Anda di halaman 1dari 13

Jurnal Komunitas 5 (2) (2013): 267-279

JURNAL KOMUNITAS
Research & Learning in Sociology and Anthropology
http://journal.unnes.ac.id/nju/index.php/komunitas

A METHODOLOGICAL MODEL FOR INTEGRATING CHARACTER WITHIN


CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING IN SOCIOLOGY OF
RELIGION

Moh Yasir Alimi

Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Semarang State University

Article History Abstract


Received : June 2013 In this article, I describe a methodological model I used in a experimental study on
Accepted : August 2013 how to integrate character within the practice of Content and Language Integrated
Published : Sept 2013 Learning (CLIL) at the higher education Indonesia.This research can be added
to research about character education and CLIL in tertiary education, giving
nuances to the practice of CLIL so far predominantly a practice in primary and
Keywords secondary schools.The research was conducted in Semarang State University, in
CLIL (Content and Lan- the Department of Sociology and Anthropology, in Sociology of Religion bilingual
guage Integrated Learning); class. The research indicates that the integration of character within CLIL enrich
character; the perspective of CLIL by strengthening the use of CLIL for intellectual growth and
university; moral development. On the other side, the use of CLIL with character education
sociology of religion. gives methods and perspectives to the practice of character education so far which
so far only emphasise contents reforms without learning methods reforms. The
research also reveals that the weakness of CLIL in using text for classroom learning
can be overcome bythe use ofspecific reading and writing strategies. I develop a
practical text strategy which can be effectively used in highly conceptual subject
such as sociology of religion.

MODEL METODOLOGIS UNTUK MENGINTEGRASIKAN KARAKTER


DALAM PEMBELAJARAN CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED
LEARNING PADA MATA KULIAH SOSILOGI AGAMA

Abstrak
Artikel ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan model metodologis yang saya pakai
untuk mengintegrasikannya karakter dalam Content and Language Integrated
Learning (CLIL) pada pendidikan tinggi di Indonesia. Penelitian ini memperkaya
penelitian mengenai pendidikan karakter dan penerapan CLIL di perguruan
tinggi, selama ini penelitian semacam itu hanya biasa di level lebih rendah.
Penelitian dilakukan di Universitas Negeri Semarang, pada kelas bilingual yang
diikuti 25 mahasiswa, dan diujikan pada mata kuliah Sosiologi Agama. Pelajaran
dari penelitian ini adalah integrasi karakter dalam CLIL dapat memperkaya CLIL.
Sebaliknya penggunaan CLIL untuk mendidikkan karakter di kelas bilingual
mampu menjawab berbagai tantangan pendidikan karakter di Indonesia yang
sebagian besar masih berupa pengintegrasian karakter dalam kurikulum saja, tanpa
disertai perubahan metode pembelajaran. Penelitian juga menunjukkan bahwa
kelemahan CLIL dalam mengintegrasikan teksbook dalam pembelajaran kelas
bilingual bisa diatasi dengan penggunaan strategi reading dan writing yang spesifik.

2013 Universitas Negeri Semarang

Corresponding author : ISSN 2086-5465


Address: Department of Sociology and Anthropology, C7 Building, First Floor
E-mail address: yasir.alimi@gmail.com UNNES JOURNALS
Jurnal Komunitas 5 (2) (2013): 267-279 268

INTRODUCTION three years, there is a growing need to have


Indonesian universities intensified its a standard about what is called best models
efforts to stretch itself towards international in bilingual learning. Many lecturers expres-
communities by internationalising their re- sed their concern what the best model of
search, teaching and learning. One of Indo- teaching in bilingual class. CLIL definitely
nesian universities doing this is Semarang provides an answer.
State University (Unnes), a university loca- This adoption is not without justi-
ted at the heart of Central Java Indonesia. fications. Researches have indicated that
Growing out of higher education which pri- CLIL approach can enhance academic qua-
marily focused on teacher training, Unnes lification and accelerate teaching reform by
dedicates itself to be a leading university not leading the university life to both increased
only in teacher training, but also in research. subject knowledge and enhanced targeted
To promote its distinctiveness, the universi- language proficiency (Alonso, Grisela and
ty has declared itself to be a world class uni- Campo, 2008; Cummins, 1984; Genesee,
versity based on conservation. Conservation 1987; Brinton and Snow, 1990; Met, 1994;
means that the university is committed to Swain, 1996; Baker, 2001; Marsh, Maljers
advance the quality of human life through and Hartiala, 2001; Coonan, 2002; Wilkin-
conservation of both natural and social va- son, 2004; Coyle, 2005; Ricci Garotti, 2006;
lues. The university strategies its research, Stohler, 2006; Dalton-Puffer, 2007). The use
teaching and learningare dedicated to of the targetted language as the language for
develop this conservation mission. One of learning and language of learning does not
the strategy included in conservation is the only accelerate the acquisition of the second
environmentally friendly campus life and language but also help students understand
progressive integration of character within the subject. How does this happen? Gass
the curriculum. Conservation does not only and Madden(1985), Krashen (1985), Maggi,
go side by side with internationalisation ini- Mariotti and Pavesi (2002) Marsh and Wolff
tiative; it is in fact one of its most important (2007) and Costa and Coleman (2012) sug-
step towards internationalisation. Besides gest that CLIL offers learners a substantial
integrating character within teaching and amount of comprehensible input, without
learning, the university adopted content which second language acquisition could
and language integrated learning (CLIL) not take place. Though many of these rese-
within its teaching and learning program. archeswere conducted in secondary or pri-
The university sent 18 lecturers to have in- mary education, the findings can be applied
tensive training in IALF Bali as the licence in tertiary education setting.
holder of Cambridge University for CLIL Researches also indicated other two
training and test. advantages of CLIL adoption. First, CLIL
There are many reasons why the uni- constitutes an important step towards in-
versity administration is interested in integ- ternationalisation, a strategy which will not
rating CLIL within the teaching practice of only enhance the employability of home
the university. First, CLIL can boost the lan- students but also will attract international
guage skills of the students, the acquisition students (Alexander, 2006; Coleman, 2006;
of higher order thinking skills within spe- Wilkinson, 2004; Maiworm and Wchter,
cific subject knowledge as well as students 2002; Wchter and Maiworm, 2008; Cran-
appreciation of local cultures. Second, CLIL dall and Kaufman, 2002; Wchter, 2004).
facilitates gentle move towards internatio- Second, CLIL help tertiary education ac-
nalization by the use of English language celerate the evolving epistemology of uni-
within tertiary education. Third, CLIL pro- versity disciplines in a globalising academy
vides clear road map towards good practices (Wilkinson and Zegers, 2008; Airey 2009).
of bilingual teaching that the university can In this way CLIL further highlightsthe be-
adopt. The university has opened more than nefits of bilingualism emphasised in earlier
twenty programs offered in bilingual. After studies: for example encouraging critical

