Anda di halaman 1dari 76

M U M M Y PORTRAITS I N THE J.

PAUL G E T T Y MUSEUM

By David L. Thompson
Cat. no. 1. Portrait of a lady Photography of Getty Museum works of art by Donald Hull and Penny Potter
81.AP.42 Design by Tom Lombardi
Encaustic on wood Typography by Marchese Graphics, Inc., Los Angeles
H: 33.6 cm.; W: 17.2 cm. Printing by Alan Lithograph, Los Angeles
H (of cartonnage): 46.4 cm.; W (of
cartonnage): On top: 21.6 cm., 1982 The J . Paul Getty Museum
On bottom: 36.8 cm. 17985 Pacific Coast Highway
(See pp. 32-33) Malibu, California 90265

Library of Congress catalogue number 82-81303


ISBN number 0-89236-038-0

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data


Thompson, David L .
Mummy portraits in the ] . Paul Getty Museum.
Rev. ed. of: The artists of the mummy portraits.
1976. With new material added.
Catalogue: p.
Bibliography: p.
Includes index.
1. Mummy portraitsCatalogs. 2. Portraits,
RomanEgyptCatalogs. 3- Mummy portraits
CaliforniaMalibuCatalogs. 4. J . Paul Getty
MuseumCatalogs. I . ] . Paul Getty Museum.
II. Title.
ND1327.E3T48 1982 757\9'0932074019493 82-81303

The introduction of this book is, in part, a revision of T h e A r t i s t s o f the M u m m y Portraits


by David L . Thompson, published in 1976 by the J . Paul Getty Museum.

Unless otherwise stated, the figures are reproduced from photographs supplied by the museums
that own the objects.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

1
Preface
2
Introduction
Recovery and provenience 3
T e c h n i c a l aspects 6
Use o f the p o r t r a i t s 8
Chronology 10
1 2
T h e art m a r k e t
Preservation and conservation 13
Portraits? 14
T h e painters *6
Other paintings 24
Conclusion 27
2 8
Notes

C a t a l o g u e : M u m m y P o r t r a i t s i n t h e J. Paul G e t t y M u s e u m 31

Supplementary information 64
A b b r e v i a t e d titles a n d s e l e c t e d b i b l i o g r a p h y 68
I n d e x b y accession n u m b e r s 70

iii
iv
PREFACE

J. Paul G e t t y l i k e d " F a y u m p o r t r a i t s . " T h e y p r e s e n t e d h i m w i t h a d i r e c t c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n G r e e k a n d R o m a n


p o r t r a i t s a n d later p o r t r a i t art, e s p e c i a l l y o f t h e Renaissance. T h u s , c a r e f u l l y a v o i d i n g t h e w o r d " m u m m y "
because o f his a v o w e d i n t e n t i o n n o t t o b u y E g y p t i a n art, s i x pieces w e r e a s s e m b l e d d u r i n g his l i f e t i m e , o n e
o f w h i c h is a u n i q u e l y i m p o r t a n t d o c u m e n t (catalogue n o . 8). T h e n , thanks t o the farsightedness o f the trustees,
first f i v e m o r e w e r e a d d e d a n d t h e n , last year, t w o m o r e t h a t are m a s t e r p i e c e s (catalogue n o s . 1 a n d 9).
A l r e a d y i n 1975 t h e G e t t y M u s e u m c a l l e d o n D a v i d L . T h o m p s o n , w h o s e P h . D . w o r k w a s d i r e c t e d at t h e
artists o f t h e p o r t r a i t s a n d w h o h a d l e c t u r e d v e r y successfully a b o u t o u r F a y u m p o r t r a i t s a n d later also a b o u t
associated m o n u m e n t s , t o p r e p a r e t h e first e d i t i o n o f this b o o k , c a l l e d The Artists of the Mummy Portraits.
I t s o l d e x t r e m e l y w e l l a n d s o o n w e n t o u t o f p r i n t . A s e c o n d e d i t i o n w a s a clear necessity, a n d i t w a s d e c i d e d
t o i n c l u d e i n i t a c a t a l o g u e o f a l l t h i r t e e n pieces. T h e r e s u l t is t h e t h i r d v o l u m e o f a series o f studies o n
a n c i e n t p o r t r a i t u r e based o n t h e w o r k s i n t h e G e t t y M u s e u m c o l l e c t i o n s . I t w a s p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e
a u t h o r t o a d d all t h e necessary d e t a i l a b o u t t h e n e w e s t pieces; thus, Sandra K n u d s e n M o r g a n r e v i s e d his basic
text for the catalogue a n d a d d e d a f o u r t e e n t h e n t r y about a recently a c q u i r e d fine stucco R o m a n m u m m y
m a s k . W e w e r e also v e r y f o r t u n a t e that A n d r e a s R o t h e , w h o s e c o n s e r v a t i o n e n h a n c e d t h e spectacular latest
acquisition, most generously revised the c o n d i t i o n a n d technical reports for all the panel portraits.

J.F.

1
Fig. A. fig .1

Figure A. Map of Egypt with find IINTRODUCTION


spots of portraits outside the Fayum
indicated in black. After K. Parlasca,
Mumienportrats u n d verwandte I n B o o k 35 o f his Naturalis Historia, w r i t t e n i n the first c e n t u r y A . D . d u r i n g t h e r e i g n o f t h e e m p e r o r Vespa
Denkmaler (Wiesbaden 1966) sian, t h e elder P l i n y l a m e n t s the d e c a d e n c e o f w a l l p a i n t i n g at R o m e a n d goes o n t o say: " E v e n the p a i n t i n g
38 Karte B. Courtesy Franz Steiner o f p o r t r a i t s , b y w h i c h t h e closest p o s s i b l e likenesses o f deceased p e r s o n s w e r e h a n d e d d o w n f r o m age t o
1
Verlag. age, has d i e d o u t c o m p l e t e l y . " T h e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r this, he c o n t i n u e s , is v e r y s i m p l e : " T h e y d i s p l a y t h r o u g h
2
o u t t h e i r b e d r o o m s , a n d c a r r y a r o u n d w i t h t h e m , p o r t r a i t s o f E p i c u r u s . " I n o t h e r w o r d s , P l i n y is s a y i n g that
1. During the Roman period in n o o n e cares a n y l o n g e r a b o u t h o n o r o r fame, o r , t h e r e f o r e , a b o u t b e i n g r e m e m b e r e d b y f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s
Egypt, portraits on wood panels in painted portraits.
regularly were wrapped in mummies P l i n y speaks m a i n l y a b o u t t h e artistic s i t u a t i o n at R o m e itself. W h i l e his s t a t e m e n t is far t o o s i m p l i s t i c t o
over the head of the deceased, with b e t a k e n v e r y seriously, o r as a c o m p l e t e e x p l a n a t i o n , i t does seem that p a i n t e d p o r t r a i t u r e m a y n o t h a v e
the part of the painting showing the b e e n e s p e c i a l l y p o p u l a r i n e a r l y I m p e r i a l R o m e , at least i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h s c u l p t u r e d p o r t r a i t u r e . B u t t h e
subject's head and neck left exposed art o f t h e E m p i r e o b v i o u s l y was m o r e t h a n that o f the c a p i t a l c i t y alone, a n d e l s e w h e r e a c r o s s s o m e 1200
to view. This complete mummy, m i l e s o f the M e d i t e r r a n e a n a n d t h e n s o m e 2 0 0 m i l e s u p t h e N i l e , i n the oasis r e g i o n o f E g y p t c a l l e d the
recovered at Hawara by Sir W.M. F a y u m p a i n t e d p o r t r a i t u r e was f l o u r i s h i n g , b e g i n n i n g i n P l i n y ' s o w n l i f e t i m e a n d c o n t i n u i n g f o r m o r e t h a n
Flinders Petrie, dates from the late three centuries (fig. A).
second century A. D. Boston, Museum Less t h a n a c e n t u r y after E g y p t h a d f a l l e n i n t o R o m a n h a n d s as a result o f t h e Battle o f A c t i u m i n 31 B . C . ,
of Fine Arts, inv. 11.2891. t h e r e a p p e a r e d the first e x a m p l e s o f w h a t was t o be a l o n g series o f p a n e l p o r t r a i t s that w e r e i n s e r t e d i n
t h e w r a p p i n g s o f m u m m i e s o v e r the h e a d (fig. 1). T h e n a t i v e E g y p t i a n s p r e v i o u s l y h a d p r e s e r v e d t h e i r d e a d ,
e n c l o s i n g t h e m u m m i e s i n w o o d o r plaster c o f f i n s that g e n e r a l l y t e r m i n a t e d i n s c u l p t u r e d p o r t r a i t masks.
T h e a n c i e n t E g y p t i a n a i m w a s t o create a p h y s i c a l d u p l i c a t e o f the deceased, o n e n o t subject t o t h e n o r m a l
forces o f b o d i l y decay, a n d t h e r e f o r e a suitable a b o d e in perpetuum f o r t h e s o u l . T h i s idea, h o w e v e r , was
essentially a l i e n t o t h e G r a e c o - R o m a n m e t a p h y s i c ; a n d w h i l e the G r a e c o - R o m a n s i n E g y p t a d o p t e d the c o n
c e p t o f the f u n e r a r y p o r t r a i t , t h e y m a y h a v e h a d at first o n l y a l i m i t e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f its n a t i v e r e l i g i o u s
basis. S c u l p t u r e d p o r t r a i t masks c o n t i n u e d t o be p r o d u c e d i n s o m e areas t h r o u g h o u t t h e R o m a n p e r i o d a n d
i n t o t h e C o p t i c era ( f i g . 2), b u t p a n e l p o r t r a i t s c a m e t o be p r e f e r r e d , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e F a y u m .

2
fig. 2 fig. 3

2. Also during the Roman period,


RECOVERYAND PROVENIENCE
but less commonly, sculptured stucco
masks covered the heads of mummies
M u s e u m s a n d c o l l e c t o r s t h r o u g h o u t the w o r l d t o d a y possess m o r e t h a n 7 0 0 " F a y u m p o r t r a i t s . " T h e r e are (see also catalogue no. 14). Although
s o m e 130 e x a m p l e s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , i n c l u d i n g large a n d n o t e w o r t h y c o l l e c t i o n s at B e r k e l e y , N e w Y o r k , as an art form the mummy mask
T o r o n t o , a n d B o s t o n , as w e l l as a g r o u p o f i m p o r t a n t p o r t r a i t s a c q u i r e d i n r e c e n t years b y t h e J. Paul G e t t y originated in native Egyptian art of
Museum. very ancient times and continued to
3
Less t h a n t w o d o z e n p o r t r a i t s h a d b e e n r e c o v e r e d b e f o r e 1887, a n d these f e w h a d a t t r a c t e d l i t t l e atten he produced through the Ptolemaic
t i o n , b e i n g d e e m e d m o r e n o t e w o r t h y as a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c u r i o s i t i e s t h a n as s i g n i f i c a n t w o r k s o f art. T h e first period, examples from the Roman
k n o w n g r o u p h a d b e e n c o l l e c t e d i n 1615 at Sakkara b y P i e t r o della Valle, w h o b r o u g h t several complete era were the first to approximate
m u m m i e s b a c k t o E u r o p e i n that year. A large g r o u p was g a t h e r e d i n the early 1800's b y H e n r y Salt, the naturalistic representation. Late
B r i t i s h v i c e - c o n s u l i n E g y p t ; these p o r t r a i t s are t o d a y m o s t l y i n the L o u v r e (fig. 3). V a r i o u s o t h e r pieces f o u n d first century A.D. New York, The
t h e i r w a y i n t o E u r o p e a n m u s e u m s o v e r the years, u s u a l l y as s o u v e n i r s o r c u r i o s i t i e s p u r c h a s e d b y travelers Metropolitan Museum of Art, inv.
t o E g y p t ; o n e s u c h p o r t r a i t , f o r e x a m p l e , n o w at F l o r e n c e (fig. 4), h a d b e e n b o u g h t i n E g y p t b y an I t a l i a n 19-2.6, Rogers Fund, 1919.
t o u r i s t i n 1829. B u t these e a r l y r e c o v e r i e s t o t a l e d o n l y a h a n d f u l o f " F a y u m p o r t r a i t s . "
3. One of the earliest "Fayum por
traits" to have been recovered, this
painting was bought in Egypt by a
British diplomat in the early nine
teenth century. Encaustic on wood.
Third century A.D. Paris, Musee du
Louvre, Departement des Antiquites
Grecques et Romaines, inv. P 209.
Phot. Chuzeville.

3
Fig. B.
f i g

Figure B. Map of the Fayum with T h e n i n 1887 the Viennese antiquities dealer T h e o d o r G r a f p u r c h a s e d t h r o u g h a n agent at C a i r o a n d b r o u g h t
find spots of portraits indicated in b a c k t o E u r o p e a v e r y large n u m b e r o f p a n e l p o r t r a i t s that h a d b e e n r e c o v e r e d b y B e d o u i n salt m i n e r s
black. After K. Parlasca, Mumien- w o r k i n g at Er-Rubayat i n the n o r t h e a s t e r n F a y u m , a site that seems t o h a v e s e r v e d as a b u r i a l g r o u n d f o r
portrats u n d verwandte Denkmaler t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e a n c i e n t c i t y o f P h i l a d e l p h e i a ( f i g . B). A year o r t w o later a b o u t n i n e t y o f these panels
(Wiesbaden 1966) 35 Karte A. w e r e p u t o n t r a v e l i n g e x h i b i t i o n , f o r sale, i n b o t h E u r o p e a n d A m e r i c a , w h e n c e a n u m b e r o f p o r t r a i t s passed
Courtesy Franz Steiner Verlag. i n t o N o r t h A m e r i c a n c o l l e c t i o n s ( f i g . 5). T h e r e m a i n d e r o f T h e o d o r Graf's c o l l e c t i o n , i n c l u d i n g at least 2 0 0
m o r e p o r t r a i t s , w a s s o l d at a u c t i o n d u r i n g the 1930's after his d e a t h . O n e o f this latter g r o u p is i n t h e G e t t y
4. In 1829 an Italian traveler c o l l e c t i o n (catalogue n o . 12).
brought back from Egypt this fine T h e s u d d e n a p p e a r a n c e i n 1887 o f h u n d r e d s o f these p a i n t e d panels a r o u s e d s o m e s u s p i c i o n . W e r e the
portrait of a lady painted around p o r t r a i t s authentic? O r was G r a f p e r h a p s a c l e v e r s w i n d l e r , a master o f fakery? B u t early i n 1888, a f e w m o n t h s
A.D. 300. Until Theodor Grafs after Graf's a c q u i s i t i o n , the great B r i t i s h E g y p t o l o g i s t Sir W . M . F l i n d e r s Petrie b e g a n e x c a v a t i o n s at the site
spectacular acquisition of hundreds o f H a w a r a , also i n the F a y u m , w h i c h seems t o h a v e b e e n t h e c e m e t e r y u s e d b y the i m p o r t a n t a n c i e n t t o w n
of these paintings many years later, o f Arsinoe. This excavation y i e l d e d about n i n e t y c o m p l e t e m u m m i e s , w i t h portraits, thereby s u p p o r t i n g the
'Fayumportraits" attracted little a u t h e n t i c i t y o f the G r a f c o l l e c t i o n . I n a s e c o n d season, d u r i n g 1910 a n d 1911, Petrie r e c o v e r e d s o m e s i x t y -
scholarly attention. Tempera on f i v e m o r e . T o d a y these are m o s t l y i n B r i t i s h m u s e u m s , a l t h o u g h t h e r e are several Petrie p o r t r a i t s i n A m e r i c a n
wood. Florence, Museo Archeologico, c o l l e c t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g t h e o n e at B o s t o n o f a m a n s t i l l w r a p p e d i n its m u m m y ( f i g . 1).
inv. 2411. Phot. Alinari/Editorial
Photocolor Archives.

4
ffig. 6
fig. 5

T h a t the t e r m " F a y u m p o r t r a i t s " is n o t c o m p l e t e l y accurate, h o w e v e r , is i n d i c a t e d b y the d i s c o v e r y o f 5. Hundreds of painted portraits


m u m m y p o r t r a i t s o u t s i d e the F a y u m r e g i o n , at several o t h e r sites i n E g y p t as far u p the N i l e as T h e b e s . B y from the Roman, cemetery at the
far the m o s t r e w a r d i n g f i n d s p o t o u t s i d e the F a y u m has b e e n A n t i n o o p o l i s , w h e r e F r e n c h e x c a v a t o r s be Fayum site of Er-Rub ay at were ac
t w e e n 1896 a n d 1912 d i s c o v e r e d at least t h i r t y m u m m y p o r t r a i t s , p e r h a p s i n c l u d i n g a m o n g o t h e r s a m a g n i f i quired by the Viennese antiquities
4
c e n t p i e c e n o w i n the F o g g A r t M u s e u m o f H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y ( f i g . 6 ) . dealer Theodor Graf in 1887. This
T h e n u m b e r o f p o r t r a i t s o f k n o w n p r o v e n i e n c e , h o w e v e r t h a t is, t h o s e w h o s e precise o r i g i n s are d o c u painting, datingfrom the late second
m e n t e d i n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e p o r t s f a l l s far s h o r t o f the e x t a n t t o t a l . T h i s fact e m p h a s i z e s t h e p r i m a r y dif century A.D., was among the many
f i c u l t y c o n f r o n t e d b y a n y o n e w h o studies these p o r t r a i t s : a general lack o f e x c a v a t i o n data. A B r i t i s h s c h o l a r examples sold by Graf to museums
has s u m m a r i z e d t h e p r o b l e m a p t l y : " N e g l e c t a n d n e g l i g e n c e p e r m e a t e the h i s t o r y o f e x c a v a t i o n o f R o m a n and collectors during the years that
5
E g y p t i a n sites." Graf's p o r t r a i t s , f o r e x a m p l e , w e r e s i m p l y r i p p e d f r o m t h e i r m u m m i e s a n d c o l l e c t e d , n o t ex followed. Encaustic on wood. Boston,
cavated, w h i l e the w o r k o f the F r e n c h at A n t i n o o p o l i s has b e e n c a l l e d g r a v e - r o b b i n g m o r e o f t e n t h a n archae Museum of Fine Arts, inv. 93-1450.
o l o g y . T h e e x c e p t i o n t o this u n f o r t u n a t e r u l e was the w o r k o f Petrie at H a w a r a a n d e l s e w h e r e , w h i c h was
v e r y w e l l - d o c u m e n t e d , b u t w h i c h , as m e n t i o n e d , y i e l d e d o n l y a small p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e e x t a n t p o r t r a i t s . 6. Antinoopolis, in Middle Egypt,
is a site outside the Fayum where
k
many ' Fayum portraits" were dis
covered. This magnificent painting,
probably datingfrom A.D. 130-150,
shows the panel shape peculiar to
many portraits known to originate
at that site. Encaustic on wood.
Cambridge, Fogg Art Museum,
Harvard University, inv. 1923-60,
gift of Dr. Den man W. Ross.

