the only answer. d. |3 9| = 3 9
(ii) | 2| = 2 e. |2 3| = 3 2
f. | + 4| = ( + 4)
2 = 2 or 2 = ( 2)
It is quite clear that 2 = 2 for all 3. Solve the following equations
values of . But since | 2| is positive, a. |3 + 4| = |2 3|
2 0 2. This solution covers b. | 3| = | + 2|
both of the above equations. c. |3 + 1| = |3 2|
d. |2 3| 2 + 5|2 3| + 6 = 0
LESSON 3 Solve the equations e. 3|5 1|2 16|5 1| + 5 = 0
f. 6| + 7| 2 14| + 7| = 4
(i) |2 1| = |4 + 9| g. 2 5|| + 6 = 0
(ii) | + 3| 2 | + 3| 2 = 0 h. 2 7|| 44 = 0
(iii) 2 4|| + 3 = 0 i. 3 2 5|| 2 = 0

SOLUTION SOLUTIONS
1. (a) = 7 (b) = 5
(i) 2 1 = 4 + 9 or 2 1 = (4 + (c) = 7, 13 (d) = 35
9) = 4 9 (e) = 21 (f) No Solution
2 = 10 or 6 = 8 5
2. (a) = 3 (b) = 1, 5
4
= 5 or = 2
3 (c) = 3 , 4 (d) 3
Both sides of the equations contain 3
(e) 2 (f) 4
absolute values ensuring that both sides 1 1
are positive. Consequently, there is no 3. (a) = 5 , 7 (b) = 2
2
need to check. But it is still a good (c) = 4, 5 (d) No Solution
practice to do so. 4 2 4 6 22 20
(ii) | + 3|2 | + 3| 2 = 0 (e) = , , , (f) = 9, , , 5
5 15 15 5 3 3
Let = | + 3| (g) = 2, 3 (h) = 11
2 2 = 0 (i) = 2
( 2)( + 1) = 0 ..
either 2 = 0 or + 1 = 0
= 2 or = 1 MODULUS INEQUALITIES
| + 3| = 2 or | + 3| = 1 INVALID
+ 3 = 2 = 1 Before we examine inequality questions dealing
+ 3 = 2 = 5 with absolute value; lets take a look at the
(iii) 2 4|| + 3 = 0 number line to help us understand the concept of
2 4|| + 3 = 0 modulus inequalities.
(|| 3)(|| 1) = 0
either (|| 3) = 0 or (|| 1) = 0
|| = 3 || = 1
= 3 = 1
.. The red line on the graph above represents the
EXERCISE 9.1 interval (3, 3). If is any number within this
1. Solve the following equations interval then 3 < < 3. More precisely, || < 3.
a. |6| = 42 In general, if || < , then < < .
b. |6| = 30 What if || > 3?
c. | 10| = 3
||
d. 7 = 5

e. | | = 3
7
f. 10| + 2| = 70 From the graph our solution would be { < 3}
{ > 3}. Therefore, if || > , then { < }
2. Solve the following equations
{ > }
a. |5 | = 2

52
CHAPTER 9: THE MODULUS FUNCTION

LESSON 4 Solve the inequalities SOLUTION

(i) || < 7
(ii) |2 5| < 9
(iii) |9 + 2| 1
(iv) |8 3| > 9
(v) 3 < || < 7
(i) At first glance we assume that we have
SOLUTION the following inequality to solve
(3 + 2) < 5 < 3 + 2 but what
(i) || < 7
about the inequality
7 < < 7
3 + 2 < 5 < (3 + 2)? If we take
(ii) |2 5| < 9
some time to think about it; since we do
9 < 2 5 < 9
not know the value of we do not know
4 < 2 < 14
whether 3 + 2 is positive or negative.
2 < < 7
Hence, we have the before mentioned
(iii) |9 + 2| 1
possibilities. To counteract this potential
1 9 + 2 1
problem we proceed as follows:
3 9 1
| 5| < |3 + 2|
(iv) |8 3| > 9
( 5) 2 < (3 + 2) 2 We square both
8 3 > 9 8 3 < 9
sides to avoid negativity
8 > 12 8 < 6
3 3 2 10 + 25 < 9 2 + 12 + 4
{ > } { < } 2
8 22 + 21 < 0
2 4
(v) 3 < || < 7 8 2 + 22 21 > 0
(4 3)(2 + 7) > 0
Before we attempt to solve as a double
3 7
inequality we will split up our inequality { > } { < }
into two parts so that we get some 4 2
valuable insight into how to solve this as a
double inequality.
|| < 7 {7 < < 7}
| | > 3 { < 3} { > 3}
These intervals are represented on the
number lines below. Combining our
(ii) 2 7|| + 10 < 0
intervals we get {7 < < 3} (|| 5)(|| 2) < 0
{3 < < 7}.
Roots are | | = 2, 5
If we try the double inequality approach
From graph 2 7|| + 10 < 0 when
we should get 3 < < 7 and 3 < <
2 < || < 5
7. But the signs of the second inequality
We thus have the following inequalities
are reversed. How do we correct this? As
(a) 2 < < 5 and
follows:
(b) 2 < < 5
3 < < 7 and 3 < < 7
2 > > 5
3 > > 7
5 < < 2
7 < < 3
Therefore the solution set is:
With this approach the intervals are more {5 < < 2} {2 < < 5}
easily identifiable
When is 2 7|| + 10 > 0? Lets see.
Roots are = 2, 5
LESSON 5 Find the range of values of for 2 7|| + 10 > 0 when
which || > 5 and || < 2
|| > 5 { < 5} { > 5}
(i) | 5| < |3 + 2| | | < 2 {2 < < 2}
(ii) 2 7|| + 10 < 0 Therefore, we have
{ < 5} { > 5} {2 < < 2}

53
CHAPTER 9: THE MODULUS FUNCTION

..
EXERCISE 9.2
1. Solve the following inequalities.
a. |7| 42
b. |1 + | < 8
c. 10|10 8| 80
2. Solve the following inequalities
a. |5| > 20
b. |4 + 5| 24

c. |2 | + 9 > 13 LESSON 7 Draw the graph of
d. (|| 4)(|| + 1) < 0 () = | 2 + 12|.
e. ||2 2|| 3 < 0 SOLUTION
f. 2||2 + 2 > 5|| () = | 2 + 12|
g. | 1| < |2 + 1|
SOLUTIONS
1. (a) 6 6
(b) 9 < < 7
8
(c) 0 5
2. (a) { < 4} { > 4}
28
(b) { 5 } { 4}
(c) { < 8} { > 8}
(d) 4 < < 4
(e) 3 < < 3
1 1
(f) { < < } { < 2} { > 2}
2 2 ..
(g) { < 2} { > 0}
.. EXERCISE 9.3

GRAPHS OF MODULUS FUNCTIONS 1. Draw the graph of ( ) = |3 1| for


LESSON 6 Draw the graph of () = | + 2| 2 3.
1
for 7 3. 2. Draw the graph of () = |1 2 | for
SOLUTION 2 4.
We have the following 3. Draw the graph of () = | 2 2 3| for
() = | + 2| 2 4.
4. Draw the graph of () = |2 2 + 5 12| for
7 |7 + 2| = |5| = 5 5 2.
6 |6 + 2| = |4| = 4 ..
5 |5 + 2| = |3| = 3
4 |4 + 2| = |2| = 2 EXAM QUESTIONS
3 |3 + 2| = |1| = 1 1. Find the real values of which satisfy the
2 |2 + 2| = |0| = 0 equation |2 + 3| = 5. [3]
1 |1 + 2| = |1| = 1 CAPE 2000
0 |0 + 2| = |2| = 2
1 |1 + 2| = |3| = 3 2. Solve, for , the equation
2 |2 + 2| = |4| = 4 2 6 | | + 8 = 0 [4]
3 |3 + 2| = |5| = 5 CAPE 2004

54
CHAPTER 9: THE MODULUS FUNCTION

3. Let = {: 2 7} and
= {: | 4| }, .
Find the LARGEST value of for which .
[6]

CAPE 2006

4. Solve | 4| 6 > 0 for all . [5]


CAPE 2007

5. Solve, for real values of , the inequality


2 || 12 < 0. [5]
CAPE 2011

6. Solve the following: | + 2| = 3 + 5. [4]


CAPE 2013

7. On the same axes, sketch the graphs of


() = 2 + 3 and () = |2 + 3|.
Show clearly ALL intercepts that may be
present. [5]

CAPE 2013
SOLUTIONS

1. = 4, 1
2. = 2, = 4
3. =2
4. { < 2} { > 10}
5. 4 < < 4
7 3
6. = ,
4 2
7.

55
CHAPTER 10: SEQUENCES, SERIES and MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION

CHAPTER 10: SEQUENCES, SERIES and MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION


At the end of this section, students should be able 3 4 5 6
2, , , , ,
to: 2 3 4 5
1
define a sequence of terms, , where is (c) = 2
a positive integer; 1 1
write a specific term from the formula for 1 = =
21 2
the th term of a sequence; 1 1
use the summation () notation; 2 = 2 =
2 4
establish simple proofs by using the 1 1
principle of mathematical induction. 3 = 3 =
2 8
_________________________________________________________ 1 1
4 = 4 =
2 16
SEQUENCES 1 1
5 = 5 =
INTRODUCTION 2 32
1 1 1 1 1
A sequence is a list of numbers which obey a , , , , ,
2 4 8 16 32
particular pattern. Each number in the sequence is
(d) = (1)+1 (+1 )
called a term of the sequence. These are usually
1 1
denoted 1 , 2 , 3 , , 1 , where 1 is the first 1 = (1) 2 ( )=
term, 2 is the second term and is the th term. 1+1 2
3
2 2
In some cases the sequence can be defined by a 2 = (1) ( )=
2+1 3
formula an expression for the th term. 3 3
4
3 = (1) ( )=
LESSON 1 Write down the first 5 terms of 3+1 4
5
4 4
the following sequences: (
4 = 1 () )=
4+1 5
5 5
(a) = 4 1 6
5 = (1) ( )=
+1 5+1 6
(b) = 1 2 3 4 5

1 , , , , ,
(c) = 2 3 4 5 6
2 ..

(d) = (1)+1 ( ) EXERCISE 10.1
+1
1. Write down the first 5 terms of the following
SOLUTION sequences:
(a) = + 3
(a) = 4 1 (b) = 5
1 = 4(1) 1 = 3 (c) = 4 1
2 = 4(2) 1 = 7
(d) = 2 5
3 = 4(3) 1 = 11
4 = 4(4) 1 = 15 (e) = 2 3
+1
5 = 4(5) 1 = 19 (f) =
3, 7, 11, 15, 19, . +1
+1 (g) =
(b) = 2
1
(h) =
1+1 2
1 = =2
1 (i) = 3
2+1 3
2 = = (j) = (1)
2 2
3+1 4 (k) = (1)+1
3 = = 1
3 3 (l) = (1)
4+1 5
4 = = (m) = (1)+1 (+1)
4 4
5+1 6 SOLUTIONS
5 = =
5 5 (a) 4, 7, 10, 13, 16
(b) 4, 3, 2, 1, 0

56
CHAPTER 10: SEQUENCES, SERIES and MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION

(c) 3, 7, 11, 15, 19 (f) Each numerator is 1 and the first number of
(d) 3, 8, 13, 18, 23 the denominator is and the second is + 1.
1
(e) 2, 2, 0, 4, 10 Therefore = (+1)
3 4 5 6
(f) 2, 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 (g) The numerators are the natural numbers but
3 4 5 6
(g) 2, 4 , 9 , 16 , 25 they begin with 2, i.e. + 1 and the
1 1 1 1 1 denominators are the square numbers.
(h) 2 , 4 , 8 , 16 , 32 +1
1 2 3 4 5
Therefore = 2

(i) , , , ,
3 9 27 81 243 ..
(j) 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 EXERCISE 10.2
(k) 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 1. (i) For each of the following sequences
1 1 1 1
(l) 1, 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 determine an expression for the term,
1 1 1 1 .
(m) 1, 2 , 3 , 4 , 5
(ii) Determine the 50th term of sequence.
(a) 5, 8, 11, 14, .
LESSON 2 For each of the following
(b) 8, 6, 4, 2, 0, 2,
sequences determine an expression for the 1 2 3 4 5
term, . (c) , , , , ,
3 4 5 6 7
1 1 1 1
(d) 1, 2, , 4, ,
(a) 5, 8, 11, 14, . 3 5
1 1 1 1
(b) 8, 6, 4, 2, 0, 2, (e) 1, , , , ,
2 4 8 16
1 2 3 4 5 1 1 1 1 1
(c) , , , , , (f) , , , , , .
3 4 5 6 7 12 23 34 45 56
1 1 1 1 3 4 5
(d) 1, , , , , (g) 2, , , ,
2 3 4 5 4 9 16
1 1 1 1
(e) 1, , , , , SOLUTIONS
2 4 8 16
1 1 1 1 1
(f) , , , , , . (a) = 3 + 2, 50 = 77
12 23 34 45 56
3 4 5 (b) = 10 2, 50 = 90
(g) 2, 4
, 9
, 16
, 50
(c) = +3 , 50 = 53
(1)+1 1
SOLUTION (d) = , 50 = 50

1 1
(a) Consecutive terms differ by 3 therefore we try (e) = , 50 =
21 249
1 1
3. To create the right formula we add 2 i.e. (f) = , 50 =
(+1) 50(51)
= 3 + 2 +1 51
(g) = 2 , 50 = 2500
(b) Consecutive terms differ by 2 therefore we
..
try 2. To create the correct expression we
need to add 10 i.e. = 10 2 SERIES
(c) The numerators are the natural numbers INTRODUCTION
and the denominators are two more than the If 1 , 2 , 3 , , , is a sequence, then the

numerator i.e. = +2 expression 1 + 2 + 3 + + + is called a
series. If a sequence is finite, the corresponding
(d) Ignoring the signs, each numerator is 1 and
series is a finite series. If the sequence is infinite,
the denominators are the natural numbers . the corresponding series is an infinite series. For
Since the signs alternate between positive and example,
negative, starting with positive, we use 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 Finite sequence
(1) +1 . Therefore = (1) +1 ( )
1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 Finite series
+1 Series are often represented in a compact form
(e) Each numerator is 1 and the denominators called summation notation using the symbol ,
1
are powers of 2 i.e. = which is a stylized version of the Greek letter
21
sigma, meaning the sum of. Consider the
following examples:
57
CHAPTER 10: SEQUENCES, SERIES and MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION


4 3 + 2
= 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 =1
=1 (ii) Consecutive terms differ by 2 therefore we
7
try 2. To create the correct expression we
= 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 need to add 10 i.e. 10 2
=3

10 2
= 0 + 1 + 2 + +
=1
=0
(iii) The numerators are the natural numbers
The terms on the right are obtained from the and the denominators are two more than the

expression on the left by successively replacing numerator i.e. +2
the summing index, with integers, starting with

the first number indicated below and ending
with the number that appears above . Thus, for +2
=1
example, if we are given the sequence (iv) Ignoring the signs, each numerator is 1 and
1 1 1 1 the denominators are the natural numbers .
, , , ,
2 4 8 2 Since the signs alternate between positive and
the corresponding series is
1 1 1 1 negative, starting with positive, we use
+ + + + (1) +1 . Therefore
2 4 8 2
or, more compactly,

1 (1) +1 ( )
+1
=1
2 (v) Each numerator is 1 and the denominators
=1
The letter as used here is called the index of 1
are powers of 2 i.e. 21
summation. It is a dummy variable, so called
because it does not appear in the final result, and 1

this result would be unchanged if some other 21
=1
letter was used. In fact any other letter can be
(vi) Each numerator is 1 and the first number of
used. For LESSON,
the denominator is and the second is + 1.
= 1 + 2 + 3 + + Therefore

=1 1

( + 1)
LESSON 3 Write each of the following series =1
using sigma notation. (vii) The numerators are the natural numbers
but they begin with 2, i.e. + 1 and the
(a) 5 + 8 + 11 + 14 + denominators are the square numbers.
(b) 8 + 6 + 4 + 2 + 0 + (2) + Therefore
1 2 3 4 5
(c) +4+5+6+7+
3 +1
1 1 1 1
(d) 1 + ( 2) + 3 + ( 4) + 5 + 2
=1
1 1 1 1
(e) 1 + 2 + 4 + + 16 +
8
1 1 1 1 1
(f) + 23 + 34 + 45 + 56 + Some basic rules for manipulating expressions
12
3 4 5 involving can be established as follows:
(g) 2 + 4 + 9 + 16 +

= + + + =
SOLUTION =1

(i) Consecutive terms differ by 3 therefore we try ( ) = 1 + 2 + +


3. To create the right formula we add 2 i.e. =1
= (1 + 2 + + )
3 + 2
58
CHAPTER 10: SEQUENCES, SERIES and MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION


= 40
= (b) 16
=10
3

=1 16 9

( + ) = (1 + 1 ) + (2 + 2 ) + + ( + ) = 3 3
=1 =1 =1
= (1 + 2 + + ) + (1 + 2 + + ) 162 92
= (16 + 1) 2 (9 + 1)
4 4
= + = 16 471
=1 =1
This also holds for subtraction. That is,
LESSON 6 Express in its simplest form
2
( ) =
=1 =1 =1
=+1
SOLUTION
2 2
LESSON 4 Evaluate 2
4 = = (2 + 1) ( + 1)
2 2
(2 + 3) =+1 =1 =1

=1 = [2(2 + 1) ( + 1)]
SOLUTION 2

= [(4 + 2) ( + 1)]
4 4 4 2

(2 + 3) = 2 + 3 = (3 + 1)
2
=1 =1 =1
= 2[1 + 2 + 3 + 4] + 4(3) LESSON 7 Express each of the following in a
= 32 factorized form.

(a) =1( + 1)( 1)


SPECIAL SUMMATION FORMULAE
(b) =1 2 ( + 2)
The following standard results can be used to find
the sum of various series.
SOLUTION

(a) =1( + 1)( 1)
= ( + 1), 2 = ( + 1)(2 + 1),
2 6
=1 =1
= ( 2 1)

2 =1

3 = ( + 1) 2
4 = 2 1
=1
=1 =1
LESSON 5 Find each of the following sums
= ( + 1)(2 + 1)
6
(a) 4=1 ( + 1) ( + 1)(2 + 1) 6
=
(b) 16
10
3 6
[( + 1)(2 + 1) 6]
=
SOLUTION 6
[22 + 3 + 1 6]
=
(a) 4=1 ( + 1) 6
4 [22 + 3 5]
=
= ( 2 + ) 6
=1
(2 + 5)( 1)
4 4 =
6
= 2 + (b) =1 2 ( + 2)

=1 =1
4 4 = ( 3 + 2 2 )
= (4 + 1)(2(4) + 1) + (4 + 1)
6 2 =1

59
CHAPTER 10: SEQUENCES, SERIES and MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION


4. Evaluate
= 3 + 2 2 (a) 20
=1
=1 =1 (b) 40
=1 3
2 (c) 24
= ( + 1)2 + 2 [ ( + 1)(2 + 1)] =1( + 3)
4 6 (d) (d) 6=1( 2 + 2 + 7)
32 ( + 1) 2 + 4( + 1)(2 + 1) (e) 100
= =51
12 5. Express each of the following in a factorised
( + 1)[3( + 1) + 4(2 + 1)]
= form.
12 (c) =1( + 1)( 1)
( + 1)[32 + 3 + 8 + 4]
= (d) =1 ( 2 + 1)
12
(e) =1 2 ( 1)
.. (f) =1 2 ( + 2)
6. Use standard series formulae to show that
EXERCISE 10.3 1
(a) =1[( + 1)( 2)] = (2 7)
3
1. State the first 5 terms, the th term and the 1
(b) =1( + 2)( 3) = 3 (2 19)
( + 1)st of
1
(c) =1 2 ( + 1) = 12 ( + 1)( + 2)(3 + 1)
a. (3 2) 1
(d) =1 (2 3) = 4 ( + 1)( + 3)( 2)
=1
1
(e) =1 2 (3 4) = 2 ( + 1)(1 22 )
b. 2 2
=1

SOLUTIONS
c. (2 2 + 5) 1. (a) 1 + 4 + 7 + 10 + 13 + + (3 2) +
=3 (3 + 1)

d. 3 (b) 2 + 8 + 18 + 32 + 50 + + 22 + 2( + 1) 2
=2 (c) 23 + 37 + 55 + 77 + 103 + + (22 + 5) +
(2( + 1) 2 + 5)
2. Evaluate each of the following. (d) 8 + 27 + 64 + 125 + 216 + + 3 + ( + 1) 3
7 73
2. (a) 21 (b) 45 (c) 405 (d) 12
(a) (7 )
3. (a) =1(5 + 3) (b) =1 2(31 )
=1
5 (c) =1(27 ) (d) =1( + 1) 2
1 1
(b) (20 2 ) (e) =1 2 (f) =1 ( 2 )
=1
4. (a) 210 (b) 2460 (c) 372
8 (d) 5668 (e) 3775
(c) (2 2 + 5) EXAM QUESTIONS
=4
5
1. Given that
(d)
1
=2 = ( + 1),
3. Write the following series using sigma 2
=1
notation [assume that there are terms in the show that
series]
1
(a) 8 + 13 + 18 + 23 + (3 + 1) = (3 + 5)
(b) 2 + 6 + 18 + 54 + 162 + 2
=1
(c) 64 + 32 + 16 + 8 + [4]
(d) 4 + 9 + 16 + 25 + CAPE 2006
1 1 1 1
(e) + + + +
2 4 8 16
1 1 1 1
(f) + +
2 4 8 16
60
CHAPTER 10: SEQUENCES, SERIES and MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION

2. Let MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION



INTRODUCTION
= for
=1 LESSON 1 The ( + 1)st Term
Find the value of for which 32 = 11.
[4] PROOF OF SUMMATION
CAPE 2007 LESSON 2 Prove by Mathematical Induction
that the sum of the first odd integers is 2 .
3. (i) Show that PROOF

1
( + 1) = ( + 1)( + 2), Let : (2 1) = 2
3
=1
=1
[5] 1 : 2(1) 1 = 12
(ii) Hence, or otherwise, evaluate 1=1
50
Therefore, 1 is true
( + 1) Assume is true for =
=31
[3]
: 2 1 = 2
CAPE 2008
=1
+1
SOLUTIONS
+1 : 2 1 = ( + 1) 2
=1
1.
Now,
2. =5 +1 = + ( + 1)st term
3. 34 280 +1

2 1 = 2 1 + ( + 1)st term
..
=1 =1
= 2 + 2( + 1) 1
= 2 + 2 + 2 1
= 2 + 2 + 1
= ( + 1) 2
Therefore, +1 is true whenever is true.
Hence, by Mathematical Induction

2 1 = 2 for all
=1

LESSON 3 Prove by Mathematical Induction


that

(6 + 5) = 32 + 8
=1
for all positive integers .
PROOF

Let : (6 + 5) = 32 + 8
=1
1 : 6(1) + 5 = 3(1) 2 + 8(1)
6+5 =3+8
11 = 11
Thus, 1 is true.
Assume is true for =

61
CHAPTER 10: SEQUENCES, SERIES and MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION

1
( + 1)( + 2) + ( + 1)( + 2)
=
: (6 + 5) = 3 2 + 8 3
=1 1
= ( + 1)( + 2)[ + 3]
3
+1
Thus, +1 is true whenever is true.
+1 : (6 + 5) = 3( + 1)2 + 8( + 1)
=1 Hence, by Mathematical Induction

= 3( 2 + 2 + 1) + 8 + 8 1
= 3 2 + 6 + 3 + 8 + 8 ( + 1) = ( + 1)( + 2) for all
3
= 3 2 + 14 + 11 =1
Now,
+1 = + ( + 1)st term LESSON 5 Prove by Mathematical Induction
+1
1
+1 : (6 + 5) = (6 + 5) + ( + 1)st term =
( + 1)( + 2) 2( + 2)
=1 =1 =1
2
= 3 + 8 + 6( + 1) + 5 for all positive integers .

= 3 2 + 8 + 6 + 6 + 5 PROOF
= 3 2 + 14 + 11
Thus, +1 is true whenever is true. 1
Hence, by Mathematical Induction Let : =
( + 1)( + 2) 2( + 2)
=1
1 1
(6 + 5) = 32 + 8 for all 1 : =
=1
(1 + 1)(1 + 2) 2(1 + 2)
1 1
=
6 6
LESSON 4 Prove by Mathematical Induction Therefore, 1 is true.

1 Assume is true for = .
( + 1) = ( + 1)( + 2)
3 1
=1 : =
( + 1)( + 2)
=1
for all positive integers . +1
PROOF: 1 +1
+1 : =
( + 1)( + 2) 2( + 3)
1 =1
Let : ( + 1) = ( + 1)( + 2) Now,
3
=1 +1 = + ( + 1)st term
1 +1 1
1 : 1(1 + 1) = (1)(1 + 1)(1 + 2) +1 = +
3 2( + 3) ( + 2)( + 3)
2=2 ( + 3) 1(2)
Therefore, 1 is true. = +
Assume is true for = . 2( + 2)( + 3) 2( + 2)( + 3)

1 2 + 3 + 2
: ( + 1) = ( + 1)( + 2) =
3 2( + 1)( + 2)
=1
+1
1 ( + 1)( + 2)
+1 : ( + 1) = ( + 1)( + 1 + 1)( + 1 + 2) =
3 2( + 2)( + 3)
=1 +1
1 =
= ( + 1)( + 2)( + 3) 2( + 3)
3 Thus, +1 is true whenever is true.
Now,
+1 = + ( + 1)st term
+1 Hence, by Mathematical Induction

+1 : ( + 1) = ( + 1) + ( + 1)st term 1
= for all
=1 =1 ( + 1)( + 2) 2( + 2)
=1
1
= ( + 1)( + 2) + ( + 1)( + 1 + 1)
3

62
CHAPTER 10: SEQUENCES, SERIES and MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION

LESSON 6 Prove by mathematical induction Hence by mathematical induction


that

1

1 2 ( 1) = (2 1)(3 + 2)
12
2 ( 1) = (2 1)(3 + 2) =1
12
=1
for all positive integers .
for all positive integers .

PROOF ..
EXERCISE 10. 4

1
: 2 ( 1) = (2 1)(3 + 2) 1. (i) Find the th term of the series
12
=1 1(2) + 2(5) + 3(8) +
(ii) Prove, by Mathematical Induction, that
1
1 : 12 (1 1) = (1)(12 1)(3(1) + 2) the sum to terms of the series in (i)
12 above is 2 ( + 1).
0=0 2. Prove, by mathematical induction, that

Therefore, 1 is true. (4 + 1) = (2 + 3)
=1
Assume is true for =
for all positive integers .

1 3. Prove the following by Mathematical
: 2 ( 1) = ( 2 1)(3 + 2)
12 Induction for all +
=1

+1 a. 2 = ( + 1)(2 + 1)
+1 : 2 ( 1) =
1
( + 1)(( + 1)2 1)(3( + 1) + 2)
6
=1
12
=1

1 2
= ( + 1)( 2 + 2 )(3 + 5) b. 3 = ( + 1)2
12 4
=1

1
= ( + 1)( + 2)(3 + 5) 1
12 c. =
( + 1) + 1
=1
Now, +1 = + ( + 1) term
1
1 d. =
+1 = ( 2 1)(3 + 2) + ( + 1) 2 ( + 1 1) ( + 1)( + 2) 2( + 2)
=1
12

1 12( + 1)2 1
= ( + 1)( 1)(3 + 2) + e. =
12 12 ( + 3)( + 4) 4( + 4)
=1
1
= ( + 1)[ 1)(3 + 2) + 12( + 1)] ..
12
1 PROOF OF DIVISIBILITY
= ( + 1)(3 2 2 + 12 + 12) LESSON 7 Use Mathematical Induction to
12
show that 43 is divisible by 3, whenever is
1 a positive integer.
= ( + 1)(3 2 + 11 + 10)
12 PROOF
State the proposition
1 Let be the proposition that 43 is divisible by
= ( + 1)( + 2)(3 + 5)
12 3.
Using the definition of divisibility we have
Therefore +1 is true whenever is true.
: 43 = 3 for some integer
63
CHAPTER 10: SEQUENCES, SERIES and MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION

Part 1 Show that 1 is true ..


1 : 4(1)3 1 = 3 = 3(1) EXERCISE 10.5
Thus, 1 is true.
Part 2 Assume that is true for = . 1. Prove the following by Mathematical Induction
This is called the inductive step. for all +
: 4 3 = 3 (a) 72 1 is divisible by 48
Assume is true (b) 4 + 6 1 is divisible by 9 for 1,
+1 : 4( + 1)3 ( + 1) = 3 + .
Show that +1 must follow
Part 3 Show that +1 is true given that is EXAM QUESTIONS
true.
1. Prove, by mathematical induction, that
Now,
(2 + 5) is divisible by 6 for all positive
4( + 1)3 + 1
integers . [6]
= 4( 3 + 3 2 + 3 + 1) ( + 1)
CAPE 2011
= 4 3 + 12 2 + 12 + 4 1
= 4 3 + 12 2 + 11 + 3 2. Use mathematical induction to prove that
= (4 3 ) + 12 2 + 12 + 3 5 + 3 is divisible by 2 for all values of .
= (4 3 ) + 3(4 2 + 4 + 1) [8]
= 3 + 3(4 2 + 4 + 1) CAPE 2013
= 3( + 4 2 + 4 + 1)
Thus, if is true, then +1 is true. 3. Use mathematical induction to prove that
Conclusion:
Hence by Mathematical Induction is true for all 12 + 32 + 52 + + (2 1)2 = (42 1)
3
positive integers . for . [10]
CAPE 2014
LESSON 8 Prove that 42 1 is divisible by
5 for all positive integers . 4. Given that () = 5 + 52 + 53 + 54 + + 5 ,
PROOF use mathematical induction to prove that
Let : 42 1 = 5 4() = 5+1 5 for . [8]
1 : 42(1) 1 = 16 1 CAPE 2015
= 15 = 5(3)
Therefore, 1 is true. ..
Assume that is true for = .
: 42 1
42 = 5 + 1
+1 : 42(+1) 1 = 5
Now,
42(+1) 1 = 42+2 1
= 42 . 42 1
= (5 + 1)16 1
= 80 + 16 1
= 80 + 15
= 5(16 + 3)
Thus, 42(+1) 1 = 5 where = 16 + 3 is an
integer. Therefore +1 is true whenever is
true.
Hence, by Mathematical Induction, 42 1 is
divisible by 5 for all positive integers .

64
CHAPTER 11: THE REAL NUMBER SYSTEM

CHAPTER 11: THE REAL NUMBER SYSTEM


At the end of this section, students should be able be CLOSED on the set, , if is ALWAYS a
to: member of the set, .

perform binary operations LESSON 2a An operation is defined on the set


use the concepts of identity, closure, = {1, 2, 3, 4} as shown in the table below.
inverse, commutavity, associativity,
distributivity, addition, multiplication and 1 2 3 4
other binary operations. 1 1 3 5 7
2 2 4 6 8
BINARY OPERATIONS 3 3 5 7 9
The four basic operations are addition, 4 4 6 8 10
subtraction, multiplication and division. Their Determine if the operation is Closed on the set .
operators are +, ,, and respectively. A
binary operator is any operator other than these SOLUTION Since the table contains elements
four which combines two elements of a set to not found in the set the operation is NOT Closed
produce a third element. on the set .