UNNES JOURNALS
269 Moh Yasir Alimi, A Methodological Model for Integrating Character within Content

thinking and cultural sensitivity across cul- Indeed CLIL training changes the way
tures (Baker 2001; Beardsmore, 2008; Cela- I teach.I have new perspectives and met-
ya, de Zarobe, 2010; Cummins 1984; Gonza- hods that I can use to lead a bilingual lear-
lez 1998; Genesee, 1987; Debora, Benvenuto ning. However, there are many challenges to
and Lastrucci 2008; Hofmannova, Novotna, come.Two of these challenges are how can
Pipalova 2008; Jarvinen, 2008; Kasper 2000; we integrate textbook in CLIL classroom
Krashen 1985). and how can we integrate character within
How can CLIL do this? How does CLIL CLIL approach? The development of charac-
work actually? CLIL is an integrated model ter in Indonesia increases rapidly after the
which actively involve students in using and government rules in its law of national edu-
learning the language of learning, for lear- cation that the basic purpose of education
ning and through learning. In CLIL, con- is character. Act no 20 year 2003 on System
tent is conveyed by the teacher as a way of of National Education clearly and explicitly
facilitating understanding, and the input is gives urgency to character education. Edu-
represented by the language to which the cation is a conscious and deliberate effort to
learners are exposed(Costa and Coleman, create an atmosphere of learning and the
2012).Not only emphasis on language, CLIL learning process so that learners are active-
is integrated model in implementing many ly developing their potential to have inner
aspecs and level of thinking skills in lear- spiritual strength, self-control, personality,
ning. CLIL provides conceptual and practi- intelligence, noble character, and skills that
cal advises to improve class learning.In fact, he, society, nation and state need (Chapter
CLIL strength does not lie in the way it deve- 1). Based upon the importance of character
lops a clear roadmap to teach bilingualism, for personal development and national buil-
content and language, but in the way CLIL ding, Unnes chosen characters to be integ-
emphasizes the development of students rated within its curriculum delivery. These
thinking skills and cultural sentivity with values include honesty, tolerance, empathy,
clear steps and practical frameworks. CLIL justice, and caring. In Indonesia, Unnes is
powers its bilingual strategy with methods the first state Indonesian higher education
that nurtures critical thinking (Coyle, 2005; which promote character education. It is
Dalton Puffer 2007; Eldridge, Neufeld, and very often thought that character educati-
Hancioglu 2010; Lucietto, 2008; Lasabaga- on is only relevant for junior students, from
baster, 2008; Milne and Garcia 2008). kindergarten to senior high school students.
In 2002, CLIL approaches are still There are several reasons why universi-
simple. It is not more than presentation ty students needs character education: (1)
strategies. For example, Coonan explored students need character to succeed in the
the ways in which an academic, lecturing workforce; (2) the self-interest for acade-
in a targeted language can help to make mic integrity; (3) the need for peaceful and
the content clearer.These strategies include nonviolent university life; (4) the need for
using discourse markers, repeating con- emphasis upon universal ethics in higher
cepts, using examples, using synopsis, using educations.
definitions, explaining, re-using lexis, using This objective coincides with the mo-
synonyms, using paraphrasis, reformula- ral development theory developed by Law-
ting, asking for questions, slowing down rence Kohlberg. Kohlberg(1974) arranged
the pace of speaking, emphasizing through moral development of human being into six
intonation, and articulating words clearly. stages: 1. obedience and punishment orien-
Now, CLIL has become more complex, fol- tation; 2. self-interest orientation;3. inter-
lowing the increasing demands and chal- personal accord and conformity to social
lenges from teaching practices. Brady(2009) norms; 4. authority and social-order main-
uses CLIL to teach nationalism and citi- taining orientation;5. social contract orien-
zenship in Japan creating an integrated mo- tation; and6. universal ethical principles.
del of language, content and citizenship. Students at higher education level should