5
Fig. C .
fig. 7

Figure C. Line drawing of varieties


TECHNICAL ASPECTS
of tools possibly used by encaustic
painters. After E. Berger, Die Wachs-
malerei des Apelles u n d seiner Zeit W h e n o n e t h i n k s o f a " F a y u m p o r t r a i t , " an a p p r o x i m a t e l y r e c t a n g u l a r w o o d p a n e l u s u a l l y c o m e s t o m i n d ,
fSammlung maltechnischer Schriften 5; a n d this is i n fact the t y p i c a l f o r m . T h e artist started w i t h a q u a d r a n g u l a r p l a n k o f cypress, cedar, l i n d e n ,
Munich 1917) 134-35figs. 10 and 11. l i m e , o r f i g h a r d w o o d s b e i n g b e t t e r t h a n soft, t o p r e v e n t a b s o r p t i o n o f the p r i m e r a n d p i g m e n t s . T h e surface
w a s first p r i m e d , u s u a l l y w i t h gesso, a m i x t u r e o f g y p s u m a n d g l u e . T h e m a i n p u r p o s e o f this was t o seal
7. The bright highlights in the face t h e p o r e s o f the w o o d a n d t h e r e b y t o k e e p the p a i n t f r o m b e i n g a b s o r b e d . I t seems l i k e l y , h o w e v e r , that
and neck of the subject of this por s o m e t i m e s t h e r e was also a n aesthetic p u r p o s e : t h e p r i m e r o f t e n was w h i t e , a n d this c a n g i v e c o l o r s s k i l l f u l l y
trait dating from the early third a p p l i e d over it a marvelous l u m i n o s i t y (fig. 7 ) , w h i c h must have been sought consciously b y the better art
century A.D. were enhanced by a ists. O n c e t h e p r i m e r h a d set, the p a i n t was a p p l i e d . Paint, o f c o u r s e , is a t w o f o l d p r o p o s i t i o n . O n t h e o n e
white undercoat applied to the h a n d t h e r e are the p i g m e n t s t h e actual c o l o r s t h e m s e l v e s , usually i n p o w d e r f o r m . R o m a n E g y p t i a n p a i n t e r s
panel as a primer. Tempera on wood. o b t a i n e d t h e i r basic c o l o r s f r o m n a t u r a l s o u r c e s a n i m a l , vegetable, a n d mineralsources that s o m e t i m e s
Toledo Museum of Art, inv. 71.130. are e x p l a i n e d b y P l i n y i n the Naturalis Historia 6
B u t t o m a k e the actual p a i n t u s e d b y the artist, the p i g m e n t s
w e r e m i x e d i n a l i q u i d , the n a t u r e o f w h i c h d e t e r m i n e d the precise p a i n t i n g t e c h n i q u e a n d t o o l s u s e d .
T h e earliest a n d best m u m m y p o r t r a i t s w e r e d o n e i n t h e encaustic t e c h n i q u e . T h a t is, the p a i n t was a m i x
ture o f pigment and waxbeeswax, s p e c i f i c a l l y w h i c h was k e p t g e n t l y h e a t e d (as was t h e p a n e l ) f o r ease
o f a p p l i c a t i o n . T h e basic t o o l s w e r e at least t w o : a b r u s h , p e r h a p s o f c a m e l hair b u t p o s s i b l y o f cat o r s q u i r r e l
fur ( h u m a n h a i r also is v e r y g o o d f o r b r u s h e s o f this sort), a n d the cestrum t o w h i c h P l i n y refers, a m e t a l

6
fig. 8 ig. 9

7
i n s t r u m e n t p r o b a b l y o n the o r d e r o f a m o d e r n palette k n i f e (fig. C). I n m o s t cases, e x a m i n a t i o n o f an encaus 8. Beginning in the third century
tic p o r t r a i t reveals w h i c h areas w e r e w o r k e d w i t h w h i c h i n s t r u m e n t . T h e b a c k g r o u n d a n d b r o a d areas o f A.D., tempera came to replace en
c o l o r g e n e r a l l y w e r e b r u s h e d intraces o f i n d i v i d u a l b r u s h strands f r e q u e n t l y are v i s i b l e w h i l e the cestrum caustic as the medium favored by
was r e g u l a r l y u s e d f o r greater d e t a i l w i t h i n the face a n d especially the hair. A p a n e l p a i n t e d i n encaustic, the painters of mummy portraits.
thanks t o the w a x m e d i u m , c o u l d be h e a t e d a n d r e w o r k e d o v e r a p e r i o d o f t i m e , p e r m i t t i n g the subtle t o u c h e s 'This portrait of a boy, datingfrom
seen i n the best e a r l y p o r t r a i t s a n d e x p l a i n i n g the r e m a r k a b l e t h i c k n e s s o f the p a i n t . S o m e o f these e x a m p l e s the early fourth century A.D., illus
m a y h a v e b e e n w o r k e d o n i n t e r m i t t e n t l y for several days. trates the strikingly different visual
W h e n the general e c o n o m i c disaster o f the late R o m a n E m p i r e u l t i m a t e l y r e a c h e d the F a y u m , h o w e v e r , effects obtained in the quick-drying
a d e c l i n e i n artistic p r o d u c t i o n is e v i d e n t i n less s k i l l e d p o r t r a i t p a i n t i n g a n d i n a w i d e s p r e a d a n d n e a r l y t o t a l tempera medium. Saint Louis Art
shift t o t h e faster, c h e a p e r m e d i u m o f t e m p e r a ( f i g . 8). F o r t e m p e r a p o r t r a i t s , the same p i g m e n t s w e r e u s e d Museum, inv. 63:1959, gift of
b u t w e r e i n s t e a d m i x e d i n an egg base, a n d t h e b r u s h was u s e d e x c l u s i v e l y . I n c o n t r a s t t o e n c a u s t i c p a i n t , Mr. and Mrs. John Simon.
t e m p e r a dries q u i c k l y a n d p e r m a n e n t l y . T e m p e r a s t r o k e s o n c e a p p l i e d c a n n o t be a l t e r e d , o n l y p a i n t e d o v e r ,
a n d this e x p l a i n s the c a r t o o n - l i k e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e g e n e r a l r u n o f late " F a y u m p o r t r a i t s " a n d also a c c o u n t s 9. The paint of this tempera por
for at least o n e v i s u a l m o n s t r o s i t y : a t e m p e r a p o r t r a i t last k n o w n i n a p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n ( f i g . 9). T h e artist, trait from the fourth century A. D.
h a v i n g b e g u n his w o r k a n d c o n s i d e r i n g i t unsatisfactory, c o u l d n o t take b a c k his b r u s h s t r o k e s n o r e v e n has worn away, revealing that the
c h a n g e t h e m , so r a t h e r t h a n w a s t e a p e r f e c t l y g o o d c h u n k o f w o o d , he e x e c u t e d his s e c o n d a t t e m p t d i r e c t l y artist had been dissatisfied with a
o v e r t h e a b o r t i v e first t r y . W i t h t i m e the o r i g i n a l s k e t c h has s h o w n t h r o u g h , p r o d u c i n g a g r o t e s q u e f o u r - previous effort. Unlike the flexible
eyed monster. wax-based encaustic medium of the
earliest mummy portraits, strokes
in tempera paint cannot be changed;
thus the artist of this portrait simply
painted over his first attempt.
Formerly in a private collection;
present whereabouts unknown.

7
fig. D fig. 10

Figure D . Line drawing of framed


USE OF THE PORTRAITS
"Fayum portrait. " London, British
Museum, Department of Greek and
Roman Antiquities, inv. 85. After T h e p o r t r a i t panels seem o f t e n , at least i n the early E m p i r e , t o h a v e b e e n c o m m i s s i o n e d d u r i n g o n e ' s l i f e t i m e
W.M. Flinders Petrie, Hawara, a n d t o h a v e h u n g , f r a m e d , i n the h o u s e u n t i l d e a t h . T h e frame r e g u l a r l y was o f the so-called " O x f o r d "
Biahmu, and Arsinoe (London 1889) v a r i e t y , as i l l u s t r a t e d b y Petrie ( f i g . D ) . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r p o r t r a i t , n o w i n the B r i t i s h M u s e u m , was f o u n d s t i l l
pi. 12. i n its frame, w h i c h e v e n h a d a b e v e l e d g r o o v e f o r i n s e r t i o n o f a glass plate o r s l i d i n g s h u t t e r a n d a c o r d
for h a n g i n g still a t t a c h e d . A n o t h e r t y p e o f frame, less c o m m o n , was o f g i l t s t u c c o ( f i g . E), an e x a m p l e o f
10. "Fayumportraits" may have w h i c h is d i s p l a y e d h o l d i n g a p o r t r a i t i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y M u s e u m , P h i l a d e l p h i a ( f i g . 10).
been commissioned during the sub After d e a t h , t h e f r a m e d p o r t r a i t was t a k e n d o w n f r o m t h e w a l l a n d , i n the case o f an " O x f o r d " frame,
ject's lifetime and hung in the house the p a n e l was r e m o v e d a n d c u t d o w n at the u p p e r c o r n e r s f o r a b e t t e r f i t w i t h i n t h e m u m m y w r a p p i n g s .
until death. This elegant depiction I n t h e case o f a g i l t s t u c c o frame, i t n o r m a l l y was w r a p p e d i n t h e m u m m y a l o n g w i t h the p o r t r a i t . T h e n ,
of a lady, painted in encaustic and it seems, the c o m p l e t e d m u m m y m a y h a v e b e e n k e p t a r o u n d t h e h o u s e f o r a w h i l e as p a r t o f a f a m i l y m u m
dating from the early second century m y c o l l e c t i o n , e i t h e r u n t i l U n c l e C l a u d i u s b e c a m e t o t a l l y i g n o r e d o r u n t i l his m u m m y b e c a m e t o o b a t t e r e d
A.D., comes from Hawara. It is t o be r e s p e c t a b l e . I n e i t h e r case, o b l i v i o n o r damage, the m u m m y u l t i m a t e l y w o u l d be a c c o r d e d b u r i a l . T h i s
shown in a type of gilt stucco frame r e p r e s e n t s t h e v i e w o f Petrie, w h o d i s c o v e r e d several m u m m i e s that h a d b e e n b e a t e n u p a n d d e f a c e d a r o u n d
that often was wrapped in the t h e feet, a p p a r e n t l y b y R o m a n E g y p t i a n c h i l d r e n c r a w l i n g a r o u n d t h e h o u s e . As b i z a r r e as t h e w h o l e t h e o r y
mummy with the portrait. Although s o u n d s , t h e r e is p o s s i b l y at least s o m e t r u t h i n i t . 8

the frame was not discovered with


this painting, it is displayed with it
to illustrate the typical appearance
of a framed "Fayum portrait. "
Philadelphia, University Museum,
University of Pennsylvania, inv. E
16214 (formerly E 462). Shown with
frame (not belonging), inv. E 16215.

8
fi 1 2
Fig. E. fig- 11 8-

Figure E. Line drawing of stucco


frame. After W.M. Flinders Petrie,
Hawara, Biahmu, and Arsinoe
O c c a s i o n a l l y a p o r t r a i t was e n r i c h e d b e f o r e b e i n g i n s e r t e d i n the m u m m y . T h e g o l d - l e a f p e c t o r a l d e c o r a (London 1889) pi. 12.
t i o n o f a w e l l - k n o w n p o r t r a i t i n the L o u v r e (fig. 26) has b e e n f o u n d t h r o u g h X - r a y analysis t o h a v e b e e n
9
a later a d d i t i o n t o an o t h e r w i s e f a i r l y p l a i n p o r t r a i t w i t h o u t the g i l d i n g Similar l a s t - m i n u t e a d d i t i o n s are the 11. The thick necklace of gilded
g i l t collars f o u n d o n m a n y p o r t r a i t s , s u c h as o n e i n D e t r o i t (fig. 11), a n d m i s c e l l a n e o u s details s u c h as the stucco worn by the subject of this
g i l d e d lips o n a r e c e n t l y a c q u i r e d e x a m p l e i n C l e v e l a n d ( f i g . 12). E v e n m o r e n o t e w o r t h y is the n e w e s t G e t t y painting is an example of jewelry
M u s e u m p o r t r a i t (catalogue n o . 1) w h e r e all t h e j e w e l r y was f r e s h l y g i l d e d a n d a g o l d - l e a f f u n e r a r y w r e a t h that was added to a portrait at the
added o n insertion i n t o the wrappings. time of its insertion in the mummy
just prior to burial. The pendant
encloses a coin. Encaustic on wood.
From Antinoopolis; A.D. 130-160.
'The Detroit Institute of Arts, inv. 25.2.

12. Not only was painted gold


jewelry added to this portrait when
it was wrapped in the mummy, but
the subject's lips also were gilded.
Encaustic on wood. Late first or early
second century A.D. The Cleveland
M useu m of Art, in v. 71.137, John L .
Severance Fund.

9
fig- 13 fig. 14

13- Some Roman-Egyptian mum It s h o u l d be n o t e d , first, that n o t all m u m m y p o r t r a i t s w e r e f r a m e d a n d , s e c o n d , that t h e c r e a t i o n o f a


mies had as their final wrapping a f u n e r a r y p o r t r a i t d u r i n g o n e ' s l i f e t i m e does n o t a l w a y s seem t o h a v e b e e n t h e case. T h e latter e s p e c i a l l y
linen shroud on which was painted c a n n o t h a v e o c c u r r e d i n the cases o f t h e p o r t r a i t s o f infants o r c h i l d r e n , w h o c o u l d n o t u s u a l l y h a v e l i v e d
a portrait of the deceased. Often the l o n g e n o u g h t o h a v e a c q u i r e d a p o r t r a i t d u r i n g life. I n these instances at least, the p o r t r a i t s m u s t h a v e b e e n
subject was shown to bust-length, p a i n t e d post mortem.
as hereseemingly in imitation of A n alternate t y p e o f b u r i a l p o r t r a i t , w h i c h was c o n t e m p o r a r y w i t h , b u t m u c h less p o p u l a r t h a n , the w o o d
contemporary (and more common) p a n e l was the l i n e n s h r o u d . T h i s c o u l d be p a i n t e d i n e i t h e r encaustic o r t e m p e r a a n d , e s p e c i a l l y at A n t i n o o
portraits on wood panelsbut the 10
polis (fig. 13), was w r a p p e d a r o u n d the m u m m y for b u r i a l . T h e m i x e d origins o f funerary p o r t r a i t u r e i n R o m a n
subject sometimes was shown at full E g y p t are m o s t e v i d e n t o n the m a n y s h r o u d s that s h o w a s t r i k i n g c o m b i n a t i o n o f E g y p t i a n d e c o r a t i v e elements
length. This shroud, recovered at w i t h a naturalistic G r a e c o - R o m a n p o r t r a i t . O c c a s i o n a l l y , t o o , as a c o m b i n a t i o n o f types, p o r t r a i t s w e r e p a i n t e d
Antinoopolis, dates from the mid- o n canvas that t h e n was a f f i x e d t o w o o d .
third century A.D. and shows the
typical combination of a Graeco-
Roman-style portrait flanked by
pictorial vignettes painted in native
Egyptian style. Encaustic on linen.
Paris, Musee du Louvre, Departe-
CHRONOLOGY
ment des Antiquites Egyptiennes,
inv. AF 6490.
14. Cloth fragments clinging to this W h e n first d i s c o v e r e d , the p o r t r a i t s w e r e t h o u g h t b y s o m e t o be p r e - R o m a n , that is, P t o l e m a i c , i n date; b u t
portrait of a man have been dated it is n o w b e l i e v e d that t h e i r c h r o n o l o g i c a l range e x t e n d s f r o m J u l i o - C l a u d i a n days, p e r h a p s the 30's A . D . ,
by radiocarbon analysis to A.D. t h r o u g h the t i m e o f C o n s t a n t i n e . L o c a l spurts o f a c t i v i t y , at least i n the F a y u m p r o p e r , e x t e n d e d i n t o t h e
175 60, providing a firm index of m i d - f o u r t h c e n t u r y b u t n o t m u c h b e y o n d . T h e o d o s i u s seems t o h a v e p r o h i b i t e d the e m b a l m i n g o f b o d i e s
its date. Few such points of absolute i n A . D . 3 9 2 , t h u s also e n d i n g t h e c u s t o m o f p a i n t e d m u m m y p o r t r a i t s .
chronology have been obtained for
mummy portraits. Encaustic on
ivood. Pretoria, National Cultural
History and Open-Air Museum, inv.
68/68.