LESSON 2b An operation is defined by


= 3 where and are real numbers.
CAYLEY TABLE Show that is closed on .

A binary operation on a finite set can be SOLUTION If is closed on , then


represented in the form of a table, sometimes = 3 is ALWAYS a real number.
called a Cayley table.
3 + () since the sum of two real
LESSON 1 The operation is defined on the numbers 3 and is ALWAYS real.
set = {1, 2, 3, 4} by = + 2 2,
determine the corresponding table. LESSON 2c An operation is defined by
+
= where and are real numbers.
2
SOLUTION The first column represents Determine if is closed on .
and the first row represents . Here are the
+
calculations for the first column. SOLUTION If is closed on , = is
2
ALWAYS an Integer. We will use a counter
= + 2 2
example.
1 1 = 1 + 2(1) 2 = 1 1+ 2 3
12 = =
2 1 = 2 + 2(1) 2 = 2 2 2
3
3 1 = 3 + 2(1) 2 = 3 Since 2 is NOT an Integer, is NOT ALWAYS a
member of . Therefore is NOT closed.
4 1 = 4 + 2(1) 2 = 4
LESSON 2d The operation is defined on
1 2 3 4
the set of real numbers by = 3 2.
1 1 3 5 7
Show that is not Closed on .
2 2 4 6 8
SOLUTION
3 3 5 7 9
is not closed on since the square root of a
4 4 6 8 10
negative number is not real.

CLOSURE COMMUTATIVITY
Let and be members of a set, , and be a Given that and are members of the set and
binary operation on . The operation is said to the operation is defined on the set , then is
COMMUTATIVE if = .
65
CHAPTER 11: THE REAL NUMBER SYSTEM

LESSON 3 An operation is defined by State, giving a reason for your answers, which
= 2 3 where and are real numbers. tables represent operations which are
State, with a reason, whether commutative.
SOLUTION
i) is Closed under the set of Real numbers, A binary operation is commutative if its
ii) is Commutative under the set of Real corresponding table is symmetric about the
numbers, leading diagonal. Therefore, and are
SOLUTION commutative.
(i) 2 is a real number and 3 is a real
number. ASSOCIATIVITY
The sum of 2 real numbers is real is Given that , and c are members of the set and
closed on . the operation is defined on the set , is
(ii) If is commutative = associative if ( ) = ( ) .
= 2 3
= 2 3 LESSON 4 An operation is defined by
2 3 2 3 is not = 2 3 where and are real numbers.
commutative State, with a reason, whether is Associative
under the set of Real numbers.
LESSON 3 The following tables represent
binary operations. SOLUTION
(a)
If is associative ( ) = ( ) where
1 2 3 4

1 0 1 2 3 ( ) = (2 3)
= 2(2 3) + 3
2 1 2 3 4 = 4 6 + 3
( ) = (2 3)
3 2 3 4 5 = 2 3(2 3)
4 3 4 5 6 = 2 6 + 9
4 6 + 3 2 6 + 9 is not
associative
(b)
1 2 3 4 LESSON 4 Given that the operation is
defined on the set of real numbers such that
1 1 3 5 7 = 5 + + , prove that is associative on .
SOLUTION
2 2 4 6 8 If is associative on then
( ) = ( ) for all , , .
3 3 5 7 9

4 4 6 8 10 =5++
( ) = ( )
(5 + + ) = (5 + + )
(c) 5+5++ + =5++5+ +
10 + + + = 10 + + +

66
CHAPTER 11: THE REAL NUMBER SYSTEM

IDENTITY AND INVERSE EXERCISE 11


If is the identity element for an operation then 1. For all real numbers and , let be defined
as = 3 2 + 2 .
= = (i) Prove that is Closed on the set of Real
numbers.
If is the inverse of an element , then (ii) Show that is not Commutative on the set
of Real numbers.
= = 2. The operation is defined on by
= 3 2 2 .
LESSON 5 The operation is defined on the (i) Show that is Closed on .
set of real numbers by = + 2. (ii) Show that is not Commutative on .
Determine
(i) the identity element of . 3. The operation is defined by
(ii) the inverse of , 1 = + where and are real
SOLUTION numbers and is a real number.
(i) Let be the identity element. State, with a reason, whether
= = (a) is closed in
+2= (b) is commutative in
2 =0 (c) is associative in
=2 4. The operation on real numbers is defined by
The identity element is 2. = ||.
(ii) 1 = 1 = (a) Show that is not commutative.
1 = 2 (b) Prove that is associative.
+ 1 2 = 2 5. For all real numbers and , let be
+ 1 = 4 defined as = 2 + + 2 .
1 = 4 State, with a reason, whether
(a) is closed in
LESSON 5 An operation is defined on the (b) is commutative in
set = {1, 2, 3, 4} as shown in the following table. (c) is associative in
1 2 3 4 6. The operation = + + for all real
1 0 1 2 3 numbers and . Determine which of the
2 1 2 3 4 following is/are true
3 2 3 4 5 (a) =
4 3 4 5 6 (b) ( 1)( + 1) = () + 1
(c) ( + ) = () + ()
Determine 7. A binary operation is defined on real
(a) the identity element of numbers and by
(b) the inverse of the element 3 = 2 + +
You may assume that the operation is
commutative and associative.
SOLUTION
(i) Explain briefly the meanings of the terms
commutative and associative
(a) Since the column headed by the 2 and the row 1 1 1
headed by the 2 correspond exactly to the set (ii) Show that = 2 ( + 2) ( + 2) 2
, 2 is the identity element.
= is the remainder when is divided
(b) Let represent the inverse of 3 by 7

(iii) Show that 4 6 = 2.


3 = where is the identity element

3 =2

From the table 3 1 = 2, therefore the inverse


of 3 is 1.
67
CHAPTER 11: THE REAL NUMBER SYSTEM

8. The binary operation is defined on the set


{0, 1, 2, 3, 4} as shown in the table below.
* 0 1 2 3 4 DIRECT PROOFS
0 0 1 2 3 4 Other mathematical statements can be proven by
1 1 2 3 4 0 using deduction; this is usually the case. In proof
2 2 3 4 0 1 by deduction, each step is deduced from the
3 3 4 0 1 2 previous one or is justified by quoting an accepted
4 4 0 1 2 3 fact or a result previously proven, to arrive at the
required result.
(a) Is * closed on the set? Give a reason for
your answer. LESSON 1 Prove that for any two positive
(b) Is * commutative? Give a reason for your numbers and
+
answer.
(c) State the identity element of *. 2
(d) State the inverse element of 3. SOLUTION
2
(e) Determine if (3 1) 4 = 3 (1 4). ( ) 0
Hence, state if * is associative. + 2 0
SOLUTIONS + 2
2 + 2
1. +
2.
2
3. (a) Yes (b) Yes (c) Yes
4. LESSON 2 Prove that for , ( + 1) is
5. (a) Yes (b) Yes (c) No even.
6. (a) True (b) False (c) True SOLUTION
7. Suppose is even, then + 1 is odd and the
8. (a) Yes (b) Yes (c) 0 (d) 2 (e) Yes product of an even number and an odd number is
even.
EXAM QUESTIONS Suppose is odd, then + 1 is even and the
product of an odd number and an even number is
1. A binary operator is defined on a set of
even. Therefore, ( + 1) is even.
positive real numbers by
= 2 + 2 + 2 + 5

Solve the equation 2 = 0. [5]
1. Prove that if and are real numbers then
CAPE 2013
2 + 2 2.
2. A binary operator is defined on a set of EXAM QUESTIONS
positive real numbers by
= 3 + 3 + 2 + 2 5 5 + 16 1. The smallest of three consecutive integers is
where is a real number. .
(i) State, giving a reason for your answer, if Write down the other two integers.
is commutative in . [3] Prove that the sum of any three consecutive
(ii) Given that () = 2 and ( 1) is a integers is divisible by 3.
factor of (), 2. Given that > , and < 0 for the real
a) find the value of [4] numbers , and , show that < . [4]
b) factorise completely. [3] CAPE 2004

CAPE 2014 3. Prove that the product of any two consecutive


SOLUTIONS integers and + 1 is an even integer. [2]
CAPE 2011
1. = 1, 8
2. (i) Yes, =
(i) (a) = 2
(b) ( 1)( 3)( + 2)
68
CHAPTER 12: REASONING AND LOGIC

CHAPTER 12: REASONING AND LOGIC


At the end of this section, students should be able (iv) Dogs are lovable and cats are unfriendly.
to: (v) If I study a lot then I will pass my exams.
(vi) If I score more than 80%, I will receive a
identify simple and compound grade A, and if I receive a grade A, my
propositions; score will be more than 80%.
establish the truth value of compound
statements using truth tables; SOLUTION
state the converse, contrapositive and
inverse of a conditional (implication) (i)
statement; (ii)
(iii)
determine whether two statements are
logically equivalent. (iv)
(v)
__________________________________________________________ (vi) ( ) ( ) or ( )

A proposition is a statement which is either true TRUTH TABLES


or false. Propositions are usually denoted by A truth table shows the truth or falsity of a
letters: , , , Connectors are used to form statement by listing all of the possible outcomes.
compound propositions from two or more A tautology is a statement that is always true.
propositions. Here is a list of connectors A contradiction is a statement that is always false.
conjunction (i.e. and) A contingency is a statement that is sometimes
inclusive (i.e. injunction / or) true and sometimes false.
~ negation (i.e. not)
implication (i.e. ifthen) LESSON 2 Construct truth tables for
equivalence (i.e. if and only if)
The statement I brush my teeth and I floss is a a)
Compound Proposition since it is the combination b)
of the simple propositions I brush my teeth and I c)
floss. With the use of propositional notation, also d)
known as mathematical logic, this can be written e)
as and state whether the proposition is a tautology,
I brush my teeth I floss contradiction or a contingency.
Furthermore, if we let
= I brush my teeth SOLUTION
= I floss
a)
we can then simplify our statement to . Thus,

we have created a Boolean expression.
0 1
LESSON 1 Given that 1 0
= dogs are lovable This is a contingency.
= cats are friendly b)
= I study a lot
= I pass my exams 0 1 0
= I score more than 80% 1 0 0
= I receive a grade This is a contradiction. Furthermore,
use the symbols of propositional notation to write = 0
down Boolean expressions to represent the c)
statements:
0 1 1
(i) Dogs are lovable and cats are friendly. 1 0 1
(ii) Dogs are lovable or cats are friendly. This is a tautology. Furthermore, = 1
(iii) Dogs are not lovable.
69
CHAPTER 12: REASONING AND LOGIC

d) SOLUTION

0 0 0 (i)
0 1 0
1 0 0 0 0 1
1 1 1 0 1 1
This is a contingency. 1 0 0
e) 1 1 1
(ii)
0 0 1 1
0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1
1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0
1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1
This is a contingency. 1 1 0 0 1

LESSON 3 Construct truth tables for (iii) NB: means ( ) ( )


( ) ( )
(i) ( ) 0 0 1 1 1
(ii) ( ) 0 1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1 0
SOLUTION
1 1 1 1 1
(i)
( ) CONVERSE, INVERSE AND
0 0 0 0 0 CONTRAPOSITIVE
0 0 1 0 1 LESSON 5
0 1 0 0 0 Consider the proposition
0 1 1 0 1 Its converse is .
1 0 0 0 0 Interchange propositions.
1 0 1 0 1 Its inverse is .
1 1 0 1 1 Negate both propositions.
1 1 1 1 1 Its contrapositive is .
(ii) Interchange propositions and negate.
(
) LOGICAL EQUIVALENCE
LESSON 6 Construct a single truth table for
0 0 0 1 1 1 0 and .
0 0 1 1 1 1 1 SOLUTION
0 1 0 1 0 1 0

0 1 1 1 0 1 1
0 0 1 1 1
1 0 0 0 1 1 0
0 1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0 1 1 1
1 0 0 0 0
1 1 0 0 0 0 0
1 1 0 1 1
1 1 1 0 0 0 0
Since the two columns for and are
identical these two propositions are logically
equivalent.
LESSON 4 Construct truth tables for

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

70
CHAPTER 12: REASONING AND LOGIC

LAWS OF BOOLEAN ALGEBRA = { ) ( )} { ( )}


Identity: = {0 ( )} ( ) ( )}
= ( ) {( ) 0}
= ( ) ( )
1 1 = ( ) ( )
1 = ( )
0 =1
0 0 =
Commutative: RHS

EXERCISE 12
Complement:
1. Given that is the statement, I will go to the
1
beach and is the statement It is extremely
0
hot represent the following as Boolean
expressions.
Double Negation:
(i) I will not go to the beach.
( )
(ii) It is extremely hot and I will go to the
Associative:
beach.
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) (iii) If it is extremely hot then I will go to the
beach.
2. Construct truth tables for each of the
Distributive:
( ) ( ) ( ) following.
( ) ( ) ( ) (a) ~
(b) ~
(c)
Absorbtion:
( ) (d)
( ) and state whether the proposition is a
tautology, contradiction or a contingency.
De Morgans:
( ) 3. Construct truth tables for
( ) (a) ( )
(b) ( )
4. Construct truth tables for
LESSON 7 Use the laws of algebra of (a)
propositions to show that (b) ( )
( ) . (c) ( ) ( )
SOLUTION 5. State the converse, inverse and contrapositive
LHS of ( ) ( ).
( ) 6. Show that ( ) and are
= ( )
logically equivalent.
Since and are logically equivalent.
7. Simplify
= ( ) ( ) (a) ( )
= 0 ( )
(b) [ ( )] [ ( )]
= 8. Prove the following statements, using the
RHS laws of Boolean Algebra
(i) ( ) ( ) = ( )
LESSON 8 Show that (ii) ( ) ( ) = ( )
{ ( )} { ( )} .
(iii) ( ) ( ) =
SOLUTION
(iv) [( ) ( )] =
LHS (v) ( ) = ( )
{ ( )} { ( )} (vi) [ ( )] [ ( )] =
71
CHAPTER 12: REASONING AND LOGIC

(vii) [( ) ( )] = 1
(viii) ( ( )) = 0

EXAM QUESTIONS

9. Let and be two propositions.


(i) State the converse of ( ) ( ).
[1]
(ii) Show that the contrapositive of the
inverse of ( ) ( ) is the
converse of ( ) ( ). [3]
CAPE 2013
10. Let , and be three propositions. Construct
a truth table for the statement
( ) ( ). [5]
CAPE 2014

11. Let and be any two propositions.


(i) State the inverse and the contrapositive of
the statement . [2]
(ii) Copy and complete the table below to
show the truth table for and
.


T T
T F
F T
F F
[4]
(iii) Hence, state whether the compound
statement and are
logically equivalent. Justify your response.
[2]
CAPE 2015
12. State the converse, inverse and contrapositive
of . [5]
APPLIED MATHEMATICS 2015

SOLUTIONS
SEE PAGE 166

72
CHAPTER 12: REASONING AND LOGIC

MODULE TWO: VECTORS,


TRIGONOMETRY AND COORDINATE
GEOMETRY
CHAPTER 13: TWO DIMENSIONAL VECTORS
At the end of this section, students should be able find the equation of the plane, in the form
to: + + = , . = , given a point
in the plane and the normal to the plane.

express a vector in the form ( ) or _________________________________________________________
+ ; , ;
define equal vectors;
, REPRESENTATION
INTRODUCTION
add and subtract vectors;
multiply a vector by a scalar quantity;
derive and use unit vectors;
find displacement vectors;
find the magnitude and direction of a
vector;
define the scalar product of two vectors:
(i) in terms of their components;
(ii) in terms of their magnitudes and the
angle between them;
find the angle between two given vectors;
apply properties of parallel and
perpendicular vectors. which is a vector such that
The diagram shows
= (3)

express a vector in the form ( ) or 4
1
Alternately the base unit vectors = ( ) and
+ + where , and are unit 0
0
vectors in the direction of , and = ( ) can be used to express vectors.
1
axis respectively;
define equality of two vectors;
add and subtract vectors;
multiply a vector by a scalar quantity;
derive and use unit vectors, position
vectors and displacement vectors;
find the magnitude and direction of a = 3 (1) + 4 (0) = (3) + (0) = (3)

0 1 0 4 4
vector; = 3 + 4

find the angle between two vectors using
scalar product;
find the equation of a line in vector form,
parametric form, Cartesian form, given a
point on the line and a vector parallel to
the line;
determine whether two lines are parallel,
intersecting or skewed;
73
CHAPTER 13: VECTORS

, , REPRESENTATION LESSON 2 The three points , and are



2 = ( ). Given that
INTRODUCTION such that = ( ) and
3 2
In three dimensions, the base vectors are is a unit vector, calculate the possible values of

1 0 0 .
= (0) , = (1) , = (0) SOLUTION
0 0 1
=
+
that are along the , and z coordinate directions, 2
= ( ) + (2 )
respectively, as shown in the figure. 3
4 2 +
=( )
For example, = ( 3 ) can be written as 3 + 2
2 Since
is a unit vector the length of is 1,
4 + 3 + 2. therefore
( 2) 2 + (2 3)2 = 1
2 4 + 4 + 4 2 12 + 9 = 1
5 2 16 + 12 = 0
(5 6)( 2) = 0
6
= , 2
5

LESSON 3 Determine the unit vector in the


4
direction of the vector = ( 3 ).
2
The magnitude of : SOLUTION
| = (4) 2 + (3) 2 + (2)2 = 29
|
|| = (4)2 + 32 + 22 = 29
4
1
Unit Vector= (3)
Consequently, 29
4 3 2 2

= + +
29 29 29 SCALAR (DOT) PRODUCT
We define the scalar (dot) product of 2 vectors
= + and = + as
UNIT VECTORS . = ( + ). ( + ) = +
LESSON 1 Given the position vectors of the LESSON 4 If = 2 + and = 3 4
points and relative to a fixed point are determine .
= (2) and
= (1), determine SOLUTION
5 4 . = (2 + ). (3 4)
in the form + = (2)(3) + (1)(4)
(i)
= 10
(ii) |
|
(iii) .
the unit vector in the direction of Given 3 dimensional vectors we define their dot
product as follows;
SOLUTION If = + + and = + + then
. = ( + + ). ( + + )
(i) = 2 + 5 and
= + 4 = + +
=
+

= (2 + 5) + ( + 4) LESSON 5 If = + 3 2 and
= 3 = 2 4 determine .
(ii) | = (3) 3 + ( 1)2 = 10
| SOLUTION
(iii) Unit vector in the direction of . = ( + 3 2). (2 4)
1 = ( 1)(2) + (3)(0) + (2)( 4)
(3 ) =6
10
74
CHAPTER 13: VECTORS

ANGLE BETWEEN TWO VECTORS ( + 5). (2 3)


= cos
We can use the scalar product to find the angle (1)2 + 52 (2) 2 + (3)2
between two vectors, thanks to the following (1)(2) + (5)(3)
formula: = cos
2613
. = |||| cos 2 15 13
where is the angle between the vectors. = = cos
2613 2613
13
cos 1 ( )=
2613
135 =
2 2
Notice that the vectors and are going away LESSON 8 Given that = ( 2) , = (6)
from the angle, . 1 3
An important fact is that two vectors are
perpendicular (orthogonal) if and only if their dot and = ( ), find
product is zero. This is because if = 90, then +1
. = 0 (Recall: cos 90 = 0) (i) The angle between the directions of and .
(ii) The value of for which and c are
LESSON 6 The position vectors of points perpendicular
and with respect to the origin are given by SOLUTION
= 3 + 2 and
= 2 4. (i) . = |||| cos
Find 2 2
(2) . (6)
(a) (i) in terms of and
1 3 = cos
(ii) The magnitude of 22 + (2)2 + 122 + 62 + 32
(2)(2) + (2)(6) + (1)(3)
(b) Determine whether is perpendicular to
= cos
949
SOLUTION 5
= cos
21
(a) (i) = +
5
= cos 1 ( ) = 103.8
= (3 2) + (2 4) 21
= 6 (ii) If and are perpendicular then . = 0
2
(ii) | | = (1) 2 + (6)2 = 37
(6) . ( ) = 0
is perpendicular to
(b) If then
.
= 0 3 +1
.
= (3 + 2). (2 4) 2 + 6 + 3( + 1) = 0
= (3)(2) + (2)( 4) 2 + 6 + 3 + 3 = 0
= 2 11 = 3
Therefore, and
are not perpendicular. 3
=
11
LESSON 7 The position vectors of and
relative to an origin O are + 8 and 2 + 3. Use
a vector method to find EXERCISE 13.1
SOLUTION
1. Three points , and have coordinates
NB: Since we are finding , is located at .
(1, 2), (2, 5) and (0, 4) respectively, relative
Thus, we need the 2 vectors which are going away
to the origin .
from C i.e. and

(i) Express the position vector of , and
=
+ in terms of and
= +
=
(ii) If , find the position vector of
= 2 3) + ( + 8)
( in terms of and .
= + 5 2. The position vectors of points and ,
.
relative to an origin , are 6 3 and
= cos
|. |
| | 15 + 9 respectively.

75
CHAPTER 13: VECTORS

(i) Find the unit vector parallel to . 11. The position vectors of three points , and
The point lies on such that = 2 . with respect to a fixed origin are
(ii) Find the position vector of . 2 2 + , 4 + 2 + and + + 3
3. The position vectors of points and relative respectively. Find the unit vectors in the
to an origin are 3 and + 2 directions of and
.
respectively. The point lies on and is Calculate angle in degrees, correct to 1
= 3
such that . Find the position vector decimal place.
5 12. Relative to an origin , the position vectors of
of and show that it is a unit vector. points and are 2 + + 2 and
17 4
4. Given that
= ( ) and
= ( ), find 3 2 + respectively.
25 5
, (i) Find the value of for which and
(i) the unit vector parallel to
are perpendicular.
(ii) the vector , such that = 3 .
(ii) In the case where = 6, use a scalar
5. The position vectors of the points and , product to find angle , correct to the
relative to an origin , are 7 and 4 + nearest degree.
respectively, where is a scalar. The unit in terms of and
(iii) Express the vector
vector in the direction of is 0.6 + 0.8,
hence find the values of for which the
find the value of . length of is 3.5 units.
6. The points and are such that the unit 13. Relative to an origin , the position vectors of
vector in the direction of is 0.28 + , the points and are given by
where is a positive constant.
= 2 8 + 4 and = 7 + 2
(i) Find the value of .
(i) Find the value of .
and hence
state whether angle is acute,
The position vectors of and , relative to an
origin , are 7 and 12 + 17 obtuse or a right angle.
(ii) The point is such that = 2
.
respectively. 5
(ii) Find the value of the constant . Find the unit vector in the direction
7. The position vectors, relative to an origin , of of .
three points , and are + 3, 5 + 11 SOLUTIONS
and 9 + 9 respectively.
(i) By finding the magnitude of the 1. = + 2,
(i) = 2 + 5, = 4
vectors
,
and , show that
(ii) =
angle is 90. 1
2. (i) 5 (3 + 4) = 12 + 5
(ii)
(ii) Find the unit vector parallel to .
3. = 3 + 4

(iii) Given that = +
, where 5 5
and are constants, find the value 1 21 = ( 46 )
4. (i) Unit vector: 29 ( ) (ii)
of and . 20 35
8. Given that = 2 + and = + 3, 5. = 3
24
show that is perpendicular to . 6. (i) = (ii) = 5
25
9. In a triangle , the position vectors of , 1 8 2
and are respectively 7. (i) (ii) Unit vector: 10 ( ) (iii) = 3, = 9
6
+ , 3 + 4, and 4
8.
(i) Find and

9. = 2 3,
= 3 2
(ii) Show that = 90
10. (a) The position vectors of points and
10. (a) (i) = 6 (ii) 37
with respect to the origin are given by (b) not perpendicular
1 1
= 3 + 2 and
= 2 4. 11. ( 3 2), (3 + 2) = 73.4
14 14
Find 12. (i) = 2 (ii) = 40 (iii) = 0.5, 3.5
(i) in terms of and 4
1
(ii) The magnitude of 13. (i) Obtuse (ii)
= 6 (4)
(b) Determine whether is perpendicular 2
to
.
76
CHAPTER 13: VECTORS

EXAM QUESTIONS (b) , where is such that ,


labelled clockwise, forms a
1. In a triangle, the position vectors of , and parallelogram. [3]
are respectively + , 3 + 4 and 4 CAPE 2009

(i) and
Find . [2] 7. The vectors and are given by = 6 + 4
(ii) Show that = 90. [2] and = 8 9
CAPE 2000 (i) Calculate, in degrees, the angle
between and . [5]
2. If the position vector of the point is 3 (ii) (a) Find a non zero vector such
and the position vector of the point is that . = 0.
2 + 5, find (b) State the relationship between
(i) |
| [4] and . [5]
(ii) the position vector of the mid point CAPE 2010
of . [3] SOLUTIONS
CAPE 2002
1. = 2 3,
(i) = 3 2
3. The position vector of a point is + 3. Find 2. | = 65, (ii)
(i) | = 3 +
2
(a) the unit vector in the direction of . [2] 1 10
3. (a) =
( + 3) (b) ( + 3)
(b) the position vector of a point on 10 2

produced such that | | = 5. [2] (c) = 4
(c) the value of such that the vector 3 + 4 4. (a) = 3, = 1
.
is perpendicular to the vector [2] 5. = 6
(i)
CAPE 2004 | = 37 not perpendicular
(ii) |
4. Given the vectors = 2 + 3 and = 3 2, 6. (i) (a) 30.01, (b) (i) 13 units 2
(a) Find , such that (ii) (a) = + 7 (b) = 4 + 2
+ = 3 11. [7] 7. (i) 165.32
(b) Show that and are perpendicular. [2] (ii) (a) = 2 3 (1 possibility)
CAPE 2006 (b)

5. The position vectors of points and with


respect to an origin are given by
= 3 + 2 and
= 2 4. Find

(i) in terms of and


[2]
(ii) the magnitude of [2]

Determine whether is perpendicular to
.
[3]
CAPE 2007

6. The points and have position vectors


relative to the origin given respectively by
= + 6 and = 3 + 8.
(i) (a) Calculate, in degrees, the size of the
acute angle between and . [5]
(b) Hence, calculate the area of triangle
. [2]
(ii) Find, in terms of and , the position
vector of
(a) , where is the midpoint of
[2]

77
CHAPTER 13: VECTORS

2 4
THE VECTOR EQUATION OF A LINE = (3) + ( 0 )
INTRODUCTION 1 5
2
=( 3 )
6
2 2
= (3) + ( 3 )
1 6
NB: could have been used as the needed
as the required parallel
position vector and
vector.

LESSON 10 Determine the vector equation of


the line which passes through (2, 3, 1) and is
parallel to the vector 2 in
(i) Vector form
(ii) Parametric form and
The equation of a line can be written in the form (iii) Cartesian form.
= + SOLUTION
where is the position vector of any point on the Vector Form
line and is any vector parallel to the line. is 2 1
referred to as the direction vector. = (3) + (1)
1 2
LESSON 9a Determine the vector equation of Parametric Form

the line which passes through the point (2, 9) Let = ( )
= (1).
and is parallel to the vector
2 2 1
SOLUTION ( ) = (3) + (1)
2
= = ( ) 1 2
9 2+
1
=( ) = (3 )
2
2 1 1 + 2
= ( )+ ( ) =2+ (1)
9 2
= 2 + 9 + ( 2) = 3 (2)
= 1 2 (3)
LESSON 9b Determine the vector equation of Cartesian Form
the line which is parallel to the vector We need to eliminate the parameter.
3 + 2 4 and passes through the point with From (1): 2 =
position vector 2 + . (2): 3 =
1
SOLUTION (3): 2 =
= 2 + Since = =
= 3 + 2 4 ( 1)
= 2 + + (3 + 2 4) 2 = 3 =
2
LESSON 9C The line passes through the LESSON 11 Show that the following pair of
points (2, 3, 1) and (4, 0, 5). Determine the lines is parallel.
vector equation of . : 5 + 3 + 4 + ( + 2 + 3)
SOLUTION : = 4 2 + + (3 6 9)
2 SOLUTION We simply need to show that the
= (3) two direction vectors are parallel.
1 Since 3 6 9 = 3( + 2 + 3) the two
=
lines are parallel.
= +

78
CHAPTER 13: VECTORS

LESSON 12 Show that the following pair of LESSON 13 Determine the equation of the
lines intersect and determine the point of plane, in vector form and Cartesian form, which
intersection. contains the point (2, 3, 1) with normal
: = 4 3 + + ( + 2 ) 2 + 3.
: = 2 + 6 + (5 + 3 + ) SOLUTION
SOLUTION There must exist and such The equation of a plane can be written in the form
that . = .
4 3 + + ( + 2 ) where is a vector perpendicular to the plane and
= 2 + 6 + (5 + 3 + ) is a position vector of a point on the plane.
Equating coefficients of : 1 2 1
4 + = 2 5 . ( 2) = (3) . (2)
+ 5 = 2 (1) 3 1 3
1
. ( 2) = 2(1) + (3)(2) + 1(3)
Equating coefficients of :
3
3 + 2 = 6 + 3 1
2 3 = 9 (2) . ( 2) = 11
Solving (1) and (2) 3
(1) 2: 2 + 10 = 4 Cartesian form
2 3 = 9
13 = 13 Let = ( )
= 1
1
=3
( ) . (2) = 11
We will now equate the coefficients of to 3
determine if the values of and are consistent. 2 + 3 = 11
Equating coefficients of :
1 = 1 +
1 3 = 1 + (1) EXERCISE 13.2
2 = 2
The values are consistent therefore and 1. Determine the equation of the line which
intersect. passes through the point
We simply substitute = 3 into or = 1 into
to determine the point of intersection. (i) (1, 1, 3) and is parallel to the vector
4 3 + + 3( + 2 ) = 7 + 3 2 2
7 ( 0 ).
Point is ( 3 ) 1
2 (ii) (4, 3, 2) and is parallel to the vector
NB: If the values for and are inconsistent and 9
the lines are not parallel they are referred to as (2).
SKEWED. 1
(iii) (3, 4, 3) and is parallel to the vector
8
VECTOR EQUATION OF A PLANE (3).
7
(iv) (5, 2, 3) and is parallel to the vector
4
(5).
7
(v) (3, 5, 5) and is parallel to the vector
8
(8).
3
The vector equation of a plane can be written as
= + +
where is a position vector of a point on the plane
and and are vectors parallel to the plane.
79
CHAPTER 13: VECTORS

2. Find the equation of the line which passes (b) The line passes through (2, 3, 1)
through the points and with position and (4, 1, 1).
vectors (i) Find the vector equation of .
(ii) Find the angle between and
5 0 .
(i) (4) and (3) respectively. 7. The position vectors of the points and
3 4 with respect to an origin are 5 + 2 9
and 4 + 4 6 respectively.
5 1
(i) Find a vector equation for the line
(ii) (2) and ( 0 ) respectively.
.
2 4
The position vector of the point is
3 2 + 2 .
(iii) ( 0 ) and ( 0 ) respectively. (ii) Write down a vector equation for the
3 2 line and show that is
3 4 perpendicular to .
(iv) ( 0 ) and (3) respectively. It is given that intersects .
5 0 (iii) Find the position vector of the point
of intersection of and .
5 4 8. Lines 1 , 2 and 3 have vector equations
(v) ( 5 ) and ( 5 ) respectively. 1 : = (5 2) + (6 + 8 2)
5 0 2 : = (3 8) + ( + 3 + 2)
3 : = (2 + + 3) + (3 + + )
3. The points and have position vectors
(i) Calculate the acute angle between 1 and
2 9 5 and 10 3 respectively,
2 .
relative to an origin . The line passes
(ii) Given that 1 and 3 are parallel, find the
through and . Obtain a vector equation of .
value of .
4. Determine the vector equation of the line (iii) Given instead that 2 and 3 intersect,
which passes through (8, 3, 2) and is parallel find the value of .
to the vector + 3 2 in 9. (i) Show that the straight line with equation
2 1
(i) Vector form = (3) + ( 4 ) meets the line
(ii) Parametric form and 5 2
passing through (9, 7, 5) and (7, 8, 2), and
(iii) Cartesian form.
find the point of intersection of these
5. The line 1 has equation lines.
= 2 + 3 4 + ( + 2 + ) where is a (ii) Find the acute angle between these lines.
scalar parameter.
10. Find the equation of the plane, in vector form
The line 2 has equation and Cartesian form, through the point
= 9 3 + (5 + 2) where is a scalar (4, 3, 1) that is perpendicular to the vector
parameter. = 4 + 7 2.
Given that 1 and 2 meet at the point , find
11. Find an equation of the plane through the
the coordinates of .
point (6, 3, 2) and perpendicular to the vector
6. The quadrilateral has vertices
(2, 1, 5). Check if (2, 1, 0) and (1, 2, 1) are
(2, 1, 3), (6, 5, 3), (6, 1, 1) and
in that plane.
(2, 3, 1). The line has vector equation
6 1 12. Find an equation of the plane through the
= ( 1 ) + (1 ). point (4, 2, 3) and parallel to the plane
1 0 3 7 = 12.
(a) (i) Find the vector . 13. Find an equation for the plane through
(ii) Show that the line is parallel to . (1, 1, 3) parallel to the plane
(iii) Verify that lies on . 3 + + = 7.
14. Find an equation of the plane through the
points (0, 1, 1), (1, 0, 1) and (1, 1, 0).
80
CHAPTER 13: VECTORS

3
SOLUTIONS 8. (i) 68.5 (ii) = 4 (iii) = 5
1 2 9. (i) (ii) 62.2
1. (i) = ( 1 ) + ( 0 ) 4
10. . ( 7 ) = 35, 4 + 7 2 = 35
3 1
4 9 2
(ii) = ( 3 ) + ( 2) 2
11. . ( 1 ) = 1, No, Yes
2 1
3 8 5
(iii) = ( 4 ) + (3) 3
12. . ( 0 ) = 9
3 7
5 4 7
3
(iv) = ( 2 ) + (5)
13. . ( 1) = 7
3 7
3 8 1
(v) = ( 5 ) + ( 8) 1
14. . ( 1) = 2
5 3
5 5 1
2. (i) = (4) + ( 1 )
3 7 EXAM QUESTIONS
5 6 1. The points (3, 1, 2), (1, 2, 4) and
(ii) = (2) + ( 2) (1, 1, 2) are three vertices of a
2 6 parallelogram .
3 1
(iii) = ( 0 ) + ( 0 ) (i) Express the vectors and
in the
3 5 form + + . [3]
3 1
(iv) = ( 0 ) + (3) (ii) Show that the vector = 16 8 is
perpendicular to the plane through ,
5 5
5 9 and . [5]
(v) = ( 5 ) + ( 0 ) (iii) Hence, find the Cartesian equation
5 5 through , and . [4]
3. = 2 9 5 + (8 + 6 + 4 ) CAPE 2013

8 1 2. The points (3, 2, 1) , ( 1, , 5) and


4. (i) = (3) + ( 3 ), (2, 1, 4) are three vertices of a triangle
2 2 .