UNNES JOURNALS
Jurnal Komunitas 5 (2) (2013): 267-279 270

be trained with principled conscience and luasion. These four fieldsprinciple, pha-
universal principles to help individual tran- ses, tools, and handouts--- should support
sition to stage five and six (Kohlberg, 1974: each other in three competences: academic
34).To integrate character within universitys skills, language and character.
life, the university should state clearly moral Tools in CLIL cover eight components:
development as the institutions primarily (1) lesson plan cover; (2) lesson plan pro-
goal. How can this be achieved? There are cedure; (3) worksheet; (4) evaluation sheet;
many methods, one of them is integrating (5) student self-evaluation sheet; (6) slides;;
character within CLIL. Based upon the- and (7) video and other visual aids. I call
se consideration, this research focus upon this model CLIL plus character, whichadds
three main questions: (1) How can charac- to the existing CLIL innovation develop-
ter be integrated within CLIL?; (2) what are ped by previous scholar. For example, in
lessons learnt from the practice of CLIL and Japan, Another model has been developed:
character teaching in Indonesia; and (3) content-language-citizenship model (XXX).
How can we teach character from sociology This indicates that CLIL needs contextua-
of religion courses? lization and personalization to answer the
needs of the institution. The strength of
RESEARCH METHOD CLIL plus character is its focus upon con-
The study is being undertaken as part tent-language-character (CLC).The paper
of a university research funded by the Indo- covers the methods we can use to integrate
nesian Directorate for Higher Education. As character within four areas of CLIL: princip-
far as research methodology is concerned, les, phases, processes and tools. The method
the research adopt research and develop- that I will use include: (1) the introduction
ment (R & D) strategy. I will create a mo- of another one C, standing for charac-
del, and then test the model in our teach- ter within CLIL principle which has 4 Cs;
ing practice at the university. Tests will be (2) the inclusion of character within CLIL
conducted in billingual classes in Semarang sheets and tools; (2) the emphasis upon pri-
State University. The courses that will be mary skills and characters needed to include
implemented in CLIL approach are Socio- within the learning; (3) the expansion of un-
logy of Religion. I focus this report on the derstanding local contexts in the study; and
lessons learnt in Sociology of Religion class. (4) critical reflection upon the process.
The class consists of 25 students with variety
of English competences. As the research is METHODOLOGICAL MODEL
being undergoing I only give examples from Based upon years of experimental te-
one topic: Karl Marxs theory of religion. aching and also training in CLIL, I develop a
methodological model to integrate charac-
RESEARCH PROCEDURE ter within CLIL. This model includes combi-
The research consists of three stages: nation of eight components: (1) donceptual
preparation, implementation and evalua- Development of 5 Cs in CLIL; (2) the adopti-
tion. The preparation stage, first most im- on of reading and writing strategies; (3) Spe-
portant stage, includes the development of cific values, specific strategies; (4) the moral
methodological model for teaching cha- development of students at higher educa-
racter with CLIL. The model includes three tion; (5) learning goals and study skills; (6)
four areas: (1) principle; (2) phases; (3) tools CLIL characteristics: thinking skills, scaf-
and sheets; and (4) handouts. I will discuss folding, students-students interaction, and
briefly this one by one. The principle in- portofolio oriented; and the last (7) the clas-
cludes conceptual framework, philosophy, sification of class learning into three parts:
steps. The material includes lessons plans anticipation, building knowledge and ex-
cover, lessons procedure, worksheets, eva- pansion; and (8) the integration of character
luation sheets. The process includes vision within CLIL tools. If these eight methods
stage, planning, preparing, process and eva- and theories are combined in a diagram, the

UNNES JOURNALS
271 Moh Yasir Alimi, A Methodological Model for Integrating Character within Content

Table 1. Methodological Model


1. Five Cs Cognition
Communication
Character
Culture
Content
2. Unnes Character Values Compassion
Integrity
Respect
Fortitude
Humility
Self Control
Responsibility
Excellence
3. Reading and Writing Specific Strategies Paired reading
Paired summarising
Reciprocal Teaching
Directed Reading
4. Specific Values, Specific Strategy Self Talk
Character Poster
5. Learning Process, Study Skills and Lan- Learning Strategies
guage Learning Strategies Personal Achievement
6. Three Important CLIL Characteristics Scaffolding
Low and High Order Thinking Skills
Students-Students Interaction
7. Learning Process Anticipation
Building Knowledge
Expansion
8. Tools and Sheets The methodological Model
The textbook
Sheets
Students learning skills
Language learning goals
Evaluation sheets
Learning media

shape and the contents would be like this: express their ideas through group activities
or student-student interaction. That is com-
Development of 5 Cs munication. Cognition means CLIL method
Traditionally, CLIL only includes 4 Cs: should train students high order thinking
communication, cognition, culture and con- skills. Content means CLIL should teach
tent. Communication consists of linguistic the contents in particular subjects. Culture
aspects of the learning, covering grammar, means that the delivery of CLIL should be
structural sentences, phrases and so on. based on local culture, local illustration and
Cognition includes thinking skills, culture examples.
includes citizenship, and content includes In this approach, I add another C: cha-
the theme, the project matter.The four Cs racter.One may question the justification of
means cleans highlight the importance of adding this character within the already four
communication skills between students to Cs. Character has been intrinsically integ-
UNNES JOURNALS
Jurnal Komunitas 5 (2) (2013): 267-279 272