10
fig- 15

W i t h i n the m o r e t h a n t h r e e c e n t u r i e s t h u s d e f i n e d , s h a r p e r c h r o n o l o g i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n s are p o s s i b l e o n t w o 15. The boy in this portrait is


bases. A b s o l u t e c h r o n o l o g y is the w e a k e r m e t h o d , a l t h o u g h s o m e exact p o i n t s i n t i m e can be d e t e r m i n e d . identified by the inscription as
First a n d f o r e m o s t a m o n g these dates is the f o u n d a t i o n o f A n t i n o o p o l i s i n A . D . 130. O b v i o u s l y , n o p o r t r a i t s Eutycbes. freedman of Cassianus
w e r e p a i n t e d t h e r e b e f o r e that year. M o r e o v e r , i n t h o s e f e w cases o f p o r t r a i t s w h o s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f r e c o v Heracleides. Eutycbes may have
e r y are d o c u m e n t e d , p r e c i s e l y d a t a b l e i t e m s s u c h as p a p y r i o c c a s i o n a l l y h a v e t u r n e d u p i n the same archae taken this Greek name on manu
o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t . Finally, a n d m o s t r e c e n t l y , r a d i o c a r b o n analysis has d a t e d t o A . D . 175 6 0 c l o t h samples mission and so was himself not
f r o m the m u m m y o f a p o o r l y p r e s e r v e d p o r t r a i t i n S o u t h A f r i c a ( f i g . 14). 11
necessarily of Greek heritage. His
T h e s e c o n d m e t h o d o f d a t i n g m u m m y p o r t r a i t s , h o w e v e r , is the m o r e i m p o r t a n t o f the t w o . T h i s is a relative former master certainly was Greek,
s c h e m e based o n t w o g e n e r a l assumptions: however, as wereto judge from
1. T h a t the j e w e l r y a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e hairstyles o f the v a r i o u s I m p e r i a l families at R o m e w e r e c o p i e d their namesnearly all subjects of
b y R o m a n s i n the h i n t e r l a n d s E g y p t , Asia M i n o r , o r w h e r e v e r ; and mummy portraits who are idoitified
2. T h a t the p a i n t i n g arts as a w h o l e , at least i n the F a y u m , e v o l v e d g e n e r a l l y t h r o u g h o u t the p e r i o d c o n in accompanying inscriptions.
c e r n e d , f r o m the s u b t l e n a t u r a l i s m o f t h e best e a r l y p o r t r a i t s t o the l i n e a r a n d c a r t o o n - l i k e a b s t r a c t i o n s seen Although Egypt was owned by Rome,
i n m a n y o f the latest p r o d u c t i o n s . its aristocracy seems to hai >e remained
T h i s r e l a t i v e m e t h o d o f d a t i n g has flaws that w a r r a n t c a u t i o n i n its use. F o r e x a m p l e , t h e p o r t r a y e d w e r e mainly Greek, thanks to nearly three
i n m a n y cases E g y p t i a n Greeks, as w e s u r m i s e f r o m i n s c r i p t i o n s that o c c a s i o n a l l y appear o n t h e p o r t r a i t s centuries of rule by the Ptolemies
2
(fig. 15).' T h e e n t h u s i a s m o f these E g y p t i a n Greeks f o r m i m i c k i n g the f a s h i o n t r e n d s o f R o m a n I t a l y m a y h a v e just before the Roma)} period. En
b e e n s m a l l . A t A n t i n o o p o l i s , f o r e x a m p l e , at s o m e 500 m i l e s u p the N i l e the m o s t d i s t a n t site at w h i c h a caustic on wood. Probably from
s i g n i f i c a n t n u m b e r o f p o r t r a i t s has b e e n r e c o v e r e d a n d o n e o f the m o s t H e l l e n i z e d o f s e t t l e m e n t s i n E g y p t Antinoopolis; A.D. 150-200. New
t h r o u g h o u t t h e R o m a n p e r i o d , the m o s t p o p u l a r w o m e n ' s h a i r s t y l e has n o exact p a r a l l e l i n o f f i c i a l p o r t r a i t York, The Metropolitan Museum of
s c u l p t u r e at R o m e . Art, inv. 18.9-2, gift of Edward S.
Still, the r e l a t i v e o r c o m p a r a t i v e m e t h o d o f d a t i n g is e x t r e m e l y v a l u a b l e . After e x a m i n i n g h u n d r e d s o f Harkness, 1918.
o f f i c i a l p o r t r a i t busts f r o m R o m e a n d h u n d r e d s o f p a i n t e d p o r t r a i t s f r o m R o m a n E g y p t , o n e can w i t h s o m e
c o n f i d e n c e place v i r t u a l l y a n y m u m m y p o r t r a i t w i t h i n a half- o r e v e n quarter-century.

11
fig. 16

16. Modern forgeries of-Fayum THE ART MARKET


portraits'' are not often so blatant
as this bizarre example, which ap
pears to have been painted very I n t e r m s o f t h e a n t i q u i t i e s trade, these p a n e l p o r t r a i t s l i k e R o m a n s c u l p t u r e d p o r t r a i t s a l w a y s seem t o be
recently. Many fakes produced by available f o r a c q u i s i t i o n . A t a n y g i v e n m o m e n t , at least a h a l f - d o z e n u s u a l l y are f o r sale. I f o n e is g o i n g t o
more sophisticated painters earlier c o l l e c t m u m m y p o r t r a i t s , h o w e v e r , t h e q u e s t i o n o f forgeries enters t h e p i c t u r e . W h i l e m o s t available pieces
in this century are difficult of detec- are a u t h e n t i c , this has n o t b e e n t h e case w i t h all t h e p o r t r a i t s o f f e r e d f o r sale. A p o p u l a r t r i c k is t o get a
Hon. Formerly offered in the Euro- 1 9 0 0 - y e a r - o l d c h u n k o f w o o d , s u c h as is still t o be h a d q u i t e easily i n E g y p t , a n d p a i n t a b o g u s " F a y u m p o r -
pean art market. t r a i t " o n i t . W h i l e I c a n n o t agree w i t h alarmists w h o w o u l d h a v e us b e l i e v e that a large p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e
e x a m p l e s n o w i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n m u s e u m s are m o d e r n p r o d u c t i o n s , y e t t h e p r o b l e m o f fakes c e r t a i n l y
exists. S o m e artists o f t h e m u m m y p o r t r a i t s are alive a n d w e l l a n d w o r k i n g i n m a j o r cities.
Several years ago a p e c u l i a r p i e c e was b e i n g o f f e r e d b y a E u r o p e a n dealer (fig. 16). T h i s is o n e o f t h e m o s t
b l a t a n t " F a y u m p o r t r a i t " forgeries ever t o appear o n t h e art m a r k e t . I t does n o t take an e x p e r t t o f e e l
e v e n f r o m a p h o t o g r a p h t h a t all is n o t w e l l w i t h this p a i n t i n g , that its style is m o r e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y t h a n
s e c o n d o r t h i r d . B u t since " s t y l e " is so i n t a n g i b l e , o n e is o n f i r m e r g r o u n d c o n v i c t i n g t h e p i e c e f o r t e c h n i c a l
reasons. O n e m a j o r d e t a i l m i s s e d b y its c r e a t o r is t h e p r i m e r . A l m o s t w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n a n c i e n t pieces h a v e
it, b u t this o n e does n o t . M o r e c o n d e m n i n g still is t h e a p p a r e n t l y m o d e r n w o o d ; w e r e i t a n c i e n t , t h e g r a i n
lines w o u l d h a v e f a d e d a n d b e c o m e v i r t u a l l y i n v i s i b l e . T h e g a r m e n t s c h e m e is q u i t e w r o n g , a n d t h e list o f
s u c h details goes o n , o n l y a d d i n g t o an i m p r e s s i o n o f m o d e r n o r i g i n a n d c a l l i n g t o m i n d t h e e x c e l l e n t a d v i c e
caveat emptor.

12
fi 1 9
fig. 17 fig- 18 8'

17. This elegant portrait of a lady,


PRESERVATION A N D CONSERVATION
dating from the early second century
A.D., was recovered by Sir W.M.
T h e d r y c l i m a t e o f E g y p t , o f c o u r s e , is r e s p o n s i b l e for the f i n e state o f p r e s e r v a t i o n o f m a n y o f the m u m m y Flinders Petrie at Hawara. A modern
p o r t r a i t s . T h e c o l o r s o f t e n are b r i g h t a n d fresh a n d g i v e the i m p r e s s i o n that t h e y c o u l d h a v e b e e n p a i n t e d coat of wax, probably applied by the
y e s t e r d a y r a t h e r t h a n c e n t u r i e s ago. W h i l e a f e w o f t h e m m a y i n d e e d h a v e b e e n p a i n t e d yesterday, as m e n excavator to protect the painted
t i o n e d , the a u t h e n t i c p o r t r a i t s o w e t h e i r p h y s i c a l i n t e g r i t y t o the h o t , d r y sands o f E g y p t . W h i l e I d o n o t surface, has discolored and today
c l a i m a n y f i r s t h a n d e x p e r i e n c e w i t h the r e s t o r a t i o n a n d c o n s e r v a t i o n o f " F a y u m p o r t r a i t s , " I m i g h t m e n t i o n obscures the portrait's original
o n e f r e q u e n t p r o b l e m : the h e a v y coats o f v a r n i s h o r a d d i t i o n a l w a x s o m e t i m e s a p p l i e d b y w e l l - i n t e n t i o n e d brightness. Encaustic on wood.
e x c a v a t o r s o r c o l l e c t o r s . T h e o r i g i n a l b r i g h t n e s s o f a f i n e p o r t r a i t i n T o r o n t o ( f i g . 17), f o r e x a m p l e , today Toronto, Royal Ontario Museum,
1 3
is o b s c u r e d b y a t h i c k " p r o t e c t i v e " coat o f v a r n i s h o r ( p r o b a b l y ) w a x , that o v e r the years has t u r n e d f r o m inv. 918.20.1.
t r a n s p a r e n t t o a c l o u d e d m u d - b r o w n . A n o t h e r p r o b l e m is that m o s t p o r t r a i t s w h e n first r e c o v e r e d are en
c r u s t e d w i t h the d i r t o f the ages, w h i c h s o m e h o w m u s t be r e m o v e d . A p o r t r a i t o f a m a n ( f i g . 18) h u n g f o r 18. An encaustic portrait of a
t h i r t y - f i v e years i n the Walters A r t G a l l e r y l o o k i n g v e r y h u m b l e i n d e e d , u n t i l i n 1969 all f i v e o f the g a l l e r y ' s man, dating from the mid-second
p o r t r a i t s w e r e s k i l l f u l l y c l e a n e d . T h e same p o r t r a i t n o w is s i m p l y d a z z l i n g ( f i g . 19). T h e agent? T h e k e y t o century A.D., is shown heavily en
this r e m a r k a b l e c l e a n i n g process? N o t a n y e l a b o r a t e c h e m i c a l p r e p a r a t i o n , n o r a set o f special b r u s h e s . T h e crusted with sand and dirt. Balti
14
c l e a n i n g was d o n e v e r y g e n t l y w i t h " Q - T i p s " a n d o r d i n a r y h u m a n saliva. T h e p o r t r a i t has b e e n s p i t - s h i n e d , more, Walters Art Gallery, inv. 32.6.
so t o speak.
19- The same portrait as in fig. 18,
after careful cleaning by a conser
vator. The original appearance of
this fine portrait has been skillfully
restored.

13
ffig. 20 fig. 21

20. Some portraits present convinc


PORTRAITS?
ing evidence that they were painted
from life. This depiction of a young
man, found at Antinoopolis and A n a t u r a l q u e s t i o n at this p o i n t is: " A r e these p a i n t i n g s a c t u a l l y p o r t r a i t s ? " T h e a n s w e r is m i x e d . T h e r e are
dating from the late second century a n u m b e r o f e x a m p l e s that seem c e r t a i n l y t o h a v e b e e n p a i n t e d f r o m life. A p o r t r a i t o f a y o u n g m a n n o w
A.D., seems related to a sketch on i n the L o u v r e (fig. 20) has o n its reverse a f u l l - l e n g t h o u t l i n e d r a w i n g (fig. 21) that m a y be a p r e l i m i n a r y s k e t c h
the panel's reverse. m a d e b y the artist i n the p r e s e n c e o f the sitter. A fascinating p a n e l i n B e r k e l e y has, o n o n e side, the f a d e d
Encaustic on wood. Paris, Musee du r e m a i n s o f w h a t m u s t be an u n f i n i s h e d p o r t r a i t a n d , o n the reverse, a hasty s k e t c h ( f i g . 22) w i t h c o l o r n o t e s
Louvre, Department des Antiquites s c r a w l e d i n . Gayet, the e x c a v a t o r o f A n t i n o o p o l i s , said that w h e n e v e r he f o u n d a m u m m y p o r t r a i t he a l w a y s
Grecques et Romaines, inv. P 213'. t o o k care t o u n w r a p t h e m u m m y a n d t o c o m p a r e t h e p a i n t e d likeness o n t h e o u t s i d e w i t h t h e actual features
15
Phot. Chuzeville. o f t h e deceased w i t h i n , a n d he c o n c l u d e d that t h e y w e r e i n d e e d t r u e p o r t r a i t s . E v e n i f o n e takes this o v e r -
e n t h u s i a s t i c s t a t e m e n t w i t h s o m e r e s e r v a t i o n s , the e v i d e n c e seems t o i n d i c a t e at least s o m e t i m e s a n a t t e m p t
21. This sketch, on the reverse of t o c a p t u r e the actual likeness o f the subject.
the preceding panel, may have been B u t t h e r e is c o n f l i c t i n g e v i d e n c e as w e l l . F o r e x a m p l e , a l t h o u g h t h e p o r t r a i t i n S o u t h A f r i c a d a t e d b y r a d i o
made by the artist in the presence c a r b o n ( f i g . 14) p l a i n l y s h o w s a b e a r d e d a n d m o u s t a c h i o e d m a n , its m u m m y has b e e n s h o w n t h r o u g h X - r a y
of the subject. Although the draw t o be that o f a w o m a n . 1 6
Rather t h a n suggest that the deceased w o m a n h a d h a d major p r o b l e m s o f sexual i d e n t i t y ,
ing shows the full figure, it may
have been an aid to the painter in
creating the bust-length depiction
on the obverse. After W. de Grunei-
sen, Le portrait: Traditions hellenis-
tiques et influences orientales (Rome
1911) pi. 1.

14
ig. 22 fi2 ig. 23 gfig. 24. 24

o r that h e r p a r e n t s a l w a y s h a d w i s h e d she w e r e a s o n , w e m u s t instead a d m i t that this m a y be a clear-cut 22. The reverse of an unfinished
case w h e r e the p o r t r a i t a n d its m u m m y are u n r e l a t e d . A t the m a j o r F a y u m site o f Er-Rubayat, m o r e o v e r , the panel portrait from Tebtunis shows
art f o r m seems t o h a v e e v o l v e d b y the late t h i r d c e n t u r y i n t o series p r o d u c t i o n . O n e artist, f o r e x a m p l e , an artist's sketch, including notations
p a i n t e d n o t o n l y a p o r t r a i t f o r m e r l y i n an A u s t r i a n p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n (fig. 23) b u t also a n e a r - d u p l i c a t e now of color, that plainly indicates
i n t h e P h i l a d e l p h i a M u s e u m o f A r t ( f i g . 24). T h e r e n a t u r a l l y are e x c e p t i o n s t o this p r a c t i c e , b u t m o s t " F a y u m depiction from life. Third century
p o r t r a i t s " d a t i n g f r o m t h e late t h i r d c e n t u r y a n d a f t e r w a r d seem t o be v a r i a t i o n s o n a f e w s i m p l i f i e d t y p e s . A.D. Berkeley, Lowie Museum of
C l e a r l y t h e y bear l i t t l e r e l a t i o n t o the t r u e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e deceased a n d t h u s are n o t actual likenesses. Anthropology. University of Califor
Just as a s c u l p t o r o f m u m m y masks m i g h t h a v e h a d o n h a n d o n l y f o u r o r five m o u l d s o n w h i c h he w o u l d nia, inv. 6-21378A.
h a v e based all his m u m m y masks, it w o u l d seem that a late p o r t r a i t i s t w o r k i n g i n the F a y u m m i g h t h a v e
h a d o n h a n d several p a r t i a l l y p r e p a i n t e d panels t o w h i c h he w o u l d h a v e a d d e d o n l y specific details r e q u i r e d 23- In contrast to examples dating
b y a c u s t o m e r . O n e m i g h t e v e n g o o n e step f u r t h e r a n d suggest that at least s o m e late p o r t r a i t s w e r e ready- from the early Empire, which seem
m a d e , w h o l l y p r e p a i n t e d w h e n d i s p l a y e d f o r sale. T h u s a c u s t o m e r m i g h t s i m p l y h a v e s t r o l l e d i n t o a p o r t r a i t mainly to have been intended as
s h o p a n d p i c k e d o u t a f i n i s h e d p i e c e f o r e v e n t u a l use i n his o w n m u m m y . I t m i g h t h a v e l o o k e d v a g u e l y literal likenesses reproducing the
l i k e h i m , o r as he w a n t e d t o be r e m e m b e r e d . Perhaps the s e l e c t i o n o f a p o r t r a i t was m a d e after death b y actual and detailed appearance of
the s u r v i v i n g f a m i l y . W h a t e v e r the case, the latest " F a y u m p o r t r a i t s " w e r e far different f r o m the actual likenesses specific individuals, many late
o f earlier c e n t u r i e s . M o s t are p o r t r a i t s i n o n l y a s y m b o l i c sense. "Fayumportraits" were based on
general facial types. Tempera on
wood. From Er-Rubayat; A.D. 250-
275- Formerly in a private collec
tion; present whereabouts unknown.

24. Nearly a duplicate of the pre


ceding example, this depiction was
painted by the same artist in a series
of "portraits" based on a general
facial type. Tempera on wood. From
Er-Rubayat; A.D. 250-275. Philadel
phia Museum of Art, inv. 63-181-263,
Louis E. Stern Collection.