= 8+ (i) Express EACH of the vectors ,


and
(ii) = 3 + 3 in the form + + .
[4]
= 2 2 (ii) Hence, find the value of , given that
+3 2 is right angled with the side as
(iii) 8 = = hypotenuse. [6]
3 2
5 CAPE 2014
5. = (9)
5 SOLUTIONS
4 = 2 + 3 6,
1. (i)
6. (a) (i) ( 4) (ii) (iii)
= 2 + 2

0
2 2 (ii) (iii) 2 + = 0
(b) (i) = (3) + (4) (ii) 90 = 4 + (2 + ) + 4,
2. (i)
1 2 = 3 + (1 ) (ii) = 15

7. (i) = 5 + 2 9 + ( + 2 + 3)
3
(ii) = ( + 2 ) (iii) ( 6 )
3

81
CHAPTER 14: THE EQUATION OF A CIRCLE

CHAPTER 14: THE EQUATION OF A CIRCLE


At the end of this section, students should be able Therefore, the equation of a circle with radius
to: and centre at (, ) is
find the equations of tangents and normal ( ) 2 +( )2 = 2 >0
to circles; The equation of a circle with radius and centre at
find the points of intersection of a curve (0, 0):
with a straight line; 2 + 2 = 2 >0
find the points of intersection of two The equation of a circle can also be written in the
curves; form
determine the equation of a circle given 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + = 0 where
three points on the circles circumference = 2 + 2 2

__________________________________________________________ DETERMINING THE EQUATION OF A


For the line above we have the following CIRCLE
formulae: LESSON 1 Find the equation of the circle
with radius 4 and centre at:
(a) (3, 6) (b) (0, 0)
SOLUTION
(a) (, ) = (3, 6) and = 4;
( ) 2 +( )2 = 2
[ (3)]2 +( 6) 2 = 42
( + 3) 2 +( 6) 2 = 16

1 + 2 1 + 2 (b) (, ) = (0, 0)and = 4


Mid point of = ( , )
2 2 2 + 2 = 2
Length of = (1 2 )2 + (1 2 )2 2 + 2 = 42
1 2 2 + 2 = 16
Gradient of =
1 2
Generally, we have the equation of a line is of the FINDING THE CENTRE AND RADIUS
form OF A CIRCLE
= + Standard Form LESSON 2 Find the centre and radius of the
where is the gradient of the line and is the -
circle with equation
intercept i.e. where the line cuts the -axis.
i. 2 + 2 + 6 4 = 23
NEED TO KNOW ii. 3 2 3 2 + 21 = 0
Two lines are parallel if they have the same SOLUTION We transform the equation into
gradient. the form ( ) 2 +( )2 = 2 by completing
Two lines are perpendicular if the product of their the square relative to and relative to . From
gradients is 1. this standard form we can determine the centre
Lets find the equation of a and radius.
circle with radius ( > 0) i. 2 + 2 + 6 4 = 23
and centre (, ) in a ( 2 + 6 ) + ( 2 4 ) = 23
rectangular coordinate ( 2 + 6 + 9) + ( 2 4 + 4) = 23 + 9 + 4
system. The point (, ) is ( + 3) 2 + ( 2) 2 = 36
on the circle if and only if [ (3)]2 + ( 2) 2 = 62
the distance = ; that Centre: (, ) = (3, 2) Radius: = 6
is, if and only if
( ) 2 +( )2 = >0 ii. 3 2 3 2 + 21 = 0
or equivalently, 2 + 2 7 = 0
( )2 +( )2 = 2 >0 2 + 2 = 7
( 0) 2 + ( 0) 2 = 7
82
CHAPTER 14: THE EQUATION OF A CIRCLE

2
( 0) 2 + ( 0) 2 = (7) need to show that there is only one point of
contact.
Centre: (, ) = (0, 0)
= 1 (1)
Radius: = 7
2 + 2 + 12 + 2 = 19 (2)
Solving (1) and (2) simultaneously
2 + ( 1)2 + 12 + 2( 1) + 19 = 0
TANGENTS AND NORMALS 2 2 + 12 + 18 = 0
LESSON 3 The circle has equation 2 + 6 + 9 = 0
( 4) 2 + ( 3) 2 = 25.
( + 3) 2 = 0
(i) State the radius and the coordinates of the = 3
centre of . = 4
(ii) Find the equation of the tangent at the point Since (3, 4) is the only point of contact, the line
(8, 6) on . = 1 is a tangent to the curve.
(iii) Calculate the coordinates of the points of
intersection of with the straight line
= + 8.
SOLUTION
(i) Centre (4, 3) radius is 5
63 3
(ii) Gradient of radius is 84 = 4 gradient of
4
tangent is 3
4
= + using (8, 6) and = LESSON 5 A curve is defined by the
3
4 equation 2 + 2 6 2 + 1 = 0.
6 = (8) + (i) Show that the centre and the radius of the
3
50 circle, , are (3, 1) and 3 respectively.
= (ii) (a) Find the equation of the normal to the
3
4 50 circle at the point (6, 1).
= +
3 3 (b) Show that the tangent to the circle at the
(iii) Solving the two equations simultaneously point (6, 1) is parallel to the -axis.
( 4) 2 + ( 3) 2 = 25 (1) SOLUTION
= + 8 (2) (i) 2 + 2 6 2 = 1
Subbing (2) into (1) 2 6 + 9 + 2 2 + 1 = 1 + 9 + 1
( 4) 2 + ( + 8 3)2 = 25 ( 3) 2 + ( 1) 2 = 9
2 8 + 16 + 2 10 + 25 = 25 Centre (3, 1) radius is 3
11
2 2 18 + 16 = 0 (ii) (a) = =0
36
2 9 + 8 = 0
Gradient of normal is undefined
( 8)( 1) = 0
Equation of normal is = 6
= 1, 8
(b) Gradient of the -axis is 0 and the
= 7, 0
gradient of the tangent is 0, therefore,
(1, 7) and (8, 0)
they are parallel.

LESSON 4 Prove that the line = 1 is a


tangent to the curve 2 + 2 + 12 + 2 = 19.
SOLUTION A tangent is a straight line that
touches a curve at only one point. Therefore we

83
CHAPTER 14: THE EQUATION OF A CIRCLE

LESSON 6 Find the length of the tangent 4. Prove that the line + = 9 is a tangent to
drawn from the point (4, 2) to the circle the curve 2 + 2 4 2 = 13.
2 + 2 6 4 = 8. 5. A curve is defined by the equation
SOLUTION 2 + 2 + 8 + 6 15 = 0.
2 + 2 6 4 = 8 (i) Determine the coordinates of the
( 2 6 ) + ( 2 4 ) = 8 centre of and its radius.
( 2 6 + 9) + ( 2 4 + 4) = 8 + 9 + 4 (ii) Find the equation of the normal to the
( 3) 2 + ( 2) 2 = 5 circle at the point (2, 5).
Centre (3, 2) and radius is 5 6. The circle has equation
Distance between centre and is 7 and the radius 2 + 2 + 2 4 = 15.
is 5, so by Pythagoras Theorem (i) Determine the radius and the
2 coordinates of the centre of .
72 = (5) + 2 (ii) Find the equation of the tangent at
49 5 = 2 the point (5, 4) on .
44 = 2 (iii) Calculate the coordinates of the
211 = points of intersection of with the
straight line = + 3.
7. Find the length of the tangent drawn from the
point (2, 4) to the circle
2 + 2 10 + 4 = 11.

SOLUTIONS

1. (a) 2 + 2 = 64 (b) 2 + 2 = 81
.. 49
(c) 2 + 2 = 81
EXERCISE 14.1 (d) 2 + 2 = 107 + 207
(e) ( 1)2 + ( 3) 2 = 9
1. Find the equations of the circles with the (f) ( 1) 2 + ( + 3) 2 = 25
following radii and centres 2. (ii) 10 (iii) (7, 2)
(a) Centre (0, 0), radius =8 (iv) 7) + ( + 2)2 = 25
( 2
(b) Centre (0, 0), radius = 9 3. (a) (0, 0), = 9 (b) (0, 0), = 7
7
(c) Centre (0, 0), radius = 9 1
(c) (0, 0), = 8 (d) (2, 1), = 5
(d) (0, 0),radius = 10 + 7 (e) (2, 5) , = 4 (f) (0, 3), = 7
(e) Centre (1, 3), radius = 3 4.
(f) Centre (1, 3), radius = 5
2. The points , and have coordinates 5. (i) (4, 3), = 40
1 13
(3, 5), (4, 6) and (11, 1) respectively. (ii) = 3 3
(i) Show that is perpendicular to . 6. (i) (1, 2), = 20
(ii) Find the length of . (ii) = 2 + 14
(iii) Find the coordinates of the mid (iii) (3, 6) (3, 0)
point of .
7. 67
(iv) Hence find the equation of the circle
which passes through the points ,
..
and .
3. Find the centre and radius of the circle with
equation
(a) 2 + 2 = 81
(b) 2 + 2 = 49
1
(c) 2 + 2 =
64
(d) ( 2) 2 + ( + 1) 2 = 25
(e) 2 + 2 4 + 10 + 13 = 0
(f) 2 + 2 + 6 + 2 = 0

84
CHAPTER 14: THE EQUATION OF A CIRCLE

THE INTERSECTION OF TWO SOLUTION


The equation of a circle is ( ) 2 +( )2 = 2 ,
CIRCLES but for our purposes we will write it as
LESSON 7 Find the points of intersection of 2 2 + 2 + 2 2 + 2 2 = 0 and let
the circles with equations
2 + 2 2 =
2 + 2 2 8 = 7 and
2 2 + 2 2 + = 0
2 + 2 12 + 2 = 17. Since the points line on the line they must satisfy the
SOLUTION We need to solve both equations equation of the line, therefore
simultaneously.
(1) 2 2(1) + 2 + 02 2(0) + 2 = 2
2 + 2 2 8 = 7 (1)
1 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 2
2 + 2 12 + 2 = 17 (2) 1 + 2 + = 0
(1) (2) 2 + = 1 (1)
2 (12) 8 2 = 7 (17)
12 2(1)() + 2 + 22 2(2) + 2 = 2
10 10 = 10
1 2 + 2 + 4 4 + 2 = 2
= 1
1 2 + 4 4 + = 0
=+1 (3)
2 4 + = 5 (2)
Sub. (3) into (1) (5)2 2(5) + 2 + 42 2(4) + 2 = 2
( + 1)2 + 2 2( + 1) 8 = 7
25 + 10 + 2 + 16 8 + 2 = 2
2 + 2 + 1 + 2 2 2 8 = 7
10 8 + 41 + = 0
2 2 8 + 6 = 0 10 8 + = 41 (3)
2 4 + 3 = 0 From (1) we get = 1 2
( 1)( 3) = 0 Substituting in (2) we get: = 1 (4)
= 1, 3
Substituting in (3)we get: = 5 (5)
Solving (4) and (5) simultaneously we get = 3 and
=+1
= 2 = 3
=1+1 Our equation is 2 + 2 + 4 6 + 3 = 0
=2
(2, 1)
=+1 EXERCISE 14.2
=3+1 1. Find the point(s) of intersection of the circles
=4 with equations
(4, 3) (i) 2 + 2 + 10 4 = 9 and
2 + 2 + 6 2 = 5
(ii) 2 + 2 6 6 = 16 and
2 + 2 + 2 8 = 0
(iii) 2 + 2 6 = 59 and
2 + 2 + 10 = 9
(iv) 2 + 2 + 8 = 34 and
2 + 2 8 + 2 = 8
2. Find the equation of the circle which passes
through the points
(i) (1, 2), (3, 2) and (3, 4)
(ii) (4, 1), (4, 1) and (2, 1)
(iii) (4, 4), (1, 5) and (5, 5)
(iv) (1, 3), (5, 5) and (4, 2)

SOLUTIONS
EQUATION OF A CIRCLE GIVEN 3
POINTS 1. (i) (1, 0) (ii) (0, 8) (2, 0)
LESSON 8 Find the equation of the circle (iii) (5, 8) ( 5, 2) (iv) (1, 5) (2.08, 3.62)
which passes through the points (1, 0), (1, 2) and 2. (i) 2 + 2 + 4 6 = 11
(5, 4). (ii) 2 + 2 6 = 11
(iii) 2 + 2 + 4 14 = 40
(iv) 2 + 2 + 2 4 = 20

85
CHAPTER 14: THE EQUATION OF A CIRCLE

EXAM QUESTIONS 4. The circle has equation


( 3)2 + ( 4) 2 = 25
1. The equation of the circle, , with centre is (i) State the radius and the coordinates of
2 + 2 2 + 2 = 23. the centre of . [2]
(a) Express the equation of in the form (ii) Find the equation of the tangent at the
( ) 2 + ( )2 = . [5] point (6, 8) on . [4]
(b) Hence, or otherwise, state (iii) Calculate the coordinates of the points of
a. the coordinates of the centre of . [2] intersection of with the straight line
b. the radius of . [1] = 2 + 3. [7]
(c) Show that the point (4, 3) lies on . [3] CAPE 2009
(d) Find the equation of the tangent to at 5. The circle 1 has (3, 4) and (1, 2) as
the point . [5] endpoints of a diameter.
(e) The centre of is the midpoint of its Show that the equation of 1 is
diameter . Find the coordinates of . 2 + 2 + 2 6 + 5 = 0. [6]
[4] CAPE 2010
CAPE 2005 6. The circle 1 has (3, 4) and (1, 2) as
2. The circle shown in the diagram below (not endpoints of a diameter.
drawn to scale) has (i) Show that the equation of 1 is
centre at (5, 4) 2 + 2 + 2 6 + 5 = 0. [6]
and touches the (ii) The circle 2 has equation
axis at the point . 2 + 2 + 5 = 0. Calculate the
The circle cuts the coordinates of the points of intersection of
axis at points 1 and 2 . [9]
and . The tangent at CAPE 2010
cuts the axis at
the point . SOLUTIONS
(a) Determine
(i) The length of the radius of the circle. 1. (a) ( 1) 2 + ( + 1)2 = 25
[2] (b) (i) (1, 1) (ii) = 5
3
(ii) The equation of the circle. [1] (d) = 4 + 6 (e) (2, 5)
(iii) The coordinates of the points and , 2. (a) (i) 5 (ii) ( 5)2 + ( + 4)2 = 25
at which the circle cuts the axis. 3
[6] (iii) (2, 0), (8, 0) (iv) = 4 + 6
(iv) The equation of the tangent at . [4] (v)(0, 6)
5 31
(v) The coordinates of [2] 3. (a) (i) = +
4 4
(b) Show by calculation that = [5]
CAPE 2007 (ii) 2 + 2 + 2 18 = 0
3. (a) In the Cartesian plane with origin , the (b) (ii) (0, 1)
3 25
coordinates of points and are 4. (i) (3, 4) , = 5 (ii) = 4 + 2
(2, 0) and (8, 8) respectively. The (iii) (1, 1) (3, 9)
midpoint of is .
(i) Find the equation of the line which 5.
passes through and is
perpendicular to . [8] 6. (i) (ii) (3, 2) (0, 5)
(b) (i) Prove that the line = + 1 is a
tangent to the circle
2 + 2 + 10 12 + 11 = 0. [6]
(ii) Find the coordinates of the point of
contact of this tangent to the circle.
[2]
CAPE 2008

86
CHAPTER 15: THE LOCUS OF A POINT

CHAPTER 15: THE LOCUS OF A POINT


At the end of this section, students should be able (2 )2 + ( ) 2 = ( 4)2 + ( 0)2
to: (2 )2 + 02 = 2 8 + 16 + 2
determine the loci of points satisfying 2 + 4 + 4 = 2 8 + 16 + 2
given properties. 2 + 4 + 4 = 2 8 + 16 + 2
12 12 = 2
__________________________________________________________ This is the equation of a PARABOLA.
The locus of a point is the path which the point
follows as it obeys a particular rule.

LESSON 1 Determine the equation of the


curve that is the locus of all points equidistant
from the two points (8, 3) and (2, 1).

SOLUTION The first intuitive point which fits


the conditions would be the midpoint between the
two given points. From the diagram we see that
the locus of this point is the perpendicular
bisector of (8, 3) and (2, 1).
2+8 1+3
Midpoint = ( 2 , 2 ) = (5, 2)
13 1
Gradient = 28 = 3
gradient is 3 LESSON 3 Determine the equation of the
General form of equation of a line is curve which is the locus of the points 5 units from
= + (using = 3 and (5, 2)) the point (2, 1).
2 = 3(5) +
17 = SOLUTION This locus is simply a circle with
= 3 + 17
centre (2, 1) and radius 5.
2
( (2)) + ( 1)2 = 52
( + 2) 2 + ( 1) 2 = 25

LESSON 2 Find the equation of the curve


which is the locus of the points equidistant from ..
the line = 2 and the point (4, 0). EXERCISE 15

1. Determine the equation of the curve that is


SOLUTION We require the distance of a
the locus of all points equidistant from the
point (2, ) on the line = 2 to an arbitrary
two points (3, 0) and (1, 4).
point (, ) to be the same as the distance from
(, ) to (4, 0).

87
CHAPTER 15: THE LOCUS OF A POINT

2. Determine the equation of the curve that is SOLUTIONS


the locus of all points equidistant from the
two points (4, 4) and (1, 2). 1. ( 2) 2 + ( 3) 2 = 2
3. Determine the equation of the curve that is 20 2 5 2 104
2. ( ) + ( 3) =
3 9
the locus of all points equidistant from the
two points (1, 5) and (5, 4).
4. Find the equation of the curve which is the
locus of the points equidistant from the line
= 1 and the point (3, 0).
5. Find the equation of the curve which is the
locus of the points equidistant from the line
= 7 and the point (5, 0).
6. is the point (, ) and is the point (6, 1).
The point moves in such a way that its
distance from is equal to its distance from
the line = 1. Show that the equation of the
parabola traced out by the point is
( 2) = 14 + where is a constant to
be found.
7. Determine the equation of the curve which is
the locus of the points 3 units from the point
(1, 2).
8. Determine the equation of the curve which is
the locus of the points 7 units from the point
(4, 5).
9. Determine the equation of the curve which is
the locus of the points 10 units from the
point (0, 3).

SOLUTIONS
1. = + 1
5 27
2. = 2 4
15
3. = 4 + 2
4. 2 = 8 8
5. 2 = 24 + 24
6. = 36
7. ( 1) 2 + ( 2) 2 = 9
8. ( + 4) 2 + ( 5) 2 = 49
9. 2 + ( 3) 2 = 10

EXAM QUESTIONS

1. A point, , moves in the plane such that


its distance from (2, 3) is always 2 units.
Determine the locus of . [3]
CAPE 2014

2. A point (, ) moves so that its distance from


the fixed point (0, 3) is two times the distance
from the fixed point (5, 2). Show that the
equation of the locus of the point (, ) is a
circle. [12]
CAPE 2015

88
CHAPTER 16: RADIAN MEASURE

CHAPTER 16: RADIAN MEASURE


At the end of this section, students should be able Below is a list of the common radians and their
to: degree equivalent

= 30 = 45 = 60
define the radian; 6 4 3 2
convert degrees to radians and radians to 3
= 90 = 135
degrees; 4
3
use the formulae for arc length = and = 180 = 270 2 = 360
1 2
sector area, = 2 2 ;
ARC LENGTH
________________________________________________________
Recall: Arc Length = 360 2
INTRODUCTION Replacing 360 with the appropriate radian
measure we have
In the diagram ,
and all have lengths, 2 =
2
, where is the radius where is in radians.

of the circle. Therefore, LESSON 2a If = and = 2, what is the
2
the angle which is the
length of the arc subtended?
angle subtended by the
SOLUTION
sector has a size of
Arc Length =
1 radian.
A radian is equivalent to how many degrees? =2( )
2
To answer this question we need to determine how =
many radii are equivalent to the circumference of a LESSON 2b On a circle whose radius is 3,
circle. what angle subtends an arc length of 4?
Now, we have SOLUTION
Arc Length =
Radians Arc Length 4 = 3
1 radian 4
=
radians 2 3
Radians Degrees
radians 360
radians 180 AREA OF SECTOR

1 radian 180 Recall: Area of Sector = 2
57.3 360
By replacing 360 with the appropriate radian
measure we have
CONVERTING RADIANS TO DEGREES 1
180 Arc Length = 2 = 2
2 2
Degrees = Radians
where is in radians.
LESSON 1a Convert 1.75 radians to degrees.
SOLUTION LESSON 3 Find the area of the sector subtending
180
Degrees = 1.75 = 1.75 57.3 = 100.268 an angle of 6 radians with radius 6.
SOLUTION
1
Area of Sector = 2 2
CONVERTING DEGREES TO RADIANS 1
= (6) 2 ( )
2 6
Radians = Degrees = 3
180
LESSON 1b Convert 60 to radians.
SOLUTION

Radians = 60 = radians
180 3

89
CHAPTER 16: RADIAN MEASURE

LESSON 4 The diagram shows part of a


circle centre and radius 5 cm. Given that 1
= (5) 2 (0.64)
is 1.2 radians, calculate 2
i. the length of the arc 1
(4)(3)
ii. the area of the shaded segment 2
= 2 cm2
2
= 3.35 cm

LESSON 6

SOLUTION
(i) Arc length =
= 5(1.2)
= 6 cm
(ii) Area of segment = Area of sector
Area of triangle
1 1 The diagram shows a circle with centre and
= 2 sin radius 5 cm. The point lies on the circle, is a
2 2
1 tangent to the circle and = 12 cm. The line
2
= (5) (1.2) cuts the circle at the point .
2
1 (i) Find the perimeter of the shaded region
(5)(5) sin 1.2 (ii) Find the area of the shaded region.
2

LESSON 5 The diagram below shows a SOLUTION


sector of a circle centre O, radius 5 cm. is
perpendicular to . Given that = 3 cm, (i) By Pythagoras Theorem = 13 cm
12
tan =
5
12
= tan ( ) = 1.176 radians
1
5
Perimeter = + + arc
calculate = 12 + (13 5) + 5(1.176)

= 25.88 cm
(i) angle in radians
(ii) the perimeter of the shaded region
(ii) Shaded area = Area of Area of
(iii) the area of the shaded region
sector
1 1
SOLUTION = (12)(5) (5)2 (1.176)
2 2
3 = 15.3 cm2
(i) sin = 5
3 EXERCISE 16
= sin1 (
) = 0.64 radians
5 1. Convert the following angles measured in
(ii) Perimeter = + + arc radians to degrees, stating your answer to 1
decimal place where necessary.
= 3 + (5 4) + 5(0.64)
= 7.2 cm 5 3 5
N.B. The value of 4 cm is obtained by the use of a. b. c.
12 5 4
Pythagoras Theorem d. 1.2 e. 2
(iii) Area of shaded region = Area of sector 2. Convert the following angles measured in
Area of triangle degrees to radians correct to 2 decimal places.

90
CHAPTER 16: RADIAN MEASURE

a. 72 b. 54 c. 45 Calculate
d. 60 e. 202.5 (a) the size, in radians, of the angle . [3]
(b) the length of the arc . [3]
3. Find the length of an arc of a circle with radius CAPE 2004

10 m that subtends a central angle of 6 . 3. The diagrams shown below, not drawn below,
4. A central angle of a circle with radius 16 cm represent
subtends an arc of 19.36 cm. Find . a. a sector, , of a circle with centre at
5. Find the area of a sector of a circle with central and a radius of 7 cm, where angle

angle 3 if the radius of the circle is 3 m. measures 3 radians.
b. a right circular cone with vertex and a
SOLUTIONS circular base of radius cm which is
1. (a) 75 (b) 108 (c) 225 formed when the sector is folded
(d) 68.8 (e) 114.6 so that coincides with .
2 3
2. (a) 5 (b) 10 (c) 4
9
(d) 3 (e) 8
5
3. 3
4. 1.21 radians
3
5. 2

EXAM QUESTIONS

1. The diagram, not drawn to scale, is a sketch of


(i) Express the arc length in terms of . [1]
a wedge in an electrical appliance in the form (ii) Hence show that
of a sector of a circle, centre and radius 4 7
(a) = 6 [3]
cm. Angle measures 4 radians.
(b) if cm is the height of the cone, then
735
the exact value of is . [2]
6
CAPE 2005
4. The circle in the diagram, not drawn to scale,

has centre and the acute angle = 6
radians. = 6 cm and and are the
midpoints of and respectively.