rated within CLIL. But that is not the case ves; ( 10 ) involve families and the communi-
in Indonesia. Indonesia need more explicit ty as part of the character education; and ( 11
strategy. Second, CLIL emphasize upon lan- ) evaluate the extent to which schools serve
guage competences and higher order thin- as educators of character and extent of the
king, not the development of students per- characters was manifested in the students
sonalities and character. attitude (Lickona , 2007). There are eleven
characters underlined by Semarang State
Inclusion of character. University:Compassion, Integrity, Respect,
Lickona , Schaps and Lewis (2007 ) Fortitude, Humility, Self Control, Responsi-
reveals the eleven steps that must exist for bility, Excellence.
an effective character education. Character
education should: ( 1 ) promote the core va- Integrating Character within Four
lues as the foundation of the character set; ( Phases Framework CLIL
2 ) define a comprehensive character, which To create a productive academic cultu-
includes thoughts, feelings and actions; ( 3 re, CLIL, Coyle (2006: 89) argues, has four
) use a comprehensive approach , intentio- stages. The first stage is institutional visio-
nal and proactive to develop character; (4 ning on the importance of CLIL as part of
) create school as a caring community; ( 5 institutional development and reform. This
) provide opportunities for students to act stage consolidates the commitment of the
morally; ( 6 ) develop academic curriculum tutor and its institutions to upgrade its te-
that develops students character and their aching method by integrating English and
moral competence; ( 7 ) try to instill a st- new method of learning. This stage inclu-
rong motivation on students; ( 8 ) involve des the understanding of CLIL principles,
the entire staff as character educator; ( 9 ) frameworks, and all aids needed for the
instill moral leadership and support for a training. The second stage is analysis and
wider range of character education initiati- personalisation of CLIL context. After all

Figure 1. Five Cs
UNNES JOURNALS
273 Moh Yasir Alimi, A Methodological Model for Integrating Character within Content

the principles and how to translate all those Gunderson 2013).


principles into lesson plan are known, CLIL
should be adapted to the local needs whe- Scaffolding, Thinking Skills and Stu-
re the teaching is going to be applied. Third dents-Students Interaction
stage is unit planning. This stage includes Most important characteristics of
four steps: (1) considering the content; (2) CLIL lie in its emphasis upon scaffolding,
connecting content and cognition, (3) com- thinking skills, and students-students inte-
munication, defining language learning raction. Scaffolding helps the students de-
and using, and (4) the development of local velop their zone of proximate development
awareness. The fourth stage is preparing the (ZPD), by expanding their thinking skills
unit. In this stage,the contents are translated step-by-step. Coyle (2005) explores other
into resources, tasks and activities. The fifth purposes scaffolding serves. Scaffolding
stage consists of monitoring and evaluation reduces the cognitive and linguistic load of
of CLIL in action. In CLIL preparation is not the content/input to help students under-
less important than the implementation. stand the content and language of any given
Worksheets, games, activities, all should be material; scaffoldingenables students to ac-
prepared before. What type of openings are complish a given task through appropriate,
we going to use to open the lesson and what supportivestructuring; and Scaffolding also
kinds of questions and instructions, what supports language production by providing
kinds of activities, how long, what language phrases, subject-specific vocabulary and col-
skills, what character to study all need tho- locations needed to complete assignments.
rough thoughts.Sandra Lucietto (2008: 83), It helps students to verbalize their thoughts
based upon his research in Italia, suggests appropriate to the subject manner. In other
the success of CLIL should be based upon- words, scaffolding done right will boost stu-
continuous professional development(CPD) dents cognitive academic language profi
not upon instant application. ciency (CALP).
CLIL also give new and practical in-
Reading and Writing Strategies sight about classroom interaction. Teach-
The adoption of reading and writing ers-students interaction is not enough in
strategies has strong roots in CLIL. First, CLIL learning. Teachers should reduce their
reading and writing strategies are key stra- talk and increase interaction between stu-
tegies in language learning (Loranc-Paszylk, dents. These interaction can be in the form
2009). CLIL adopts most innovative met- of many activities. CLIL should also touch
hods in language learning for contents lear- range of thinking skills from low order thin-
ning. However, CLIL also has weaknesses in king skills (LOTs) to high order thinking
the way it does not integrate the use of tex- skills (HOTS). These thinking skills are
tbooks in its learning process. CLIL adopts summarized in Blooms pyramid of thinking
materials from internets. This practice can which include: remembering,
be problematic in academic context because
students and academics are required to re- Specific Method, Specific Values
fer to certain pages for citation. To overcome Some methods are very good for te-
this weaknesses, I adopt some strategies in aching particular values. For example, role-
reading and writing for this learning.This play isa good tool to teach empathy, self talk
methods include paired reading, questi- is good for habituating positive thinking,
ons and answer, mutual reading and other simulation independence and confidence,
strategies. For writing, scholars have recom- concept attainment tolerance of ambiguity,
mended the use of writing to enhance reflec- and non-directive model self integrity.
tive practice and refine teaching (Ciabattari
2013; Hudd 2013; Heckler, Forde and Bryan Text Strategies
2013; Kaufman 2012; Purcell 2012; Loranc- Texts integrated in CLIL has special
Paszylk 2009; Parotta 2013; Picca, Starks and characteristics. Therefore, texts should be
UNNES JOURNALS
Jurnal Komunitas 5 (2) (2013): 267-279 274

adapted to meet CLIL needs. To achieve orientation. In this stage we can evaluate the
these objectives, experts show four strate- linguistic aspects of the sentences: gram-
gies for text adaptation: processing the text, mar, expressions or words usage. In concept
identification and organisation of academic orientation, the students learn about the
knowledge, language identification, and concepts expressed in the sentence. After
tasks for students. Texts are often repre- the language orientation is character orien-
sented diagrammatically. These structures tation. Character is the lesson we draw for
are known as ideational frameworks or our personal growth and development.
diagrams of thinking, and are used to help
learners categorise the ideas and informati- Tools: Lesson Plan
on in a text. Diagram types include tree dia- Lesson plan consists of two materials:
grams for classification, groups, hierarchies, lesson plan cover and lesson plan procedure.
flow diagrams and timelines for sequenced These two examples are as follows:
thinking such as instructions and historical
information, tabular diagrams describing Table 2. lesson plan cover
people and places, and combinations of the-
Name:
se. The structure of the text is used to faci-
litate learning and the creation of activities Course:
which focus on both language development
and core content knowledge. Week:
Teaching with text needs a particular
Content
strategy so that students do feel overloa-
ded with contents and language they do not Teaching Aims
know. I am particularly inspired by text stra- Learning Outcomess
tegy developped by Asford (2009) for lan- Communication
guage learning. In this strategy, there are 5 Cognition
steps in text strategy: (1) text selection; (2)
text orientation; (3) aural orientation; (4) Character
language orientation; and (5) fluent scaffol- Methods
ded reading. Resources
Text selection includes the selection
of certain part of a meaningful texts. After Learning Strategies
this text is selected, students should be ori- In the learning strategies, I develop
ented with certain method for example pai- each session into three core sections. These
red reading or . The next step is language sections are anticipation, building knowled-