15
fig 25 fig 26

25. This likeness probably was


THE PAINTERS
among the first portraits painted at
Antinoopolis after its foundation in
A.D. 130. The depiction is idiosyn I n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e artists w h o p r o d u c e d these f a s c i n a t i n g p o r t r a i t s , the p r o b l e m s are m u c h the same as f o r
cratic among portraits from that site t h e w a l l p a i n t e r s o f C a m p a n i a , as s u m m a r i z e d b y L . R i c h a r d s o n , j r : " T h e m u s e u m s a n d s t a n d a r d b o o k s o n
for the placement of the subject's t h e s u b j e c t bear n o a t t r i b u t i o n s . I t is a l m o s t as i f the q u e s t i o n o f w h o p a i n t e d these p i c t u r e s w e r e n o t o f
eyes at different levels and for the interest to scholars." 17

distinctive pattern of the lips. En T h e r e is, i n fact, l i t t l e p h y s i c a l e v i d e n c e f r o m w h i c h t o w o r k . W h i l e i n C a m p a n i a t h e r e is at least o n e


caustic on wood. Painter A. Musee artist's signature, t h e m u m m y p o r t r a i t s all are a n o n y m o u s c r e a t i o n s . W h i l e at P o m p e i i i t is p o s s i b l e t o p o i n t
des Beaux-Arts de Dijon, inv. GA 1. s p e c i f i c a l l y t o a p a i n t e r ' s trade, w i t h p o t s o f p i g m e n t still l y i n g as t h e y w e r e i n A u g u s t o f A . D . 7 9 , n o s u c h
e v i d e n c e s u r v i v e s f r o m R o m a n E g y p t . A n d w h i l e t h e e l d e r P l i n y talks a l i t t l e a b o u t w a l l p a i n t i n g , i f m a i n l y
26. Representational pecularities, t o l a m e n t the g a u d y d e c a d e n c e o f t h e P o m p e i a n F o u r t h Style, n o l i t e r a r y r e f e r e n c e t o m u m m y p o r t r a i t s o r
for example, in the eyes and lips of t o t h e i r artists has s u r v i v e d . P l i n y h i m s e l f leads us o f f the scent w h e n he says that the p a i n t i n g o f p o r t r a i t s
this portrait also from Antinoopolis, had died out completely.
suggest that it was created by the Yet m u c h s t i l l can b e o b s e r v e d a b o u t the artists, w o r k i n g s o l e l y f r o m the p a i n t i n g s t h e m s e l v e s . D u r i n g
same artist, Painter A. The elaborate t h e past h a l f - c e n t u r y o r so, the w o r k o f R i c h a r d s o n a n d o t h e r s at P o m p e i i , a n d o f Beazley w i t h G r e e k vases,
gold pectoral has been shown to be has d e m o n s t r a t e d that t h e lack o f signatures n e e d n o t be d i s c o u r a g i n g . U s i n g the same t e c h n i q u e , that is,
decoration added to the portrait at b y s t u d y i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l i d i o s y n c r a c y , i t is p o s s i b l e t o g r o u p p a i n t e d p o r t r a i t s i n t o s c h o o l s a n d e v e n
a later date, presumably at the time sometimes to specify i n d i v i d u a l hands.
of burial. Encaustic on wood. A.D.
130-160. Paris, Musee du Louvre,
Departement des Antiquites Grecques
et Romaines, inv. P 217. Phot.
Chuzeville.

16
fig.28
fig. 27

I n s e e k i n g o u t the i d e n t i t y o f the p a i n t e r s as a g r o u p , w e are also l i m i t e d t o c o n c l u s i o n s d e r i v e d f r o m the 27. The subject of this portrait
w o r k s themselves, b u t b y e x a m i n i n g the t e c h n i q u e s o f p o r t r a i t p r o d u c t i o n the a n s w e r m a y c o m e m o r e clearly from Antinoopolis, painted i)i en
i n t o focus. T h e earliest m u m m y p a i n t i n g s are i n the w a x - b a s e d encaustic m e d i u m , a n d the e l d e r P l i n y talks caustic on linen, holds a bouquet
18
at s o m e l e n g t h a b o u t this t e c h n i q u e . A u g u s t u s , w e are t o l d , i n s e r t e d i n t o a w a l l o f the C u r i a at R o m e an and chalice evidently of funerary
encaustic p a n e l b y Nicias, a G r e e k master o f the 330's B.C. P l i n y also c o n s i d e r s the u n c e r t a i n o r i g i n o f encaus coiuiotaiion. Although the portrait
tic: p e r h a p s i n the f o u r t h c e n t u r y B.C., he says, a l t h o u g h P o l y g n o t u s seems t o h a v e used it b e f o r e t h e n . H e has been restored extensively (cf.
goes o n t o talk a b o u t several p r o m i n e n t masters o f the encaustic m e d i u m , all Greeks, all w o r k i n g i n the f o u r t h fig. 28), several distinctive features
c e n t u r y B.C. B e y o n d Pliny's discussion, the p r e s e r v e d f i f t h - c e n t u r y B.C. b u i l d i n g a c c o u n t s for the E r e c h t h e u m y
of the artist s style can be identified.
1 9
at A t h e n s list several e x p e n d i t u r e s for the p a i n t e r s i n w a x . I n s h o r t , w e f i n d e v i d e n c e o f an e x t e n s i v e t h o u g h The subject \s lips are large and fleshy,
r a n d o m l y r e c o r d e d t r a d i t i o n o f e n c a u s t i c p a i n t i n g a m o n g the G r e e k artists o f earlier c e n t u r i e s . Because o f his ears are especially prominent,
t h i s , a n d because E g y p t r e m a i n e d v e r y t h o r o u g h l y H e l l e n i z e d i n t o the R o m a n p e r i o d , t h e first p a i n t e r s o f and a heavy shadow underlies the
e n c a u s t i c m u m m y p o r t r a i t s m u s t h a v e b e e n G r e e k s . A l t h o u g h the details escape us, p e r m i t t i n g o n l y conjec right eye. His big fingers, moreover,
t u r e , i t m i g h t be s u p p o s e d that these p a i n t e r s w e r e c a r r y i n g o n an e s t a b l i s h e d t r a d i t i o n o f e n c a u s t i c p a i n t i n g seem to bold unnaturally at the
b r o u g h t f r o m m a i n l a n d G r e e c e t o E g y p t i n P t o l e m a i c t i m e s . As R o m a n i z a t i o n o f the p r o v i n c e p r o g r e s s e d , joifits. The artist's keen sense for
h o w e v e r , a n d as t h e n a t i o n a l d i s t i n c t i o n s a m o n g G r e e k , R o m a n a n d E g y p t i a n b e c a m e less clear, p o r t r a i t framing is apparent in the architec
p r o d u c t i o n m a y g r a d u a l l y h a v e c h a n g e d h a n d s . T h e w i d e s p r e a d shift t o t e m p e r a p a i n t i n g i n the F a y u m , f o r tonic treatment of the background.
e x a m p l e , recalls a n c i e n t E g y p t i a n t e c h n i q u e , w h i l e the gradual t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the art i n t o a craft m a y repre Painter L; A.D. 225-2.50. Paris,
sent the u l t i m a t e R o m a n i z a t i o n o f the g e n r e . B u t o n t o personalities. Musee du Louvre, Depart ement des
Antiquites Grecques et Romaines,
inv. P 215. Phot. Chuzeville.

28. The same portrait, before


restoration. While some original
details were altered by repainting,
most features of the artist's style
were reproduced accurately. Phot.
Chuzeville.

17
fig. 29 ig. 30

29. Details within the face, the A n t i n o o p o l i s affords a g o o d o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x a m i n e the e v o l u t i o n o f a d i s t i n c t l o c a l p o r t r a i t t r a d i t i o n .


peculiar thick and curving fingers, T h e c i t y was f o u n d e d late i n A . D . 130 b y H a d r i a n o n his s e c o n d great t o u r , near t h e s p o t w h e r e A n t i n o u s ,
and the strongly architectonic fram the e m p e r o r ' s c o m p a n i o n , d r o w n e d i n the Nile. T h e ruins o f A n t i n o o p o l i s w e r e a d m i r a b l y d e s c r i b e d , measured,
20
ing of the subject combine to identify a n d m a p p e d b y a F r e n c h m a n , J o m a r d , at the t u r n o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , b u t w i t h i n f i f t y years t h e locals
this portrait as another work by the h a d c a r r i e d o f f the remains c o m p l e t e l y . B y the t i m e o f Gayet's first visit i n 1895, all that was left o f this elaborate
artist of the preceding depiction, m e m o r i a l t o the b o y f r o m B i t h y n i a was b e l o w g r o u n d : c e m e t e r i e s t o the n o r t h a n d east o f the city, r a n g i n g
Painter L . Encaustic on linen. From i n date t h r o u g h B y z a n t i n e t i m e s .
Antinoopolis; A.D. 225-250. Paris, N e a r l y f i f t y m u m m y p o r t r a i t s can be t r a c e d t o A n t i n o o p o l i s . O f this n u m b e r , t h i r t y are k n o w n t o h a v e
Musee du Louvre, Departement des b e e n r e c o v e r e d b y G a y e t b e t w e e n 1896 a n d 1912; the a d d i t i o n a l e x a m p l e s can be assigned t o t h e site because
Antiquites Egyptiennes, inv. AF6482. o f o t h e r e v i d e n c e . First, p o r t r a i t panels f r o m A n t i n o o p o l i s u s u a l l y e x h i b i t a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c l a t e r a l l y s t e p p e d
shape (fig. 25), h a v i n g b e e n c u t a w a y at t h e t o p s o f the sides f o r t h e closest p o s s i b l e fit w i t h i n t h e m u m m y
30. The hands of the subject shown w r a p p i n g s . S e c o n d , the earliest p o r t r a i t s h r o u d s f r o m the site ( f i g . 13) p e r p e t u a t e the u n u s u a l p a n e l shape
in this fragmentary portrait are i n the s t r o n g l y a r c h i t e c t o n i c f r a m i n g o f the p o r t r a i t s e g m e n t . F i n a l l y , o n b o t h panels a n d s h r o u d s t h e r e is
missing. Because of details in the a p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r a d d e d o r n a m e n t i n g i l t s t u c c o , f r e q u e n t l y as a t h i c k n e c k l a c e (fig. 11).
facial representation, however, and T h e d e l i b e r a t e f o u n d a t i o n o f A n t i n o o p o l i s i n 130 gives us a l o w e r l i m i t f o r artistic p r o d u c t i o n , w h i l e p o r
a similar emphasis on framing, the traits d o n o t seem t o h a v e b e e n p a i n t e d t h e r e m u c h i f at all b e y o n d the year 3 0 0 . W i t h i n the i n t e r v a l t h u s
portrait can be attributed to the d e f i n e d , t h r e e g e n e r a l phases m a y be d i s t i n g u i s h e d . First is a p e r i o d o f p a n e l p o r t r a i t s s h o w i n g o n l y h e a d
artist of the preceding two examples, a n d s h o u l d e r s , e x t e n d i n g f r o m t h e date o f f o u n d a t i o n o r s h o r t l y thereafter u n t i l a b o u t the e n d o f the s e c o n d
Painter L . Encaustic on linen. From c e n t u r y . N e x t is a t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d o f e i t h e r panels o r s h r o u d s , w i t h t h e figures p a i n t e d t o b u s t - l e n g t h a n d
Antinoopolis; A.D. 225-250. Athens,
Benaki Museum, inv. 6878.

18
fig. 31 fig. 32

u s u a l l y w i t h h a n d s s h o w n , e n c o m p a s s i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e first h a l f o f the t h i r d c e n t u r y . A t h i r d a n d final 31. /// this painting, one of the


phase, w h e n f u l l - f i g u r e s h r o u d p o r t r a y a l s w e r e the r u l e , e x t e n d e d n e a r l y t o that c e n t u r y ' s end. latest examples from Antinoopolis.
A m o n g t h e A n t i n o o p o l i t a n p o r t r a i t s it has b e e n p o s s i b l e t h u s far t o d i s t i n g u i s h at least f o u r t e e n separate the portrait area has been expanded
h a n d s . A t t r i b u t i o n has b e e n based o n s t y l i s t i c c o m p a r i s o n o f the e x a m p l e s , that is, o f the c o n c e p t i o n a n d to waist-length. The peculiar hawk s-
t r e a t m e n t o f a n a t o m i c a l features that are i d i o s y n c r a t i c a n d , i n that sense, an u n i n t e n t i o n a l artist's signature. beak index finger of the subject's left
W h i l e i t is n o t p o s s i b l e t o p r e s e n t all t h e p a i n t e r s h e r e , t h r e e m a y be c o n s i d e r e d o n e f r o m each c h r o n o hand is a stylistic idiosyncracy of
l o g i c a l phase. the artist. Painter P, as are the very
A m o n g t h e earliest p o r t r a i t s f r o m A n t i n o o p o l i s are the t w o e x t a n t p r o d u c t i o n s o f Painter A: a p o r t r a i t o f heavy lines of shading between the
a m a n i n D i j o n ( f i g . 25) a n d that o f a w o m a n i n the L o u v r e ( f i g . 26) already m e n t i o n e d . B e y o n d the o v e r a l l eyes and brows. Encaustic on linen.
p h y s i c a l r e s e m b l a n c e o f the subjects, the artist's t r e a t m e n t o f t w o areasthe eyes a n d m o u t h i s p r e c i s e l y A.D. 250-300. Paris, Musee du
the same i n each p o r t r a i t . T h e p l a c e m e n t o f the eyes at d i f f e r e n t levels, e v i d e n t i n b o t h e x a m p l e s , is u n Louvre, Departement des Autiquites
p a r a l l e l e d i n o t h e r p o r t r a i t s f r o m the site. A l s o i d e n t i c a l is the c a r t o o n - l i k e p a t t e r n o f the lips, w h e r e i n each Egyptienues, inv. AE 6484.
case the l i n e o f the m o u t h is n o t i c e a b l y l o n g e r at the e n d s t h a n e i t h e r l i p . P l a c e m e n t i n t i m e o f Painter A
is a c o m p l e x m a t t e r . T h e c r e w - c u t o f t h e m a n is the u n o f f i c i a l style w o r n b y v e r y y o u n g m e n at all stages 32. This shroud, here shown still
o f the R o m a n E m p i r e a n d t h e r e f o r e is n o t specifically datable. N o r can the c o i f f u r e o f the w o m a n be p a r a l l e l e d wrapped as a final covering around
e x a c t l y i n o f f i c i a l p o r t r a i t s c u l p t u r e . B u t t h e s i m p l i c i t y o f her h a i r s t y l e recalls i n s p i r i t t h e styles p r e f e r r e d the mummy, is painted with a por
b y the e m p r e s s Sabina, w h i l e t h e b a r e l y v i s i b l e s e c o n d tier, a p p a r e n t l y a c o i l e d b r a i d , has A n t o n i n e parallels. trait that reveals precisely the stylis
It t h e r e f o r e is s u g g e s t e d that this h a i r s t y l e falls i n an area e n c o m p a s s i n g the late H a d r i a n i c a n d early A n t o n i n e tic characteristics seen in the preced
p e r i o d s a n d that the floruit o f Painter A s h o u l d b e p l a c e d i n the 130's o r 140's. ing example and is thus another
work by Painter P. Encaustic on
linen. From Antinoopolis; A.D.
250-300. Paris, Musee du Louvre,
Departement des Antiquites Egypti-
ennes, inv. AE 6489.

19
fig- 33 fig. 34 fig. 35

33 The Malihu Pa in ter 's t rea t- T h e b e s t - r e p r e s e n t e d artist o f the t r a n s i t i o n a l phase is a s h r o u d p o r t r a i t i s t , Painter L, at least t h r e e o f w h o s e
ment of certain anatomical details, w o r k s s u r v i v e . T h e f r a g m e n t a r y p o r t r a i t o f A m m o n i u s , so-called, i n the L o u v r e (fig. 27) o r i g i n a l l y was p a r t
especially in the nose and mouth, is o f a larger p a i n t e d s c h e m e s u c h as is b e t t e r p r e s e r v e d o n o t h e r A n t i n o o p o l i t a n s h r o u d s also i n t h e L o u v r e
distinctive. According to the evi (e.g. figs. 13 a n d 29). W h i l e " A m m o n i u s " has b e e n m u c h r e s t o r e d a n d r e p a i n t e d (cf. his o r i g i n a l c o n d i t i o n
dence of the hairstyle, he must have i n f i g . 28), a n d i n spite o f t h e m i s p l a c e m e n t o f the r i g h t h a n d t h a t o r i g i n a l l y g r a s p e d t h e b o w l o f t h e c u p
been active at Hawara around A.D. r a t h e r t h a n t h e base, o n e n o t e s the t h i c k , u n n a t u r a l fingers, c o r r e c t l y r e s t o r e d , that s e e m t o c u r v e r a t h e r
100. Encaustic on wood. Malibu, f. t h a n t o b e n d at t h e j o i n t s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , the face has large fleshy l i p s , s h a r p l y p r o t r u d i n g ears, a n d a p r o
Paul Getty Museum, inv. 73-AP.91. n o u n c e d bag u n d e r the r i g h t eye. A n e x c e p t i o n a l l y w e l l - d e f i n e d frame s u r r o u n d s the p o r t r a i t area. These
(see catalogue no. 3) same featuresthe lips, the fingers, the ears, the bag u n d e r the r i g h t eye, a n d the f r a m e a p p e a r o n t h e better-
p r e s e r v e d s h r o u d i n t h e L o u v r e ( f i g . 29) a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d . A f r a g m e n t a r y p o r t r a i t i n A t h e n s ( f i g . 30) lacks
34. According to an accompanying
o n l y t h e h a n d s t h a t w o u l d c l i n c h a t t r i b u t i o n t o this artist. W h e t h e r t h e y f o r m e r l y w e r e p r e s e n t o n a p o r t i o n
inscription, this lady was named
o f t h e s h r o u d n o l o n g e r p r e s e r v e d o r w h e t h e r Painter L s i m p l y h a d g i v e n u p e v e n t r y i n g t o p a i n t h a n d s ,
Demos and she died at age 34. The
w e d o n o t k n o w . B u t t h e same fleshy lips are p r e s e n t , as is t h e f a m i l i a r s h a d o w u n d e r the r i g h t eye, a n d
portrait was found at Hawara by
t h e s t r o n g l y a r c h i t e c t o n i c f r a m i n g . Painter L p r o b a b l y w o r k e d d u r i n g t h e s e c o n d q u a r t e r o f the t h i r d cen
Petrie. According to representational t u r y , since the s h o r t h a i r s t y l e s o f all t h r e e subjects fall w i t h i n the c r e w - c u t era o f o f f i c i a l p o r t r a i t u r e first
details, it was created by the artist e v i d e n t a m o n g s c u l p t u r e d p o r t r a i t s o f a d u l t s d u r i n g the t i m e o f Severus A l e x a n d e r .
of the preceding example, the Malibu
Painter. Encaustic on wood. Cairo,
Egyptian Museum, inv. C. G. 33237.

35- This expressive tempera por


trait by the St. Louis Painter is
distinctive especially for the artist's
unusual handling of facial shading,
for the cartoon-like pattern of the
lips, and for the subject's extremely
long and slightly askew nose. From
Er-Rubayat; ca. A.D. 300. Saint
Louis Art Museum, inv. 128:1951,
gift of Mrs. Max A. Goldstein.