(i) Show that the area of the shaded region is


2( 22). [6]
(ii) Using the cosine rule, show that the
length of the chord is 42 2. [4]
CAPE 2003
2. The figure (not drawn to scale) represents a Express in terms of .
cross section through a tunnel. The cross (a) the length of arc [2]
section is part of a circle with radius 5 metres (b) the area of the shaded region . [4]
and centre . The width of the floor of the CAPE 2007
tunnel is 8 metres. SOLUTIONS
1.
2. (a) = 1.85 (b) 22.14
7
3. (i)
3
9
4. (a) (b) 3 4

91
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY

CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY


At the end of this section, students should be able
to: TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES
evaluate sine, cosine and tangent for INTRODUCTION
angles of any size given either in degrees Recall the following formulae which apply to
or radians; triangles. 1 4 apply to right angled triangles only
evaluate the exact values of sine, cosine whereas 5 6 are primarily applicable to non-

and tangent for = 0, 6 , 4 , 3 , 2 , , 2 right angled triangles.
graph the functions sin , cos , tan ,
where is 1 or 2 and 0 2;
derive the identity cos 2 + sin2 = 1
use the formula for sin( ) , cos(
) and tan( );
derive the multiple angle identities for
sin 2 , cos 2, tan 2;
solve simple identities;
find solutions of simple equations for a 1. Pythagoras Theorem: 2 = 2 + 2
given range, including those involving the
use of cos 2 + sin2 = 1
2. tan = =
use compound angle formulae;
use the reciprocal functions of
sec , csc and cot ;
derive identities for the following: 3. sin = =

(a) sin , cos , tan for ,
(b) tan2 , cot 2 , sec 2 and csc 2 , 4. cos = =

(c) sin sin , cos cos , Quotient Identities
express cos + sin in the form sin
cos( ) and sin( ), where is 1. tan =
cos
positive, 0 < < 2 ; Pythagorean Identities
find the general solution of equations of 1. 2 + 2 = 2
the form: 2. sin2 + cos 2 = 1
(a) sin = Variations of (2)
(b) cos = sin2 = 1 cos 2
(c) tan = = (1 cos )(1 + cos )
(d) cos + sin = cos 2 = 1 sin2
for , , , , , ; = (1 sin )(1 + sin )
find the solutions of the equations above
for a given range; Reciprocal Identities
obtain the maximum or minimum of 1
1. = cot
( cos + sin) for 0 2 tan
1
2. = sec
cos
1
3. = csc
sin

Further Quotient Identities


cos
cot =
sin
Further Pythagorean Identities

1. 1 + cot 2 = cosec2
2. tan2 + 1 = sec 2

92
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY

PROVING TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES sin sin


= + cos
Many identities are derived from the fundamental cos
identities. In the following LESSONs we will learn sin2 + cos2
=
how to prove that an equation is an identity, thus cos
discovering new identities. 1
=
Hints for Proving Trigonometric Identities cos
1. Choose a side (LHS or RHS) and use known = sec
identities to transform it into the other side. = RHS
Starting with the more complicated side is
usually the best option. LESSON 2b Prove that
2. When dealing with these proofs it is generally 1 1
+ 2 csc cot
useful to rewrite the given functions in terms sec + 1 sec 1
of sine and cosine. SOLUTION
1 1
LHS: +
LESSON 1a Prove that tan +
1

1 sec + 1 sec 1
tan sin cos sec 1 + sec + 1
SOLUTION =
sec 2 1
1 2 sec
LHS = tan + =
tan tan2
sin cos cos 2
= + = 2 sec
cos sin sin2
(sin )(sin) + (cos )(cos ) 2 cos 2
= =
sin cos cos sin2
(sin2 + cos 2 ) 2 cos
= =
sin cos sin sin
1 = 2 csc cot
=
sin cos = RHS
= RHS
LESSON 1b Prove that cos
LESSON 2c Prove that = sec + tan
( sin + cos )2 1 + 2 sin cos 1sin

SOLUTION SOLUTION
cos
LHS: (sin + cos )(sin + cos ) LHS:
1 sin
= sin2 + 2 sin cos + cos 2 cos 1 + sin
= sin2 + cos 2 + 2 sin cos = .
1 sin 1 + sin
= 1 + 2 sin cos cos (1 + sin)
= RHS =
1 sin2
cos (1 + sin )
LESSON 1c Prove that =
cos 2
tan2 sin2 tan2 sin2 1 + sin
SOLUTION =
cos
LHS: tan2 sin2 1 sin
sin2 = +
= sin2 cos cos
cos 2 = sec + tan
sin2 cos2 sin2 = RHS
=
cos 2
sin2 (1 cos 2 ) EXERCISE 17.1
=
cos2
sin2 1. Prove the following identities.
= sin2 (b)
sin
+
cos 1
=0
cos 2 cos +1 sin
= tan2 sin2 cos2
(c) = 1 sin
= RHS 1+sin
cos2
LESSON 2a Prove that (d) sin + =1
1+sin
sin tan + cos = sec
(e) tan sin cos = sin2
SOLUTION 1 cos
LHS: sin tan + cos (f) sin cos sin = tan

93
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY

(g)
sin2
1+cos
= 1 cos GRAPHS OF TRIGONOMETRIC
(h)
1 1
+ sin2
1 FUNCTIONS
cos2 sin2 cos2
sin2 INTRODUCTION
(i) cos + 1+cos = 1 Here is a list of the graphs of the trigonometric
cos2 sin2 functions of = sin , = cos and = tan .
(j) = cos 2
1tan2 NB: For this section ALL angles will be assumed to
1 1
(k) tan be in radians unless otherwise stated.
cos sin tan
cos sin 1
(l) + =
sin cos sin cos

2. Prove the following identities.


(a) cos + sin tan = sec
csc sin
(b) sin csc = csc sin
1 sec2
(c) tan + tan = tan
1+sin cos The maximum value of sin is 1
(d) + 1+sin = 2 sec The minimum value of sin is 1
cos
cos
(e) sec + tan = 1 sin 1
1sin
sin2 +cos2 +cot2 .
(f) = cot 2
1+tan2
(g) sin csc cos = cos
(h) cot sin cos = cos2
(i) csc (sin + tan ) = 1 + sec
sin
(j) 1 csc = cos 2
(k) cos (sec cos ) = sin2
cot
(l) csc = cos The maximum value of cos is 1
sec
The minimum value of cos is 1
(m) csc = tan 1 cos 1
(n)
1 sin
cos = cot .
sin cos
tan2
(o) 1 = sec
sec2 1
csc
(p) sin cot 2 = 1
(q) sec (cos cot ) = 1 csc
cos
(r) 1 = sin2
sec
(s) sin (csc sin ) = cos 2
tan
(t) = sin
sec
csc
(u) = cot
sec
sin2
(v) 1+cos = 1 cos
(w) sec csc = tan + cot
sec The maximum value is
(x) cos tan2 = 1
The minimum value is .
cos sin 3 3
(y) sec + csc = 1 The graph is undefined at 2 , 2 , 2 , 2 .
NB: On most calculators undefined values are
indicated by MATH ERROR.

94
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY

GRAPHS OF RECIPROCAL FUNCTIONS SKETCHING TRIGONOMETRIC GRAPHS


LESSON 3 Sketch the graph of () = sin
for 0 2.

SOLUTION

LESSON 4 Sketch the graph of = cos 2


for 0 2.
. SOLUTION We simply need to complete the
following table. When we graph draw the graph
we have to keep in mind that the graph will have
the same basic shape as that of = cos .
0 3 2
2 2
1 1 1 1 1

LESSON 5 Sketch the graph of = tan 2


. for 0 2
SOLUTION
0 3 2
2 2
0 0 0 0 0
This table is clearly not very helpful so we will
include additional values.
0 3 5 3 7 2
4 2 4 4 2 4
0 und 0 und 0 und 0 und 0
efin efin efin efin
ed ed ed ed

From the table we see that we have vertical


3 5 7
asymptotes at = 4 , 4 , 4 , 4 .

95
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY

TRIGONOMETRIC EQUATIONS
INTRODUCTION
Before we look at how to solve trigonometric
equations we need to develop what is called the
QUADRANT RULE.

The range 0 to 2 can be divided into quadrants as


seen above.

QUADRANT I: 0
2
ALL ratios are positive

QUADRANT II: 2
SINE ONLY is positive
3
QUADRANT III: 2
TANGENT ONLY is positive
3
QUADRANT IV: 2
2
COSINE ONLY is positive
The acronym
All School Teachers Curse
is commonly used to remember the quadrant rule.

GENERAL SOLUTIONS
LESSON 6 Solve the following equations
1
(a) sin = 2 for 0 2
(b) cos = 0.5 for 0 2
(c) tan = 0.5 for 0 2
Hence state the general solutions.
SOLUTION
(a) We need to find the angle in Quadrant I and
then determine the corresponding angles in
the appropriate quadrant(s) using the
information below. This initial angle we will
refer to as a Reference Angle, .
: =

96
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY

: = Tangent is positive in I and III


: = + : = 0.464
: = 2 : = + 0.464 = 3.606
1
sin =
2
1
= sin1 ( ) =
2 6
Sine is postitive in I and II

: =
6
5
: = =
6 6

General Solutions:
0.464 +
={
3.606 +

LESSON 7 Solve the following equations


for 0 2.
(a) 2 cos = 3
(b) 2 sin + 1 = 0
Hence determine the general solutions.
SOLUTION
General Solutions: (a) 2 cos = 3
3
+ 2 cos =
6 2
= {5
3
+ 2 = cos1 ( ) =
6 2 6
1 Cosine is positive in I and IV
(b) cos =
2 : =
1 6
= cos1 ( ) = 11
2 3 : = 2 =
Cosine is positive in I and IV 6 6

: =
3
5
: = 2 =
3 3

General Solutions:

+ 2
6
= {11
+ 2
General Solutions: 6

+ 2 (b) 2 sin + 1 = 0
3
= {5 2 sin = 1
+ 2 1
3 sin =
2
1
1
(c) tan = 0.5 = sin ( ) =
1 2 6
= tan1 ( ) = 0.464 Sine is negative in and .
2

97
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY

7 SOLUTION We have 2 trigonometric


: = + =
6 6 functions in the equation therefore we need to
11 rewrite it in terms of a single function.
: = 2 =
6 6 6 sin2 5 cos = 0
6(1 cos 2 ) 5 cos = 0 Using trig identities
6 6 cos 2 5 cos = 0 (1)
6 cos 2 + 5 cos 6 = 0
(2 cos + 3)(3 cos 2) = 0
either 3 cos 2 = 0 or 2 cos + 3 = 0
2 3
cos = or cos =
3 2
2
= cos 1 ( )
3
General Solutions:
7 = 48.19
+ 2 Cosine is positive in I and IV
6
={ : = 48.19
11
+ 2 : = 360 48.19 = 311.81
6 3
= cos 1 ( )
2
SOLVING TRIGONOMETRIC EQUATIONS Invalid: 1 cos 1
LESSON 8 Solve the equation
5 tan( + 40) = 6 for 0 360, giving your
answer to 2 decimal places.
SOLUTION
5 tan( + 40) = 6
Let = + 40
5 tan = 6
6
tan =
5 General Solutions:
1
6 48.19 + 360
= tan ( ) = 50.19 ={
5 311.81 + 360
Tan is negative in Quadrant and .
: = 180 50.19 = 129.81 LESSON 10 Solve the following equations
= + 40 = 129.81 5 tan2 + 7 = 11 sec for 0 < < 2.
= 89.81 SOLUTION
: = 360 50.19 = 309.81 5 tan2 + 7 = 11 sec
= + 40 = 309.81 sin2 1
= 269.81 5( ) + 7 = 11 ( )
cos 2 cos
5 sin2 + 7 cos 2 = 11 cos
5(1 cos 2 ) + 7 cos2 = 11 cos
5 5 cos 2 + 7 cos 2 = 11 cos
2 cos 2 11 cos + 5 = 0
(2 cos 1)(cos 5) = 0
1
cos = cos = 5 INVALID
2
1
= cos1 ( ) =
2 3
Cosine is positive in I and IV

: =
3
5
LESSON 9 Solve the equation : = 2 =
6 sin2 5 cos = 0 for 0 360. 3 3
Hence determine the general solutions.
ALTERNATELY
5 tan2 + 7 = 11 sec

98
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY

5(sec 2 1) + 7 = 11 sec 3
5 sec 2 5 + 7 = 11 sec cos ( ) =
2 2
5 sec 2 11 sec + 2 = 0 3
(5 sec 1)(sec 2) = 0 = cos1 ( ) =
2 6
1
sec = sec = 2 Cosine is positive in I and IV but IV is outside the
5
1 1 1 range of 2
= =2
cos 5 cos : =
1 2 6
cos = 5 cos =
2 =
INVALID 3

LESSON 11 Solve the equation


sin2 + 2 sin cos = 0 for 0 180
SOLUTION
sin2 + 2 sin cos = 0
sin (sin + 2 cos ) = 0
either sin = 0 or sin + 2 cos = 0
= 0, 180

LESSON 13 Solve the equation


(2 sin2 2 1) cos 2 = 0 for 0 2.
SOLUTION
(2 sin2 2 1) cos 2 = 0
sin + 2 cos = 0 cos 2 = 0
sin = 2 cos
sin 3 5 7
= tan = 2 () 2 = , , ,
cos 2 2 2 2
= tan1(2) = 63.43
From Graph
Tan is negative in II
: = 180 63.43 = 116.57 2 sin2 2 1 = 0
= 0, 116.57, 180
NB:()We are permitted to divide sin by cos 1
sin2 2 =
because it forms a trigonometric identity, thus, we 2
have not divided by zero.
1
sin 2 =
2
1
. = sin1 ( )=
2 4

1 : 2 =
4
3
1 : 2 = =
4 4
5
3 : 2 = + =
4 4
7
1 : 2 = 2 =
LESSON 12 Find all the angles 0 2 4 4
3
which satisfy the equation cos ( ) = 9
2 2 2 : 2 = + 2 =
SOLUTION Since 0 2 then 4 4

0 2 . We first solve for 2

99
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY

3 11 3. Solve the equation sin( + 15) = 0.5 for


2 : 2 = + 2 =
4 4 0 360.
4. Solve the following equations for
5 13
2 : 2 = + 2 = 0 < < 360
4 4 (i) 5 cos + 2 sin2 = 4
7 15 (ii) 3 sin tan = 8
2 : 2 = + 2 = 5. Find the solutions of the following equations
4 4
for 0 360.
3 5 7 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 (i) 2 cos + 5 sin cos = 0
= , , , , , , , , , , ,
4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 (ii) tan sin + sin = 0
6. Solve the equation 2 cos2 + 3 sin2 3 = 0
for 0 2.
LESSON 14 Find all the angles between
which satisfy the equation 7. Find all the angles between 0 and 360 which
2(sin + cos ) = 3 sin satisfy the equation
SOLUTION
5 cos2 8 sin cos = 0
2(sin + cos ) = 3 sin
8. Show that the equation sin2 +
2 sin + 2 cos = 3 sin
3 sin cos = 4 cos 2 can be written as a
2 cos = 3 sin 2 sin
quadratic equation in tan
2 cos = sin Hence, or otherwise, solve the equation in
sin
2= = tan part sin2 + 3 sin cos = 4 cos 2 for
cos 0 .
1
= tan 2 = 1.107 radians
9. Solve the following equations for 0 2
The range indicates that the required
(i) 2 cos 2 = 1
values are bounded within I and II
(ii) 1 + 2 sin 2 = 0
(rotating anti-clockwise) and within III and
10. Solve the following equations for 0 2.
IV (rotating clockwise) 1
Tan is positive in I and III (i) sin (2 ) = 2
: = 1.107 radians 1
(ii) cos (2 ) = 2
(Quadrant I rotating anti-clockwise)
: = ( 1.107) = 2.03 (iii) tan (2 ) = 3
(Quadrant III rotating clockwise) 11. Solve the following equations for ,
= 1.107 radians, 2.03 radians correct to 2 decimal places where necessary.
a) (sin cos ) = 2 cos
b) (1 + sin )(2 + sin) = cos 2

12. Solve the equation


5 tan2 = 5 tan + 3 sec 2
for 0 < < 360
2
13. Solve the equations sec (2 + 9 ) = 2 for
0 2.
14. Solve the following equations for ,
correct to 2 decimal places where necessary.
a) 2 sec + 3 cos = 7
......................................................................................................... b) 2 cos + 3 sec = 7
EXERCISE 17.2 15. Show that the equation 3 tan = 2 cos can
1. Solve the equation sin =
3
for 0 2. be expressed as
2 2 sin2 + 3 sin 2 = 0
2. Solve the following equations for 0 2. Hence, find the general solutions of the
3
(i) sin = equation
2
1 3 tan = 2 cos .
(ii) cos =
2 16. Find the general solutions for the equation
(iii) 2 cos = 3 4 sin4 + 5 = 7 cos 2 .
Hence state the general solutions. [Hint: Solve as a disguised quadratic]

100
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY

17. Find the general solutions of the equation HARMONIC FORM


4 cos 2 4 sin = 1. INTRODUCTION
18. Solve the equation 3 3 = 3 2 1, hence In many instances it is essential to find the
find the general solutions of the equation solutions of equations of the form
3 tan3 3 tan2 tan + 1 = 0 sin + cos = or cos + sin =
The previous methods for solving a trig equation
SOLUTIONS
2 cannot be applied directly to these equations.
1. = 3 , 3 Therefore, we need to find an alternate form (of a
4 5 single trig. ratio) of expressing the equation. This
2. (i) = + 2, + 2
3 3 form is derived as follows:
2 4
(ii) = + 2, + 2 From the diagram at left we see that
3 3
5 7
(iii) = 6 + 2, 6 + 2
3. = 15, 135
4. (i) = 60, 300 (ii) = 70.5, 289.5
5. (i) = 90, 203.6, 270, 336.4
(ii) = 0, 135, 180, 315, 360
3
6. = ,
2 2
7. = 32, 90, 212, 270
+
8. = 4 , 1.82 sin( + ) =

5 7 11 7 11 19 23 sin( + ) = +
9. (i) = 6 , 6
, 6
, 6
(ii) = 12
, 12
, 12
, 12
5 4 4
10. (i) = 3 , (ii) = (iii) =
3 3 3 sin = = sin
5
11. (a) = 2.11, 1.03 (b) = , 2 , 6
6
cos = = cos
12. = 71.6, 153.4, 251.6, 333.4
13 19 31
13. = 18 , 18 , 18 , 18
sin( + ) = sin + cos
14. (a) = 1.23 (b) = 1.05 Which is the form of our equation.
5
15. = 6 , 6 + 2 Also,
5 sin( ) =
16. = 6 , +
5
6 = sin cos
17. , + 2 sin cos = sin( )
6 6
5 5 7 11
18. , ,
6 4 4
, 6
, 6
, 6
+
Similarly,
.. =

cos( + ) = =

cos( + ) =

cos = = cos


sin = = sin

cos( + ) = cos sin
Also,
cos( ) = +
= cos + sin
cos sin = cos( )
Furthermore, from the diagrams above we determine
that

= 2 + 2 and = tan1 ( )

101
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY

NB: The absolute values of and are to be used = 168.46 + 36.87 = 205.33
in the above calculations.
Summarising we have LESSON 17

sin cos = 2 + 2 sin( ) ; = tan1 ( ) a) Express () = 2 cos + sin in the form

1
cos( ) where > 0 and is acute.
2 2
cos sin = + cos( ) ; = tan ( )
b) Hence, find the minimum value of
Thus, we are now equipped to solve the required (), where 0 2.
equations c) Determine the value of , 0 2, at
which the minimum value of () occurs.
LESSON 15 SOLUTION

(i) Express 3 cos 4 sin in the form 2


cos( + ) a. 2 cos + sin = (2) + 12 cos( )
(ii) Hence, solve the equation 1
= tan1 ( ) = 0.615
3 cos 4 sin = 1 for 0 360 2
SOLUTION 3 cos( 0.615)
(i) 3 cos 4 sin = 32 + 42 cos( + ) b. We know that the minimum value of the cosine
4 function is 1
= tan1 ( ) = 53.13
3 Hence, the minimum value of
5 cos( + 53.1)
() = 3(1) = 3
(ii) 5 cos( + 53.13) = 1
1 c. To determine this minimum value we need
cos( + 53.13) =
5 to solve the equation
1 cos( 0.615) = 1
( + 53.13) = cos 1 ( ) = 78.5
5 cos( 0.615) = 1 when ( 0.615) =
Reference angle is 78.5 = + 0.615 = 3.76
Cosine is positive in I and IV
: ( + 53.13) = 78.46 LESSON 18
= 78.46 53.13 = 25.33
: ( + 53.1) = 360 78.46 = 281.54 (i) Express (2) = 4 sin 2 + 3 cos 2 in
= 281.54 53.13 = 228.41 the form sin(2 + ) where > 0 and

= 25.33, 228.41 0 < < 2.
(ii) Hence, or otherwise, find the maximum
LESSON 16
and minimum values of
1
(i) Express 4 sin 3 cos in the form
sin( ). 6 ()
(ii) Hence, solve the equation
4 sin 3 cos = 1 for 0 360. SOLUTION
SOLUTION (i) 4 sin 2 + 3 cos 2
(i) 4 sin 3 cos = 42 + 32 sin( ) = 42 + 32 = 5
3 3
= tan1 ( ) = 36.87 = tan1 ( ) = 0.644
4 4
5 sin( 36.87) (2) = 5 sin(2 + 0.644)
(ii) 4 sin 3 cos = 1 (ii) The minimum and maximum values of
5 sin( 36.87) = 1 (2) and () are the same.
sin( 36.87) = 0.2 Maximum value of () = 5
= sin1(0.2) = 11.54 Minimum value of () = 5
Sine is positive in Quadrants I and II 1 1
: 36.87 = 11.54 Maximum value of 6() = =1
65
= 36.87 + 11.54 = 48.41 1 1 1
Minimum value of 6() = = 11
: 36.87 = 180 11.54 = 168.46 6(5)

102
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY

COMPOUND ANGLE FORMULAE


EXERCISE 17.3 INTRODUCTION
1. Express 5 sin + 3 cos in the form The formulae for compound angles are:
sin( + ) where > 0 and is acute. sin( + ) = sin cos + cos sin
Hence solve the equation cos( + ) = cos cos sin sin
5 sin + 3 cos = 5. sin( ) = sin cos cos sin
2. Express cos + 3 sin in the form cos( ) = cos cos + sin sin
cos( ), giving the exact values of and tan + tan
such that > 0 and 0 < < 90. tan( + ) =
1 tan tan
Hence find the general solution of the tan tan
tan( ) =
equation cos + 3 sin = 2, giving your 1 + tan tan
answer exactly, in degrees.
3. Express 5 sin + 6 cos in the form LESSON 19 Evaluate
sin( + ), where is positive and is i. cos(75) ii. tan(15)
acute. SOLUTION
Hence We choose compounds of special angles
(i) find the value of , between 0 and 90, 30, 45, 60
for which 5 sin + 6 cos is a maximum. (i) cos(75) = cos(30 + 45)
(ii) solve the equation 5 sin + 6 cos = 4, = cos(30) cos(45) sin(30) sin(45)
for 0 < < 360. 3 1 1 1
4. Given that 3 cos 4 sin cos( + ) = . .
2 2 2 2
where > 0 and 0 < < 90, find the 3 1
values of and , giving the value of correct =
to two decimal places. 22 22
Hence solve the equation 3 1
=
3 cos 2 4 sin 2 = 2, for 0 < < 360, 22
giving your answers correct to 2 decimal
places. (ii) tan(15) = tan(30 45)
tan(30) tan(45)
=
SOLUTIONS 1 + tan(30) tan(45)
1. 34 sin( + 0.54 ); = 0.49 , 1.57 1
( 1)
2. 2 cos( 60); 60 + 360
= 3
3. 61 sin( + 50.2) (i) = 39.8 1
1+ .1
(ii) = 160.6 3
4. 5 cos( + 53.13), 1 3
= 6.65, 120.23, 186.65, 300.23 3
=
3 + 1
3
1 3
=
1 + 3
12
LESSON 20 Given that sin = 13 and
4
cos = 5 find the value of sin( + ), cos( + )
and hence deduce that + is obtuse.
SOLUTION
sin( + ) = sin cos + cos sin

103
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY

Therefore, we need to determine the cos and ..


sin . To do this we use the ratios given and EXERCISE 17.4
complete the corresponding triangles using 1. Evaluate
Pythagoras' Theorem. (i) sin 75
5 3 (ii) cos 15
cos = , sin =
13 5 (iii) tan 105
12 4 5 3 2. Simplify each of these expressions
sin( + ) = . + .
13 5 13 5 a. sin 18 cos 27 + cos 18 sin27
48 15 b. cos 10 cos 80 sin 10 sin80
= +
65 65 3 2 3 2
63 c. cos cos + sin sin
= 7 21 7 21
65
tan + tan
cos( + ) = cos cos sin sin d. 18 9

5 4 12 3 1 tan 18 tan 9
= . .
13 5 13 5 tan 73 tan 13
20 36 e.
= 1 + tan 73 tan 13
65 65 13 13
16 f. cos cos ( ) sin sin( )
= 15 5 15 5
65 3. Given that and are acute angles and that
Thus, we have that sin( + ) is positive and 12 3
cos = 13 and that cos = 5, find the value of
cos( + ) is negative. This implies that + is
in the Second Quadrant. Hence, + is obtuse. each of the following
a. cos( + )
LESSON 21 b. cos( )
2 4. Using the identity
(i) Given that sin = , where is acute, sin( + ) = sin cos + cos sin,
4 2
show that calculate the value of sin( 12 ).
5

2
sin ( ) = (sin cos ) 5. i. State the exact value of
4 2
3 (a) cos 6 and (b) sin 6
(ii) Using the fact that sin 3 = 2 and
1
ii. Hence, show that
cos = , find the exact value of sin 1
3 2 12 cos ( + ) = (3 cos sin )
showing ALL steps in your working. 6 2
1+tan
SOLUTION 6. Prove that 1tan tan ( 4 + )
(i) By the compound angle formula for
sin( ) SOLUTIONS
6+2 6+2
sin ( ) = sin cos cos sin 1. (i) 4 (ii) (iii) 2 3
4 4 4 4
2 2 2 1 3 1
= sin ( ) cos ( ) 2. (a) (b) 0 (c) 2 (d) (e) 3 (f) 2
2 3
2 2
16 56
2 3. (a) 65 (b) 65
= (sin cos ) 6+2
2 4.
4
(ii) =34
12 3 1
5. (i) (a) (b) 2
sin = sin ( ) 2
12 3 4 6.

sin ( ) = sin cos cos sin
3 4 3 4 3 4
3 2 1 2 ..
= ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
6 2
=
4 4
6 2
=
4

104
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY

DOUBLEANGLE FORMULAE LESSON 24 Prove the identity


INTRODUCTION 1 + cos + cos 2 1
=
sin 2 = 2 sin cos sin + sin 2 tan
cos 2 = cos 2 sin2
= cos 2 (1 cos 2 ) SOLUTION
= 2 cos2 1 LHS
1 + cos + cos 2 1
cos 2 = cos 2 sin2 =
= (1 sin2 ) sin2 sin + sin 2 tan
1 + cos + 2 cos2 1
= 1 2 sin2 =
2 tan sin + 2 sin cos
tan 2 = cos (1 + 2 cos )
1 tan2 =
sin (1 + 2 cos )
3 cos
LESSON 22 If sin = 5 and is an acute =
sin
angle, use the double angle formulae to find the 1
exact value of sin2 , cos 2 and tan 2 and the =
tan
quadrant of angle 2. = RHS
SOLUTION ..
3 4 3 EXERCISE 17.5
sin = cos = tan =
5 5 4 1. Given that is an acute angle and that
3 4 24 4
sin 2 = 2 sin cos = 2 ( ) ( ) = sin = 5 , find the value of each of
5 5 25
cos 2 = cos 2 sin2 the following:
4 2 3 2 16 9 7 a. sin 2
= ( ) ( ) = = b. cos 2
5 5 25 25 25
3 3 c. tan 2
2 tan 2 (4) 2. Solve each of the following equations for
tan 2 = = = 2
1 tan2 3 2 1 9 0 2, giving your answers correct to 3
1 (4) 16 decimal places
3 7 3 16 24 a. sin 2 + cos = 0
= = =
2 16 2 7 7 b. 4 cos = 3 sin 2
Since 2 has a positive value for all three ratios it c. 3 cos 2 cos + 2 = 0
must be in the first quadrant. 3. (i) Prove the identity
cos 4 + 4 cos 2 8 cos 4 3.
LESSON 23 Solve the equation (ii) Hence, solve the equation
3 sin 2 = sin , for 0 2 cos 4 + 4 cos 2 = 2.
SOLUTION 4. Show that ( cos sin )2 1 sin 2
One function is written in and the other in 2 5. Solve the equation sin 2 = sin for
therefore we cannot solve directly. Hence, we use 0 2.
the double angle formula for sine. 6. Given that tan = 2 tan , show that
3 sin 2 = sin sin2
3(2 sin cos ) = sin tan( ) =
3 cos 2
6 sin cos = sin .
6 sin cos sin = 0 SOLUTIONS
24 7 24
sin (6 cos 1) = 0 1. (a) 25 (b) 25 (c) 7
sin = 0 = 0, , 2 7 3 11
6 cos 1 = 0 2. (a) = 2 , , ,
6 2 6
1 3
cos = (b) = 2 , , 0.0.73 , 2.41
2
6 5
1
1 (c) = , 1.911 , , 4.373
= cos ( ) = 1.40 6 6
6 3. (ii) = 0.48, 2.67, 3.62, 5.81
Cosine is positive in I and IV 4.
= 1.40 radians 5
= 2 1.40 = 4.88 radians 5. = 3 , , 3
= 0, 1.40, , 4.88, 2 6.

105
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY

HALFANGLE FORMULAE 2. sin 15


30 1 cos 30
INTRODUCTION sin =
2 2

sin = 2 sin ( ) cos ( ) (1)
2 2
3
2
cos = 2 cos ( ) 1 (2) 1 2
2 =
2
1 + cos
cos ( ) = (3) 2 3
2 2
2
=
2
1 cos
sin ( ) = (4) 2 3 2 3
2 2 = =
4 2

2 tan (2 ) 3
tan = (5) 3. tan ( )
8
1 tan2 ( )
2
3
1 cos 3 2 tan ( 8 )
tan ( ) = (6) tan ( ) =
2 1 + cos 4 3
1 tan2 ( )
1 cos 8
tan ( ) = (7) 3
2 sin 2 tan ( 8 )
1 =
3
sin 1 tan2 ( )
8
tan ( ) = (8) 3 3
2 1 + cos tan2 ( ) 1 = 2 tan ( )
8 8
2
3 3
tan ( ) 2 tan ( ) 1 = 0
LESSON 25 8 8
Evaluate the following by using the appropriate Using the quadratic formula:
half angle formula. 3 2 (2) 2 4(1)(1)

i. cos 8 tan ( ) =
8 2(1)
ii. sin 15 2 4 + 4 2 8 2 22
3 = = =
iii. tan ( ) 2 2 2
8
SOLUTION = 1 2
3
1. Since /8 is half of /4, then according to the tan ( ) = 1 + 2
half angle formula 8
since it is in the first quadrant
cos ( ) = 2 cos2 ( ) 1
4 8
1 LESSON 26 Prove that
= 2 cos2 ( ) 1
2 8 tan ( + ) = sec + tan
2 4
1 1 + 2 SOLUTION
+1 = = 2cos 2 ( )
2 2 8 LHS

1 + 2 tan ( + )
= cos 2 ( ) 2 4
22 8
tan ( ) + tan ( )
2 4
1 + 2 =
= cos ( ) 1 tan ( ) tan ( )
22 8 2 4

NB: We only consider the positive square root tan (2 ) + 1
value because /8 is in the first quadrant =
1 tan (2 )

106
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY


(tan (2 ) + 1) (tan (2 ) + 1) FACTOR FORMULAE
= INTRODUCTION
(1 tan (2 )) (1 + tan (2 )) +
sin + sin = 2 sin( ) cos ( )
tan2 (2 ) + 2 tan (2 ) + 1 2 2
= +
sin sin = 2 cos ( ) sin( )
1 tan2 (2 ) 2 2
+
tan2 (2 ) + 1 2 tan (2 ) cos + cos = 2 cos ( ) cos ( )
= 2 2
+ +
1 tan2 (2 ) 1 tan2 (2 ) cos cos = 2 sin ( ) sin ( )
2 2
sin2 (2 )
+1 LESSON 27 Find the exact value of
cos 2 (2 )
= + tan a) sin 105 sin 15
sin2 (2 )
1 b) sin 105 sin15

cos 2 (2 ) SOLUTION
We rewrite the difference as a product
sin2 (2 ) + cos2 (2 )
sin 105 sin 15
105 + 15 105 15
cos2 ( )
2 = 2 cos ( ) sin( )
= + tan 2 2
cos (2 ) sin2 (2 )
2
= 2 cos 60 sin 45
1 1
cos2 ( ) = 2( )( )
2 2 2
1
= 1
+ tan =
cos 2 (2 ) sin2 (2 ) 2
1 Comparing sin105 sin 15 with
= + tan
cos
= sec + tan +
cos cos = 2 sin ( ) sin ( )
2 2
=RHS
We see that
.. 1 +
(cos cos ) = sin ( ) sin( )
EXERCISE 17.6 2 2 2
1. Use a half-angle formula to find +
= 105 + = 210 (1)
a. sin ( ) b. cos 165 2
8
c. sin 75 d. tan 22.5 = 15 = 30 (2)
2
12 Solving (1) and (2) simultaneously we get
2. Find the value ofsin (2 ) if cos = 13
,0< < 2

= 120, = 90
3. Prove that 2 sin2 (2 ) + cos = 1 1
sin 105 sin15 = (cos 120 cos 90)
4. Prove that 2 cos2 (2 ) sec = sec + 1 2
1 1
= ( 0)
5. Prove that cos 2 (2 ) cos = sin2 (2 ) 2 2
1
=
SOLUTIONS 4
22
1. (a) LESSON 28 Simplify
sin +sin
2
cos cos
62
(b) SOLUTION
4
6+2
+
(c) sin + sin 2 sin( 2 ) cos ( 2 )
4 =
(d) 2 1 cos cos 2 sin ( + ) sin ( )
26 2 2
2.
26 cos ( 2 )
3. = = cot ( )
2
4. sin ( 2 )
5.