Figure 3. Text strategy in language learning

From this line of learning, I develop into like this:

Figure 4. Text strategy in character oriented learning


UNNES JOURNALS
275 Moh Yasir Alimi, A Methodological Model for Integrating Character within Content

ge and consolidation. In the anticipation, can be used in using texts are: (1) semantic
the class begins with a structured overview map (Heimlich 1986); (2) perdicting from
about the topics. The objective is to frame terms; (3) think pair share; (4) Directing
students thinking about the topic and to Reading Activity (DRA) from Stauffer 1969,
raise their curiousity. In CLIL, anticipation and Gunning (2000); and Character Map
is intended to introduce topics and prepare (Gillet 2004).
students for the coming topics. The second
part is building knowledge. In this part, I CLASSROOM PRACTICE
prepare the students to read the texts. The I experimented the above methods
students will use the method of paired rea- several weeks in the sociology of religion.
ding to help them understand the material Class I prepare all the materials and met-
they are reading. In pair the students read hod needed for every discussion. I also use
the texts and then summarize, and the other the selection method I selected above. For
students ask questions. The student should topics on Karl Marxs theory of religion, I
summarize what they read succinctly. use the above text selection flow. After the
The third part of the class room opening, I start with the first paragraph of
structure is consolidation. In this phase, the Karl Marx section. It is very important to
students learn new perspectives and apply work paragraph by paragraph or when nee-
them. Consolidation also consists of know/ ded sentence to sentence. After several mee-
want to know activity and the Value line. tings students recognised how to approach
Know/want to know activity is the process an English text. They already know that they
and tool to frame new knowledge that we are not going to read the whole chapter. Text
have. The Value Line is the activity through selection doesnot limited to the selection of
which student will defend and reject cer- particular paragraph in the text but also wor-
tain position regarding to the subject being king chunk by chunk, reducing the weight
debated.The class is ended by quick write of learning pages of English text. Then I test
activity, an activity where students write them with several questions from the tex-
a brief five minutes essay about the topics, ts. A student who have answered to select
skills, language and value they have learnt. another student to answer another questi-
To put it in different way, these sta- ons. What skills, English competence and
ges consist of four activities: (1) structured character can we learn from topics about
overview (anticipation); (2) Know/want-to- Karl Marx. The sociological skills include
know /learn (KWL) activity (building kno- the concept of alienation, ideology in the
wledge); (3) paired reading (building kno- study of religion. Religion in Karl Marx is a
wledge); and (4) value line (consolidation); instrument to justify injustice. It is a mask
and (5) quick write (consolidation). The to conceal vested interest behind a sacred
consolidation phase highlights not only the ideology.
knowledge and the skills expected from the Eliciting character from Karl Marx life
sessions topics, but also the language and is very fascinating. First, Karl Marx is an in-
the character. Writing in the end can help teresting figur with controversial views on
improve students writing skills but also the religion. In a country where religion plays
reflective thinking to reflect upon what they a very important role, the image about Karl
have learnt. Marx can be negative. However, the story
There are many ways of integrating of Karl Marx tells many things about the
texts into a CLIL lesson which improve cha- struggle of a person with his determination
racter, this include: (1) learning information and ideas. Karl Marx illustrates that intel-
from text; (2) understanding narrative text; lectuals should have empathy to the public,
(3) cooperative learning; (4) conducting dis- a quality shown by Karl Marx. What kind
cussions; (5) writing and inquiry; (6) writing of contributions can we make to the people
to persuade; (7) understanding arguments; around us? Please write in group of five. The
and (8) critical listening. Activities which use of pizza table is essential in this creative

UNNES JOURNALS
Jurnal Komunitas 5 (2) (2013): 267-279 276

Table 3. Learning Process

ANTICIPATION BUILDING KNOWLEDGE CONSOLIDATION


Structured Overview One Stay, Three Stay Value Line Quick Write
KWL KWL KWL
Reciprocal Teaching
Specialised Roles in Discussion Jigsaw
Academic Controversy
Pen in the Middle
Community Agreement Save the Last word for me
Walk around, Talk around