20
fig. 36 fig. 37

T h e b e g i n n i n g o f the final p e r i o d o f m u m m y p o r t r a i t u r e at A n t i n o o p o l i s seems t o h a v e c o i n c i d e d w i t h 36. Both in general style and indi


an i n f l u x o f g a r m e n t styles, materials, a n d d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f s e m a n a t i n g f r o m the east, w h i c h has b e e n d a t e d vidual detail, this painting corre
21
convincingly to around A.D. 250. T h e p o r t r a i t n o w has b e e n e x p a n d e d f r o m the r e s e r v e d z o n e at the t o p sponds exactly to the preceding
o f the transitional s h r o u d to full-length. example and was executed by the
O n a p o r t r a i t o f a w o m a n i n the L o u v r e ( f i g . 31) o n e n o t e s especially the p r o m i n e n t d a r k lines i n d i c a t i n g same artist. The lines of hatching
t h e j u n c t u r e o f the u p p e r e y e l i d s w i t h the areas b e l o w the b r o w s , these lines v i r t u a l l y p a r a l l e l i n g the b r o w s that emphasize the cheekbones and
a n d p l a c e d w e l l b e l o w t h e m , a n d the t h i c k - f i n g e r e d hands w i t h a strange h a w k ' s - b e a k i n d e x finger. T h e same the structure of the iieck particularly
c u r i o u s f i n g e r also appears o n a L o u v r e s h r o u d that carries the p o r t r a i t o f a m a n ( f i g . 32), as d o t h e d a r k distinguish the graphic, almost dia
lines b e l o w t h e b r o w s . T o g e t h e r these s h r o u d p o r t r a i t s d e f i n e Painter P, w h o p r o b a b l y w o r k e d d u r i n g the grammatic style of the St. Louis
last h a l f o f the t h i r d c e n t u r y . Painter. Tempera on wood. Ca.
I n c o n t r a s t t o A n t i n o o p o l i s , w h e r e q u a l i t y p r o d u c t i o n appears t o h a v e b e e n m a i n t a i n e d t h r o u g h the e n d A.D. 300. Moscow, Pushkin Fine
o f the t h i r d c e n t u r y a n d w h e r e the e n c a u s t i c m e d i u m was u s e d t h r o u g h o u t , series p r o d u c t i o n a n d t e m p e r a Arts Museum, in v. 5783.
p a i n t w e r e t o b e c o m e the rule i n the F a y u m . T h o u g h the painters w o r k i n g at F a y u m sites are far m o r e n u m e r o u s
a n d s t y l i s t i c a l l y d i v e r s e t h a n at A n t i n o o p o l i s a n d h a v e b e e n l i t t l e s t u d i e d , several o f t h e m m a y be c o n s i d e r e d 37. While shou'ing a number of
i n passing. obvious similarities to the preced
ing portraits, this depiction differs
somewhat in the more restrained
shading that conveys a softer feel
for the flesh. The eyes, too, are not
so starkly emphasized. A number of
other portraits are related to those
by the St. Louis Painter and some
to each other by these differences,
suggesting a school of portrait artists
active at Fr-Rubayat around A.D.
300. Tempera on wood. Cambridge,
Fogg Art Museum, Harvard Univer
sity, inv. 1939.111, gift of Mrs. John
D. Rockefeller Jr.

21
fig- 38

38. Another school of portrait A t H a w a r a ( o r at A r s i n o e , t h e t o w n w h i c h H a w a r a seems t o h a v e s e r v e d as a c e m e t e r y ) , t h e r e w a s a n e x t e n


painters working at Er-Rubayat, sive s c h o o l o f p o r t r a i t p a i n t e r s d u r i n g the first a n d s e c o n d c e n t u r i e s . O n e o f t h e m , the M a l i b u Painter, exe
though slightly later, included the c u t e d n o t o n l y his n a m e p i e c e ( f i g . 33 a n d catalogue n o . 3) b u t also, a m o n g o t h e r s , the v e r y s i m i l a r p o r t r a i t
Brooklyn Painter, whose namepiece o f D e m o s i n the E g y p t i a n M u s e u m , C a i r o ( f i g . 34). T h e hairstyles o f these p u d g y ladies are n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l ,
is illustrated here. His subjects usu late F l a v i a n i n c h a r a c t e r . T h e M a l i b u Painter m u s t h a v e l i v e d a n d w o r k e d a r o u n d A . D . 100.
ally have somewhat round, smiling T h e m o s t s t r i k i n g feature o f the style o f the St. L o u i s Painter ( f i g . 35), w h o w o r k e d at Er-Rubayat ( o r at
faces and often hold a wreath and P h i l a d e l p h e i a ) p r o b a b l y w i t h i n a decade o f A . D . 3 0 0 , is his d i s t i n c t i v e use o f lines o f h a t c h i n g . T h e s e are
chalice evidently of funerary con a g r a p h i c s h o r t h a n d t o suggest s h a d i n g a n d are a p p l i e d freely o v e r an initial t r e a t m e n t o f m o r e b r o a d l y p a i n t e d
notation. A certain naivete of ana strokes. T h e same h a l l m a r k is especially e v i d e n t o n a n o t h e r late p o r t r a i t o f a w o m a n , i n M o s c o w ( f i g . 36),
tomical structure in the non-facial a n d w h e n o n e adds a list o f a n a t o m i c a l s i m i l a r i t i e s ( s u c h as t h e i n o r d i n a t e l y l o n g nose t h a t t h e artist r e a l l y
areas actually seems to heighten the d o e s n o t k n o w h o w t o e n d ) , the artist o f the St. L o u i s p a n e l is p l a i n l y r e c o g n i z a b l e . A n o t h e r q u a i n t p o r t r a i t ,
exuberant freshness of the Brooklyn i n the F o g g A r t M u s e u m ( f i g . 37), w a s also e x e c u t e d b y t h e St. L o u i s Painter, o r at least w i t h i n w h a t m a y
Painter's productions. Tempera on h a v e b e e n an e x t e n s i v e s c h o o l r e l a t e d t o h i m .
wood. From Er-Rubayat; A.D. 325-
375. Brooklyn Museum, inv. 41.848,
Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund.

22
ig. 39 fig. 40a fig. 40b

22
Still i n the F a y u m , w e m i g h t m e n t i o n the n a i v e b u t q u i t e c h a r m i n g p o r t r a i t s b y the B r o o k l y n P a i n t e r 39. Except for the difference in
(fig. 38), w h o seems t o h a v e w o r k e d at Er-Rubayat near the m i d d l e o f the f o u r t h c e n t u r y . His style is par age, the man in this portrait might
t i c u l a r l y i d i o s y n c r a t i c a n d can be i d e n t i f i e d i n several p a i n t i n g s , i n c l u d i n g o n e i n the G e t t y M u s e u m (fig. be a twin to the subject of the pre
39 a n d c a t a l o g u e n o . 11). ceding example. As was the case
Perhaps a f i t t i n g c o n c l u s i o n f o r a s u r v e y o f the artists is the w o r k o f the A m p h o r a Painter, w h o was r e s p o n with the St. Louis Painter, a large
sible f o r p a i n t i n g t w o g r o t e s q u e e x a m p l e s n o w i n T o r o n t o (fig. 40). H i s w o r k , p r o b a b l y f r o m near the e n d number of extant portraits bear
o f t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r y , m o r e p r o p e r l y is d e s c r i b e d as " f o l k art," h o v e r i n g b e t w e e n t h e realms o f art a n d craft. overall similarities to works by the
P r o b a b l y m o r e n a t i v e E g y p t i a n t h a n G r e e k o r R o m a n , a n d d e f i n i t e l y l a c k i n g m u c h f o r m a l t r a i n i n g , the A m Brooklyn Painter and suggest a
p h o r a Painter ( w h o s e subjects, i n c i d e n t a l l y , a c t u a l l y appear t o be h o l d i n g canthari) h a d e v i d e n t l y seen a school of portrait artists. This paint
m u m m y p o r t r a i t o r t w o a n d h a d d e c i d e d that he, t o o , c o u l d successfully p a i n t s o m e . W e l l , i f the A m p h o r a ing, however, unquestionably was
P a i n t e r ' s w o r k w e r e an accurate i n d e x o f the state o f the art at that t i m e , o n e m i g h t say it was just as w e l l executed by the Brooklyn Painter
that T h e o d o s i u s p r o h i b i t e d m u m m i f i c a t i o n , e f f e c t i v e l y e n d i n g the p r o d u c t i o n o f " F a y u m p o r t r a i t s . " B u t i n himself. Tempera on wood. A.D.
fact the A m p h o r a Painter seems t o h a v e b e e n an i s o l a t e d p h e n o m e n o n a n d , f o r t u n a t e l y for the h i s t o r y o f 32 5-3^5. Malibu, The J . Paul Getty
art, he s p a w n e d n o s c h o o l a n d c a n be p l a c e d i n a class b y h i m s e l f . Museum, inv. 79.AP. 142 (see
catalogue no. 11).
40. The Amphora Painter created
these hasty depictions late in the
fourth century A.D. 'Though it is
uncertain whether they actually were
wrapped in mummies, in the manner
of true "Fayum. portraits, " they
evidently were imitations of such
paintings. The subjects probably
hold not amphorae but canthari/
drinking cups often are held by
subjects of late "Fayum portraits."
Tempera on wood. Toronto, Royal
Ontario Museum, inv. 918.20.3 and
918.20.4.

23
fig. 41 fig. 42 fig. 43

41-43. Together these three panels


OTHER PAINTINGS
formed a triptych intended for dis
play in the home, evidently com
memorating a departed ancestor or W h i l e t h e vast m a j o r i t y o f p a n e l p a i n t i n g s that s u r v i v e f r o m R o m a n E g y p t are t r u e m u m m y p o r t r a i t s , a sur
family member. The subject of the p r i s i n g n u m b e r w e r e m e a n t f o r p u r p o s e s n o t p r i m a r i l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h b u r i a l . M a n y o f these n o n - f u n e r a r y
central panel can be compared p a i n t i n g s w e r e e x e c u t e d b y artists w h o s e usual s t o c k - i n - t r a d e w a s t h e s t a n d a r d " F a y u m p o r t r a i t . " T h u s t h e y
stylistically to mummy portraits p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e e v i d e n c e f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g m o r e f u l l y t h e artistic a c t i v i t y o f these p a i n t e r s .
executed in the early third century N e a r l y all s u c h p a i n t i n g s t h u s far r e c o v e r e d fall i n t w o categories: s o m e w e r e f r a m e d a n d h u n g o n t h e
A.D. The depictions of Is is and w a l l s o f p r i v a t e houses, w h i l e o t h e r s u t i l i z e d an a r c h i t e c t u r a l f r a m e w o r k , o f t e n an aedicula arrangement w i t h
Serapis on the side panels probably t h e p a i n t i n g itself i n t o n d o shape, a n d m u s t h a v e b e e n free-standing. D i v i n i t i e s appear i n p a i n t i n g s m e a n t
copy well-known paintings of the f o r d o m e s t i c w o r s h i p , m o r t a l s i n t h o s e associated w i t h t h e c u s t o m o f a n c e s t o r v e n e r a t i o n . A l t h o u g h s o m e
time, perhaps on display at an im o f these panels w e r e e x c a v a t e d i n p r i v a t e houses, t h e s u p e r b p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e m a n y o t h e r s w h o s e p r o
portant cult center of Roman Egypt. v e n i e n c e is n o t d o c u m e n t e d suggests that t h e y w e r e r e c o v e r e d f r o m t o m b s a n d that t h e y m a y h a v e b e e n
Tempera on wood. Malibu, The J. converted f r o m domestic to funerary purpose.
Paul Getty Museum, inv. 74.AP.21 A set o f t h r e e p a i n t i n g s a c q u i r e d i n 1974 b y t h e G e t t y M u s e u m (figs. 4 1 - 4 3 a n d catalogue n o . 8) reveals
(Isis), 74.AP.20 (central panel), a u n i q u e a n d especially i n t e r e s t i n g c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e m o r t a l a n d d i v i n e e l e m e n t s o f c u l t p r a c t i c e i n R o m a n
74.AP.22 (Serapis) (see catalogue E g y p t . T h e c e n t r a l p a n e l l o o k s v e r y m u c h l i k e a s t a n d a r d " F a y u m p o r t r a i t , " b u t i f i t ever h a d b e e n i n s e r t e d
no. 8). i n m u m m y w r a p p i n g s the t o p corners p r o b a b l y w o u l d have been l o p p e d o f f or otherwise m o d i f i e d to insure
a satisfactory fit w i t h i n t h e c a r t o n n a g e . T h e p o r t r a i t seems t o h a v e b e e n p a i n t e d d u r i n g t h e early t h i r d cen
t u r y A . D . T h e f l a n k i n g panels d e p i c t n o t m o r t a l s b u t t h e d i v i n i t i e s Isis a n d Serapis. I n spite o f t h e i r i d e a l i z e d

24
fig. 44 fig. 45

a s p e c t s n o r m a l f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f d e i t i e s d e t a i l s o f the facial p o r t r a y a l s m a k e i t seem m o s t l i k e l y that 44. Also not a true "Fayumportrait"


t h e y w e r e p a i n t e d b y an artist w h o n o r m a l l y p r o d u c e d m u m m y panels. I n fact, t h e y w e r e p a i n t e d b y the but instead an object of veneration or
artist o f t h e t r i p t y c h ' s c e n t r a l p a n e l , w h o m a y h a v e b e e n c o p y i n g w e l l - k n o w n m a s t e r p i e c e s o f the t i m e . commemoration displayed in the
A n e q u e s t r i a n p a i n t i n g o f F a y u m p r o v e n i e n c e is i n the W a d s w o r t h A t h e n e u m , H a r t f o r d ( f i g . 4 4 ) . 23
It, too, home, this equestrian painting is
l o o k s at first l i k e a k i n d o f m u m m y p o r t r a i t , b u t f o r t w o reasons i t is n o t . First, as w i t h t h e c e n t r a l p a n e l unusual in showing the subject as a
o f t h e M a l i b u t r i p t y c h , t h e t o p c o r n e r s are p r e s e r v e d . S e c o n d , the f u l l - f i g u r e e q u e s t r i a n m o t i f is u n p a r a l l e l e d deity. He probably is the Roman
a m o n g m u m m y p a i n t i n g s . F u n e r a r y s h r o u d s m a y s h o w the deceased at f u l l l e n g t h b u t a l w a y s s i m p l y stand emperor Caracalla. Tempera on
i n g , w h i l e the panels all are h e a d - a n d - s h o u l d e r s o r b u s t - l e n g t h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . T h i s p a i n t i n g n e v e r was m e a n t wood. Ca. A.D. 215. Hartford,
f o r f u n e r a r y use b u t r a t h e r was a f r a m e d v o t i v e p a n e l . T h e p o r t r a y a l d e f i n i t e l y is that o f a d i v i n i t y . Specif Wadsworth Atheneum, inv. 1934.6,
ically, w e see h e r e the a m a l g a m a t i o n o f t w o g o d s w h o appear t o g e t h e r f r e q u e n t l y i n the art o f R o m a n E g y p t : Ella Gallup Sumner and Mary Catlin
o n e is the T h r a c i a n c a v a l i e r - g o d H e r o n , w h i l e the o t h e r c a n n o t be p r e c i s e l y i d e n t i f i e d . I n s t e a d o f the v e r y Sunnier Collection.
g e n e r a l a n d i d e a l i z e d faces that o n e e x p e c t s i n p a i n t i n g s o f deities, h o w e v e r , a n d w h i c h i n fact appear o n
t h e side panels o f t h e M a l i b u t r i p t y c h , the facial features o f the H a r t f o r d h o r s e m a n ( f i g . 45) reveal a h i g h l y 4 5. The facial features of the man
p e r s o n a l i z e d d e p i c t i o n , that is, a p o r t r a i t o f a specific i n d i v i d u a l . R o m a n e m p e r o r s o f t e n a s s u m e d d i v i n e i d e n in the preceding panel, seen here in
tities i n s c u l p t u r e d p o r t r a i t s , a n d , o n e suspects, i n p a i n t i n g s as w e l l , a n d i t is u n t h i n k a b l e that a n y o n e o t h e r detail, compare closely to those in
t h a n an e m p e r o r w o u l d h a v e b e e n t h u s p o r t r a y e d . T h e n a i v e style a n d e x c l u s i v e use o f t e m p e r a p a i n t p o i n t sculptured portraits of Caracalla.
t o the t h i r d c e n t u r y , so that i f the subject is i n d e e d an e m p e r o r , he m u s t h a v e r u l e d d u r i n g the 200's. A c c o r d Since the emperor is shown with the
i n g t o the v i s u a l clues w i t h i n t h e p a i n t i n g , he m u s t be M a r c u s A u r e l i u s A n t o n i n u s , n i c k n a m e d Caracalla, w h o attributes of a soldier-god, it seems
r u l e d as e m p e r o r f r o m 211 t o 217. A n e x a m i n a t i o n o f the s c u l p t u r e d p o r t r a i t s o f the e m p e r o r , m a n y o f w h i c h possible that the painting was
s u r v i v e , c o n f i r m s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . displayed in the home of one of the
many veterans who were settled by
Rome in the Fayum region upon
their completion of military service.