107
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY

sin + sin + sin


LESSON 29 Solve the equation +
= 2 sin ( ) cos ( ) + sin
cos + cos 2 = sin 2 sin for 0 2. 2 2
SOLUTION +
= 2 sin ( ) cos ( ) + 2 sin cos
cos + cos 2 = sin 2 sin 2 2 2 2
We apply the appropriate compound angle +
= 2 sin ( ) cos ( ) + 2 sin cos
formulae 2 2 2 2
2 + 2 2 + 2 +
2 cos ( ) cos ( ) = 2 cos ( ) sin ( ) = 2 sin (90 ) cos ( ) + 2 sin (90 ( )) cos
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
3 3 +
2 cos cos = 2 cos sin = 2 cos cos ( ) + 2 cos cos
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
3 3 +
2 cos cos 2 cos sin = 0 = 2 cos (cos ( ) + cos ( ))
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
3 +
2 cos (cos sin ) = 0 Recall: cos + cos = 2 cos ( ) cos ( )
2 2 2 2 2
3 +
2 cos =0 Letting = and = we get
2 2 2
3 3 5 +
= , , cos ( ) + cos ( ) = 2 cos cos
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
3
NB: 0 3 = 2 cos 2 cos cos
2 2 2 2
5
= , ,
3 3
= 4 cos cos cos
cos sin = 0 2 2 2
2 2

cos = sin ..
2 2 EXERCISE 17.7

sin 2 1. Write the sum as a product (Apply negative
= tan 2 = 1 identities whenever possible)
cos
2 (a) sin 5 + sin3

= (b) sin sin4
2 4
(c) cos 4 cos 6 cos 9 + cos 2
NB: 0 (d) sin 2 sin7
2
(e) sin 3 + sin4
=
2 2. Simplify
5 (a)
sin +sin
= , , , cos +cos
3 2 3 cos +cos
(b) sin sin
LESSON 30 If , and are the angles of a sin 3sin
(c)
cos 3cos
triangle prove that sin 2+sin 3
(d)
cos 2cos 3
sin + sin + sin = 4 cos cos cos
2 2 2 3. Solve the following equations for 0
SOLUTION a. sin + sin 5 = sin 3
b. cos + cos 2 + cos 3 = 0
c. sin 2 sin 2 + sin 3 = 0
d. cos sin 2 = cos 5
4. Prove that
(a) sin + sin 2 + sin3 =
sin 2 (2 cos + 1)
(b) cos + 2 cos 3 + cos 5 =
4 cos 2 cos 3
+ + = 180
(c) cos 2 cos 3 + cos 5 =
+ + = 90 2 sin (sin2 sin 4)
2 2 2 sin sin 2+sin 3
+ (d) cos cos 2+cos 3 = tan 2
= 90 ( )
2 2

108
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY

SOLUTIONS c. sin [3]


1. (a) 2 sin 4 cos d. cos( + ) [4]
5 3 CAPE 2007
(b) 2 cos ( 2 ) sin ( 2 )
6. Given that and are acute angles such that
(c) 2 sin 5 sin()
11 7 sin = 3/5 and cos = 5/13 , find, without
(d) 2 cos ( 2 ) cos ( 2 ) using tables or a calculator, the EXACT values
9
(e) 2 cos ( 2 ) sin(
5
) of
2 (i) sin( + ) [3]
7
(f) 2 sin ( ) cos ( ) (ii) cos( ) [3]
2 2
2. (a) tan (
+
) (iii) cos 2 [2]
2 CAPE 2009

(b) cot (
2
) 7. (i) Solve cos 2 3 cos = 1 for 0 2.
(c) cot 2 [6]
(ii) Prove that cos 4 sin4 + 1 = 2 cos2 .
(d) cot ( 2 )
5 2 7
[5]
3. (a) = 0, 9 , 3 , , , , CAPE 2003
9 3 9
3
(b) = 4 , 8. Solve the equation cos 2 = 3 cos 2 for

4 0 2. [4]
(c) = 0, , CAPE 2004
2
5 13 17
(d) = 0, 18 , 18 , 2 , , , 9. (i) Show that cos 3 = 4 cos 3 3 cos .
18 18
[5]
4. (ii) The position vectors of two points and
.. relative to the origin are
EXAM QUESTIONS = 4 cos 2 + (6 cos 1)
1. (a) Copy and complete the following table for = 2 cos
the function () = sin , 0 2. By using the identity in (i) above, find the

value of , 0 4 , such that and
0 3 2 are perpendicular. [5]
2 2 CAPE 2005
1cos 2
() 10. Show that = tan2 . [3]
1+cos 2
CAPE 2006
(b) Sketch the graph of . [4] 1tan2
2. Solve, for 0 180, the equation 11. (i) Prove that cos 2 1+tan2 . [4]
6 cos 2 + sin = 4. [7] (ii) Hence, show, without using calculators,
1
CAPE 2004 that tan 67 2 = 1 + 2 [7]
3. Solve the equation 4 cos2 4 sin 1 = 0 CAPE 2007
for 0 . [5] 12. (i) Prove that sin 2 tan cos 2 = tan
CAPE 2006
12 4 [3]
4. Given that sin = and sin = , where (ii) Express tan in terms ofsin 2 and
13 5
and are acute angles, find cos( ) and cos 2. [2]
sin( + ). [8] (iii) Hence show, without using tables or
CAPE 2003 calculators, that tan 22.5 = 2 1. [4]
5. In the triangle below, not drawn to CAPE 2008
3 5
scale, sin = and cos = . 13. Find the general solutions of the equation
5 13
cos = 2 sin2 1. [7]

CAPE 2006

14. Express () = 2 cos sin in the form


cos( + ). [5]
i. Hence, find the minimum value of (),
Determine the exact values of where 0 2. [1]
a. cos [1]
b. sin [1]

109
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY

ii. Determine the value of , 0 2, at


which the minimum value of () occurs.
[2]
CAPE 2005
15. Given that 4 sin cos = sin( ) , >
0 and 0 < < 90, find the values of and
correct to 1 decimal place. [7]
CAPE 2006

16. (a) Express cos sin in the form


cos( + ) where , , > 0 and

0<< . [5] (b) The diagram, not drawn to scale, shows a
2
rectangle with sides 6 cm and 8 cm
(b) Hence, find the general solution of
inscribed in another rectangle .
cos sin = 1. [3]
(i) The angle that makes with is .
CAPE 2007
Find, in terms of , the length of the
17. The diagram, which is
side . [2]
not drawn to scale,
shows a quadrilateral (ii) Find the value of if || =7 cm. [5]
(iii) Is 15 a possible value for ||? Give a
in which
reason for your answer. [2]
= 4 cm, = 9 cm, 1cos 2
= cm and (c) (i) Show that sin 2 = tan . [3]
= = (ii) Hence, show that
and is a right 1cos 4
(a) = tan 2 [3]
sin 4
angle. 1cos 6
(i) Show that = 4 cos + 9 sin [4] (b) sin 6
= tan 3
(ii) By expressing in the form cos( ), [2]

where is positive and 0 2, find (iii) Using the results in (c) (i) and (ii) above,
the MAXIMUM possible value of . [6] evaluate

CAPE 2009
3 (tan sin2 + cos 2)
18. If cos = 5, find tan 2 . [6] =1
CAPE 2003 where is a positive integer. [2]
CAPE 2011
19. Solve, for 0 , the equation 22. (a) (i) Given that
sin + sin3 = 0. [6] cos( + ) = cos cos sin sin and
CAPE 2004 cos 2 = 2 cos2 1, prove that
1
cos 3 2 cos [cos2 sin2 2 ].
20. Given that , and C are the angles of a
triangle, prove that [7]
+
(a) sin 2 = cos 2

[3] (ii) Using the appropriate formula, show
that
(b) sin + sin = 2 cos 2 cos [2] 1
2 [sin 6 sin2] = (2 cos 2 2 1) sin 2
Hence, show that 2
[5]
sin + sin + sin = 4 cos 2 cos 2 cos 2
(iii) Hence, or otherwise, solve
[5]
sin 6 sin 2 = 0 for 0 2 .
CAPE 2008
[5]
21. (a) By using = cos2 , or otherwise, find all (b) Find ALL possible values of cos such
values of the angle such that that 2 cot 2 + cos = 0. [8]
8 cos 4 10 cos 2 + 3 = 0, 0 . CAPE 2012
[6] 23. (a) is an acute angle and is an obtuse
4 3
angle, where sin = 5 and cos = 5.
Without finding the values of angles and
, calculate cos 3. [5]

110
CHAPTER 17: TRIGONOMETRY

(b) Solve the equation 4 cos 2 14 sin = 7 CAPE 2015


for values of between 0 and 2 radians.
[8] SOLUTIONS
CAPE 2013
24. (a) (i) Show that sin 2 =
2 tan 1.
2 . [4]
1+tan
2. = 41.8, 138.1
(ii) Hence, or otherwise, solve equation 5
sin 2 tan = 0 for 0 2. 3. = 6, 6
[8] 63 56
4. ,
(b) (i) Express () = 3 cos 4 sin in the 65 65
4 12 63 334
form cos( + ) where > 0 5. (a) 5 (b) 13 (c) 65 (d)
10
and0 < < 2. [4] 63 56 7
6. (i) 65 (ii) 65 (iii) 65
(ii) Hence, find
2 4
(a) the maximum value of () [2] 7. (i) = ,
1 3 3
(b) the minimum value of 8+(). [2] 5
8. = 0, , , 2
3 3
(iii) Given that the sum of the angles , 2
and of a triangle is radians, show 9. (ii) 9
that 10.
(a) sin = sin( + ) [3] 11.
(b) sin + sin + sin sin 2
= sin( + ) + sin( + ) + 12. (ii) tan = 1+cos 2
5
sin( + ). [2] 13. = + 2, = + 2, + 2
3 3
CAPE 2013
cot cot sin() 14. (a) () = 3 cos( + 0.615 )
25. (a) (i) Prove that cot +cot = sin(+). [4]
(b) 3 (c) = 2.53
(ii) Hence, or otherwise, find the possible
values for in the trigonometric 15. 14 sin( 14)
3
equation 16. (a) 2 cos ( + 4 ) (b) 2, 2 + 2
cot cot
= 1, 0 2 17. (i) (ii) 97
cot + cot 1
18. 2
1
when sin = 2 , 0 2 . [8]
19. = 0, ,
2
(b) (i) Express () = sin 2 + 4 cos 2 in
20.
the form sin(2 + ) where > 0 3 5
and 0 < < 2.

[4] 21. (a) = 6 , 4 , 4 , 6
(ii) Hence, or otherwise, determine (b) (i) = 8 sin + 6 cos (ii) 0.131
(a) the value of , between 0 and 2 (iii) No
radians, at which () is a (c)(i) (ii) (iii)
3
minimum. [4] 22. (a) (i) (ii) (iii) = 0, , ,
4 2 4
1
(b) the minimum and maximum (b) 2 , 0, 1
1
values of 7(). [5] 117
23. (a) 125 (b) 3.40 , 6.03
CAPE 2014 3 5 7
24. (a) (i) (ii) = 0, 4 , 4 , , 4 , 4 , 2
26. (a) (i) Show that cos 3 = 4 cos 3 3 cos . (b) (i) 5 cos( + 0.927 ) (ii) (a) 5
1
[6] (b) 13
(ii) Hence, or otherwise, solve 25. (a) (i) (ii) = 0, , 2
cos 6 cos 2 = 0 for 0 2.
(b) (i) 17 sin(2 + 1.33 )
[9]
(b) (i) Express (2) = 3 sin2 + 4 cos 2 in (ii) (a) = 1.69
1 1
the form sin(2 + ) where > 0 (b) min: 7+17 ; max: 717
3 5 3 7
and 0 < < 2. [6] 26. (a) (i) (ii) = 0, , , , , , , , 2
4 2 4 4 2 4
(ii) Hence, or otherwise, find the 1 1
(b) (i) 5 sin( + 0.927 ) (ii) max: 2; min: 12
maximum and minimum values of
1
( )
. [4]
7

111
CHAPTER 18: PARAMETRIC EQUATIONS

CHAPTER 18: PARAMETRIC EQUATIONS


At the end of this section, students should be able LESSON 4 Find the Cartesian equation for
to: the following
= 3 sin , = 5 cos
obtain the Cartesian equation of a curve
given its parametric representation; SOLUTION

obtain the parametric representation of a sin = cos =
3 5
curve given its Cartesian equation. 2 2
2 2
sin + cos = ( ) + ( )
3 5
__________________________________________________________ 2 2
If a curve is given by parametric equations, we 1= +
9 25
often are interested in finding an equation for the This is the equation of an ELLIPSE with centre
curve in standard form: = () (0, 0), intercepts 3 and intercepts 5.
LESSON 1 Find the Cartesian equation for:
= 2 1, = 2
SOLUTION
Solve the first equation for and plug that value
into the second equation.
= 2 1
2 = + 1
= + 1
= 2 + 1

LESSON 2 Find the Cartesian equation for:


1
= , = 2 + 3. LESSON 5 A point moves so that at time
the distances from the coordinate axes are given
SOLUTION by
1
= , = +3 = 3 + 2 sin and = 2 + 3 cos
2
= (i) Find the maximum and minimum values of
= 2 and
1
= 2 2 + 3 or 2 = 2 + 6 (ii) Find the Cartesian equation of the curve
traced by the point
LESSON 3 Find the Cartesian equation for: SOLUTION
1 3
= , = (i) The maximum value of occurs when
2 1 + 2
SOLUTION sin = 1, therefore max = 3 + 2(1) = 5
1 3 The minimum value of occurs when
= , = sin = 1, therefore min = 3 + 2(1) = 1
2 1 + 2
1 Likewise, for we have
= max = 2 + 3(1) = 5 and
2
(2 ) = 1 min = 2 + 3(1) = 1
2 = 1
2 1 = (ii) = 3 + 2 sin , = 2 + 3 sin
2 1
=

3
3 + 4 2 3
= = =
2(2 1) 5 2
1+

112
CHAPTER 18: PARAMETRIC EQUATIONS

3 2 Determine the coordinates of the centre of the


sin = , cos =
2 3 circle and the radius of the circle.
2
3 2 2 6. Show that the Cartesian equation represented
sin2 = ( ) cos2 = ( ) by the parametric equations
2 3
= 3 + cos , = sin 1
( 3)2 ( 2) 2 represents the equation of a circle.
sin2 + cos2 = + State the coordinates of the centre of the circle
4 9
( 3) 2 ( 2) 2 and the radius of the circle.
1= + 7. For each of the following eliminate the
4 9
This is an ELLIPSE with centre (3, 2). The parameter and find the corresponding
horizontal distance from the centre is 2 in either Cartesian equations
direction and the vertical distance from the centre = 2 cos , = 4 sin
in either direction is 3. = + 2, =
.. Hence, determine the points of intersection of
the 2 curves.
EXERCISE 18
SOLUTIONS
1. Find the Cartesian equations for each of the
4
following pairs of parametric equations. 1. (a) = (b) = 4 + 4
4
a) = + 4, = 4 32
(c) = 2 + 1 (d) = 2 +4
b) = 4 , = + 4
1 1
c) = 2 2 , = + 1 (e) = (f) =
2 2
2 3 2. = 2 6 + 10
(d) = , = 2 2
1 + 3. (a) 2 + = 1 (b) + 2 = 1
1 9 9
(e) = , = (1 + ) (c) ( + 4) 2 + ( + 1)2 = 1
+1 2 2
1 (d) ( 4) 2 + = 1 (e) + (1 ) = 1
(f) = 81 4
, =
1 + 2 1 + 2 4. (a) max = 1, min = 5,
2. Obtain the Cartesian equation of the curve max = 4, min = 2
whose parametric representation is +3 2 1 2
= 2 2 + 3 = 4 4 + 1 (b) ( ) + ( ) = 1
2 3
5. ( 1) 2 + ( 2) 2 = 1 (1, 2); = 1
in the form = 2 + + where , and 6. ( 3) 3 + ( + 1) 2 = 1 (3, 1); = 1
are real numbers. 2 2
7. + 16 = 1 = 2
4
3. Find the Cartesian equations for each of the 6 16
( , ) ; (2, 0)
following pairs of parametric equations 5 5
a. = cos , = 3 sin
b. = 3 sin , = cos
EXAM QUESTIONS
c. = 4 + cos , = 1 + sin
d. = 4 + cos , = 9 sin
1. Obtain the Cartesian equation of the curve
e. = 2 cos , = cos2 whose parametric representation is
4. A point moves so that at time the distances = 2 2 + 3, = 3 4 + 2 in the form
from the coordinate axes are given by = 2 + + , where , and are real
= 3 + 2 cos and = 1 + 3 sin
numbers. [6]
CAPE 2004
a. Find the maximum and minimum values
of and .
2. (i) Find the coordinates of the centre and
b. Find the Cartesian equation of the curve
the radius of the circle
traced by the point. 2 + 2 + 2 4 = 4. [4]
5. By eliminating the parameter from (ii) By writing + 1 = 3 sin , show that the
= 1 + cos , = 2 + sin parametric equations of this circle are
show that the corresponding Cartesian = 1 + 3 sin, = 2 + 3 cos . [5]
equation represents the equation of a circle.

113
CHAPTER 18: PARAMETRIC EQUATIONS

(iii) Show that the coordinate of the points 3. (i) (ii) (22, 1 + 22); (22, 1 22)
of intersection of this circle with the line (iii) = 4, = 0, = 1
3 2 2
+ = 1 are = 1 2 2. [4] (iv) ( 22) + ( (1 22) = 16
CAPE 2006 2
4. (i) 2 =1
3. The line has equation + 1 = 0 and the 9
circle has equation 2 + 2 2 15 = 0. (ii) (45 + 1214, 29.98); (45 1214, 1)
(i) Show that passes through the centre of 5.
(1)
. [2] 6. =
21
(ii) If intersects at and , determine the 7. (i) 1 :( + 3)2 + ( 2)2 = 10,
coordinates of and . [3]
2 : ( 3)2 + ( 2)2 = 16
(iii) Find the constants , and such that 1 15 1 15
= + cos and = + sin are (ii) ( 2 , 2 + ) ; ( 2 , 2 )
2 2
parametric equations of . [3]
(iv) Another circle 2 , with the same radius as ..
, touches at the centre of . Find the
possible equations of 2 . [7]
CAPE 2011
4. (i) Determine the Cartesian equation of the
curve, , defined by the parametric
equations = sec and = 3 tan . [5]
(ii) Find the points of intersection of the curve
= 10 with . [9]
CAPE 2012

5. Show that the Cartesian equation of the


curve that has the parametric equations
= 2 + , = 2 4 is 4 = 2 + 10 + 24.
[4]
CAPE 2013

6. The parametric equations of a curve, , are


given by
1
= and =
1+ 1 2
Determine the Cartesian equation of the
curve,. [6]
CAPE 2014

7. The circles 1 and 2 are defined by th


eparametric equations as follows:
1 : = 10 cos 3; = 10 sin + 2
2 : = 4 cos + 3; = 4 sin + 2

(i) Determine the Cartesian equations of 1


and 2 in the form
( ) 2 + ( )2 = 2 . [4]
(ii) Hence or otherwise, find the points of
intersection of 1 and 2 . [9]
CAPE 2015

SOLUTIONS
3 9 17
1. = 4 2 2 + 2
2. (i) (1, 2); = 3

114
CHAPTER 19: LIMITS

MODULE THREE: CALCULUS


CHAPTER 19: LIMITS
At the end of this section, students should be able If we refer to the polygon as an -gon, where is
to: the number of sides, we can make some
use graphs to determine the equivalent mathematical statements.
continuity and discontinuity of
functions;
describe the behaviour of a function, As gets larger, the -gon gets closer to
() as gets arbitrarily close to being the circle.
some given fixed number, using a As approaches infinity, the -gon
descriptive approach; approaches the circle.
use the limit notation lim () = , The limit of the -gon, as goes to
infinity, is the circle!
() as ; lim ( gon) = circle
use the simple limit theorems:
if lim () = , lim () = and is The -gon never really gets to be the circle, but it
will get very close! So close, in fact, that, for all
a constant, then lim () , practical purposes, it may as well be the circle.

lim ( ) ( ) = , lim { ( ) + That's what limits are all about!

( )} = + and, provided
() TABULAR APPROACH
0, lim = ;
() Now lets look at a numerical example.
use the limit theorems in simple Find the limit as approaches 10 of the function
problems: () = 3 + 5. Firstly we need to note that can
sin
use the fact that lim = 1, approach 10 from the left or the right. This idea
0
will be demonstrated using a table of values and
demonstrated by a geometric
the graph of the function.
approach;
Approaching 10 from the left
identify the point(s) for which a
9 9.5 9.9 9.99 9.999 9.9999
function is (un)defined;
() 32 33.5 34.7 34.97 34.997 34.9997
identify the points for which a
function is continuous;
identify the point(s) where a function It appears that as gets closer and closer to 10
from the left that () gets closer and closer to 35.
is discontinuous;
use the concept of left handed or
right handed
__________________________________________________________ Approaching 10 from the right
10.0001 10.001 10.01 10.1 10.5 11
INTRODUCTION
To understand what is really going on in () 35.0003 35.003 35.03 35.3 36.5 38
differential calculus, we need to have an
understanding of limits. In the study of calculus, As gets closer and closer to 10 from the right
what happens to the value of a function as the () approaches 35. Hence, is seems reasonable to
independent variable gets very close to a conclude that as gets closer and closer to 10,
particular value is very important. () approaches 35.

Consider the following in order to develop an GRAPHICAL APPROACH


understanding of what is a limit: We will now to take a look at the graph of () to
If we increase the number of sides of a polygon, in help verify our answer.
relation to a circle what can we say about the
polygon?
As the number of sides increases the polygon
becomes closer and closer to being a circle.

115
CHAPTER 19: LIMITS

LESSON 2 Evaluate the following limits.


2 2 3
1. lim
3 3
2 4
2. lim
2 2
2
3. lim
2 4

SOLUTION
2 23
Thus, we have the following limit as approaches 1. lim
3 3
10 from the left (left-hand limit) ( + 1)( 3)
lim 3 + 5 = 35 () = lim
10 3 3
and from the right (right-hand limit) = lim + 1
3
lim+ 3 + 5 = 35 ()
10 =3+1
Therefore, since converges to 10 from both the =4
left and right, () approaches 35 we conclude Substituting = 3 immediately will lead directly
lim 3 + 5 = 35 () to division by zero. Therefore, we factor and
10
cancel before substituting.
() and () are one sided limits, whereas, ()
is a two sided limit. 2 4
2. lim
2 2
( 2)( + 2)
LIMITS BY DIRECT SUBSTITUTION = lim
LESSON 1 Determine 2 2
= lim + 2
2
(i) lim 3 + 5 =2+2
10
(ii) lim 3 3 2 + 2 1 =4
3
2 +3+1
(iii) lim 2
1 2 +1
3. lim
SOLUTION 2 4
2
(i) lim 3 + 5 = lim
2 ( 2)( + 2)
10
= 3(10) + 5 1
= 35 = lim
2 ( + 2)
(ii) lim 3 3 2 + 2 1 1
3
=
= 3 (3)3 32 + 2(3) 1 4 + 2
= 77 1
2 +3+1 =
(iii) lim 4
1 2 +1
(1)2 + 3(1) + 1
=
(1)2 + 1
1
=
2
In general, if () is continuous then:
lim () = ()

It is important to note that all polynomial
functions are continuous.

116
CHAPTER 19: LIMITS

LIMIT PROPERTIES small? Yup, the graph is again getting closer and
1. lim () = or () closer to the -axis
(which is 0.) It's
as iff lim () = and just coming in from

lim () = below this time.
+
2. . lim () = lim . () 1
lim ( ) = 0

3. lim[() ()] = lim () lim ()


4. lim[()()] = lim () lim ()


53
() lim () LESSON 3 Find lim (6+1)

5. lim =
() lim () SOLUTION In solving these questions please
53()
APPLICATIONS OF LIMIT LAWS do not write 6()+1 , this does not make
lim 5 = 5. lim = 5 . 4 = 20 mathematical sense. Instead we use the fact
4 4 1
thatlim = 0. Therefore, we divide throughout by

lim(3 + 1)(2 1)
2 to get an expression that can be evaluated
= lim (3 + 1) lim(2 1) 5 3
2 2 lim ( )
= (3 (2) + 1)(2(2) 1) 6 + 1

=73 5
3
= 21 = lim ( )
1
6+

1 03
lim =
3 2 + 1 6+0
lim 1 3
= 3 2 =
lim + 1 6
3 1
31 =
= 2
91 32 2
LESSON 4 Evaluate lim 52 +4+1
1
= SOLUTION Divide throughout by the highest
4
power of
3 2 2
2 2 2
LIMITS AS APPROACHES INFINITY lim
5 2 4 1
+ 2+ 2
2
INTRODUCTION 1 2
3 2
1
Now lets look at the graph of () = from = lim
4 1
another perspective. We are now going to examine 5+ + 2

the limit as approaches infinity (both positive 300
=
and negative infinity). 5+0+0
1
Now, let's look at the graph of () = and see 3
=
5
what happens!
As gets really, really big, the graph gets closer
and closer to the -axis which has a height of 0. So,
as approaches +, () is approaching 0. This is
called a limit at infinity.
1
lim ( ) = 0
+
Now let's look at the green line... What is
happening to the graph as gets really, really

117
CHAPTER 19: LIMITS

LIMITS AS APPROACHES 0

INTRODUCTION
Although we cannot divide by 0 there are some
interesting, and important, limits where there is a
limiting value as approaches 0 and where it
would appear that we have a 0 denominator.

sin 3
LESSON 5 Evaluate lim
0
SOLUTION
The same graphical process can be used to derive
that
sin3
lim =3
0

To illustrate we take a look at the graph of


1
() = to see what happens as approaches 0.

We need to look at two separate cases:
(1) the left hand limit as approaches 0 and
(2) the right hand limit as approaches 0
1 1
lim ( ) = and lim ( ) = +
0 0+
Since the left hand limit does not equal the right
hand limit
1
lim ( ) = DOES NOT EXIST However, we are these limits can also be derived
0
In this case the -axis is a vertical asymptote. algebraically as follows.
sin3
lim
INTRODUCTION 0
sin 3 3
= lim
0 3
Limit of
sin 3 3
= lim lim
0 3 0
sin =13
We now look at the limit as approaches 0 of . =3

We can use a table of values sufficiently close to 0
in order to evaluate the limit. This process reveals LESSON 6 Determine
that sin 4
sin lim
0 3
lim =1 SOLUTION
0
This is supported by the graph below. sin4
lim
0 3
sin 4 4
= lim
0 4 3
sin 4 4
= lim lim
0 4 0 3
4
=1
3
4
=
3

118
CHAPTER 19: LIMITS

LESSON 7 Evaluate 7. Evaluate


sin 5
lim 6 5
0 sin 2
a. lim b. lim
SOLUTION 4
sin5 2 + 1 4 2 + 1
lim c. lim d. lim
0 sin2 5 1 2 + 3 2
5 sin5 2 2 + 2
= lim e. lim 3
0 2 5 sin 2 + + + 1
5
= 11
2 SOLUTIONS
5
=
2
.. 1. (a) 17 (b) 17 (c) 0
1 1
EXERCISE 19.1 2. (a) 4 (b) 7 (c) 12 (d) DOES NOT EXIST
1
3. (a) 39 (b) 11
1. Determine the limits of each function 3
4.
(a) lim (3 2 + 5) 4
2 5. (a) Does not exist (b) does not exist
3
(c) 5 (d) 3 (e)
(b) lim (2 2 + 1) 4
3
2 + 3 + 2
(c) lim 6.
1 2 + 1 2 4
7. (a) 0 (b) 0 (c) (d) (e) 0
5 3
2. Find
2
a. lim ..
2 2 4
2 5 6
b. lim
1 +1 LIMITS AND PIECEWISE FUNCTIONS
+2 LESSON 8 The function () is defined as
c. lim 3 follows:
2 + 8
2 2 <0
d. lim ( ) = {
2 | 2| +2 0
Find lim ()
0
3. Evaluate each of the following by applying the SOLUTION
appropriate law of limits.
a. lim(2 2 3 + 4)
5
3 + 2 2 1
b. lim
2 5 3
1
4. If lim () = 2 and

2 ()
lim () = , find lim
3 ()
5. Evaluate each limit
1 4
a. lim 5 b. lim 11
0 0 We will use the graph of () to help us solve the
sin 5 sin6
c. lim d. lim question
0 0 2
3
e. lim Firstly, we note that the graph is discontinuous,
0 sin 4
with a break, at = 0.
6. Show that
sin 2 Since ( ) = 2 for < 0, we have
lim = lim () = lim 2 = 02 = 0
0 0
2
Since () = + 2 for 0, we have
lim+ () = lim+ + 2 = 0 + 2 = 2
0 0
So we have 2 different limiting values for ()as

119
CHAPTER 19: LIMITS

0. As a result we are left to conclude that lim () LESSON 11 The function on is defined by
0
does not exist. 2 + 1 3
() = {
1 + < 3
Determine
LESSON 9 Use the graph of () to find
lim () if (a) (3)
1
3 , 1 (b) lim+ ()
() = { 3
1, =1
(c) lim () in terms of the constant
3
(d) the value of such that is continuous at
= 3.
SOLUTION

(a) (3) = 32 + 1 = 10
(b) lim+ () = lim+ 2 + 1 = 32 + 1 = 10
3 3
(c) lim ( ) = lim 1 + = 1 + 3
3 3
(d) If is continuous at = 3 then
SOLUTION From the graph we see that lim+ ( ) = lim ( )
lim () = 1 and lim+ () = 1 3 3
1 1 10 = 1 + 3
Therefore, 3=
lim () = 1
1

LESSON 12 Determine the values of for


2+1
PIECEWISE FUNCTIONS AND CONTINUITY which the function () = 2 is continuous.
+2
LESSON 10 The function on is defined by
SOLUTION () will be discontinuous at
4 if 1
() = { those values of for which the denominator
2 + if < 1
2 + 2 = 0. Therefore for all other values of
(i) Sketch the graph of () for the domain , () is continuous.
1 2. 2 + 2 = 0
(ii) Find ( + 2)( 1) = 0
(a) lim+ () = 2, 1
1
() is continuous for all real values of except
(b) lim ()
1 2 and 1
(iii) Deduce that () is continuous at = 1.
..
SOLUTION
EXERCISE 19.2
(i)
1. Determine whether or not each of the
following functions are continuous.
2
a. () =
1+
b. () = 2 + 5
4 2
c. () = 3
+8
2. Let be the function defined by
(ii) (a) lim+ () = lim+ 4 = 4 1 = 3 2
() = {2
1 1 if < 1
(b) lim () = lim 2 + = 2 + 1 = 3 4 if 1
1 1
(iii) (1) = 4 1 = 3 Graph , and use the graph to find the
Since lim+ () = lim () = (1) = 3, ()
1 1 following
is continuous. a. lim ()
1
b. lim ()
1+
c. lim ()
1