process. They can show with texts, & pictu- he can use in accordance with the topics.
res. For language, I practice on the words: Second,the weakness of CLIL in in-
bourgoisie, labour, exploitation, injustice. tegrating texts in its learning process can
The expressions that we learn from this to- be overcome by adopting clearer and more
pics is ..... When I ask the students to write procise reading strategies. The use of texts
what value they can learn from the subject can be fun in CLIL context when text are tre-
about Karl Marx they write: ated as sources of information that can be
People of character should not exploit reli- selected and control.
gion for political purposes. Third, text selection and orientation
We should be able to develop religious toler- lends both teachers and studentsa sense of
ance and moderation to people coming from control to a large amount text chapter. The
different background. selection of text, is followed by text orienta-
Exploitation and discrimination are not re- tion, concepts orientation, character orien-
ligious. tation and then emphasised with quick wri-
Religion becomes ideology when it is used to te game.
justify political interest. Fourth,character education at the uni-
The use of religion as ideology should not versity level doesnot only require the integra-
doubt us from the positive use of religion as tion of character contents and perspectives
spirituality within curriculum, but also structural re-
forms on the methods of teaching. The use of
LESSONS LEARNT CLIL in classroom teaching nurture students
Below are some preliminary lessons character in the ways the method nurtures
that I learnt from the practice of integrating students confidence in their subjects, more
character within CLIL in Sociology of Religi- plays and games which nurture their charac-
on. First, the methodological model helps me ter. This is like teaching character without
to give a framework and practical methods expliciting the character contents.
I can use in every level and phase of CLIL Fifth, intergrating character within
practice. I did not use the available methods CLIL enriches CLIL approach by expliciting
in one classroom. Very often, one or two the value line in the teaching and learning.
method is enough for topic enrichement We need to select what kinds of character we
during knowledge building. The availability want to teach within character. CLIL touch
of many methods means that in a semester character from different sides. The integ-
tutor will have many available methods she/ ration of CLIL can side intellectual growth
UNNES JOURNALS
277 Moh Yasir Alimi, A Methodological Model for Integrating Character within Content

and moral development of the students.Six- only overcome many questions that rise in
th, CLILs emphasis upon students and stu- billingual class, the use of character can give
dents interaction (SSI) doesnot only nurture nuance to the practice of CLIL in higher edu-
cooperation and appreciation between stu- cation. The goals of higher educationin-
dents and students, but also increases their tellectual growth and character strength
confidence and empathy. Feedbacks they can be achieved across curriculum, such as
give each other can practice the students to Sociology of Religion. Each subjects has its
give positive attitude to learning. own characteristics to emphasise the diffe-
Seventh, sociology of religion can be rence. Hopefully, the lessons learn from this
used to promote religious tolerance, inde- research can be used to improve the practi-
pendence, empathy through introducing di- ce of teaching billingual class and character
versity consciousness to students. Like other education in higher education setting.
subjects, sociology of religion can be used
to teach tolerance and empathy. Sociology AKNOWLEDGEMENT
of religion raises some taboes about religi- I express my gratitude to Centre of
on never discussed clearly and proportio- Research and Community Services/Lemba-
nately.People often use religion to oppress ga Penelitian dan Pengabdian Masyarakat
other people and to hide their personal or (LP2M) of Semarang State University (UN-
group interest. Sociology of religion raises NES) and also the Directorate of Higher
the prophane veils used to cover religion and Education (DIKTI) for making this research
open up their interest. University students possible.
in Indonesia often become targets of such
indoctrination. Sociology of religion nurtu- REFERENCES
res diversity consciousness as students rea- Alonso, E.; Grisalea,J., Campo, A., (2008) Plurilin-
gual Education in Secondary Schools : Analy-
lise diversity as social facts in society. More
sis of Results in International CLIL Research
substantially, the approach of sociology of Journal Vol 1 (1) 2008
religion requires students to practice met- Alexander, J. R.: 2006, International Programmes in
hodological agnosticism, a mind quality the German-speaking World and Englishiza-
to suspend ones own cultural standards or tion: a Critical Analysis, in R. Wilkinson and V.
Zegers (eds.), Realizing Content and Language
value to justify other people.Eighth, the use Integration in Higher Education, Universitaire
of writing can help us to wrap up the value Pers Maastricht, Maastricht.
while nurture students writing skills. When Airey, J. (2009) Estimating Undergraduate Bilingual
I use writing, the students are more involved Scientific Literacy in Sweden in International
CLIL Research Journal Vol 1 (2) 2009
and focused to the lessons. At the end of the
Baker, C.: 2001, Foundations of Bilingual Education
lesson they express better feeling and enthu- and Bilingualism, Multilingual Matters Clev-
siasm. Writing helps more interraction and edon.
communication between students. Writing Beardsmore, H. B. (2008) Multilingualism, Cognition
increases language use and learning. and Creativity. International CLIL Research
Journal Vol 1 (1) 2008
Brady, A. 2009. An integrated Approach to Content
CONCLUSION and Language Study: Citizenship Develop-
The integration of language and cha- ment & Society Building in David MArsh &
racter in the practice of learning in higher Peeter Mehisto, dkk. 2009. CLIL practice:
Perspective from the Field. CCN University of
education puts a challenge to university.
Jyvaskyla: Finland.
How can we integrate English and character Brinton, D. and Snow, M. A. (1990) Content-based
within teaching and learning? How can we Language Instruction,Newbury House, New
teach character through particular subjects York.
through sociology of religion. The model Brinton, D. and Snow, M. A.: 1990, Content-based Lan-
guage Instruction. Newbury House, New York.
that I develop can give me a framework and Chaudron, C.: 1988, Second Language Classrooms,
practical advises to improve teaching and Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
learning in sociology of religion. The in- Ciabattari, T. 2013. Creating a Culture of Good Writ-
tegration of character within CLIL does not ing: A Cumulative Model for Teaching Writing