25
fig. 46

46. This roundel, or tondoportrait, L o o k i n g m o r e c l o s e l y at this p a n e l , o n e is s t r u c k b y a strange gap i n a b i l i t y w i t h i n the artist's e x e c u t i o n .


also from Roman Egypt, shows the H i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e h o r s e a n d r i d e r is c l u m s y , i l l - p r o p o r t i o n e d , a n d n a i v e ( i f q u a i n t l y c h a r m i n g ) , b u t
emperor Septimius Severus, his wife t h e subject's face is a serious a t t e m p t at a n a t u r a l i s t i c p o r t r a i t . T h i s leaves l i t t l e d o u b t that its p a i n t e r was
fulia Domna, his son Caracalla, a n artist w h o s e o r d i n a r y s t o c k - i n - t r a d e was t h e s t a n d a r d " F a y u m p o r t r a i t . " T h e first m u m m y p o r t r a i t s t o i n
and an erasure in place of his other c l u d e d e p i c t i o n o f a subject's h a n d s , p a i n t e d at a b o u t this t i m e , s h o w that the t r a i n i n g o f a p o r t r a i t p a i n t e r
son Geta. The painting, probably c o n c e n t r a t e d a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y o n h e a d - a n d - s h o u l d e r s p o r t r a y a l . I t is a b u n d a n t l y clear that t h e p a i n t e r o f
executed by an artist whose normal the H a r t f o r d p a n e l was just s u c h an artist. H e was m o s t l y at a loss w h e n he h a d f i n i s h e d the subject's face,
commissions were standard mummy f o r this was the l i m i t o f his f o r m a l t r a i n i n g .
portraits, may have commemorated T h e artistic s h o r t c o m i n g s o f the H a r t f o r d e q u e s t r i a n p a i n t i n g , h o w e v e r , are offset b y its great d o c u m e n
the visit to Egypt by the Imperial t a r y v a l u e . N o t o n l y is i t a f i r m l y d a t e d p a i n t i n g t o w h i c h m u m m y p o r t r a i t s c a n be c o m p a r e d , b u t also, l i k e
family in A.D. 199- Tempera on the side panels o f the M a l i b u t r i p t y c h , it s h o w s us w h a t s o m e F a y u m p o r t r a i t i s t s w e r e d o i n g w h e n not
wood. Ca. A.D. 200. Berlin, Staat- painting m u m m y portraits.
liche Museen, Antikenmuseum, inv. T h e H a r t f o r d p a n e l is t h e s e c o n d p a i n t e d p o r t r a i t o f an e m p e r o r t o h a v e s u r v i v e d . T h e first, c o i n c i d e n t a l l y ,
31329. is also o f Severan date, also p a i n t e d i n t e m p e r a , also f r o m the F a y u m , a n d i n c l u d e s Caracalla, t h o u g h as a
y o u t h . T h i s is the w e l l - k n o w n t o n d o p o r t r a i t i n B e r l i n ( f i g . 46) s h o w i n g the f a m i l y o f S e p t i m i u s Severus.
U n l i k e the H a r t f o r d p a n e l , the B e r l i n t o n d o is o f h i g h artistic q u a l i t y a n d was e x e c u t e d b y a p a i n t e r o f c o n
s i d e r a b l e s k i l l . I t c a n h a r d l y h a v e b e e n f o r f u n e r a r y p u r p o s e o r i n t e n d e d f o r d o m e s t i c display, b u t m u s t h a v e
a d o r n e d a p u b l i c b u i l d i n g i n a F a y u m t o w n . T h e best guess is that t h e t o n d o was p a i n t e d t o c e l e b r a t e t h e
E g y p t i a n v i s i t b y t h e e m p e r o r a n d his f a m i l y i n A . D . 199. Because i t c a n be d a t e d so closely, it is a n o t h e r
rare a n d v a l u a b l e p o i n t o f c h r o n o l o g i c a l r e f e r e n c e f o r " F a y u m p o r t r a i t s . " T h e s k i l l o f i n d i v i d u a l p o r t r a y a l
e v i d e n t i n t h e p a i n t i n g leaves l i t t l e d o u b t that its artist, t o o , was also, o r p e r h a p s p r i m a r i l y , a p a i n t e r o f
m u m m y portraits.

26
CONCLUSION

P o s s i b l y n o n e o f t h e p o r t r a i t p a i n t e r s o f t h e F a y u m w i l l c o m e t o be c o u n t e d a m o n g t h e greatest artists o f
a n t i q u i t y . B u t t h e m a i n i m p o r t a n c e o f these p o r t r a i t i s t s d o e s n o t lie i n a c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h l e v e l o f artistic
p r o d u c t i o n . Rather, w h i l e o n l y a f e w o f t h e s u r v i v i n g e x a m p l e s c a n lay c l a i m t o great aesthetic m e r i t , these
c u r i o u s a n d fascinating d o c u m e n t s t o g e t h e r c o m p r i s e a l m o s t o u r o n l y e v i d e n c e f o r R o m a n p a i n t e d p o r t r a i t u r e
a n d , m o r e g e n e r a l l y , f o r a n c i e n t p a n e l p a i n t i n g as a w h o l e .
A n y s t u d y o f t h e m u m m y p o r t r a i t s f r o m R o m a n E g y p t necessarily raises m o r e q u e s t i o n s t h a n it can a n s w e r
a n d e n d s w h e r e o n e r e a l l y w o u l d p r e f e r t o b e g i n . T h e e x a m p l e s c o n s i d e r e d h e r e are t y p i c a l o f t h i s s i t u a t i o n .
I n m o s t cases a l l w e h a v e is t h e bare o b j e c t , t h e p o r t r a i t itself, a n d i n e v e r y case this is all w e are l i k e l y e v e r
t o h a v e . B u t i n spite o f that, it o f t e n is p o s s i b l e t o g r o u p the p o r t r a i t s b y date, b y t y p e , e v e n b y a r t i s t i c
h a n d a n d t o p o i n t t o s o m e r e l a t e d o b j e c t s , a n d t h e r e b y t o start s o l v i n g t h e p u z z l e a n d c o m e t o k n o w
s o m e w h a t b e t t e r t h o s e a n o n y m o u s p a i n t e r s , t h e artists o f t h e m u m m y p o r t r a i t s .

27
NOTES

1. N.H. 3 5 . 2 . 4 : Imaginum quidempictura, qua maximesimiles in aevumpropagabanturfigurae, in totum


exolevit.

2. Ibid. 3 5 . 2 . 5 : Epicuri voltus per cubicula gestant ac circumferunt secum.

3. For these, as w e l l as f o r the m o s t c o m p l e t e discussion o f the r e c o v e r y o f p o r t r a i t s after 1887, see K . Parlasca,


Mumienportrdts und verwandte Denkmdler ( W i e s b a d e n 1966; hereafter, Mumienportrats) C h . 1, 18-58.

4 . T h e p o r t r a i t s f r o m A n t i n o o p o l i s a n d t h e i r r e c o v e r y are c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e w r i t e r ' s u n p u b l i s h e d disserta


t i o n , The Classes and Hands of Painted Funerary Portraits from Antinoopolis ( C h a p e l H i l l 1972).

5. A . F . Shore, R e v i e w o f Parlasca, Mumienportrats, JEA 56 (1970) 2 3 2 .

6. See, f o r e x a m p l e , N.H. 35.12.30ff.

7. Shore suggests p a l m f i b r e f o r t h e b r u s h {Portrait Painting from Roman Egypt [Rev. ed.; L o n d o n 1972;
2
hereafter, Portrait Painting ] 23) a n d prefers cauterium (used b y later Latin authors, e.g. T e r t u l l i a n ) t o cestrum
( q . v . N.H. 35.40.147).

8. Petrie suggests {Roman Portraits and Memphis (IV) [ L o n d o n 1911] 2) that t h e m u m m i e s w e r e k e p t i n


t h e a t r i u m , w h e r e c h i l d r e n w o u l d h a v e t a k e n t h e i r w r i t i n g lessons. As Shore p o i n t s o u t , h o w e v e r {Portrait
2
Painting 27), t h e r e is " n o l i t e r a r y e v i d e n c e f o r t h e k e e p i n g o f m u m m i e s i n t h e h o u s e " ( w h i c h evidence
w e m i g h t e x p e c t , g i v e n t h e u n u s u a l n a t u r e o f this c u s t o m ) n o r a n y a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e f o r t h e I t a l i c
style a t r i u m - h o u s e i n R o m a n E g y p t .

9. E. C o c h e de la Ferte, " L a p e i n t u r e de p o r t r a i t s r o m a n o - e g y p t i e n s au Musee d u L o u v r e , " Bulletin (trimestriel)


de la Societe Francaise d'Egyptologie 13 (1953) 73-76.

10. F o r a c o m p l e t e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s h r o u d s , see Parlasca, Mumienportrats C h . 5, 152-92.

28
11. J.C. V o g e l a n d M . Marais, " P r e t o r i a R a d i o c a r b o n Dates I , " Radiocarbon 13 (1971) 3 9 0 - 9 1 .

12. Parlasca, Mumienportrdts 78-84.

13- T h e p o r t r a i t was e x c a v a t e d b y Petrie a n d o n e recalls his r e m a r k s , f o r e x a m p l e , i n Seventy Years in


Archaeology ( L o n d o n n . d . ) 8 4 : " . . . b y p u t t i n g a coat o f fresh b e e s w a x o v e r [ t h e p o r t r a i t s ] , t h e o l d c o l o u r
was r e v i v e d a n d safely f i x e d . . . . I n later years, p a r a f f i n w a x was used f o r this p u r p o s e . "

14. T. D r a y m a n , " C l e a n i n g Reveals Q u a l i t y : M u m m y P o r t r a i t s , " Bulletin of the Walters Art Gallery 22 N o .


8 ( M a y 1970) 3-4.

15- "Les p o r t r a i t s d ' A n t i n o e , " GBA 3 r d ser. 3 9 (1908) 130.

16. I t m u s t be o b s e r v e d , h o w e v e r , that r a d i o l o g i s t s o f t e n h a v e b e e n i n a c c u r a t e i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e g e n d e r
o f an u n w r a p p e d m u m m y . F o r a r e c e n t e x a m p l e , see E. C o c k b u r n , " A u t o p s y T e a m Seeks a M u m m y ' s M e d i c a l
Secrets...," Smithsonian 4 N o . 8 ( N o v e m b e r 1973) 8 2 .

17. Pompeii: The Casa dei Dioscuri and its Painters (MAAR 23; R o m e 1955) 1 1 1 .

18. F o r t h e f o l l o w i n g : N.H. 35.10.27, 35.39.122ff.


2
19- TG. I 3 7 4 ; cf. J.J. P o l l i t t , The Art of Greece: 1400-31 B.C. ( E n g l e w o o d Cliffs, N.J. 1965) 120.

20. " D e s c r i p t i o n d ' A n t i n o e , " V o l . 4 C h . 15 of Description de VEgypte ( 2 n d ed.; Paris 1820-1830).

21. E. Pfister, "Les d e b u t s d u v e t e m e n t c o p t e , " Etudes d'orientalisme publiees par le Musee Guimet a la
memoire de Raymonde Linossier 2 (Paris 1932) 4 3 3 - 5 9 .

22. Parlasca's d e s i g n a t i o n : Mumienportrdts 25.

23. F o r a m o r e c o m p l e t e d i s c u s s i o n o f this panel a n d the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f Caracalla, see " A n E q u e s t r i a n Panel


P a i n t i n g f r o m R o m a n E g y p t , " Bulletin of the Wadsworth Atheneum 8 N o . 2 (1972) 50-59.

29
30
CATALOGUE: M U M M Y PORTRAITS I N THE J. PAUL GETTY MUSEUM

A m o n g s o m e 130 p a i n t e d m u m m y p o r t r a i t s f r o m R o m a n E g y p t n o w i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n c o l l e c t i o n s , large
a n d i m p o r t a n t g r o u p s are t o be f o u n d i n s u c h l o n g - e s t a b l i s h e d m a j o r m u s e u m s as t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n M u s e u m
o f A r t , N e w Y o r k , t h e M u s e u m o f F i n e A r t s , B o s t o n , a n d t h e R o y a l O n t a r i o M u s e u m , T o r o n t o . Each o f these
g r o u p s was c o l l e c t e d p r i m a r i l y i n t h e decades t h a t f o l l o w e d t h e first m a j o r f i n d s o f " F a y u m p o r t r a i t s " i n
t h e late n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y b y T h e o d o r G r a f at Er-Rubayat, a n d b y Sir W . M . F l i n d e r s Petrie at H a w a r a a t
a t i m e w h e n s u c h pieces w e r e r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f o r a c q u i s i t i o n . B u t m u m m y p o r t r a i t s w e r e n o t d i s c o v e r e d
i n q u a n t i t y at a n y site after a b o u t 1911-1912, w h e n Petrie u n d e r t o o k his f i n a l c a m p a i g n at H a w a r a a n d w h e n
A l b e r t G a y e t c o n c l u d e d his e x c a v a t i o n s at A n t i n o o p o l i s . Since t h e 1930's, w h e n t h e r e m a i n d e r o f Graf's vast
c o l l e c t i o n w a s a u c t i o n e d f o l l o w i n g his d e a t h , q u a l i t y e x a m p l e s o f this art f o r m h a v e b e c o m e a v a i l a b l e o n l y
sporadically.
I t is t h u s a l l t h e m o r e r e m a r k a b l e that d u r i n g t h e past t e n years t h e J. Paul G e t t y M u s e u m has s u c c e e d e d
i n g a t h e r i n g a large c o l l e c t i o n o f p a i n t i n g s t h a t r a n k i n aesthetic m e r i t w i t h t h e finest m u m m y p o r t r a i t s n o w
s u r v i v i n g . T h e e n s e m b l e at M a l i b u is t o d a y u n p a r a l l e l e d i n N o r t h A m e r i c a f o r t h e v a r i e t y , t h e q u a l i t y , a n d
t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t o f its e x a m p l e s .
A t t h e t i m e t h e o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n o f t h e p r e c e d i n g I n t r o d u c t i o n w a s p r e p a r e d , i n 1976, f i v e p o r t r a i t s p l u s
t h e t r i p t y c h a l r e a d y h a d e n t e r e d t h e G e t t y c o l l e c t i o n . Since t h e n , h o w e v e r , several v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g p o r t r a i t s
h a v e b e e n a d d e d . S o m e o f t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s t h a t f o l l o w a p p e a r e d p r e v i o u s l y , i n p r e l i m i n a r y studies o f t h e
earlier accessions. I t n o w seems best t o a d d t o those o b s e r v a t i o n s s o m e c o m m e n t s o n the e x t r a o r d i n a r y " n e w "
portraits not previously e x a m i n e d i n detail.

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Fig. F.

Figure F. Inscription on the side of 1. P o r t r a i t o f a l a d y , encaustic on wood. Perhaps t h e earliest a n d a r t i s t i c a l l y s u r e l y t h e best " F a y u m
the car tonnage of 8 LAP. 42. p o r t r a i t " i n t h e G e t t y M u s e u m is also t h e m o s t r e c e n t l y a c q u i r e d . F r o m a q u a l i t a t i v e s t a n d p o i n t , t h i s is a
m a g n i f i c e n t p o r t r a i t , s u p e r b l y p r e s e r v e d , w h i c h c o m p a r e s f a v o r a b l y w i t h a n y e x a m p l e that has s u r v i v e d .
T h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g o o d p o r t i o n o f t h e m u m m y case, o r c a r t o n n a g e , h e i g h t e n s t h e p o r t r a i t ' s v i s u a l i n
terest, f o r it s h o w s p l a i n l y h o w a classic e a r l y " F a y u m p o r t r a i t " o n w o o d a c t u a l l y l o o k e d w h e n w r a p p e d
i n t h e m u m m y . A s h o r t i n s c r i p t i o n , a p p a r e n t l y o f o n e w o r d ( f i g . F), appears o n t h e c a r t o n n a g e t o t h e sub
ject's r i g h t ; i t m a y i d e n t i f y t h e s u b j e c t b y n a m e I s i d o r a a c c o r d i n g t o Jean-Yves E m m a n u e l .
T h e subject is a w o m a n o f m i d d l e age w h o s e r e f i n e d features suggest t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n a r i s t o c r a c y t h a t
c a m e t o c o n t r o l E g y p t i n G r a e c o - R o m a n t i m e s . H e r elegant h a i r s t y l e features a large c o i l e d b r a i d t o w a r d t h e
b a c k o f t h e h e a d , h e l d i n place b y a large g o l d p i n , a n d c u r l e d l o c k s h a n g i n g b e f o r e t h e ears. T h i s p r e c i s e
t y p e o f c o i f f u r e a c h i e v e d great c u r r e n c y i n t h e late first a n d , especially, early s e c o n d c e n t u r y . H e r j e w e l r y
i n c l u d e s a set o f earrings o f a w e l l - k n o w n a n d e v i d e n t l y p o p u l a r t y p e f o u r pearls s u s p e n d e d o n f o u r g o l d
b a n d s f r o m a h o r i z o n t a l bar set i n t h e e a r l o b e w i t h a p e a r l fastener. She w e a r s t h r e e necklaces t h a t are, i n
t o t a l , a n o r g y o f g o l d a n d e m e r a l d s , t h e l o w e s t o n e o f w h i c h also s u p p o r t s a large g e m i n a h e a v y g o l d set
t i n g . T h e o r i g i n a l g o l d was r e g i l d e d w i t h g o l d leaf, a l o n g w i t h the w r e a t h i n t h e hair a n d o r n a m e n t a t i o n a r o u n d
t h e edge o f t h e c a r t o n n a g e , at t h e t i m e o f i n s e r t i o n o r b u r i a l . T h i s w r e a t h features a c u r i o u s m o t i f that f i n d s
p r e c i s e p a r a l l e l o n an early p o r t r a i t f r o m H a w a r a , n o w i n B a l t i m o r e , b u t t h e precise m e a n i n g , i f any, o f this
s y m b o l remains mysterious.
T h e flesh t e x t u r e s , as w e l l as t h e effects o f l i g h t a n d s h a d o w , are r e n d e r e d w i t h all t h e c o n v i n c i n g n a t u r a l i s m
that is p o s s i b l e i n t h e v e r y f l e x i b l e encaustic m e d i u m . I t is e v i d e n t that t h e p a i n t e r was a s k i l l e d master o f
the wax-based paint.
P a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g h e r e is t h e d e c o r a t i o n o n the s u r v i v i n g p o r t i o n o f t h e m u m m y case, p a i n t e d a r o u n d
t h e e x p o s e d s e c t i o n o f t h e p o r t r a i t p a n e l . G i l t d e c o r a t i o n o f t e n w a s a d d e d t o t h e p o r t r a i t s t h e m s e l v e s at t h e
t i m e o f b u r i a l , as a w r e a t h o r d i a d e m o r n e c k j e w e l r y . H e r e w e h a v e an e x a m p l e w h e r e t h e c a r t o n n a g e o f
t h e m u m m y also was g i v e n r i c h d e c o r a t i o n . T h e e x p o s e d p o r t r a i t is f r a m e d b y g o l d p a i n t e d d i a m o n d s . A l s o ,
p r e s u m a b l y r e p r o d u c i n g t h e p a r t o f t h e subject's g a r m e n t s h o w n o n sections o f t h e p a n e l h i d d e n b e n e a t h
t h e m u m m y w r a p p i n g s , t h e v i o l e t t u n i c , w i t h g i l t - e d g e d b l a c k clavi, is p a i n t e d o u t o n t o t h e c a r t o n n a g e . T h i s
p r a c t i c e seems n o t t o h a v e b e e n p a r t i c u l a r l y u n c o m m o n , b u t i t is m o s t u n u s u a l t o f i n d a n e x a m p l e t o d a y
that illustrates these d e c o r a t i v e p r o c e d u r e s so w e l l .
Features i n the p o s e a n d g a r m e n t s c h e m e f i n d precise parallels w i t h t h o s e i n p o r t r a i t s r e c o v e r e d at H a w a r a ,
t h e c e m e t e r y o f A r s i n o e . J. Frel p l a u s i b l y a t t r i b u t e s t o t h e I s i d o r a Master a f r a g m e n t a r y p o r t r a i t o f a y o u n g
m a n i n C a i r o ( i n v . C . G . 3 3 2 3 2 ) that shares a n u m b e r o f s t y l i s t i c f e a t u r e s i n t h e lips, eyes, a n d n o s e a n d
a s i m i l a r palette.