120
CHAPTER 19: LIMITS

3. Determine the values of for which the 2. (a) 2 (b) 3 (c) DOES NOT EXIST
1
function () = 2 is continuous. 3. 3, 1
+23 81
4. Determine the values of for which the 4. = 4
1 2 1 3
function () = 29 is discontinuous. 5. (i) 3 (ii) 3 (iii) 2 (iv) 5 (v) 2 (vi) 1
1
5. Find (vii) DOES NOT EXIST (viii) 2
11
2 9 6. 4
(i) lim 2 7. 72
3 3 9
5
2 + 2 8.
(ii) lim 2 2
2
1 3 + 2
9. 2, 5
2 2 3
(iii) lim 2 10. = 2, = 1
3 4 + 3 7 7
2 + 2 11. (i) 2 (ii) = 2 (iii) = 3, 6
(iv) lim 2
2 + 5 + 6 (iv) = 3
3 + 8
(v) lim 3 EXAM QUESTIONS
2 4
+4
(vi) lim 1. Given that lim {4()} = 5, evaluate
+ 2 2
1 lim {() + 2}. [5]
(vii) lim 2 2
0
CAPE 2004
3 + 2
(viii) lim
1 + 2 2 2 23
2. (a) Evaluate lim 2 4+3. [4]
3
6. Given that lim {4()} = 5, evaluate (b) Determine the values of for which
2
+2
lim {() + 2} the function (+1) is NOT continuous.
2
7. Given that lim {() + 3} = 1, [3]
3
evaluate lim 9()
3 CAPE 2004
8. Given that lim( + ) = 9, calculate the
4
value of . 3. (a) Find the real values of for which the
sin function
9. Given that lim = 1,
0
sin2 sin 2
evaluate lim and lim sin 5 . () =
0 0 2 2 8
10. The function is defined by is discontinuous. [3]
1
( ) = 2 +2
( + 2)( 1) (b) Find lim 2 3+2 [3]
1
and is continuous for all values of except
(c) Find the values of such that the
and , where < . Find the values of and . 92
function () = (2 3)(||3) is
11. Determine the real values of for which the discontinuous. [4]
following functions are continuous.
CAPE 2006
i. () = 3 +8
2|| 7 4. (a) Determine lim . [4]
2 3 4

ii. () = (b) Obtain the real values of such that the
|2| 7 2 +1
2 + 1 function () = |23|9 is continuous.
iii. () = [4]
|2 3| 9
| |
iv. () = 2 CAPE 2007
|| 9
SOLUTIONS 3 27
5. Find lim 2 +12 . [4]
3
1. (a) Discontinuous (b) Continuous CAPE 2008
(c) Discontinuous

121
CHAPTER 19: LIMITS

3 8 (i) Find
6. (a) Find lim 3 6+8. [5]
2 (a) lim+ () [2]
(b) The function on is defined by 1
3 1 (b) the value of the constant such
() = { that lim () exists. [4]
1+ <1 1
(i) Sketch the graph of () for the (ii) Hence, determine the value of ()
domain 1 2. [2] for to be continuous at the point
(ii) Find = 1. [1]
(a) lim+ () [2]
1
(b) lim () [2] CAPE 2012
1
(iii) Deduce that () is continuous at 10. A function () is defined as
= 1. [3] +2 <2
CAPE 2009 () = { 2
>2
(i) Find lim (). [4]
2
7. (a) Find
2 9
(ii) Determine whether () is continuous at
(i) lim 3 27 [4] = 2. Give a reason for your answer. [2]
3
tan 5
(ii) lim sin24 . [5] CAPE 2013
0 11. Let () be a function defined as
(b) The function on is defined by + 2 < 3
3 7 > 4 () = { 2
() = { 3
1 + 2 4 (i) Find the value of if () is continuous at
(i) Find = 3. [4]
(a) lim+ () [2] 2 +2
4 (ii) Let ( ) = 2 ++4.
(b) lim () [2]
4 Given that lim 2() = lim ( ), find the
1 0
(ii) Deduce that () is discontinuous at
value of . [5]
= 4. [2]
CAPE 2014
CAPE 2010
2 +5+6 12. Let be the function defined as
8. (a) Find lim [4] sin()
2 2 6
() = { 0, 0
(b) The function on is defined by
2 4 =0
() = { + 1 2 If continuous at = 0, determine the value
1 + < 2
of . [4]
Determine CAPE 2015
SOLUTIONS
(i) (2) [2]
(ii) lim+ ( ) [2] 1. 4
11
2
(iii) lim () in terms of the constant . 2. (a) 2 (b) = 1, 0
2
[2] 3. (a) = 2, 4 (b) 3 (c) = 3, 3
3
(iv) the value of such that is 4. (a) 2 (b) 3, 6
continuous at = 2. [4] 27
5.
CAPE 2011 7
6. (a) 0 (b) (i) (ii) (a) 2 (b) 2 (iii)
3 +8 2
9. (a) (i) Find the values of for which 2 4 is 7. (a) (i) 9 (ii) 2 (b) (i) (a) 5 (b) 9 (ii)
1
discontinuous. [2] 8. (a) 5 (b) (i) 5 (ii) 5 (iii) 1 + 2
3 +8
(ii) Hence, or otherwise, find lim . (iv) = 2
2 2 4
[3] 9. (a) (i) = 2 (ii) 3 (iii) 2
sin (b) (i) (a) 5 (b) 1 (ii) 5
(iii) By using the fact that lim = 1, or
0 10. (i) 4 (ii) Yes
23 +4 1
otherwise, find, lim . [5] 11. (i) (ii) 7
0 sin2 3
(b) The function on is defined by 12. 4
2 + 1 > 1
() = { ..
4 + < 1

122
CHAPTER 19: LIMITS

DIFFERENTIATION FROM FIRST Therefore, 2 is the first derivative of


. At this stage we now introduce notation used
PRINCIPLES
for derivatives. is the operator for
INTRODUCTION

In this section, we will differentiate a function differentiation. means that we are
from "first principles". This means we will start differentiating with respect to , consequently
from scratch and use algebra to find a general
means that we are differentiating with
expression for the slope of a curve, at any value .
respect to . Since = () the first derivative
We wish to find an algebraic method to find the can also be denoted as (). Therefore,
slope of = () at . ( + ) ()
= = lim
0

( + ) ()
or () = lim
0

LESSON 14 Differentiate from first principles

1
=

SOLUTION
1
() =

1
( + ) =
+
1 1
( + ) () =
+
( + )
=
( + )
We choose an arbitrary point close to say
=
( + , ( + )) and then move this point ( + )
closer and closer to . Eventually the line will 1
=
become the tangent of () at . As gets closer ( + )
and closer to , , the distance between and + ( + ) ()
gets closer and closer to 0. Remember, we are = lim
0
interested in determining the rate of change of a 1
variable, , compared to another . Hence, we = lim 2
0 +
need to determine 1
= lim 2
( + ) () 0 +
lim 1
0 = 2
where [( + ) ()] is the change in and
is the change in
LESSON 13 Differentiate = 2 from first LESSON 15 Differentiate from first principles
principles.
() = 3 + 2
SOLUTION
SOLUTION
() = 2
() = 3 + 2
( + ) = ( + ) 2
( + ) = ( + ) 3 + 2( + )
( + ) () = ( + ) 2 2
= 3 + 3 2 + 32 + 3 + 2 + 2
= 2 + 2 + 2 2
( + ) ()
= 2 + 2
= 3 + 3 2 + 32 + 3 + 2 + 2 3 2
= (2 + )
= 3 2 + 32 + 3 + 2
(2 + ) = (3 2 + 2 + 2 + 2)
lim (3 2 + 3 + 2 + 2)
0 () = lim
= lim 2 + 0
0 = lim 3 2 + 3 + 2 + 2
= 2 0
= 3 2 + 2

123
CHAPTER 19: LIMITS

LESSON 16 Differentiate from first principles (f) = cos

() = SOLUTIONS
6 1
SOLUTION (a) 0 (b) 2 (c) 4 (d) (e) 2 cos 2

() =
(f) sin
( + ) = +
( + ) () = + EXAM QUESTIONS
1. (a) Use the result that
+ ( + + )( + ) = to
() = lim
0 show that
( + )( + + ) + 1
= lim lim = . [5]
0 2
0 ( + + ) (b) Deduce, from first principles, the
+
= lim derivative with respect to of = .
0 ( + + ) [1]
CAPE 2005
= lim
0 ( + + ) 2. Differentiate from first principles, with
1
1 respect to , the function = 2 . [6]
= lim
0 ( + + )
1 CAPE 2009
= ..
2

LESSON 17 Differentiate from first principles

() = sin 2

SOLUTION
() = sin 2
( + ) = sin2( + )
( + ) ( )
= sin(2 + 2) sin 2
2 + 2 + 2 2 + 2 2
= 2 cos ( ) sin ( )
2 2
= 2 cos(2 + ) sin

2 cos(2 + ) sin()
( ) = lim
0
2 cos(2 + ) sin()
= lim
0
sin
= lim 2 cos(2 + ) lim
0 0
= 2 cos 2 1
= 2 cos 2

..

EXERCISE 19.3
1. Differentiate each of the following from first
principles.
(a) = 3
(b) = 2
2
(c) = 3
(d) = 2
(e) = sin2

124
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION

CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION


At the end of this section, students should be able use the sign of the derivatives to investigate
to: where a function is increasing or decreasing;
use the concept of the derivative at a point apply the concept of stationary (critical)
= as the gradient of the tangent to the points;
graph at = ; calculate second derivatives;

use the () and notation for the first interpret the significance of the sign of the
derivative of (); second derivative;
use the sign of the second derivative to
use = 1 where is any real determine the nature of stationary points;

number; sketch graphs of polynomials, rational

use sin = cos and cos = sin functions and trigonometric functions using
use simple rules of derivatives to find the features of the function and its first and
derivatives of sums and multiples of second derivative (including horizontal and
functions; vertical asymptotes);
calculate derivatives of polynomials and describe the behaviour of such graphs for
trigonometric functions; large values of the independent variable;
apply the chain rule in the differentiation of obtain equations of tangents and normal to
composite functions; curves.
differentiate products and quotients of simple
polynomials and trigonometric functions; HOW TO DIFFERENTIATE
use the concept of the derivative as a rate of INTRODUCTION
change;
use the concept of stationary points; is the differential operator which indicates that

locate stationary points, maxima and minima, we are differentiating with respect to .
by considering sign changes of the derivative;
means that we are differentiating with
calculate the second derivative, ();
respect to .
interpret the significance of the sign of the
second derivatives; means that we are differentiating with

use the sign of the second derivative to respect to .

determine the nature of stationary points; Alternately, for functions of the form = (),
obtain equations of tangents and normal to can be written as () or .
curves.
= 1
derive the derivative of a function at a point as

a limit; LESSON 1 Determine for each of the

differentiate, from first principles, functions following
such as: 1. = 2
(a) () = where , 2. = 3 5
(b) () = , where
1 1 3. =
{3, 2, , 1, 2 , 2 , 1, 2, 3} 4. = 23
1

(c) () = sin , 4
5. =
(d) () = cos ; 5
3
use the sum, product and quotient rules for SOLUTION
differentiation; 1. = 2
differentiate sums, products and quotients of:
= 2
(b) polynomials,
(c) trigonometric functions; 2. = 3 5
apply the chain rule in the differentiation of
= 15 4
(b) composite functions (substitution),
(c) functions given by parametric equations;
solve problems involving rates of change;

125
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION

1
3. = = 2 4. = 4 2 12 + 9 5 cos
1 (1)
= 2 = 8 12 5( sin )
2
1 1 = 8 12 + 5 sin
4. = 23 = 2 3
3 3 42 12+9
= 4 = 4 5. =
2 2
9
3 = 4 12 + = 4 12 + 9 1
4
5. = 5 = 4 5
9
3
= 4 9 2 = 4 2
12 8
= 5
5
DIFFERENTIATION RULES
THE DERIVATIVES OF TRIGONOMETRIC
FUNCTIONS The Chain Rule

= sin = cos [()] = [()]1 ()


= cos = sin [(())] = (()). ()

LESSON 3 Differentiate each of the
= tan = sec 2 following.

1. = (3 + 5)5
= sec = sec tan 1
2. = (4 + 5 )3

= csc = csc cot 3. = 2 + 5 8


= cot = csc 2 SOLUTION
1. = (3 + 5)5
PROPERTIES OF DERIVATIVES
= 5(3 + 5)4 (3) = 15(3 + 5) 4

1. [ ()] = [ ()]

1
2. [() ()] = () () 2. = (4 + 5 )3

1 2
= (4 + 5 ) 3 (4 5 6 )
LESSON 2 Find in each of the following 3
cases. 1
1 3. = 2 + 5 8 = ( 2 + 5 8) 2
1. = 3 5
+ 2 1 2 1
2 = ( + 5 8) 2 (2 + 5)
2. = 5 3 + 2 sin 2
12 2
3. = 7 4 + 5 2
2 LESSON 4 Differentiate
57
2
4. = (2 3) 5 cos SOLUTION
(2 3) 2 2 1
5. = = = 2(5 7)2
5 7
SOLUTION 3
1 = (5 7)2 (5)
1. = 3 5 + 2
2
5
4
= 15 + =
(5 7)3
1
2. = 5 3 2 + 2 sin LESSON 5 Determine the derivative of each
1 1 of the following
= 15 2 2 + 2 cos 1. = sin2
2
2 2. = 3 sin(4 1)
3. = 7 4 + 12 1 2 5
3. = 5 cos( 2 + 4)
4 7
= 28 3 12 2 + 5
5

126
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION

SOLUTION 2. = ( 3 + 7 1)(5 + 2)
1. = sin2
= (3 2 + 7)(5 + 2) + ( 3 + 7 1)(5)

= 2 cos 2
= (3 2 + 7)(5 + 2) + 5( 3 + 7 1)
1
2. = 3 sin(4 1) 3. = + 3 = ( + 3)2
1 1 1
= 3 cos(4 1) 4 = 1( + 3)2 + [ ( + 3)2 (1)]
2
1 1
= 12 cos(4 1) = ( + 3) 2 + ( + 3) 2
2
3. = 5 cos( 2 + 4) 1
= ( + 3) 2 [1 + ( + 3)1 ]
= 5( sin( 2 + 4) 2) 2

4. = ( 2 + 3 + 5) sin
= 10 sin( 2 + 4)

= (2 + 3) sin + ( 2 + 3 + 5) cos

LESSON 6 Differentiate each of the
following 5. = cos sin
1. = sin2
2. = 3 cos 2 2 = ( sin) sin + cos (cos )

3. = 2 cos 3(4 3 + 2) = cos 2 sin2
SOLUTION
1. = sin2 = ( sin )2
LESSON 8 Differentiate = 2( + 3) cos
= 2 sin cos

SOLUTION
2. = 3 cos 2 2 = 3(cos 2)2
= 2( + 3) cos
= 6(cos 2)(2 sin 2)


12 sin 2 cos 2 = 2[1( cos ) + ( + 3)( sin )]


3. = 2 cos 3(4 3 + 2) = 2[cos(4 3 + 2)]3 = 2[cos ( + 3) sin]

= 6[cos(4 3 + 2)]2 ( sin(4 3 + 2) (12 2)


= 72 2 sin(4 3 + 2) cos 2(4 3 + 2)

The Quotient Rule
() ()() () ()
[ ]=
The Product Rule () [()]2

()() = ()() + ()()
LESSON 9 Find the derivatives of the
following functions
LESSON 7 Find the derivative of the 23 (4)2
1. 2. (+3)2
following functions 4
sin 2
1. ( + 5)( 6) 3. 2+cos 4. sin2
2. ( 3 + 7 1)(5 + 2) SOLUTION
3. + 3 23
1. = 4
4. ( 2 + 3 + 5) sin
5. cos sin 6 2 (4 ) 2 3 (1)
=
SOLUTION (4 )2
1. = ( + 5)( 6) 24 6 3 + 2 3
2

=
= 1( 6) + ( + 5)(1) = 2 1 (4 )2
24 4 3
2
=
(4 )2

127
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION

4 2 (6 ) THE SECOND DERIVATIVE


=
(4 )2 The second derivative is the derivative of the first
derivative.
(4)2
2. = (+3)2 Notation
[2( 4)(1)]( + 3)2 ( 4)2 [2( + 3)(1)]
=
[( + 3)2 ]2 Function First Second
2( 4)( + 3) 2 2( + 3)( 4) 2
= Derivative Derivative
( + 3)4
2( 4)( + 3)[( + 3) ( 4)] 2
=
( + 3) 4 2
2( 4)(7)
=
( + 3) 3
14( 4) () () ()
=
( + 3)3

sin
3. = 2+cos LESSON 11 Determine the second derivative
cos (2 + cos ) sin ( sin ) for each of the following.
=
(2 + cos )2 2
2 cos + cos2 + sin2 (a) = 3 4 + 3
=
(2 + cos )2
2 cos + 1 (b) ( ) = 3 cos 2
=
(2 + cos )2
SOLUTION
2 2
4. = sin2 (a) = 3 4 + 3 = 3 4 2 1 + 3
2(sin2 ) 2 (2(sin ) cos )
=
(sin2 )2 = 12 3 + 2 2
2 sin2 2 2 sin cos
=
sin4
2 sin (sin cos ) 2 4
= 2 = 36 2 3
sin4
2(sin cos )
= (b) () = 3 cos 2 = 3(cos )2
sin3
() = 6 cos ( sin ) = 6 sin cos
LESSON 10 Find ( ) for the function
3 () = 6 cos cos 6 sin ( sin )
() = 2
+2
SOLUTION = 6 cos 2 + 6 sin2
3
() = 2 +2
= 6(sin2 cos2 )
3 2 ( 2 + 2) 3 (2)
() =
( 2 + 2)2 LESSON 12 Given that = 7 2 + 3,
3 + 6 2 2 4
4
=
( 2 + 2) 2 (i) obtain
4 + 6 2 (ii) show that = 7

= 2
( + 2) 2 2 2
2 ( 2 + 6) (iii) hence show that 2 + ( ) = 7.
=
( 2 + 2) 2
SOLUTION
1
(i) = (7 2 + 3) 2
1 1
= (7 2 + 3) 2 (14)
2

128
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION

1 3
= 7(7 2 + 3)2 (ii) = 2(1 + 2 ) 2

(ii) 2 5
7 = 3(1 + 2 )2 (2)
2
= 7 2 + 3 ( ) 6
7 2 + 3 = 5
= 7 (1 + 2 )2
1
(iii) = 7(7 2 + 3) 2 2 3
+
2 1 1 3 2 (1 + 2 )2
= 7(7 2 + 3)2 + 7 [ (7 2 + 3) 2 (14)] 6 2 1
2 2 = 5+ 3( 1 ) ((1 )
7 49 2 (1 + 2 )2 + 2)2
= (1 + 2 )2
7 2 + 3 (7 2 + 3)3 6 6
= +
2 2
2 7 49 2 7 5 5
2 + ( ) = 7 2 + 3 ( 3 )+ ( ) (1 + 2 )2 (1 + 2 )2
7 2 + 3 (7 2 + 3) 7 2 + 3

49 2 49 2 =0
=7 2 + 2
7 + 3 7 + 3
=7
PARAMETRIC DIFFERENTIATION
2
LESSON 13 If = 2
show that LESSON 14 A curve is represented
1+
parametrically by
(i)

= 1+2
2
= 2, = 3 2
2 3
(ii) + (1+2 )2 = 0
Find in terms of .
2
SOLUTION SOLUTION
2 2
(i) = = 2 = 2 2
1+2
1 1 1
2 2 4
2(1 + )2 2 [2 (1 + ) 2 (2)] = 3
=
1 2
[(1 + 2 )2 ] = 3 2
1 1
2(1 + 2 )2
2 2 (1 + 2 )2 = 3 2 2
=
1 + 2
1 2 2 1
= (2(1 + 2 )2 1 ) (1 + 2 ) =
(1 + 2 )2
2 2 2 3
= = (3 2 2) ( )
1 3 4
(1 + 2 )2 (1 + 2 )2 3 (3 2 2)
2(1 + 2 ) 2 2 =
= 4
3
(1 + 2 )2
2 LESSON 15 The parametric equations of a
= 3 curve are given by
(1 + 2 )2 = sin , = cos , 0 2

2 Find in terms of .
= ( 3
)
Simplify the answer as far as possible.
(1 + 2 )2
2
= 3 SOLUTION
(1 + 2 )2 = sin

2 1 = cos
=(
1 + 2 1 ) (1 + 2 ) = cos
(1 + 2 )2
2 = sin
= 3
(1 + 2 )2

129
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION

f. = (6 1)3
=
g. = (3 2 + 1) 4
1 4. Differentiate, with respect to, ,
= sin
cos (i) () = sin2
= tan (ii) () = sin2 2
(iii) () = sin2 (2 + 3)
(iv) () = cos 2
1
5. Given that = 3 cos 3 cos , show that
EXERCISE 20.1
= sin3 .


1. Determine for each of the following. 6. Given that () = sin + sin 2, show that for
1+33
(a) = 7 () = 0, = 8 .
(b) = 8 7. Use the product rule to differentiate the

(c) = 0 following functions with respect to .

(d) = 1 (a) ( + 3)( 4)

(e) = 4 (b) (3 4)(2 + 5)

(f) = 7 (c) (6 + )(5 )


1 (d) (3 2)(7 + 3)
(g) = 4
1
(e) 2 ( + 3)4
(h) = 7 (f) 4 (3 1)3
3
(i) = 2 (g) 3 2 (2 + 5) 2

(j) = 3
1
(h) 3 (4 2 1)3
2 (i) ( + 2) 2 ( 5)3
(k) = 5
(j) (2 1) 3 ( + 4) 2
(l) =
(k) (5 + 2) 4 (4 3) 3
(m) = 3
(l) (2 )6 (5 + 2)4
1
(n) = 3 (m) (3 + 5)2 (4 7)7
2

2. Find in each of the following cases. (n) 3 7 2
2
(a) + 2 (o) (2 1) + 3

(b) 2 +
16 (p) (1 3)2 + 5

6 (q) (5 4)3
(c) 4 +
2
(r) (3 + 5) 2 2
27
(d)10 + 2
(s) 2 34 + 1
163 +42 +1
(e) (t) 6 + 3 2
22
54
(f) + 8 2 (u) ( 1)(2 + 1)

3. Differentiate each of the following. 8. Show that, if = sin cos then


a. = (4 5 2 + 5)4
= 2 cos2 1
b. = sin4

c. = 4 cos(3 1) 9. Use the quotient rule to differentiate the given


d. = (1 2 )10 function with respect to

e. = sin (a) 2

130
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION

+3
(b) (c) 25 + 4 sec
1
(d) csc 6 2
3
(c) (e) tan
4+
(f) 2 tan 3
43
(d) (g) (6 sec 2)3
+2
25 12. Differentiate 5 3 4, with respect to .
(e) 13. Given that = 2 2 + 3,
+4

5 (i) obtain
(f) +2
(ii) show that = 2
1+3
(g) 2 2
25
(iii) hence show that 2 + ( ) = 2
4+3
(h) 14. Find the value of for which
21
2 + 3
2 ( )=
(i) 4 ( 4) 2
+3
2
(3)3
2 15. Given that = ((+3)(+5)2 ) , show that
(j) 4
2( 3)5 ( 3 + 27 2 + 69 45)
3 =
(k) ( + 3) 3 ( + 5)5
23
5
(l) 16. Determine for each of the following
3

(32)2 (a) = + 4, =
(m)
4

(b) = , = + 4
4
(5+1)3
(n) (c) = 2 2 , = + 1

5 17. Determine for each of the following
(2 4)
(o) a. = cos , = 3 sin

b. = 3 sin , = cos

(p) c. = 4 + cos , = 1 + sin
21
d. = 4 + cos , = 9 sin
3
(q) e. = 2 cos , = cos 2
(2+) 2
f. = 2 sec , = 3 + 2 tan
5+2 g. = csc cot , = csc 2 cot
(r) (54) 3 18. A curve has parametric equations
(32 +2)
4 = 2 cos , = sin + cos
(s) where 0 2 .

21
1
(23) 2 Show that = (cot 1)
(t) 2
12

10. Differentiate each of the following with respect SOLUTIONS

to 1. (a) 7 6 (b) 8 7 (c) 0 (d) 0 (e) 4 5


(1)3 3 1
(a) (f) 7 8 (g) 4 3 (h) 7 6 (i) 2 2
3
1 2 2 7 1 1 3 1
52 (j) 3 3 (k) 5 5 (l) 2 2 (m) 2 2
(b) 5
6 2
(n) 3 3
3 42
(c) 2. (a) 1
4
(b) 2
16
(c) 4
12
5 3 2 3
sin 2 54 1 54
(d) (d) 10 3 (e) 8 3 (f) 2 + 16
2 +1
3. (a) 8(4 5 2 + 5)3 (10 4 1)

11. Find in each of the following cases. (b) 4 cos 4 (c) 12 sin(3 1)
(a) 6 3 + 2 tan (d) 20(1 2 )9 (e)
cos
2
(b) 3 cot + 2

131
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION

(f) 18(6 1)2 (g) 24(3 2 + 1) 3 152


12.
4. (i) sin2 (ii) 4 sin 2 cos 2 253 4
2
(iii) 4 sin(2 + 3) cos(2 + 3) (iv) sin2 13. (i) (ii) (iii)
22 +3
5. 14. = 11
6. 15.
1 1
7. (a) 2 1 (b) 12 + 7 16. (a) 4 (b) 4 (c) 4
(c) 2 1 (d) 12 5 17. (a) 3 cot
1
(b) 3 tan
(e) 6( + 1)( + 3) 3
(f) 3 (3 1)2 (21 4) (c) cot (d) 9 cot
(g) 6(8 2 + 30 + 25) (e) cos (f) csc
2 csc2 cot csc
(h) 3 2 (4 2 1)2 (12 2 1) (g) csc2 cot csc
(i) ( 5)2 ( + 2)(5 4) 18.
(j) 2( + 4)(2 1)2 (5 + 11)
(k) 4(4 3)2 (5 + 2)3 (35 9) ..
(l) 2(2 )5 (2 + 5)3 (10 + 7)
(m) (4 7)6 (5 + 3)(315 + 107)
7(3)2 6+11 914
(n) (o) 2+3 (p)
72 2+5
(54)2 (354) (3+5)(1519)
(q) (r)
2 22
85 49
(s) (t) 232+6
234+1
41
(u)
222 1
8.
2 4
9. (a) (2)2 (b) (1)2
7 11
(c) (+4)2 (d) (+2)2
13 10
(e)(+4)2 (f) (+2)2
11 10
(g) (25) 2 (h) (21)2
(+6) (8)
(i) (+3)2 (j) (4)2
2 (49) 4 (154)
(k) (23)2
(l) (3) 2
(32)(9+2) (5+1)2 (251)
(m) 3 (n) 3
2 2 2 2
4
(2 4) (192 +4) 21
(o) 3 (p) 2(21)2
2 2
3122 5(4+12+1)
(q) (r)
2(+2)3 (54) 4
3
(32 +2) (452 242) 93 +2212
(s) 3 (t) 3
(21)2 (12 )2
2 2
3(1) ( 4+1) 3 122 +30
10. (a) (3)2
(b)
(6) 2 52
5
2 (7 2 402 20+120)
(c) 2
2(5) 42
2[(2 +1) cos 2 sin2]
(d) (2 +1)2
18 1
11. (a) 4 + 2 sec 2 (b) 3 csc +

(c) 4 sec tan (d) 12 csc 6 2 cot 6 2
2
(e) tan + sec
(f) (2 tan 3 + 3 sec 2 3)
(g) 6(6 sec 2)2 (sec 2 tan 2)

132
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION

APPLICATIONS OF DIFFERENTIATION
GRADIENTS AND DIFFERENTIATION

When you find , we get a formula for the
gradient of the tangent to the curve any point, . If
you want to find the gradient at a specific point we
then substitute the value of that point.

LESSON 1 Find the gradient of the tangent


to the curve = 2 at the point (3, 9).
SOLUTION
= 2

= 2

when = 3

= 2(3) = 6

LESSON 3 Find the equation of the normal


6
to the curve = 3 + at the point (3, 11).
LESSON 2 The gradient of the curve
= 3 2 + 5 12 is 23 at the point . SOLUTION
(i) Calculate the coordinates of . 6
= 3 + = 3 + 6 1
The curve cuts the -axis at and .
(ii) Find the gradient of the curve at and . 6
= 3 6 2 = 3 2
SOLUTION
i. = 3 2 + 5 12 when = 3
6 7
= 6 + 5 =3 2 =
3 3
3
At we have Gradient of normal is 7
6 + 5 = 23 3
= + using = and (3, 11)
=3 7
3
when = 3 11 = (3) +
= 3(3)2 + 5(3) 12 7
86
= 30 =
7
(3, 30) 3 86
ii. At and = 0 = + 7 + 3 = 86
7 7
3 2 + 5 12 = 0
(3 4)( + 3) = 0
4
= = 3
3
4
When =
3
4
= 6 ( ) + 5 = 13
3
When = 3

= 6(3) + 5 = 13

133
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION

INCREASING AND DECREASING FUNCTIONS


INTRODUCTION

The above graph shows the path of a tennis ball


after it is dropped. Below are some of the
observations from the graph.
1. The height of the ball decreases after it is
LESSON 4 If the gradient of the point (3, 16) released. Therefore, for < the graph is
on the curve = 2 + + 13 is 7, find decreasing
and . 2. The height of the ball then increases to
SOLUTION Since (3, 16) is a point on the the point as indicated on the graph.
curve it must satisfy the equation of the curve. Therefore, for < < the graph is
16 = (3) 2 + (3) + 13 increasing.
3 = 9 + 3 3. Between the points = and = the
1 = 3 + (1) balls height is again decreasing. Thus for
Also, this section the graph is decreasing.

=7 4. Finally, after the point , that is for > ,


the graph is increasing as the height of the
2 + = 7
ball is increasing.
when = 3 5. At the points , and the ball
2(3) + = 7 instantaneously stops as it changes
6 + = 7 (2) direction from decreasing to increasing
Solving (1) and (2) simultaneously
and vice versa.
3 + = 1
The points , and due to their nature are
6 + = 7
called stationary points, since the ball stops at
= 2, = 5
these points. Alternatively, they are also referred
to as turning points as the balls direction turns
from decreasing to increasing and from increasing
to decreasing.

The points and look like the bottom of a valley


and as such are termed minimum points, or
minima. It should be noted that to the left of these
points the graph is decreasing and increasing to
the right.
The point , on the other hand, appears to be the
top of a hill, and as a result is termed a maximum
point, or maxima. In contrast to the points and
, to the left of the graph is increasing and
decreasing to the right.
We can conclude that:

134
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION

2
> 0 indicates that the graph is increasing is the derivative of
2
2
= 0 indicates a stationary point If for a stationary point 2 < 0 then the point is a

< 0 indicates that the graph is decreasing 2


maximum point and a minimum point if 2 > 0.
Hence for the LESSON above
LESSON 5 For = 3 6 2 15 + 1
determine the stationary points and their nature. = 3 2 12 15

SOLUTION 2
= 3 6 2 15 + 1 = 6 12
2
= 3 2 12 15 when = 5
2

At stationary points = 0 = 6(5) 12 = 18 minimum point
2
3 2 12 15 = 0 when = 1
2 4 5 = 0 2
( 5)( + 1) = 0 = 6(1) 12 = 18 maximum point
2
= 5 and = 1 And these results coincide with the results for the
when = 5 sign change method used previously.
= 53 6(5) 2 15(5) + 1
= 99 LESSON 7 A rectangular garden is to
(5, 99) be laid out as shown in the diagram. The garden
when = 1 consists of a rectangular lawn surrounded
= (1)3 6(1) 2 15 (1) + 1
by flower beds. The lawn has an area of 240 m2 .
=9
(1, 9) The flower beds are 3 m wide along the sides
and . Given that the distance is m, show
that the total area, m2 , of the garden is
given by
1440
= 10 + 300 +


Given that varies, find an expression for .