UNNES JOURNALS
Jurnal Komunitas 5 (2) (2013): 267-279 278

in the Sociology Major. Teaching Sociology 41: nal Vol 1 (1) 2008
60-69, doi:10.1177/0092055X12462415 Hudd, S.S., Lauren M. Sardi, and Maureen T.
Coleman, J. A. 2006. English-Medium Teaching in Eu- Lopriore. 2013.Sociologists as Writing Instruc-
ropean Higher Education, Language Teaching, tors: Teaching Students to Think, Teaching an
39, 1, 1-14. Emerging Skill, or Both?Teaching Sociology 41:
Coleman, J.A.; and Costa, F. 2010. Integrating Con- 32-45 doi:10.1177/0092055X12458049
tent and Language in Higher Education in Heckler, N.C., David R. Forde, and C. Hobson Bryan.
Italy: Ongoing ResearchFrancesca Costa in 2013. Using Writing Assignment Designs to Mit-
International CLIL Research Journal Vol 1 (3) igate Plagiarism. Teaching Sociology January
Celaya, Luz; de Zarobe, Y.R .2010. First languages and 2013 41: 94-105, doi:10.1177/0092055X12461471
age in CLIL and non-CLIL contexts in Inter- Jrvinen, H.: 2008, Learning Contextualized Lan-
national CLIL Research Journal Vol 1 (3) guage: Implications for Tertiary Foreign-Lan-
Coyle, D. (2005) Developing CLIL. Towards a Theory guage-Medium Education, in E. Rauto and L.
of Practice, APAC Monographs, 6, 5-29 . Saarikoski (eds.), Foreign-Language-Medium
Coleman, J. A.: 2006, English-Medium Teaching in Instruction in Tertiary Education: a Tool for
European Higher Education, Language Teach- Enhancing Language Learning, Vaasan Am-
ing, 39, 1, 1-14. mattikorkeakoulu, University of Applied,
Coyle, D.: 2005, Developing CLIL. Towards a Theory of Vaasa.
Practice, APAC Monographs, 6, 5-29 Kaufman, P. 2013. Scribo Ergo Cogito : Reflexivity
Crandall, J. and Kaufman, D. (eds.): 2002, Content through Writing. Teaching Sociology January
-Based Instruction in Higher Education Set- 2013 41: 70-81, doi:10.1177/0092055X12458679
tings, TESOL Practice Series, Alexandria, VA. Kasper, L. F.: 2000, Content-based ESL Instruction,
Crain, W.C (1985). Theories of Development.Prentice- Mahwah, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Hall. pp. 118-136 Krashen, S. D.: 1985, Second Language Acquisition and
Cummins, J.: 1984, Wanted: a Theoretical Framework Second Language Learning, Pergamon, Ox-
for Relating Language Proficiency to Academic ford.
Achievement among Bilingual Students, in C. Kohlberg, L. (1976). Moral Stages and Moralization:
Rivera (ed.), Language Propficiency and Aca- The Cognitive- Developmental Approach. In
demic Achievement, Multilingual Matters, Cle- T. Lickona (Ed.) Moral Development and Be-
vedon. havior. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.
Dalton-Puffer, C. (ed.): 2007, Empirical Perspectives Loranc-Paszylk, B. (2009) Integrating Reading and
on CLIL Classroom Discourse, Peter Lang Writing into the Context of CLIL Classroom:
Franktfurt. Some Practical Solutions in International
Dalton-Puffer, C. (ed.) (2007) Empirical Perspectives CLIL Research Journal Vol 1 (2)
on CLIL Classroom Discourse, Peter Lang Lucietto , Sandra (2008) A Model for Quality CLIL
Franktfurt. Provision. International CLIL Research Journal
Eldridge, J.; Neufeld, S., Hanciolu, N(2010) Towards Vol 1 (1) 2008
a Lexical Framework for CLIL in International Lasagabaster, David; and Juan Manuel Sierra (2009)
CLIL Research Journal Vol 1 (3) 2010 Language Attitudes in CLIL and Traditional
Milne, E.D and Garcia, A.L.2008.The Role of Repeti- EFL Classes. International CLIL Research
tion in CLIL Teacher Discourse :A Compara- Journal Vol 1 (2) 2009
tive Study at Secondary and Tertiary Levels. Marsh, D., Maljers, A. and A. K., Hartiala, (eds.): 2001,
International CLIL Research Journal Vol 1 (1) Profiling European CLIL Classrooms: Lan-
2008 guages Open Doors, University of Jyvskyl,
Genesee, F.: 1987, Learning through Two Languages, Jyvskyl.
Newbury House, Cambridge, MA. Marsh, D. and Wolff, D., (eds.): 2007, Diverse Con-
Gillham, B.: 2000, Case Study Research Methods, Con- texts-Converging Goals: CLIL in Europe, Peter
tinuum, London. Lang, Frankfrt.
Gonzalez, A.: 1998, The Language Planning Situation Marsh, H. W., Hau, K. and Kong, C.: 2000, Late Im-
in the Philippines, Journal of Multilingual and mersion and Language of Instruction in Hong
Multicultural Development, 19, 5, 487-525. Kong High Schools: Achievement Growth in
Genesee, F. (1987) Learning through Two Languages, Language and Nonlanguage Subjects, Harvard
Newbury House, Cambridge, MA. Educational Review, 70, 3, 302-346.
Infante, Debora; Guido Benvenuto, Emilio Lastrucci Mehisto, Peeter; David Marsh dan Maria Jesus Frigols
(2008) Integrating Content and Language at (2008) Uncovering CLIL: Content and Lan-
Primary School in Italy : Ongoing Experimen- guage Integrated Learning in Bilingual and
tal Research. International CLIL Research Jour- Multicultural Education. Oxford: McMillan
nal. Vol 1 (1) 2008 Press.
Hofmannov, Marie; Jarmila Novotn, Renata P- Mehisto, Peeter(2008)CLIL Counterweights : Recog-
palov (2008) Assessment Approaches to nising and Decreasing Disjuncture in CLIL in
Teaching Mathematics in English as a Foreign International CLIL Research Journal Vol 1 (1)
Language in International CLIL Research Jour- 2008