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2. P o r t r a i t o f a m a n , encaustic on wood. T h i s was t h e first " F a y u m p o r t r a i t " a c q u i r e d b y t h e G e t t y
Museum.
T h e t e x t u r e o f t h e p a i n t reveals the t w o m e t h o d s o f a p p l i c a t i o n t y p i c a l o f " F a y u m p o r t r a i t s " : t h e b r u s h
w a s u s e d f o r b r o a d areas o f c o l o r i . e . b a c k g r o u n d a n d g a r m e n t w h i l e the cestrum, o r cauterium, a metal
i n s t r u m e n t s i m i l a r t o a m o d e r n palette k n i f e , was u s e d f o r greater d e t a i l a n d t h i c k e r p a i n t w i t h i n t h e face,
n e c k , a n d hair.
T h e c o l o r s c h e m e is d o m i n a t e d b y t h e s w a r t h y s k i n t o n e s o f t h e subject. T h e b a c k g r o u n d is gray; t h e gar
m e n t is w h i t e w i t h shades o f b r o w n a n d g r a y a n d a m a r o o n claims, b u t t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e p a l e t t e is based
o n t h e m a n ' s d a r k c o m p l e x i o n . H i s s k i n is d a r k b r o w n , w i t h b r i c k - r e d h i g h l i g h t s ; t h e eyes are b r o w n , t h e
b r o w s , b l a c k . T h e p r o m i n e n t crease o f t h e u p p e r e y e l i d is r i c h l y m o d e l e d i n d a r k b r o w n , a n d t h e lashes
are a l i g h t c h o c o l a t e t o n e . T h e l i p s a n d i n n e r c o r n e r s o f the eyes are r u b y - r e d ; flesh t o n e s appear as h i g h l i g h t
i n g o n t h e r i d g e o f t h e n o s e a n d w i t h i n t h e eyes.
As is n o t e d i n t h e m u s e u m catalogue b y C.C. V e r m e u l e a n d N . N e u e r b u r g , t h e p o r t r a i t is f a i r l y p l a i n , c o n
t a i n i n g n o s y m b o l s o f r a n k o r p r o f e s s i o n . T h e a q u i l i n e nose, d a r k s k i n , a n d l o n g , n a r r o w eyes o f t h e subject
suggest a racial m i x t u r e . I n t e r m a r r i a g e o f n a t i v e Egyptians w i t h first t h e i r G r e e k a n d t h e n their R o m a n masters,
a n d b l o o d a d d i t i o n s f r o m A f r i c a n a n d Near Eastern n e i g h b o r s , p r o d u c e d t h e r a c i a l l y c o m p l i c a t e d t y p e s seen
in many "Fayum portraits."
A l t h o u g h t h e artist o f this p o r t r a i t c a n n o t be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h c o m p l e t e c e r t a i n t y i n o t h e r s u r v i v i n g pieces,
it is e v i d e n t that he w o r k e d at H a w a r a o r at A r s i n o e , t h e t o w n H a w a r a seems t o h a v e s e r v e d as a c e m e t e r y .
T h e subject's t u r n t o w a r d t h e v i e w e r , t h e m a n n e r i n w h i c h t h e g a r m e n t is d r a p e d o v e r t h e left s h o u l d e r a n d
y e t is p a r t i a l l y v i s i b l e b e h i n d his r i g h t , t h e w i d t h a n d p o s i t i o n o f t h e clavusall these features f i n d precise
parallels i n a large n u m b e r o f p o r t r a i t s o f d o c u m e n t e d H a w a r a n o r i g i n . A l t h o u g h i t is b y n o m e a n s a c e r t a i n
i n d e x o f p r o v e n i e n c e , m o r e o v e r , t h e n e a r l y r o u n d e d t o p o f t h e p a n e l also suggests t h e shape o f m a n y p a n e l
p o r t r a i t s r e c o v e r e d at H a w a r a .
A l t h o u g h t h e m o u s t a c h e first b e c a m e an a c c e p t e d e l e m e n t o f f a s h i o n u n d e r H a d r i a n , t h e s h o r t c u t o f t h e
subject's h a i r suggests t h e styles m a d e p o p u l a r b y Trajan. T h i s , c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e i n t e n s i t y o f p o r t r a y a l ,
suggests a date e a r l y i n t h e first q u a r t e r o f t h e s e c o n d c e n t u r y A . D .

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3- P o r t r a i t o f a F l a v i a n m a t r o n , encaustic on wood. T h e p o r t r a i t o f a w o m a n a c q u i r e d i n 1973 is o n e
o f the most colorful Getty paintings.
T h e o v e r a l l a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e p o r t r a i t is v e r y b r i g h t , e n h a n c e d b y t h e artist's l i v e l y sense o f c o l o r . T h e
flesh a n d s a l m o n tones o f the subject's face s t a n d o u t s h a r p l y against the m e d i u m gray b a c k g r o u n d a n d against
t h e r i c h p u r p l e s a n d reds o f t h e g a r m e n t s a n d t h e b l a c k o f t h e clavi. H i g h l i g h t a n d s h a d o w are a c h i e v e d
w i t h i n the face i n tones o f m a r o o n a n d beige, w i t h i n the g a r m e n t i n gray a n d black. A t r i p l e necklace is p a i n t e d
w i t h an i n n e r s t r a n d o f w h i t e beads t o suggest pearls, a m i d d l e s t r a n d o f g o l d beads, a n d an o u t e r s t r a n d
o f g r e e n beads t o r e p r e s e n t t h e f a v o r e d e m e r a l d s o r s e m i p r e c i o u s stones, t h e g r e e n l a i d o v e r w h i t e i m p a s t o
f o r greater b r i l l i a n c e . Y e l l o w p a i n t represents t h e settings f o r t w o h o o p earrings w i t h t h e same " e m e r a l d s . "
T h e r o u n d e d shape o f t h e p a n e l at t h e t o p h i n t s at an H a w a r a n o r i g i n , w h i c h is c o n f i r m e d b y c o m p a r i s o n
w i t h e x a m p l e s o f d o c u m e n t e d p r o v e n i e n c e . T h e artist c a n be i d e n t i f i e d f u r t h e r as t h e p a i n t e r o f at least t w o
o t h e r panels, a p o o r l y p r e s e r v e d p o r t r a i t o f a b o y a n d a p a n e l r e c o v e r e d w i t h i t d e p i c t i n g a y o u n g w o m a n
(fig. 34), b o t h e x c a v a t e d at H a w a r a b y Petrie a n d n o w i n C a i r o . T h e G e t t y p o r t r a i t is t h e finest o f t h e t h r e e
e x a m p l e s , a n d w e m i g h t t h e r e f o r e call this artist the M a l i b u Painter. M o r e o v e r , this precise pose a n d h a i r s t y l e ,
as w e l l as a n o v e r a l l " f a m i l y r e s e m b l a n c e " appear o n at least a d o z e n o r so o t h e r p o r t r a i t s o f s i m i l a r p r o
v e n i e n c e b u t d i f f e r e n t artistic hands, suggesting a s c h o o l o r c i r c l e o f artists t o w h i c h t h e M a l i b u Painter
b e l o n g e d . T h e hairstyles o f all the w o m e n p o r t r a y e d are e x t r e m e l y s i m i l a r , late F l a v i a n i n style, so this s c h o o l
o f p o r t r a i t i s t s m u s t have w o r k e d at H a w a r a (or at A r s i n o e ) late i n the first a n d early i n t h e s e c o n d c e n t u r y A . D .
T h a t this e x a m p l e seems t o c o m e f r o m H a w a r a raises an i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t . T h o u g h m o s t e x t a n t " F a y u m
p o r t r a i t s " o f d o c u m e n t e d p r o v e n i e n c e o r i g i n a t e at Er-Rubayat, m a n y o f t h o s e that h a v e a p p e a r e d o n t h e art
m a r k e t i n r e c e n t years h a v e b e e n f r o m H a w a r a . T h e o d o r G r a f was a c l e v e r b u s i n e s s m a n , a n d he seems t o
h a v e e x p l o i t e d t h e n e c r o p o l i s at Er-Rubayat r a t h e r f u l l y a n d i n a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t t i m e . H e , his agents, a n d
his w o r k m e n c l e a n e d t h e site o f p o r t r a i t s q u i c k l y a n d e f f i c i e n t l y (albeit w i t h n o r e g a r d f o r m a t t e r s archaeo
l o g i c a l ) , a n d m o s t Er-Rubayat p o r t r a i t s c o m e t o us t h r o u g h t h e G r a f c o l l e c t i o n . Petrie, h o w e v e r , was d r i v e n
b y s c i e n t i f i c r a t h e r t h a n b y p r o f i t m o t i v e s a n d e x c a v a t e d H a w a r a w i t h s o m e d e l i b e r a t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , his
w o r k t h e r e w a s i n t e r r u p t e d b y e x c a v a t i o n c o m m i t m e n t s at several o t h e r sites. D u r i n g Petrie's absences, as
he h i m s e l f relates, a large n u m b e r o f p o r t r a i t s s l i p p e d a w a y f r o m H a w a r a i n t h e h a n d s o f o t h e r s . T h e e x a m
ples d o c u m e n t e d i n Petrie's r e p o r t s m a y r e p r e s e n t o n l y a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e e x t a n t p o r t r a i t s f r o m t h e
site. T h u s i t is n o s u r p r i s e t o f i n d " n e w " ( p r e v i o u s l y u n k n o w n ) H a w a r a n p o r t r a i t s i n s o m e abundance.

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4. P o r t r a i t o f a b e a r d e d m a n , encaustic on wood. T h i s h i r s u t e g e n t l e m a n was a c q u i r e d d u r i n g 1973.
T h e c o l o r s c h e m e is s i m p l e , s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , a n d v e r y s t r i k i n g . T h e subject's c o m p l e x i o n is s o m e w h a t pale
a n d c h a l k y , r e n d e r e d i n c o m b i n a t i o n s o f beige, flesh t o n e s , a n d w h i t e ; t h e b a c k g r o u n d also is w h i t e . I n s h a r p
c o n t r a s t , t h e l i p s are r i c h r e d w i t h s a l m o n h i g h l i g h t s , w h i l e t h e hair, b e a r d , a n d eyes are b l a c k , o c c a s i o n a l l y
e n r i c h e d w i t h beige a n d l i g h t b r o w n . T h o u g h subjects o f " F a y u m p o r t r a i t s " r e g u l a r l y are s h o w n c l o t h e d ,
n o g a r m e n t is v i s i b l e h e r e ; i t appears l i k e l y that n o n e was p a i n t e d .
I n its e x t r e m e s i m p l i c i t y , t h e p o r t r a y a l c o n t a i n s o n l y h i n t s o f the artist's i d e n t i t y , b u t it is l i k e l y that h e
also p a i n t e d a w e l l - k n o w n p o r t r a i t o f a w o m a n f r o m Er-Rubayat, n o w i n West B e r l i n ( i n v . 31161/7).
T h e subject's l u x u r i a n t h a i r a n d b e a r d a n d t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f b r o o d i n g i n t e n s i t y are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f
A n t o n i n e s c u l p t u r e d p o r t r a i t s , so a date i n t h e m i d - s e c o n d c e n t u r y is m o s t l i k e l y .

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5. P o r t r a i t o f a b o y , encaustic on wood. A " F a y u m p o r t r a i t " o n a w o o d p a n e l , at least i n t h e first a n d
s e c o n d centuries A . D . , seems n o r m a l l y t o have b e e n p a i n t e d d u r i n g a person's l i f e t i m e a n d a d a p t e d t o f u n e r a r y
p u r p o s e after d e a t h . E a r l y p o r t r a i t s o f c h i l d r e n m u s t fall i n a d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r y f r o m t h o s e o f adults, f o r
p r e s u m a b l y t h e y w e r e n o t p a i n t e d i n a d v a n c e b u t r a t h e r at t h e t i m e o f p r e m a t u r e d e a t h . T h e y are less c o m
m o n t h a n p o r t r a i t s o f a d u l t s , a n d so this e x a m p l e r e c e n t l y a d d e d t o t h e G e t t y c o l l e c t i o n is o f special i n t e r e s t .
As is usual, t h e area o f t h e p o r t r a i t that o r i g i n a l l y was left e x p o s e d t o v i e w i n t h e c a r t o n n a g e is o u t l i n e d
b y traces o f b i t u m e n . M i n o r r e s t o r a t i o n o f t h e surface is a p p a r e n t as i n p a i n t i n g w h e r e t h e p a n e l d e v e l o p e d
several l o n g i t u d i n a l c r a c k s n o n e o f t h e m m a j o r b u t t h e p a i n t i n g is m a i n l y o r i g i n a l a n d i n t a c t .
T h e subject o f t h e p o r t r a i t is a y o u t h w h o s e h e a d has b e e n s h a v e d e x c e p t f o r t w o s m a l l l o c k s a b o v e t h e
f o r e h e a d a n d a b r a i d , fastened w i t h a g o l d p i n , o n t h e r i g h t side o f his h e a d . T h i s h a i r s t y l e , at least t h e b r a i d ,
w a s c o n s i d e r e d a g o o d - l u c k c h a r m f o r E g y p t i a n y o u n g s t e r s . A s i m i l a r b r a i d appears i n several o t h e r p a i n t
ings that d e p i c t y o u t h s , b u t t h e s h a v e d h e a d o f t h e G e t t y y o u n g s t e r makes h i m u n i q u e a m o n g subjects o f
"Fayum portraits."
T h e b o y w e a r s a p l a i n b l a c k n e c k l a c e , o f u n c e r t a i n m a t e r i a l , f r o m w h i c h a p p a r e n t l y is s u s p e n d e d a g o l d
o r g i l t c o n t a i n e r f o r a m u l e t s . H e w e a r s a s t a n d a r d w h i t e t u n i c w i t h n a r r o w p u r p l e clavi, only one o f w h i c h
is v i s i b l e because a c l o a k , o r pallium, c o v e r s his left s h o u l d e r . A t t h e r i g h t edge o f t h e p a n e l t h e r e appears
a c u r i o u s f o r k e d m o t i f t h a t is seen t o b e t t e r advantage o n G e t t y p o r t r a i t n o . 6 b e l o w , a n d w h i c h appears
o n several o t h e r " F a y u m p o r t r a i t s " as w e l l . W h i l e this feature is d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n , it p o s s i b l y r e p r e s e n t s
d e c o r a t i o n o n t h e pallium t h a t is d r a p e d o v e r t h e subject a n d c a r r i e d o n his left a r m .
T h e b o y ' s y o u t h f u l features are w e l l - r e n d e r e d b y t h e p o r t r a i t p a i n t e r : t h e u n f o r m e d nose a n d m o u t h ,
especially, are those o f a c h i l d , as is the s m o o t h , matte t o n e o f the flesh. T h e eyes contrast r e m a r k a b l y , h o w e v e r ,
f o r i n t h e i r h e a v y d a r k s h a d i n g t h e y appear m o r e l i k e t h e eyes o f an a d u l t . T h i s serves t o recall that p o r t r a i t
p a i n t e r s i n t h e F a y u m w e r e a c c u s t o m e d , a n d n o d o u b t t r a i n e d , t o p a i n t adults. T h e s e eyes, m o r e o v e r , are
g i v e n p a r t i c u l a r emphasis i n an o t h e r w i s e s i m p l e p o r t r a y a l , a feature that m i g h t be said a b o v e all t o characterize
m u m m y p o r t r a i t s i n g e n e r a l . Eyes w e r e c o n s i d e r e d n o t o n l y a c r u c i a l feature i n j u d g m e n t s u p o n b e a u t y i n
t h e a n c i e n t Near East b u t also as w i n d o w s o n t h e s o u l . T h u s it is n o s u r p r i s e t o f i n d t h e m e m p h a s i z e d , a n d
e v e n exaggerated, i n " F a y u m p o r t r a i t s , " since i n a n c i e n t E g y p t i a n b e l i e f t h e m u m m y w a s t h o u g h t t o be a
permanent abode for the soul.
I n several artistic details this p o r t r a i t resembles n o . 6 b e l o w , b u t a n u m b e r o f e l e m e n t s t h e shape o f t h e
h e a d a n d its r e l a t i o n t o t h e n e c k , the t e x t u r e o f t h e g a r m e n t a n d t h e n a t u r e o f its f o l d s , e t c . i d e n t i f y its
artist as d i s t i n c t f r o m , a n d s o m e w h a t less s o p h i s t i c a t e d t h a n , his n e a r - c o n t e m p o r a r y , t h e s o - c a l l e d M o n t r e a l
Painter. Still, t h e r e are e n o u g h close s i m i l a r i t i e s t o suggest that b o t h p a i n t e r s s h a r e d a c o m m o n artistic t r a d i
t i o n . T h e p o r t r a i t m u s t h a v e b e e n p a i n t e d d u r i n g t h e later s e c o n d c e n t u r y A . D .