Hence, determine the dimensions of the garden
for which is a minimum.

To determine the nature of the stationary points


we examine the sign of the derivative on either
side of each stationary point.

Therefore, (1, 9) is a maximum point and


(5, 99) is a minimum point. SOLUTION
Let be the length of : = 240
LESSON 6 The Second Derivative Test 240
=
Alternately, the Second Derivative Test can be
used to determine the nature of stationary points. = (6 + )(10 + )
The second derivative is simply the derivative of = 60 + 10 + 6 +
the first derivative.

135
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION

240 Concave Downwards


= 60 + 240 + 10 + 6 ( )

1440
= 300 + 10 +

1440
= 10 2

1440
0 = 10 2

1440
10 = 2
LESSON 9 Determine the coordinates of the
= 12 point(s) of inflection on the curve
Since cannot be negative = 12 = 3 + 3 2 + 3.
Dimensions: = 18, = 30
SOLUTION
= 3 + 3 2 + 3
POINTS OF INFLECTION
= 3 2 + 6
LESSON 8 Determine the nature of the
stationary points on the curve = ( 1) 3. 2
= 6 + 6
SOLUTION 2
2
= ( 1)3 For inflection point, 2 = 0
6 + 6 = 0
= 3( 1)2
6 = 6

For stationary points = 0 = 1
3( 1) 2 = 0
=1 = (1)3 + 3(1) 2 + 3
=0 =5
(1, 0) (1, 5)

2
= 6( 1)
2
when = 1
2
= 6(1 1) = 0
2

This value for the second derivative implies that


the stationary point is a point of inflection.
2
While an inflection point occurs when 2 = 0 it

does not have to occur when = 0. An inflection
point occurs when the concavity of the curve
changes.
LESSON 10 The point (1, 3) is an
Concave Upwards inflection point on the curve
= 3 + 2 + . Determine

(a) the values of and .


(b) the equation of the normal to the curve at .

SOLUTION

(a) Since (1, 3) lies on the curve it must satisfy


the equation of the curve
3 = (1) 3 + (1)2 +
4 =+ (1)

136
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION

2
(iii) 2 = 2( + 3) + 2( + 3) + 2(1)
= 3 + 2
+
= 6 + 12
= 3 2 + 2 when = 1

2 2
= 6 + 2 = 6(1) + 12 = 6 Minimum
2 2
6 + 2 = 0 at (1, 3) when = 3
6(1) + 2 = 0 2
= 6(3) + 12 = 6 Maximum
=3 2
Sub = 3 into equation (1) (iv) We need to determine where the graph
4 = + crosses the and axes.
4 =3+ When = 0
1= ( + 3)2 = 0
(b) Gradient at (1, 3): = 3, 0
(0, 0) and (3, 0)
= 3 2 + 2 = 3 2 + 6

3(1) 2 + 6(1) = 3 When = 0
0(0 + 3) 2 = 0
1 (0, 0)
Gradient of normal: 3
1
= + using = 3 and (1, 3)
1
3 = (1) +
3
10
=
3
1 10
= +
3 3

CURVE SKETCHING
LESSON 11 The equation of a curve is given
by NB: To sketch polynomial functions we need to
() = ( + 3)2 know

(i) Obtain an expression for (). - the roots of the polynomial


(ii) Find the stationary point(s) of . - the intercept
(iii) Determine the nature of the stationary - the stationary points and their nature
point(s) of .
(iv) Sketch the curve.
LESSON 12 Draw a sketch for the function
SOLUTION 3 1
() =
+2
(i) () = ( + 3)2 SOLUTION To draw our sketch we need to
() = 1( + 3) 2 + [2( + 3)(1)] determine
= ( + 3) 2 + 2( + 3)
(ii) For stationary points () = 0 the intercepts
( + 3) 2 + 2( + 3) = 0 asymptotes
( + 3)[( + 3) + 2] = 0
( + 3)(3 + 3) = 0 The Intercepts
= 1, 3 When = 0
when = 1 3(0) 1 1
= =
= (1)(1 + 3) 2 = 4 0+2 2
1
(1, 4) (0, )
when = 3 2
= 3(3 + 3)2 = 0
(3, 0) When = 0

137
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION

3 1 = 2(5)
0=
+2 When = 6
0 = 3 1
1 = 2(6)(5) = 60 cms2
=
3
1 LESSON 14 A sector of a circle of radius has
( , 0)
3 an angle of 6 radians. Given that is increasing at a
constant rate of 5 cms1, calculate, correct to two
Asymptotes
decimal places, the rate of increase, when = 6
Vertical asymptotes occur when the denominator
cm, of
is equal to zero.
(i) the area of the sector,
+2 =0
(ii) the perimeter of the sector.
= 2
SOLUTION
(i) Since is increasing at a rate of 5 cms 1,
Horizontal asymptotes investigate the limit as
tends to infinity = 5. We are therefore trying to determine ,

3 1 the rate of increase of (the area of the sector)
3 1 30
lim = = =3 when = 6. Hence we begin with the formula for
+ 2 2 1+0 the area of a sector.
+
1
=3 = 2
2

= Differentiating with

respect to . is a constant.

= Treating like a

fraction and cross multiplying

= Dividing throughout by



= 6 ( ) (5)
6
= 5
= 15.71 cm2 1
(ii) The perimeter of a sector is 2 + . We

need to determine .
= 2 +

= 2+

RATE OF CHANGE = (2 + )
change in
The rate of change of = = = (2 + )
change in time

= (2 + ) (5)
LESSON 13 The length of the side of a square 6
is increasing at the rate of 5 cms 1. Find the rate 5
= 10 +
of increase of the area when the length is 6 cm. 6
SOLUTION = 12.62 cms1

=5
LESSON 15 A spherical balloon is released
from rest and expands as it rises. After rising for
= 2 where is the length of the side of the seconds its radius is cm, and its surface area is
square cm2 , where = 4 2 . The initial radius of the
balloon is 16 cm. Given that the rate of increase of
= 2
the radius is constant and has value 0.8 cms1,
find the rate of increase of when = 5.

=

138
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION


SOLUTION We know that = 0.8 and we are ..


trying to determine when = 5. EXERCISE 20.2
= 4 2 1. Find the gradient of the curve = 8 + at
the point whose coordinate is 9.
= 8 5
2. Find the gradient of the curve = 2 at the
= 8
point where = 4.
= 8 3. A curve has the equation = 5(1 cos 2)

and is defined for 0 2 radians. Find
At this stage we know the value for but not for

(i) the value of when = 1
. To determine we use the fact that the initial
(ii) the value of when = 3
value for is 16 cm and increases 0.8 cms 1.
Therefore, when = 5, = 16 + (0.8)5 = 20 cm. (iii) the gradient of the curve when = 4
4. Find the coordinates of the points on the
= 8(20)(0.8) = 128 cm2 1 1 9
curve = 3 + at which the tangent is
3
parallel to the line = 8 + 3.
LESSON 16 Suppose a water tank has the 5. Find the equation of the normal to the curve
shape of an inverted cone with base radius 2 m
= 3 4 2 + 7 at the point (2, 1).
and height 4 m. If the water is being pumped into
the tank at a rate of 2 m3 /min, find the rate at 6. A curve has equation = 2 + .
which the water level is rising when the water is 3 (i) Find the gradient of the curve at the
m deep. point for which = 2.
1
SOLUTION Volume of Cone = 2 (ii) Find the equation of the normal at the
3
point for which = 2.
=2
7. Find the equation of the normal to the curve
1 6
= 2 5 at the point on the curve where
= 2
3 = 2.
8. Find the equation of the normal to the curve
2+4
= 2 at the point where = 4.
9. The equation of a curve is = 3 8. Find the
equation of the normal to the curve at the
point where the curve crosses the axis.

10. The curve = 2 + passes through point
(1, 1)and has a gradient of 5 at .
We have a slight problem since we do not know Find
the rate of change of . The truth is, we are not i. the values of the constants and
interested in it. From the diagram we see that ii. the equation of the tangent to the curve at
2 1
= = the point where = 2.
4 2
1 2 11. (i) Find the coordinates of the stationary
= ( ) points on the curve = 3 + 2 + 3.
3 2
3 (ii) Determine whether each stationary point
=
12 is a maximum or minimum point.
2
= (iii) For what values of does 3 + 2 + 3
4
decrease as increases?
= 2
4 12. (i) Find the coordinates of the stationary
2 points of the curve = 2 3 + 5 2 4.
=
4 (ii) State the set of values for for which

2 = (3)2 2 3 + 5 2 4 is a decreasing function,
4
8
= m3 /min
9

139
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION

(iii) Show that the equation of the tangent to (f) = 5 5


1
the curve at the point where = is
2
20. For the curve = ( 2 12), determine
10 4 7 = 0.
(i) the coordinates of the stationary points,
13. (i) Find the coordinates of the stationary (ii) the coordinates of the inflection point
6
point on the curve = 3 2 2. (iii) the equation of the normal to the curve at
the origin.
(ii) Determine whether the stationary point is
21. The equation of a curve is given by
a maximum or a minimum point.
9
14. A curve has the equation = + . () = 3 3 2 + 4

2
(i) Find expression for and . (i) Obtain an expression for ().
2
(ii) Find the stationary point(s) of .
(ii) Show that the curve has a stationary
(iii) Determine the nature of the stationary
value when = 9. point(s) of .
(iii) Find the nature of this stationary value. (iv) Sketch the curve.
2
15. A curve has equation = 3 3 7 + . 22. Draw a sketch of the function () = 2.
(i) Verify that the curve has a stationary 23.
point when = 1.
(ii) Determine the nature of this stationary
point.
(iii) The tangent to the curve at this stationary
point meets the axis at the point . Find
the coordinates of .
16. The curve = (1 )( 2 + 4 + ) has a
stationary point when = 3.
(i) Find the value of the constant .
(ii) Determine whether the stationary point is
a maximum or minimum point.
(iii) Given that = 9 9 is the equation of
The diagram shows the curve with equation
the tangent to the curve at the point , +
find the coordinates of . =
+
17. (i) Find the coordinates of the stationary where , and are constants.
point on the curve = 4 + 32. Given that the asymptotes of the curve are
(ii) Determine whether this stationary point = 1 and = 2 and that the curve
passes through (3, 0), find the values of ,
is a maximum or a minimum.
and .
(iii) For what values of does 4 + 32
increase as increases? 24. The diagram shows a rectangular field
18. The curve = 3 + 2 + 2 has a stationary with = 50 m and = 80 m. The field is
point when = 4. Find the value of the partitioned by three fences , and .
constant and determine whether the The distance of from is twice the distance
stationary point is a maximum or minimum of from .
point.
19. Find the point(s) of inflection on the following
curves.
(a) = 4 2 3
(b) = (15 4 2 )
(c) = 3 3 2 + 3 1
(d) = 3 3 2 + 3 4
(e) = 2 3 9 2 + 12 + 1

140
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION

Given that = m, show that the area,


m2 , of triangle is given by
= 2 40 + 2000.
Given that varies, find the stationary value
of and determine whether this is a
maximum or a minimum.
25. The circumference of a circle is increasing at
the rate of 3 cms 1. Find
i. the rate of increase of the radius
ii. the rate of increase of the area, at the The trough is being filled with water,
instant when the radius is 100 cm indicating the level reached. At time seconds
26. At the instant when the radius is 5 cm. The after filling starts, the depth of water is cm
radius, cm, of a circle is increasing in such a and is cm, as shown.
way that the rate of increase of the area of the
circle is cm2 s1 . Calculate the rate of
increase of the radius. By using similar triangles, express in terms of
27. The surface area of a sphere is increasing at a and hence show that the volume, cm3 , of
constant rate of 6 cm2 s1. Given that the water in the tank at time seconds is given by
surface area of a sphere of radius is 4 2 = 12 2 .
4
and that the volume is 3 3 , find the rate of Given that the water is flowing into the trough
increase of at the rate of 60 cm3 s 1, find the rate at which
i. the radius is increasing when = 10.
ii. the volume
28. The radius cm of a sphere is increasing at a 32. The parametric equations of a curve are
constant of 2 cms1. Given that the volume of = 3 + 2 sin , = 4 2 cos
4 where 0 < 2.
a sphere of radius is 3 3, find, in terms of
(i) Write down and , and hence express
, the rate at which the volume is increasing

at the instant when the volume is 36 cm3.
in terms of .
29. A spherical balloon is released from rest and (ii) It is given that the curve is a circle. Use
expands as it rises. After rising for seconds the identity sin2 + cos 2 = 1 to find the
its radius is cm, and its surface area is cm2 , Cartesian equation of this circle, and state
where = 4 2 . the centre and radius.
The initial radius of the balloon is 16 cm. 33. A curve is represented parametrically by
Given that the rate of increase of the radius is = 2 + 3, = 2 2
constant and has value 0.8 cms 1, find the Find

rate of increase of when = 5. (i) an expression for in terms of
2
30. A curve has equation = 2 . (ii) the coordinates of the stationary point of
+9
(i) Find the coordinate of each of the the curve.
stationary points of the curve. SOLUTIONS
(ii) Given that is increasing at the rate of 2 7
1.
units per second, find the rate of 3

increase of when = 1. 2. 20
31. A trough has the shape of the prism shown in 3. (i) 7.08 (ii) 0.58 (iii) 5
the diagram. The vertical ends and 4. (3, 12) (3, 12)
1 3
are identical isosceles triangles of height 20 5. =
4 2
cm with = 16 cm and = . The open 6.
1
(i) 5 (ii) = 5 +
32
5
top is horizontal and rectangular in 2 29
7. = 3
shape with = 30 cm. 6
1
8. = 2 + 4

141
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION

1 1 2 1
9. = +6 2. (a) Given that = ,
12 2 +1

10. (i) = 2, = 1 (ii) 6 (i) find in terms of [5]
1 76 4
11. (i) (1, 4), (3 , 27) (ii) show that ( 2 + 1) 4 = 2 +1 .
1
(ii) max, min (iii) 1 < < [5]
3
1 19 (b) By investigating the sign of (),
12. (i) (2, 12), (3 , 27) determine the range of real values of for
1
(ii) 2 < < (iii) which 5 5 + 3 is decreasing. [8]
3
CAPE 2004
13. (i) (1, 7) (ii) minimum
9 2 27
3. is the point on the curve = 2 3 + 5
14. (i) = 3 , 2
= 5 (iii) minimum where = 1 and the gradient is 2. Find
2 2 4 2
(a) the value of the constant [3]
15. (ii) minimum (iii) (0, 2) 2
(b) the value of 2 at [2]
16. (i) = 5 (ii) minimum (iii) (2, 27)
17. (i) (2, 48) (ii) minimum (iii) > 2 (c) the equation of the normal to the curve at
. [4]
18. = 6, minimum
CAPE 2005
19. (a) (0, 0), (1, 1) (b) (0, 0) (c) (1, 0) 4. (a) Find the coordinates of the stationary
3 11
(d) (1, 3) (e) ( , ) (f) (0, 5)
2 2
points of the function
20. (i) (2, 16), (2, 16) (ii) (0, 0) (iii) =
1
: 3 3 2 9 + 6. [6]
12 (b) Determine the nature of the stationary
21. (i) 3 2
6 (ii) (0, 4), (2, 0) points of . [3]
(iii) max, min (iv) CAPE 2005
22. 5. (a) The function () is defined by
23. = 2, = 2, = 1 2
() = 2 for , 0.
24. 1600, minimum
3 Determine the nature of the critical
25. (i) 2 (ii) 300
value(s) of (). [6]
1
26. (b) Differentiate, with respect to ,
2
3 () = sin2 ( 2 ) [3]
27. (i) (ii) 3 CAPE 2006
4
28. 72 6. The curve = 3 + + passes through
29. 128 the origin and the point (1, 2). The
8 gradient of the curve at is equal to 8.
30. (i) = 3 (ii) 25 (a) Calculate the values of the constants ,
4 1
31. = 5 , cms 1 and . [6]
4
(b) Obtain the equation of the normal to the
32. (i) = 2 cos , = 2 sin (ii) (3, 4), = 2 curve at . [3]

22
33. (i) 2+3 (ii) (4, 1) CAPE 2007
7. For the function : 12 3 , determine
(a) the stationary points [4]
EXAM QUESTIONS
(b) the nature of EACH of the stationary
points. [3]
1. (a) Given that () = 3 5 2 + 3, find
CAPE 2007
(i) the coordinates of the stationary
points of (). [6] 8. A chemical process is controlled by the
(ii) the second derivative of (), and
function = + 2 , where and are
hence, determine which stationary
point is a local maximum and which constants. Given that = 1 when = 1 and
is a local minimum. [5] the rate of change of with respect to is 5
1 2
(b)If = 2 +2 , show that 2 = 2(3 2) 3 .
2 1
when = 2 , find the values of and . [6]
[7] CAPE 2008
CAPE 2003 9. Given that = sin2 + cos 2, show that
2
+ 4 = 0. [6]
2

142
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION

CAPE 2009 14. (a) Given that = 5 2 + 3,


10. The diagram represents a piece of thin
(i) obtain [4]
cardboard 16 cm by 10 cm. Shaded squares,
(ii) show that = 5 [2]
each of side cm, are removed from each
(iii) hence, or otherwise, show that
corner. The remainder is folded to form a tray. 2 2
2 + ( ) = 5. [4]
(b) At a certain port, high tides and low tides
occur daily. Suppose minutes after high
tide, the height, metres, of the tide
above a fixed point is given by

= 2 (1 + cos ),0
450
[Note: High tide occurs when has its
maximum value and low tide when has
its minimum value.]
(i) Show that the volume, cm3, Determine
of the tray is given by (i) the height of the tide when high tide
= 4( 3 13 2 + 40). [5] occurs for the first time [2]
(ii) Hence, find a possible value of such that (ii) the length of time which elapses
is a maximum. [8] between the first high tide and the
CAPE 2009 first low tide. [3]
(iii) the rate, in metres per minute, at
11. The curve = 3 + 2 + 2 passes through
which the tide is falling 75 minutes
the point (1, 2) and its gradient at is 7. The
after high tide. [5]
line = 1 cuts the axis at , and the
CAPE 2007
normal to the curve at cuts the axis at .
15. Differentiate with respect to
Find
(i) = sin(3 + 2) + tan 5 [3]
(i) the values of the constants and . [6] 2 +1
(ii) the equation of the normal to the curve at (ii) = [4]
3 1
. [3] CAPE 2010
(iii) the length of . [2] 16. (i) Given that = 4 2 + 7, show that
CAPE 2011
= 4. [3]
12. A chemical process in a manufacturing plant is
controlled by the function = 2 + 2
(ii) Hence, or otherwise, show that
2
where and are constants. +( ) =4

Given that = 1 when = 1 and that the
35 [3]
rate of change of with respect to is 4 CAPE 2012
when = 2, find the values of and . [8] 2 +2+3
17. (a) Let = (2 +2)3
. Show that
CAPE 2012
13. (i) Differentiate from first principles the 4 10 2 14
3 +4
=
function ( ) = 3 with respect to . [6] ( 2 + 2)4
(ii) Given that () = 2 + + , 0,
(a) find [5]
(i) () (b) The equation of an ellipse is given by
(ii) () [2] = 1 cos , = 2 sin , 0 2

(b) find, in terms of and , the Find in terms of . [5]
conditions under which () will
have a maximum. [3] CAPE 2013
(c) find the maximum. [3]
(iii) The curve = 3 + 2 + 3 + 2 passes 18. (a) (i) Let =
1
. Using first principles, find

through the point (1, 2) and its gradient
at is 7. Find the values of the constants . [8]

and . [5]
CAPE 2004

143
CHAPTER 20: DIFFERENTIATION

1 +2
(ii) If = , determine an expression 18. (a) (i) 3 (ii) 3 (b) cot
1+
2 2 2(+1)2
for . Simplify your answer FULLY. 19. (a) 2 cos(2) (b) (i) (ii)
[4]
(b) The parametric equations of a curve are ..
given by = cos , = sin ,

0 2. Find in terms of . Simplify
your answer as far as possible. [4]
CAPE 2014
19. (a) Using first principles, determine the
derivative of () = sin(2). [6]
2
(b) If = 2 , show that
1+

(i) = [7]
1+2
2 3
(ii) + (1+2 )2 = 0 [8]
2
CAPE 2015

SOLUTIONS

1 13
1. (a) (i) (3 , 27) , (3, 9)
(ii) -maximum, - minimum
4
2. (a) (i) (2 +1)2
(b) 1 < < 1
1 23
3. (a) = 8 (b) 12 (c) = 2 2
4. (a) (1, 11), (3, 21)
(b) -maximum, -minimum
5. (a) minimum
(b) 2 sin(2 2 )
6. (a) = 3, = 1, = 0
1 17
(b) = 8 + 8
7. (a) (2, 16), (2, 16)
(b) -minimum, -maximum
4 9
8. = 5, = 5
9.
10. (ii) = 2
1 15
11. (i) = 7, = 7 (ii) = 7 + 7
(iii) 14
12. = 2, = 3
13. (i) 3 2 (ii) (a) (i) 2 + (ii) 2
2
(b) 2 + = 0 and < 0 (c) 4
(iii) = 10, = 13
5
14. (a) (i) 2
(ii) (iii)
5 +3

(b)(i) 4 (ii) 450
(iii)
450
15. (i) 3 cos(3 + 2) + 5 sec 2(5)
(3 +3+2)
(ii) (3 1)2
16. (i) (ii)
17. (a) (b) 2 cot

144
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION

CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION


At the end of this section, students should be able
to: HOW TO INTEGRATE
recognise integration as the reverse INTRODUCTION
process of differentiation; Integration is referred to as anti differentiation.
use the notation () ; Therefore, the process of integration is the reverse
show that the indefinite integral of differentiation.
represents a family of functions which Before we look at integration lets review
differ by constants; differentiation by differentiating each of the
use simple integration rules; following
integrate functions of the form ( + ) 1. = 5 3 + 2
where , , are real numbers and 2. = 5 3 + 2 7
1; 3. = 5 3 + 2 + 99
find the indefinite integrals using The derivative of each of the above functions is
formulae and integration theorems; 15 2 + 2 though each function is differs in the
integrate simple trigonometric functions; value of their constant.
compute definite integrals;
formulate the equation of a curve given INTEGRATION NOTATION
its gradient function and a point on the is the symbol for integration
curve; 2 5 means that we are integrating 2 5 with
demonstrate use of the following respect to . This is read the integral of 2 5 with
integration theorems; respect to .
(a) () = () , where is a In general,
constant, +1
= +
(b) {() ()} = () +1
() ; where is known as the constant of integration.
integrate using substitution; The constant of integration (arbitrary constant)
use the results: compensates for the fact that the integral could
have an unknown constant.
(a) ( ) = ()

(b) 0 () = 0 ( ) for PROPERTIES OF INTEGRALS
> 0, () = () where is a constant

(c) () = () (), where [ ( ) ( )] = () ( )
() = ();
apply integration to: LESSON 1 Evaluate each of the following.
(a) finding areas under the curve; 1. 4
3
(b) finding areas between two curves; 2. 2
(c) finding volumes of revolution by 4
3. (5 2 3 + 3 )
rotating regions about both the - 5
and - axes; 4. 2 (3
)
given a rate of change with or without 5. (2 1) 3
initial boundary conditions:
(a) formulate a differential equation of SOLUTION
the form = () or = () 1. 4 = 4 0
where is a polynomial or a 4 0+1
trigonometric function, = +
0+1
(b) solve the resulting differential = 4 +
equation in (a) above and interpret
the solution where applicable. 2.
3
2 = 3 2
__________________________________________________________ 3 2+1
= +
2 + 1

145
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION

3 1 1
= + cos = sin +
1
3
= +
sec 2 = tan +
ALTERNATELY, 1
sec 2 = tan +
3 2 = 3 2
2+1 csc 2 = cot +
= 3[ ]+
2 + 1 1
1 csc 2 = cot +
= 3[ ]+
1
sec tan = sec +
3
= + 1
sec tan = sec +

4 1
3. (5 2 3 + 3 ) = (5 2 2 3 + csc cot = csc +
5
5

4 )
3
1
csc cot = csc +
1 5
5 2+1 2 3+1 4 3+1
= + +
1 3+1 5
+ 1 + 1 LESSON 2 Evaluate each of the following.
2 3
3 2
5 2 2 4 4 3 1. (1 + sin 2)
= + + 3
3 2 4 1
2. (2 sec 2(5) + 2 2 )
2 3
10 3 1 4 2
= 2 6 3 + SOLUTION
3 2
1. (1 + sin 2)
4. 2 (3 ) = (3 2 3 )
= 1 + sin2
3 2+1 3+1
= + 0+1 1
2+1 3+1 =1( ) + ( cos 2) +
4 0+1 2
= 3 +
4 1
= cos 2 +
2
5. (2 1) 3 1 3

1 (+) +1
2. (2 sec 2(5) + 2 2 )
N.B ( + ) = [ (+1) ] + 1 3
= 2 sec 2(5) + 2
1 (2 1)3+1 2
= [ ]+ 3
2 (3 + 1) 1 1 2+1
(2 1)4 = 2 [ tan(5)] + ( )+
= + 5 2 3 + 1
8 2
These are referred to as Indefinite Integrals since 1
2 1 2
they contain the arbitrary constant . = tan(5) + ( )+
5 2 1
2
2 1
TRIGONOMETRIC INTEGRATION = tan(5) +
2
5
sin = cos +

1
sin = cos +

cos = sin +

146
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

A Differential Equation contains derivatives or ()


differentials
To determine the definite integral we
LESSON 3 Solve the differential equation a. integrate the function, excluding
b. substitute the upper limit, = , into the

1. = 6 2 5 integral

c. substitute the lower limit, = , into the
2. = 3 5 integral
d. subtract the value from step (3) from the
2 1
3. = 6 3 + 3 value from step (2)
2
The answer which will be a number is the definite
SOLUTION integral.

1. = 3 5 LESSON 4a Evaluate the following


3

3
= 3 5
0
SOLUTION
4 a. We integrate the function, excluding the
= 5 +
4 constant

3+1 3 4 3
2. = 6 2 5 = [( )] = [ ]
3+1 0 4 0
b. Substituting the upper limit into the integral we
= (6 2 5) 34 81
get [ 4 ] = 4
1 = (6 2 5) c. Substituting the lower limit into the integral we
= 2 3 5 + 04
get =0
4
2 1 d. Subtracting the value from (c) from the value
3. = 6 3 + 3 81 81
from (b) 4 0 = 4 which is the definite
2
2 integral
2 =
The next LESSON illustrates the general way in
= 6 3 + 3 which a question involving definite integrals is
solved.
3 4 2
= +
2 2 LESSON 4b Evaluate
3 4 2 4
= +
2 2 ( 2 4 + 4 2 )
5
3 1 1
= + + +
10 2 SOLUTION
4
DEFINITE INTEGRALS ( 2 4 + 4 2 )
If () is the integral of () then the definite 1
integral is defined as 2+1 0+1 2+1 4
=
=[ 4( )+4( )]
() = [()] = () () 2+1 0+ 1 2 + 1 1
= 3 4 3 4 4
where and is called the upper limit of () = [ 4 4 1 ] = [ 4 ]
3 1 3 1
is the lower limit of ()
43 4 13 4
() is the value of the integral at the upper limit = [ 4(4) ] [ 4(1) ]
= 3 4 3 1
() is the value of the integral at the lower limit 64 1
= [ 16 1] [ 4 4]
= 3 3
It is accepted to simply write = 12
147
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION

LESSON 4c Find LESSON 6 Determine 3 (1 5 4 )2


2
1 SOLUTION
Let = 1 5 4
3 2
1 = 20 3
SOLUTION
2
1 =
20 3
3 2
1 3 (1 5 4 )2
2
1)
= (3 2)(2
= 3 2 ( )
1
20 3
1 1 1
1 (3 2)2 2 2(3 2) 2 2 = 2
= [ ] =[ ] 20
3 12 1 3 1 1 3
= ( )+
1 1 20 3
2(3(2) 2)2 2(3(1) 2)2
=[ ][ ]
3 3 1
(1 5 4 )3 +
4 2 60
=
3 3
2 LESSON 7 Find sin 2 cos 2
= SOLUTION
3
Let = sin2

LESSON 4d Find = 2 cos 2

1 + sin
=

2 cos 2
SOLUTION sin 2 cos 2


1 + sin = cos 2 ( )
2 cos 2

1
= [ cos ] =
2
= [ cos()] [ cos()] 1 2
= [ (1)] [ (1)] = ( )+
2 2
= 2 2
= +
INTEGRATION BY SUBSTITUTION 4
sin2 2
LESSON 5 = +
4
Find (2 3 + 5) 4 (6 2 )
0
SOLUTION LESSON 8 Find 1 2 (1 2 3 )4
SOLUTION
= 2 3 + 5 then = 6 2 2 =
6 Let = 1 2 3 then = 6 2 2 =
So our integral can be rewritten as 6
Since the limits are in terms of an we will be
(4 )(6 2 ) 2 = 4 integrating in terms of we need to determine the
6
4+1 limits in terms of , as follows
4 = + When = 0; = 1 2(0)3 = 1 (Upper Limit)
4+1
5 When = 1; = 1 2(1)3 = 3 (Lower Limit)
= + Therefore,
5 0
Resubstituting we get that 2 (1 2 3 )4
(2 3 + 5)5 1
(2 3 + 5)4 (6 2 ) = +
5
148
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION

1 1 6
(e) 3
= 2 (4 ) = 4
3 6 2 3 6 (f) (5 3 6 + 1)
1 1
= 4 (g) ( 3 + 8 5)
6 3
(h) ( 2 + 4)( 6)
1 4+1 1 6
= [ ] (i) (4 + 2 )
6 4+ 1 3
1 5 1 (j) (2 6)
= [ ]
6 5 3 (k) 12
1 15 35 (l) ( 2 4)
= ([ ] [ ])
6 5 5 (m) 3 ( 2 + 5)
1 1 243
= ( ) (n) ( 1)2
6 5 5 1
121 3 +3 2
= (o)

15
(p) (2 1) 7
1
LESSON 9 Using the substitution = sin 4 (q) (3 + 1) 2
evaluate

8
2. Evaluate
sin4 cos 4 (a) cos 2
0 (b) + 2 sin(3)
SOLUTION Instead of adjusting the limits we 3. Find the general solution of each differential
will integrate firstly and then use the original equation.
limits.
(a) = 2 + 1

= sin 4
(b) = 1 3
1
= 4 cos 4 (c) () = 3

(d) = cos 2
=
4 cos 4 4. Evaluate each of the following.
6
sin 4 cos 4 (a) 1 ( 2 4)
1
(b) 0 3 + 1
= cos 4 ( ) 4
4 cos 4 (c) 2 6 2 4 + 5
1 3
= (d) 0 5 2 9
4
1 0 3 +22
= 2 (e) 2

8
4 10
8 (f) 2 ( 3 2 )
1 /8 8
sin 4 cos 4 = [ sin2 4] 5.
2
Express 1 (3 + ) in the form
8 0
0
1 1 + 2, where and are integers.
= [ sin2 (4 )] [ sin2(4 0)]
8 8 8 6. The positive constant is such that
1 2 23 52 +4
= ( 2
) = 0.
8
(i) Show that 33 52 + 2 = 0.
(ii) Show that = 1 is a root of
EXERCISE 21.1
33 52 + 2 = 0, and hence find the
1. Evaluate each of the following
(a) 6 4 other possible value of , giving your
(b) 24 3 answer in simplified surd form.
1
(c) 18 4 7. (i) Prove that sin2 cos 2 = 8 (1 cos 4).
8
(d) 3
149
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION

(ii) Hence, find the exact value of 3. (a) 2 + +



32
0 sin2 cos 2
3
(b) +
2
8. Evaluate 1
(c) 22 +
(a) cos 2
1
(b) sec(3)tan(3) (d) 4 cos(2 ) +
(c) csc 5 cot 5 1015
4. (a)
(d) csc 2() 4
14
(b)
9
9. Evaluate each of the following (c) 98
(i) 3 2 ( 3 + 4)5 = 3 + 4 (d) 18
(ii) 3 + 2 (3 2 + 2) = 3 + 2 4
(e) 3
1 115
(iii) = 1 (f)
2
7
(iv) sin cos = sin
sin 5. 6 + 402
(v) cos5 = cos 1 7
6. (ii) 3
sin 3
(vi) = 1
1
7. (ii) 192 (33 + 8)
(vii) 1 2 3
+ 1 = + 1 3
1 1
8. (a) 2 sin 2 + (b) 3 sec(3) +
10. Using the substitution = 2, determine
3 1
3
(a) 2 ( 2) 2 (c) 5 csc 5 + (d) cot +
6 3
3 (3 +4) 2
(b) 2 2 9. (i) + (ii) ( 2 ( + 1))2 +
6 3
SOLUTIONS sin8
2 (iii) 2 + (iv) 8
+
1. (a) 3 + sec4

12 (v) + (vi) 2 cos +
4
(b) 2 + 42
6 (vii)
(c) + 9
3 2 26
4 10. (a) (b)
(d) 2 +
5 15
11.
3
(e) 2 +
54
(f) 3 2 + +
4
4
(g) + 4 2 5 +
4
4
(h) 4 2 3 + 2 2 24 +
2(3 3)
(i) +

3
(j) 2 4 2 +
3
(k) 8 2 +
4
(l) 2 2 +
4
6 5 54
(m) + +
6 5 4
4 23 2
(n) + +
4 3 2
3
(o) + 6 +
3
1
(p) 16 (2 1)8 +
1
2(3+1)2
(q) +
3
1
2. (a) sin 2 +
2
2 2
(b) 3 cos(3) +
2

150
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION

APPLICATIONS OF INTEGRATION
2 + = 0
THE EQUATION OF A CURVE =2

Thus, for the curve = + 2
LESSON 1 The gradient of a particular curve
is given by the formula 3 2 2. Given that this = ( + 2)
curve passes through the point (2, 5), find the 1+1 0+1
equation of the curve. = ( )+2( )+
1+1 0+1
SOLUTION
2 1
= 3 2 2 = ( ) + 2( )+
2 1
2
= (3 2 2) = + 2 +
2
3 2+1 2 2 Curve passes through (2, 3) so
= + 22
2+1 2
3
= + 2 3 = + 2(2) +
2
Since the curve passes through (2, 5), this point 3 = 2 + 4 +
must satisfy the equation of the curve. 1=
5 = 23 22 + 2
1= = + 2 + 1
2
= 3 2 + 1

LESSON 2 The gradient of the normal to a THE AREA UNDER A GRAPH


1
curve at the point (, ) is . Given that the In general,
34
curve passes through the point (1, 3), find the
equation of the curve. ()
SOLUTION Since the normal to a curve is
to the tangent of the curve, the gradient of the is the area of the region bounded by the curve
curve is 4 3 because = (), the -axis and the lines = and = .
1
(4 3) = 1 LESSON 4a Determine the area under the
3 4
curve () = 1, bounded by the -axis and the
= (4 3) lines = 0 and = 2.
1+1 0+1 SOLUTION We need to determine
= 4( ) 3 ( )+ 2
1+1 0+1
1
2 1
= 4( ) 3( )+ 0
2 1 2
= 2 2 3 + = []
0
The point (1, 3) must satisfy the equation of the = [2] [0]
curve. = 2 units 2
3 = 2(1) 2 3(1) +
3 =23+
4=
So, = 2 2 3 + 4


LESSON 3 The curve for which = + ,
where is a constant, has a stationary point at
(2, 3). Find the equation of the curve.
SOLUTION (2, 3) is a stationary point
therefore this point LESSON 4b What is the area region bounded
by the curve () = 2 + 1, the -axis and the
=0 lines = 1 and = 3?