UNNES JOURNALS
279 Moh Yasir Alimi, A Methodological Model for Integrating Character within Content

Michael Lewis. Developing A Sociological Perspective Swain, M.: (1996) Integrating Language and Content
on Mental Illness Through Reading Narratives in Immersion Classrooms: Research Perspec-
And Active Learning: A Book Club Strategy. tives, The Canadian Modern Language Review,
Teaching Sociology, October 2004; vol. 32, 4: 52, 4, 529-548.
pp. 391-400. Sudhoff, Julian (2010) CLIL and Intercultural Com-
Navs, T. (2009) Effective Content and Language In- municative Competence: Foundations
tegrated Learning (CLIL) Programmes, in and Approaches towards a FusionJulian Sud-
Y. Ruiz de Zarobe and R. M. Jimnez Cata- hoff . International CLIL Research Journal Vol
ln (eds,), Content and Language Integrated 1 (3) 2010
Learning. Evidence from Research in Europe, Ting, Yen-Ling Teresa (2010) CLIL Appeals to How
Multilingual Matters Bristol. the Brain Likes Its Information: Examples
Navs, T.: 2009, Effective Content and Language In- From CLIL-(Neuro)Science .International
tegrated Learning (CLIL) Programmes, in CLIL Research Journal Vol 1 (3) 2010
Y. Ruiz de Zarobe and R. M. Jimnez Cata- Tan, P. K. W.: 2005, The Medium-of-Instruction De-
ln (eds,), Content and Language Integrated bate in Malaysia, Language Problems & Lan-
Learning. Evidence from Research in Europe, guage Planning, 29, 1, 47-66.
Multilingual Matters Bristol. Van Leeuwen, C. and Wilkinson, R., (eds.): 2003, Mul-
Purcell, David. 2012. Sociology, Teaching, and Re- tilingual approaches in university education,
flective Practice: Using Writing to Im- Universiteit Maastricht/Uitgeverij Valkhof
prove. Teaching Sociology. 41: 5-19, Pers, Maastricht.
doi:10.1177/0092055X12460028 Varkuti, A. 2010. Linguistic Benefits of the CLIL Ap-
Parrotta, K. and Buck, A.R. 2013. Marx Accessible Un- proach: Measuring Linguistic Competences.
derstanding Alienated Labor through Experi- International CLIL Research Journal Vol 1 (3)
ential Learning.Teaching Sociology October 2010
2013 41: 360-369, doi:10.1177/0092055X13491505 Van Leeuwen, C. and Wilkinson, R., (eds.) (2003)
Picca, L.H., Starks, B. and Gunderson, J.. 2012.It Multilingual approaches in university educa-
Opened My Eyes: Using Student Journal tion, Universiteit Maastricht/Uitgeverij Valk-
Writing to Make Visible Race, Class, and Gen- hof Pers, Maastricht.
der in Everyday Life. Teaching Sociology. 41: Wetter, John (2011) The Impacts of Research and De-
82-93, first published on September 12, 2012 velopment Expenditures: The Relationship Bte-
doi:10.1177/0092055X12460029 ween Total Factor Productivity and US Gross
Pelton, J.A. 2013. Seeing the Theory Is Believ- Domestic Product Performance. London:
ing: Writing about Film to Reduce The- Springer
ory Anxiety. Teaching Sociology. 41: 106- Wchter, B.: 2004, Higher education in a Changing En-
120, first published on September 25, 2012 vironment, Lemmens, Bonn.
doi:10.1177/0092055X12462142 Wilkinson, R., (ed.): 2004, Integrating Content and
Ricci Garotti, F. (ed): 2006, Il Futuro si Chiama CLIL, Language. Meeting the Challenge of Multi-
IPRASE Trentino, Trento. lingual Higher Education, Universitaire Pers
Roberts, J.C. and Roberts, K.A. Deep Reading, Cost/ Maastricht, Maastricht.
Benefit, and the Construction of Meaning: En- Wilkinson, R. and Zegers, V., (eds.): 2007, Research-
hancing Reading Comprehension and Deep ing Content and Language Integration in High-
Learning in Sociology Courses. Teaching Soci- er Education, Universitaire Pers Maastricht,
ology, April 2008; vol. 36, 2: pp. 125-140. Maastricht.
Stohler, U.: 2006, The Acquisition of Knowledge, Vi- Yassin, Sopia Md ;David Marsh, Ong Eng Tek, Lai Ying
enna English Working Papers, 3/06, pp. 41-46. Ying (2009) Learners Perceptions Towards
Swain, M.: 1996, Integrating Language and Content The Teaching Of Science Through English In
in Immersion Classrooms: Research Perspec- Malaysia: A Quantitative Analysis. Interna-
tives, The Canadian Modern Language Review, tional CLIL Research Journal. Vol 1 (2) 2009
52, 4, 529-548. Yip, D. Y., Tsang, W. K., and Cheung, S. P.: 2003, Evalu-
Schwartz, A., Its not too late The Chronicle of ation of the Effects of Medium of Instruction
Higher Education. The Chronicle of Higher Ed- on the Science Learning of Hong Kong Sec-
ucation: June 9, 2000, p. A68.Teaching Morals ondary Students: Performance on the Science
and Character at State University.123HelpMe. Achievement Test, Bilingual Research Journal,
com. 28 Oct 2013 <http://www.123HelpMe. 27, 2, 295-331.
com/view.asp?id=22169>.

UNNES JOURNALS