+ = 0

151
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION

SOLUTION SOLUTION
3

2 + 1
1
2 1+1 3
=[ + ]
1+1 1
3
= [ 2 + ]
1
= [32 + 3] [11 + 1]
= 10 units 2 The graph cuts the -axis when = 0
9 2 = 0
2 = 9
= 3
3

(9 2 )
3
3 3
= [9 ]
3 3
33 (3)3
= [9(3) ] [9(3) ]
3 3
LESSON 5 Find the area of the region = [27 9] [27 + 9]
6
bounded by the curve = 2 , the axis and the = 18 (18)
lines = 1 and = 2. = 36 units 2
SOLUTION
2 2
6
2 = 6 2 SUM FORMULA FOR THE AREA UNDER

1 1 A GRAPH
2+1 2 1 2 INTRODUCTION
= [6 ( )] = [6 ( )]
2 + 1 1 1 1 While we have alreadu looked at how to
2 6 2 determine the area under a curve bounded by the
= [6 1 ] = [ ] axis and the lines = and = we now
1 1
6 6 look at it from a more theoretical aspect to see
= [ ] = (3) 6 how the formula wich you already know was
2 1
= 3 + 6 developed.
= 3 units 2

To determine the area under a curve we could


LESSON 6 Find the area bounded by the proceed as follows.
curve = 9 2 and the -axis and the points Divide the shape into rectangles each of
where the graph cuts the -axis equal width, (1 0 ) i.e. (+1 )
Determine the area of each individual
rectangle; ( )(+1 )

152
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION

Sum these areas to obtain an estimate of 3

the area under the curve = (2 2 + 10 12)


2
Area under curve :
=
2 3 10 2 3
()(+1 ) = [ + 12]
3 2 2
=0
This procedure is not very efficient. As we can see 2(3)3 2(2)3
= [ + 5(3)2 12(3)] [ + 5(2)2 12(2)]
from the graph this approximation of the area 3 3
under the curve is well off of the actual value. To
1
improve the accuracy of our approximation we = units 2
can reduce the width of each rectangle until we 3
have an almost accurate approximation. LESSON 8 Find the area of the shaded
Therefore, we can say that as the width of the region
rectangle gets closer and closer to zero our
approximation gets closer and closer to the
required area. If we denote the width (+1 )
as and let 0 = and = we have
Area under a curve
=

lim ()
0
=
The standard notation for this area is

() where is an elongated for sum


SOLUTION
In general, To determine the limits of integration, along the -

axis, we need to find, -ordinates of the points of
() intersection of the two curves. These will be the
limits of integration
is the area of the region bounded by the curve = 2
= (), the -axis and the lines = and = . 2 = 6
(2)2 = 6
4 2 = 6
AREA BETWEEN 2 CURVES 4 2 6 = 0
LESSON 7 Find the area of the shaded 2(2 3) = 0
region. 3
=0 =
2
Limits of integration are = 0 and = 3/2
Area of the area region:
3/2 3/2

6 2
0 0
3/2
3/2 1
= (6)2 2
0
0
3 3 3
1 (6)2 2 2
=[ ]2 [ ]2
6 3 0 2 0
SOLUTION 2
3 3 3
3 3
AREA = 2 (6 2 5) 2 ( 2 4 + 7) 1(6)2
=[ ] [ ] 2
2 2
9 0 0

153
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION

3
15 (2)5
3 2 = ([ 20(1)] [ 20(2)])
(6 ( )) 3 5 5
2 6(0) 2 3 2
= [( ) 02 ] 99 32
9 9 2 = ([ ] [ + 40])
5 5
267
[ ] =
9 5
= [3 0] [ ] 267
4 = | |
3 5
2 267
= units
4 = units 2
5

LESSON 11 Find the area of the shaded


AREA BELOW THE AXIS
region
If the required area of () is below the axis
then

() = | () |

LESSON 9 Determine the area under the
curve = sin between the -axis and the lines
= 0 and = .
SOLUTION

sin
0
SOLUTION
= [(1)( cos )]
0 We have to separate the graphs into sections: (1)
= [cos ] [cos 0]
above the -axis and (2) below the -axis.
= (1) 1 1 0
= 2
3 + | 3 |
= | 2|
= 2 units 2 0 1
4 1 4 0
= [ ] + |[ ] |
4 0 4 1
4 4
LESSON 10 Find the area of the shaded 1 0 04 (1)4
region. = [ ] + |[ ]|
4 4 4 4
1 1
= + | |
4 4
1
=
2

SOLUTION Since area is below the -axis we


have to evaluate
1

| ( 4 20) |
2
5 1
=[ 20]
5 2

154
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION

AREA BETWEEN A CURVE AND THE - SOLUTION First of all we need to determine
the limits of integration. One limit is = 3 and the
AXIS
other occurs when along the cuve = 4 2 at
In general, the area bounded by the curve
= () and the -axis between the lines the point where = 0.
= () and = () is determined by when = 0; = 4
() Therefore, we need to evaluate
4
()
()
3
To find (), we make the subject = 4 2
LESSON 12 Determine the area of the shaded () = 4
region 4 4
1
4 = (4 ) 2
3 3
3
(4 ) 2 4
= [ ]
3 3
2
3 3
2(4 4) 2 2(4 3) 2
= [ ] [ ]
3 3
2
SOLUTION = 0 ( )
3
Area of : 2
= 3 units 2
Since = 2 1
= + 1
where = ()
1 1
1
+ 1 = ( + 1)2
0 0
3
( + 1) 2 1
=[ ]
3 0
2
3 3
2(1 + 1)2 2(0 + 1) 2
=
3 3
42 2
=
3 3
42 2
= units 2
3

LESSON 13 The diagram shows part of the


curve = 4 2. The line = 3 meets this part of
the curve at the point (1, 3). Calculate the area of
the shaded region.

155
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION

VOLUME OF REVOLUTION ABOUT THE AXIS VOLUMES OF REVOLUTION ABOUT THE AXIS
The volume when the area bounded by the curve, When the shaded region is rotated 360 about the
= (), the -axis and the lines = and = axis, the volume that is generated by the
is rotated 360 about the -axis is determined by formula

[()]2 OR 2 = 2 or [()]2

LESSON 14 Find the volume obtained when where
the region bounded by the line
= 3, the -axis and the lines = 0 and = 2 is = () is the equation of the curve
rotated 360 about the -axis. expressed in terms of
SOLUTION and are the upper and lower limits of the
2 area being rotated
= (3)2 indicates that the area is being rotated
0 about the axis
2

= 9 2 LESSON 16 Find the volume of the solid of


revolution when the area bounded between the
0
3 2 curve = 3, the axis and the lines = 0 and
= 9 [ ] = 4 is rotated 360 about the axis.
3 0
SOLUTION
23 03 1
= 9 [ ] = 3 = 3
3 3 4
= 24 units 3 1 2
= ( 3 )
LESSON 15 Find the volume obtained when 0
4
the region bounded by the curve = , the - 2
= 3
axis and the lines = 3 and = 9 is rotated 360
about the -axis. 0
5
SOLUTION 3 4
= 2 = =[ ]
5 0
9 3
5
= 3 3 4
3
=[ ]
5 0
2 9
=[ ] 5 5
2 3 3(4) 3 3(0)3
92 32 =[ ]
=[ ] 5 5
2 2
= [6.05 0]
= 36 units 3
= 6.05 units 3

156
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION

.. 10. (i) Find the area of the region enclosed by the


12
EXERCISE 21.2 curve = 2 , the axis and the

1 lines = 1 and = 3.
1. (i) Find (6 1) .
2

(ii) Hence find the equation of the curve for


1
which = 6 2 1 and which passes
through the point (4, 17).

2. The gradient of a curve is given by = 12 .
The curve passes through the point (4, 50).
Find the equation of the curve.
3. A curve has an equation which satisfies (ii) The area of the region enclosed by
12
= (2 1) for all values of . The point the curve = 2 , the axis and the

(2, 7) lies on the curve and the gradient of lines = 2 and = , where > 2, is
the curve at is 9. 3 units 2. Find the value of .
(i) Find the value of the constant . 11. The diagram shows the curve = 4 2,
(ii) Find the equation of the curve. which crosses the axis at the origin and
the point . The tangent to the curve at the
4. The gradient of a curve is given by point (1, 3) crosses the axis at the point .

= 3 2 + , where is a constant. The curve (i) Find the coordinates of and .

(ii) Find the area of the shaded region.
passes through the points (1, 2) and (2, 17).
12. The graph shows part of the curve
Find the equation of the curve.
= 3 sin + 4 cos for 0 .
2
5. A curve is such that = 2 cos (2 2 ). The

curve passes through the point ( 2 , 3).
(i) Find the equation of the curve.
(ii) Find the equation of the normal to the
3
curve at the point where = .
4

NB: cos ( 2 ) = sin

6. A curve is such that = 6 cos (2 + 2 ) for
5
. The curve passes through the
4 4

point ( , 5). Find
4 (i) Find the coordinates of the maximum
(i) the equation of the curve, point of the curve.
(ii) the coordinate of the stationary (ii) Find the area of the shaded region.
points of the curve, 13. Find the volume generated when the region
(iii) the equation of the normal to the 1
bounded by the curve = , the -axis, the
curve at the point on the curve where 2+1
= 4.
3 line = 2 and the line = 7 is rotated
through 360 about the -axis
7. Find the area enclosed between the curve 14. Find the volume generated when the region
= 3 2 3 6, the axis from 9
bounded by the curve = 2 + , the -axis
= 1 to = 3
8. Find the area enclosed between the curve and the lines = 1 and = 3 is rotated
= 4 2, the axis from = 2 to = 4 through 360 about the -axis
9. Find the area enclosed between the curve 15. Show that (cos + sin )2 1 + sin 2.
= ( + 2)2 + 3, the axis from = 5 to Hence find the volume generated when the
= 2. region bounded by the curve
= cos + sin , the -axis and the lines

= 4 , = 2, is rotated through a complete
revolution about the -axis.

157
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION

16. Find the areas of the shaded regions. 18. Determine the areas of the shaded regions.
(a) (a)

(b)
(b)

(c)

(c)

17. The diagram shows part of the curve


= 7 + 6 2

(d)

Find
(i) the coordinates of the points , , and
(ii) the area of the three shaded regions.

158
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION

19. The diagram shows the curve = 4 + 3 and


the line = 19 which intersect at (2, 19)
and (2, 19). Find the exact area of the shaded
region enclosed by the curve and the line.

20. The diagram shows part of the curve = 23. The diagram shows part of the curve
( 3) 2 intersected by a straight line at 3 = 5( 2 1). Calculate the volume
(0, 9) and (4, 1). Evaluate the area of the generated when the shaded region is rotated
shaded region. through 360 about the -axis.

24. The diagram shows part of the curve


= 4 2 . The line = 3 meets this part of
the curve at the point (1, 3).
Calculate the volume obtained when the
shaded region is rotated through 360 about
21. The diagram shows part of the curve the -axis.
= 4 2 . The line = 3 meets this part of
the curve at the point (1, 3). Calculate the
area of the shaded region.

25. The diagram shows part of the curves


= 2 2 + 5 and = 3 2 + 1, intersecting at
22. The diagram shows part of the curves (2, 13). Find the volume generated when the
= 2 2 + 5 and shaded region is rotated through 360 about
= 3 2 + 1, intersecting at (2, 13). Find the the -axis.
area of the shaded region.

159
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION

EXAM QUESTIONS
42
1. (i) Show that for () = 2 +4, () = (2 +4)2
.
[4]
2 1232
(ii) Hence, evaluate 0 (2 +4)2
[4]
CAPE 2003
2. In the diagram (not drawn to scale), the line
= 2 + 3 cuts the curve = 2 at the points
and .

SOLUTIONS
3 2 3 2
1. (i) 4 2 + (ii) = 4 2 7
2 2
3
2. = 8 14 2

3 32
3. (i) = 2 (ii) = 3 +2
4
4. = 3 + 2 + 5
5. (i) = cos(2) + 2 (a) Determine the coordinates of and .
1 163
(ii) = 2 + 8 [4]
6. (i) = 3 cos 2 + 5 (ii) = 0, (b) Calculate the area of the shaded portion
1 40+ shown in the diagram. [5]
(iii) = 6 + CAPE 2007
8
7. 2
16 3. The curve passes through the point (1, 0)
8.
3
116
and its gradient at any point (, ) is given by
9.
3 = 3 2 6.

10. (i) 8 (ii) = 4 (i) Find the equation of . [3]
1 2
11. (i) (4, 0), ( , 0) (ii) 10 (ii) Find the coordinates of the stationary
2 3
12. (i) (0.64, 5) (ii) 7 points of and determine the nature of

13. 15 EACH point. [7]
482 (iii) Sketch the graph of and label the
14.
3 intercepts. [5]
+2
15. ( ) CAPE 2008
4
4 3 4. The function () is such that
16. (a) 3 (b) 15 4 (c) 2
2
() = 3 2 + 6 + where is a constant.
17. (i) (7, 0), (1, 0), (0, 7), (6, 7) (ii) 44 3 Given that (0) = 6 and (1) = 3, find the
18. (a)
125
(b) 3 (c)
4 11
(d) 0.29 function (). [5]
3 6 CAPE 2009
256
19. 5
2
20. 10
3
2
21.
3
16
22. 3
23. 35

24. 2
25. 8

160
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION

5. In the diagram m (not drawn to scale), the 7. The diagram (not drawn to scale) shows the
line + = 2 intersects the curve = 2 at curve = 2 + 3 and the line = 4.
the points and .

(i) Find the coordinates of the point and . (i) Determine the coordinates of the points
[5] and at which the curve and the line
(ii) Calculate the area of the shaded region of intersect. [4]
the diagram bounded by the curve and (ii) Calculate the area of the shaded region.
the straight line. [5] [5]
CAPE 2010 CAPE 2013
6. The curve, , passes through the point (1, 0) 8. The gradient of a curve which passes through
and its gradient at the point (, )is given by the point (1, 4) is given by

= 3 2 6. = 3 2 4 + 1.

(i) Find the equation of . [4] (i) Find


(ii) Find the coordinates of the stationary (a) the equation of the curve [4]
points of . [3] (b) the coordinates of the stationary
(iii) Determine the nature of EACH stationary points and determine their
point. [3] nature. [8]
(iv) Find the coordinates of the points and (ii) Sketch the curve in (a) (i) (a) above,
at which the curve meets the axis. clearly making ALL stationary points
[5] and intercepts. [4]
(v) Hence, sketch the curve , showing CAPE 2014
(a) the stationary points
(b) the points and [4]
CAPE 2012

161
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION

9. (a) In the diagram given, not drawn to scale, (c) Show that the curve () touches the
the area under the curve axis at = 1. [4]
= (1 + )1, 0 1, is (d) Sketch the curve, () = 3 3 + 2,
approximated by a set of rectangular 2 2. [6]
1
strips of width units. (e) Find the area bounded by this curve and
the axis for 2 1. [6]
CAPE 2004
12. The three points , and , on the curve
= 2 2 are shown in the diagram (not
drawn to scale).

Show that the sum, , of the areas of the


1 1 1
rectangular strips is +1 + +2 + + 2.
[7]
(a) (i) Sketch the curve = 2 + 1. [3]
(ii) Find the volume obtained by rotating (a) Find the coordinates of EACH of the
the portion of the curve between points , and . [4]
= 0 and = 1 through 2 radians (b) Find the TOTAL area bounded by the
about the axis. [7] curve shown, the axis and the lines
CAPE 2003 = 1 and = 2. [4]
CAPE 2005
10. The diagram below is a rough diagram of
= | 2| for real values of from 13. The diagram (not drawn to scale) shows the
16
= 0 to = 4. shaded area, , bounded by the curve = 2
1
and lines = 2 1, = 2 and = 3.

(a) Find the coordinates of the points and


. [2]
(b) Find the volume generated by rotating the
triangle shown above through
360 about the axis. [4] (a) Express the shaded area, , as the
CAPE 2004 difference of two definite integrals. [1]
11. (a) Find the stationary point(s) of the curve, (b) Hence, show that
() = 3 3 + 2, [6] 3 1 3 3
= 16 2 2 2 2 + 2 .
(b) Determine the nature of the stationary
point(s). [3] [2]
(c) Find the value of . [3]

162
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION

CAPE 2006
14. Use the result

0 () = 0 ( ) , > 0, to show
that

(a) 0 sin = 0 sin

0 sin [2]

(b) 0 sin = [5]
CAPE 2006

15. (a) Differentiate, with respect to , the (i) Taking units as the radius of the
2 4 cylinder and units as its height,
function () = 3 +1. [4]
show that
(b) Using the substitution = sin 2, or 45 2
(a) = 2 3 [3]
otherwise, evaluate 04 sin2 cos 2 . 52 90
(b) = + , where units is
[4] 3
the external surface area of the
CAPE 2007 can. [3]
(ii) Hence, find the value of for which
16. (a) (i) Use the result is a minimum and the corresponding

0 () = 0 ( ) , > 0, to minimum value of . [5]
4 3
show that if = 02 sin2 , then Volume of a sphere = ,
[ 3 ]
= 02 cos 2 . Surface area of a sphere = 4 2
[2] Volume of a cylinder = 2 ,
[ ]
(ii) Hence, or otherwise, show that = 4. Curved surface area of a cylinder = 2
[6] CAPE 2008
(b) (i) Sketch the curve = 2 + 4. [4]
(ii) Calculate the volume created by
18. Given that 0 ( + 1) = 3 0 ( 1) ,
rotating the plane figure bounded by
= 0, = 4, = 5 and the curve > 0, find the value of the constant .
[6]
= 2 + 4 through about the
axis. CAPE 2009
1 1 2
[8] 19. (i) Evaluate 1 ( ) . [6]
CAPE 2007 (ii) Using the substitution = + 4, or 2
17. (a) Differentiate with respect to otherwise, find 2 + 4 . [4]
(i) 2 1 [3] CAPE 2010
(ii) sin2( 3 + 4) [4] 4
6 20. The function () satisfies 1 () = 7.
(b) (i) Given that 1 () = 7, 4
6 (i) Find 1 [3() + 4] [4]
evaluate 1 [2 ()]
(ii) Using the substitution = + 1, evaluate
(ii) The area under the curve 3
0 2( + 1) . [4]
= 2 + 5, above the -axis and
bounded by the lines = 1 and = 3 CAPE 2010
2 21. (a) The diagram (not drawn to scale) is a
is 14 3 units 2.
sketch of the section of the function
Find the value of the constant . [4] () = ( 2 12) which passes through
(c) The diagram below not drawn to scale the origin . and are the
represents a can in the shape of a closed stationary points on the curve.
cylinder with a hemisphere at one end.
The can has volume of 45 units 3

163
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION

The perimeter of the track must be 600


metres.
6002
(i) Show that = 2+ . [2]
(ii) Hence, determine the length, , that
Find maximises the area enclosed by the
track. [6]
(i) the coordinates of each of the (c) (i) Let = sin 2 cos + + ,
stationary points, and [8] where and are constants. Show
(ii) the equation of the normal to the that = sin. [4]
curve () = ( 2 12) at the (ii) Hence, determine the specific
origin. [2] solution of the differential equation
(iii) the area between the curve and the = sin, given that when = 0,
positive axis. [6] = 1 and when = , = 6. [4]
(b) (i) Use the result CAPE 2013

23. The equation of a curve is given by
() = ( ) , > 0
( ) = 21 + 2 .
0 0 3
(i) Evaluate 0 () [5]
to show that
(ii) Find the volume generated by rotating the
sin = ( ) sin area bounded by the curve in (i) above,
0 0
the axis, and the lines = 0 and = 2
[2] about the axis. [4]
(ii) Hence show that CAPE 2014
24. (a) The diagram (not drawn to scale) shows
(a) 0 sin =
the region bounded by the lines
0 sin 0 sin = 3 7, + = 9 and 3 = + 3.
[2]

(b) 0 sin = [5]
CAPE 2011
22. (a) (i) By using the substitution = 1 ,
2
find (1 ) . [5]
(ii) Given that () = 2 cos ,
() = 4 sin 5 + 3 cos , show that
[() + ()] = () + ()
[4]
(b) A sports association is planning to
construct a running track in the shape of a (i) Show that the coordinates of , and
rectangle surmounted by a semicircle, as are (4, 5), (3, 2) and (6, 3)
shown in the diagram. The letter respectively. [5]
represents the length of the rectangular (ii) Hence, use integration to determine
section and represents the radius of the the area bounded by the lines. [6]
semicircle. (b) The gradient function of a curve = ()
which passes through the point (0, 6) is
given by 3 3 + 8 3.
(i) Determine the equation of the curve.
[3]

164
CHAPTER 21: INTEGRATION

(ii) Find the coordinates and natures of


the stationary points of the curve in
(b) (i) above. [8]
(iii) Sketch the curve in (b)(i) by clearly
labelling the stationary points. [3]
CAPE 2015

SOLUTIONS
3
1. (ii) 4
22
2. (a) (1, 1), (3, 9) (b) 3
3. (i) = 3 3 2 + 4
(ii) (0, 4) max, (2, 0) min
4. () = 3 + 3 2 6
9
5. (i) (2, 4), (1, 1) (ii) 2
6. (i) = 3 3 2 + 4 (ii) (0, 4), (2, 0)
(iii) max, min
4
7. (i) (1, 4), (3, 12) (ii) 3
1 4
8. (i) (a) = 3 2 2 + (b) ( , ) max,
3 27
5
9. (a) (b) (i) (ii) 3
4
10. (a) (0, 2) , (2, 0) (b)
3
11. (a) (1, 4), (1, 0)
(b) -maximum, -minimum (c)
3
(d) (e) 6
4
8
12. (a) (1, 3) , (1, 1), (2, 0) (b) 3
3 16 3 1 29
13. (a) 2 2
2 (2 1) (b) (c) 12
14. (a) (b)
(3 122) 1
15. (a) (3 +1)2
(b) 4
16. (a) (i) (ii) (b) (i) (ii)
3 1
17. (a) (i) (ii) 3 2 sin(2( 3 + 4))
21
(b) (i) 3 (ii) = 4
(c) (i) (a) (b) (ii) = 3, = 45
18. = 4
16 1 3
19. (i) (ii) 3 ( 2 + 4) 2 +
3
20. (i) 33 (ii) 14
1
21. (a) (i) (2, 16), (2, 16) (ii) = 12 (iii) 36
(b) (i) (ii) (a) (b)
(1) 4 (1)3
22. (a) (i) + (ii)
4 3
2400
(b) (i) (ii) = 16+4

(c) (i) (ii) = sin 2 cos + 11 + 3
2 544
23. (i) 3 (1010 1) (ii) 15
24. (a) (ii) 4 (b) (i) = 3 + 4 2 3 6
1 176
(ii) (3, 12) max, (3 , 27 ) min (iii)

165
ANSWERS FOR REASONING AND LOGIC

1. (i) ~ (b)
(ii)
(iii) (
2. (a) )

0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
This is a contingency. 0 1 0 1 0 0 0
(b) 0 1 1 1 0 0 1
~ 1 0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1
0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
1 1 0 1
This is a contingency. 4. (a)
(c)
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 1 1 1
0 1 1 1 0 0 1
1 0 1 1 1 0 1
1 1 1
This is a contingency.
(b)
(d) c ( )

~ ~ 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1
0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1
1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
This is a contingency. 1 0 1 0 1
1 1 0 1 0
3. (a) 1 1 1 1 1
( )
0 0 0 0 0 (c)
0 0 1 0 1 ( )
0 1 0 0 0 ( )
0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0
1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0
1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0
1 0 1 1 1 1
1 1 0 1 0 0
1 1 1 1 1 1

5. Converse: ( ) ( )
Inverse: ( ) ( )
Contrapositive: ( ) ( )
6.
7. (a) (b)

166
8.
9. (i) ( ~) ( ) (ii)
10.
( )
( )
0 0 0 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 0 0
0 1 0 1 1 1
0 1 1 1 1 1
1 0 0 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 0 0
1 1 0 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1

11. (i)
(ii)


T T F F T T
T F F T F F
F T T F T T
F F T T T T

(iii) They are logically equivalent since they


have the same truth table values.
12. Converse: ~
Inverse: ~
Contrapositive: ~

167
CAPE 2012 PAST PAPER

CAPE 2012
SECTION A

1. (a) The expression () = 2 3 2 + 10 is divisible by 1 and has a remainder 6 when

divided by + 1.

Find

(i) the values of the constants and . [7]

(ii) the factors of () [3]


2
(b) Find positive integers and such that ( + ) = 16 + 240. [8]

(c) (i) Solve, for real values of , the inequality |3 7| 5. [5]

(ii) Show that no real solution, , exists for the inequality |3 7| + 5 0. [2]

Total 25 marks

2. (a) The function on is defined by : 2 3.

(i) Find, in terms of , (()). [3]

(ii) Determine the values of for which (()) = ( + 3). [6]

(b) The roots of the equation 4 2 3 + 1 = 0 are and .

Without solving the equation

(i) write down the values of + and [2]

(ii) find the value of 2 + 2 [2]


2 2
(iii) obtain a quadratic equation whose roots are 2 and 2 . [5]

(c) Without the use of calculators or tables, evaluate


1 3 5 7 9
(i) log 10 (3) + log 10 (5) + log 10 (7) + log 10 (9) + log 10 (10) [3]


(ii) 99
=1 log 10 (+1) [4]

Total 25 marks

168
CAPE 2012 PAST PAPER

SECTION B

3. (a) (i) Given that cos( + ) = cos cos sin sin and cos 2 = 2 cos 2 1, prove that

1
cos 3 2 cos [cos2 sin2 ]
2

[7]

(ii) Using the appropriate formula, show that

1
[sin 6 sin2] (2 cos 2 2 1) sin 2
2

[5]

(iii) Hence, or otherwise, solve sin 6 sin2 = 0 for 0 . [5]
2

(b) Find ALL possible values of cos such that 2 cot 2 + cos = 0. [8]

Total 25 marks

4. (a) (i) Determine the Cartesian equation of the curve, , defined by the parametric equations = 3 sec

and = 3 tan . [5]

(ii) Find the points of intersection of the curve = 10 with . [9]

(b) Let and be two position vectors with endpoints (3, 4) and (1, 6) respectively.

(i) Express and in the form + . [2]

(ii) Obtain the vector . [2]

(iii) Calculate . . [2]

(iv) Let the angle between and be . Use the result of (iii) above to calculate in degrees. [5]

Total 25 marks

169
CAPE 2012 PAST PAPER

SECTION C
3 +8
5. (a) (i) Find the values of for which 2 4 is discontinuous. [2]

3 +8
(ii) Hence, or otherwise, find lim [3]
2 2 4

sin 23 +4
(iii) By using the fact th