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6. P o r t r a i t o f a b e a r d e d m a n , encaustic on wood. T h i s p o r t r a i t , a c q u i r e d i n 1974, is p e r h a p s the m o s t
v i v i d p o r t r a y a l o f an i n d i v i d u a l a m o n g the e x a m p l e s i n the G e t t y M u s e u m . T h e p a i n t e d surface a n d the p a n e l
as a w h o l e are i n e x c e l l e n t c o n d i t i o n .
T h e subject is r a c i a l l y s t r i k i n g . His sharp a n d p i e r c i n g a l m o n d - s h a p e d eyes, a l m o s t n e g r o i d lips, w i r y c u r l e d
hair, a n d d a r k s k i n all suggest a m i x e d heritage. T h e b a c k g r o u n d is n e u t r a l g r a y i s h w h i t e o v e r a d a r k p r i m e r .
B r o w n s d o m i n a t e t h e - r u d d y c o m p l e x i o n . T h e subject's l i p s are d e e p b r o w n - r e d , a n d his eyes are a n u n u s u a l
o l i v e - b r o w n , d e l i c a t e l y o u t l i n e d i n b l a c k . T h e g a r m e n t is t h e usual w h i t e , w i t h a n e x t r e m e l y n a r r o w clavus
p a i n t e d i n r a s p b e r r y - r e d . T h e artist's m a s t e r y o f the e n c a u s t i c m e d i u m is e v i d e n t i n the v i g o r a n d care ac
c o r d e d t h e face, w h i l e the t h i c k b l a c k c u r l s o f the hair also reveal especially s k i l l f u l use o f the cestrum.
T h e n a r r o w clavus is a feature that c o m m o n l y appears o n p o r t r a i t s f r o m the G r a f c o l l e c t i o n , s u g g e s t i n g
a n o r i g i n at Er-Rubayat f o r o u r e x a m p l e . Precisely i d e n t i c a l g a r m e n t schemes, a n d t h e same s h a d i n g at t h e
n e c k l i n e , appear o n at least t w o o t h e r p o r t r a i t s : that o f a b o y n o w i n t h e N o r t o n S i m o n M u s e u m , Pasadena,
a n d o n e o f a b e a r d e d m a l e , h e a v i l y r e s t o r e d , i n M o n t r e a l . W h e n w e a d d a list o f a n a t o m i c a l s i m i l a r i t i e s (lips,
nose, eye s h a d i n g a n d lashes, the m o u s t a c h e a n d b e a r d p a t t e r n s o f the t w o b e a r d e d subjects), i t b e c o m e s
e v i d e n t that the three p o r t r a i t s are the w o r k o f the same h a n d . W e m i g h t call h i m the M o n t r e a l Painter, a l t h o u g h
t h e G e t t y p o r t r a i t is t h e finest a n d m o s t careful o f the t h r e e . Since t h e M o n t r e a l p o r t r a i t is k n o w n t o h a v e
c o m e f r o m the G r a f c o l l e c t i o n , i t is clear that the M o n t r e a l Painter w o r k e d at Er-Rubayat ( o r at P h i l a d e l p h e i a ) .
W h i l e t h e b e a r d a n d h a i r s t y l e r e c a l l A n t o n i n e c o u r t f a s h i o n , t h e style o f p a i n t i n g also c o u l d a l l o w f o r an
e a r l y Severan date.

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7. P o r t r a i t o f a m a n , encaustic on wood. T h o u g h its state o f p r e s e r v a t i o n is n o t e x c e l l e n t , t h i s p o r t r a i t
is o f v e r y h i g h q u a l i t y a n d d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t t a l e n t e d encaustic p a i n t e r s w e r e w o r k i n g w e l l i n t o t h e t h i r d
century A.D.
T h e p a i n t i n g e v i d e n t l y is p r e s e r v e d t o its f u l l o r i g i n a l h e i g h t . T h i s is m o s t u n u s u a l , since p o r t r a i t s o n w o o d
that w e r e w r a p p e d i n m u m m i e s n o r m a l l y w e r e cut d o w n , often considerably, before i n s e r t i o n . A l t h o u g h
t h e p a n e l has b e e n b r o k e n a w a y r o u g h l y at t h e sides, its h e i g h t still gives a sense o f t h e o r i g i n a l size o f a
" F a y u m p o r t r a i t " before reduction.
T h e p o r t r a y a l is u n c o m p l i c a t e d . T h e subject is p o s e d against a m e d i u m - g r a y b a c k g r o u n d , c l o t h e d i n a w h i t e
t u n i c . T h u s t h e r e is l i t t l e d i s t r a c t i o n f r o m t h e m o s t e v i d e n t t a l e n t o f t h e painter, his h a n d l i n g o f s h a d o w a n d
t e x t u r e . T h e artist's d i s c r e e t b l e n d i n g o f w a r m p i n k a n d beige flesh t o n e s i n t h e h e a d a n d n e c k a n d his s u b t l e
feel f o r h i g h l i g h t i n g e m p h a s i z e t h e m a n ' s sharp features. A s h a d o w o f c l o s e - c r o p p e d b e a r d a n d m o u s t a c h e
f u r t h e r e n h a n c e t h e s t r o n g b o n e s t r u c t u r e . T h e p o r t r a i t is a m i n o r m a s t e r p i e c e o f encaustic p a i n t i n g .
T h e subject's h a i r s t y l e w a s f a s h i o n a b l e i n later Severan t i m e s , a n d t h i s p o r t r a i t m u s t h a v e b e e n p a i n t e d
i n t h e e a r l y decades o f t h e 200's A . D . A t t h e base o f t h e p o r t r a i t a w r e a t h o f p i n k f l o w e r s a n d a s p r i g o f
g r e e n leaves h a v e b e e n i n c l u d e d , p e r h a p s a d d e d later as a f u n e r a r y o r n a m e n t .

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8. T r i p t y c h , tempera on wood. T h e t h r e e p a i n t i n g s t o g e t h e r f o r m a f o l d i n g s h r i n e , Klappbild, or trip
t y c h . Each is p a i n t e d i n t e m p e r a a n d is r e m a r k a b l y w e l l p r e s e r v e d . A l t h o u g h t h e e x a c t p r o v e n i e n c e is n o t
k n o w n , t h e f i n e state o f p r e s e r v a t i o n c e r t a i n l y m e a n s that t h e y c o m e f r o m t h e F a y u m r e g i o n . T h e side panels
d e p i c t t h e deities Serapis a n d Isis, w h i l e t h e c e n t r a l p a n e l is a p o r t r a i t o f a b e a r d e d m a n .
T h e c e n t r a l p a i n t i n g bears a s t r i k i n g v i s u a l r e s e m b l a n c e t o " F a y u m p o r t r a i t s , " b u t because c o m p o s i t e panels
w e r e e x t r e m e l y s u s c e p t i b l e t o s p l i t t i n g at t h e j o i n s , t h e y w e r e n o t e m p l o y e d f o r p a i n t i n g s i n t e n d e d t o b e
w r a p p e d i n m u m m y cartonnages. T h e subject is s h o w n against a l i g h t gray b a c k g r o u n d . His face is d o m i n a t e d
b y a healthy abundance o f black hairheavy b r o w s , the short b u t t h i c k cut o n the head, a closely c r o p p e d
b e a r d a n d m o u s t a c h e . T h i s h a i r was q u i t e t h i c k l y a n d c a r e f u l l y p a i n t e d b y t h e artist a n d t h u s reveals c o n
s i d e r a b l e d e t a i l . T h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e facial features reveals a v a r i e d palette, especially a r o u n d t h e eyes: t h e
p u p i l s are f a w n , set o f f b y d a r k e r b r o w n s h a d i n g at t h e l i d s a n d beige lashes. Flashes o f t h e same b e i g e h i g h
l i g h t t h e cheeks, a n d t h e r e d l i p s a d d a s t r i k i n g n o t e o f c o l o r t o t h e facial d e p i c t i o n . H e carries a s p r i g o f
l i g h t g r e e n leaves i n his r i g h t h a n d a n d h o l d s a m a r o o n w r e a t h i n his left. T h e s e e v i d e n t l y are f u n e r a r y s y m
b o l s , suggesting t h a t t h e s u b j e c t is deceased a n d that this p a i n t i n g is a c o m m e m o r a t i v e p o r t r a i t .
T h i s c e n t r a l p a n e l c a n b e d a t e d w i t h s o m e p r e c i s i o n , based o n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h o t h e r p a n e l p o r t r a i t s . T h e
m a n i n t h e G e t t y t r i p t y c h is v e r y s i m i l a r i n e v e r y respect (style o f hair a n d b e a r d , l e n g t h t o w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t
is p o r t r a y e d , presence o f the f u n e r a r y w r e a t h a n d l a u r e l s p r i g , m e d i u m , o v e r a l l artistic style) t o a large n u m b e r
o f m u m m y portraits f r o m the m i d d l e o f the t h i r d c e n t u r y A . D .
T h e Serapis a n d Isis appear at first glance t o be v e r y s k i l l f u l r e n d e r i n g s , m o r e so t h a n t h e c e n t r a l p o r t r a i t .
T h e p a n e l o n t h e r i g h t s h o w s Isis i n t h r e e - q u a r t e r v i e w . T h e g o d d e s s has a pale beige c o m p l e x i o n , m u c h
l i g h t e r t h a n that o f Serapis o r o f t h e c e n t r a l p o r t r a i t . T o u c h e s o f p i n k a n d m a r o o n m o d e l h e r cheeks, c h i n ,
a n d l i p s . H e r eyes are s u c h a d a r k b r o w n that t h e y a l m o s t appear b l a c k a n d are d e e p l y r i m m e d w i t h d a r k
b r o w n a n d l o n g , t h i c k eyelashes. H e r l o n g b l a c k h a i r f l o w s i n t i g h t l y c r i m p e d w a v e s o v e r h e r s h o u l d e r s ,
a d o r n e d w i t h a w r e a t h o f d a r k a n d l i g h t g r a y - g r e e n leaves a n d p i n k f l o w e r s . O n t o p o f h e r h e a d is a f l o w e r
l i k e headdress d e p i c t e d i n rust a n d gray w i t h , i n t h e c e n t e r , a c o n e - l i k e uraeus (?). A t r a n s p a r e n t v e i l seems
t o be d e p i c t e d o v e r a l l , f a l l i n g t o t h e sides. Isis w e a r s a b l u e t u n i c w i t h a f r i n g e d b r o n z e - c o l o r e d m a n t l e t i e d
w i t h t h e Isiac k n o t . A t h i c k w r e a t h o f p i n k f l o w e r s trails o v e r her left s h o u l d e r . She w e a r s t w o necklaces,
o n e o f b l a c k beads, t h e o t h e r o f r e d p e n d a n t s o n a w i r e . G o l d d o l p h i n earrings h a n g f r o m h e r ears. A b l a c k
w o o d staff w i t h g o l d i n l a i d designs leans against h e r r i g h t s h o u l d e r .

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Serapis is s h o w n i n t h r e e - q u a r t e r v i e w w i t h a r u d d y c o m p l e x i o n e n h a n c e d b y t o u c h e s o f beige a n d r e d .
T h e eyes, l i k e t h o s e o f Isis, are m o d e l e d w i t h d a r k circles o f b r o w n , the u p p e r lids a n d e y e b r o w s drawn
s t r o n g l y i n b l a c k . T h e l u x u r i a n t hair f a l l i n g a b o u t his s h o u l d e r s is b l a c k , t h o u g h his b e a r d a n d m o u s t a c h e
are m e d i u m b r o w n . O n his h e a d is a g o l d modius, m o d e l e d w i t h dark red, above a twisted c l o t h diadem
w i t h g o l d h i g h l i g h t s a n d a w r e a t h o f b r o w n leaves. T h e g a r m e n t is r e d - b r o w n .
Because o f the a p p a r e n t d i s c r e p a n c y i n artistic q u a l i t y , o n e m i g h t w o n d e r at first w h e t h e r the leaves a n d
c e n t r a l p a n e l o f the G e t t y t r i p t y c h w e r e p a i n t e d n o t b y o n e artist b u t b y t w o o f v e r y disparate s k i l l . Closer
i n s p e c t i o n , h o w e v e r , reveals that p a i n t e r l y details s u c h as the b r u s h w o r k a n d the palette e m p l o y e d are i d e n
tical i n all t h r e e panels. T h e d i s t i n c t i v e use o f a r i c h m a r o o n f o r facial s h a d i n g is p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t e w o r t h y .
M o r e o v e r , o n close e x a m i n a t i o n the a p p a r e n t q u a l i t y o f the side panels is n o m o r e t h a n s u p e r f i c i a l ; a d e g r e e
o f t e c h n i c a l c o m p e t e n c e is a c h i e v e d , b u t t h e o v e r a l l effect is lifeless a n d f o r m a l w h e n c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e
e x u b e r a n t o r i g i n a l i t y o f the c e n t r a l p o r t r a i t .
A l t h o u g h the c e n t r a l p a n e l excels i n s p i r i t a n d the side leaves i n e x e c u t i o n , details t h u s c o n f i r m that all
t h r e e w e r e d o n e b y the same artist. T h e p o r t r a i t m u s t h a v e b e e n p a i n t e d f r o m life, the Serapis a n d Isis c o p i e d
f r o m e x i s t i n g sources. J i n Frel has suggested that t h e side leaves r e p r o d u c e w e l l - k n o w n m a s t e r p i e c e s , w h i c h
seems l i k e l y . T h e o r i g i n a l s m u s t h a v e b e e n v e r y s t r i k i n g , a n d i t is t e m p t i n g t o see these c o p i e s as r e f l e c t i o n s
o f o n e o r a p a i r o f i m p o r t a n t c u l t p a i n t i n g s i n s t a l l e d i n a m a j o r s h r i n e o f R o m a n E g y p t , p o s s i b l y e v e n at
Alexandria.
A l t h o u g h the s u p e r b c o n d i t i o n o f the panels suggests that t h e y w e r e r e c o v e r e d f r o m a t o m b , i t is p r o b a b l e
that the o r i g i n a l f u n c t i o n o f the t r i p t y c h was d o m e s t i c . W e k n o w that a n c e s t o r v e n e r a t i o n was c o m m o n i n
R o m a n E g y p t a n d that, at least s o m e t i m e s , p a i n t e d ancestor p o r t r a i t s w e r e d i s p l a y e d i n p r i v a t e h o m e s . Rather
t h a n b e i n g h u n g o n the w a l l , h o w e v e r , the G e t t y t r i p t y c h m u s t h a v e b e e n f r e e s t a n d i n g , set u p o n o r near
a d o m e s t i c altar o r p l a c e d i n a w a l l - n i c h e . Klappbilder o f s i m i l a r f o r m are k n o w n i n R o m a n a n d C a m p a n i a n
w a l l p a i n t i n g , e s p e c i a l l y o f the S e c o n d Style. I t s h o u l d be n o t e d , h o w e v e r , that w h i l e m o s t R o m a n a n d C a m
p a n i a n e x a m p l e s are d i s p l a y e d o p e n , n o n e o f t h e m s h o w s a n y t h i n g o n t h e leaves b e y o n d d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f s ,
a n d t h e i r c e n t r a l p a i n t i n g s a l m o s t i n v a r i a b l y are g e n r e scenes d e v o i d o f r e l i g i o u s o r c o m m e m o r a t i v e i m p l i
c a t i o n s . T h u s the t r i p t y c h seems t o h a v e b e e n e m p l o y e d i n R o m a n I t a l y p u r e l y as an o r n a m e n t a l feature
o f i n t e r i o r d e s i g n rather t h a n , as h e r e , t o h a v e b e e n associated w i t h the d o m e s t i c c u l t .

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Figure G. Typical arrangement of T h e precise p h y s i c a l p l a c e m e n t o r use o f t h e G e t t y t r i p t y c h is u n c e r t a i n because o f t h e absence o f t h e
Roman Klappbilder. After W. Ehlich, frame i n w h i c h t h e panels o r i g i n a l l y w e r e m o u n t e d . T h e r e are several f r a m i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r s u c h Klapp
Bild u n d Rahmen i m Altertum: Die bilder, a c c o r d i n g to the examples i n the R o m a n a n d Campanian w a l l paintings (fig. G). T y p e B or type C
Geschichte des Bilderrahmens (Munich c o u l d e q u a l l y w e l l h a v e b e e n t h e f r a m e w o r k o f the G e t t y t r i p t y c h , f o r w h i l e t h e c e n t r a l p a n e l is b o r d e r e d
1954) 177fig. 49. b y a n a r r o w u n p a i n t e d s t r i p o r i g i n a l l y c o v e r e d b y its frame, t h e side panels e v i d e n t l y w e r e u n f r a m e d a n d
w e r e set w i t h p i n t l e hinges, o n e o f w h i c h s u r v i v e s o n each leaf, i n t o sockets i n t h e c e n t r a l f r a m e . O n t h e
basis o f t h e panels' d i m e n s i o n s , t y p e C is m o s t l i k e l y .
T h e r e also c o u l d be s o m e i n i t i a l u n c e r t a i n t y a b o u t just h o w t h e panels w e r e set u p . T h e p a i n t e d sides o f
t h e leaves m i g h t h a v e b e e n v i s i b l e w i t h t h e t r i p t y c h o p e n S e r a p i s t o t h e left o f t h e c e n t r a l p o r t r a i t , Isis
t o t h e r i g h t o r t h e d i v i n i t i e s m i g h t h a v e b e e n v i s i b l e o n l y w h e n t h e t r i p t y c h was c l o s e d I s i s o n t h e left
d o o r , Serapis o n t h e r i g h t a s a p o r t a b l e , f o l d i n g s h r i n e . B u t t h e n a t u r e o f a n c e s t o r v e n e r a t i o n i n R o m a n
E g y p t argues against t a k i n g t h e G e t t y Klappbild as a n o b j e c t m e a n t t o be c a r r i e d f r o m place t o place. M o s t
o f t h e t i m e , at least, t h e t r i p t y c h m u s t h a v e b e e n d i s p l a y e d o p e n i n t h e h o m e . T o h a v e h a d Serapis a n d Isis
o n t h e f r o n t s o f the d o o r s w o u l d h a v e b e e n p o i n t l e s s , f o r u n d e r n o r m a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h e y w o u l d h a v e b e e n
h i d d e n f r o m v i e w . A l s o , i f these leaves are f o l d e d o u t p e r h a p s t h i r t y degrees, as t h e d o o r s o f R o m a n a n d
C a m p a n i a n Klappbilder u s u a l l y are d e p i c t e d , Serapis a n d Isis appear t o gaze d i r e c t l y at t h e observer.

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9. P o r t r a i t o f a w o m a n , tempera on wood. A n o t h e r G e t t y p o r t r a i t that c a n be t r a c e d t o t h e g r o u p o f
e x a m p l e s r e c o v e r e d at Er-Rubayat b y T h e o d o r G r a f i n t h e 1880's is this m a g n i f i c e n t d e p i c t i o n , o n e o f t h e
finest " F a y u m p o r t r a i t s " p a i n t e d i n t h e s o m e w h a t i n t r a c t a b l e t e m p e r a m e d i u m .
T h e subject is a b r i g h t - e y e d y o u n g l a d y s h o w n against a beige b a c k g r o u n d a n d c l o t h e d i n a h o t - p i n k t u n i c
w i t h b l a c k clavi. H e r j e w e l r y consists o f a f a i r l y p l a i n s p i r a l - b r a i d e d n e c k l a c e , f r o m t h e c e n t e r o f w h i c h is
s u s p e n d e d a m i n i a t u r e l u n e t t e , a n d a pair o f earrings, each c o n s i s t i n g o f t w o pearls, o n e at t h e fastening,
t h e o t h e r h a n g i n g f r o m i t o n a s i m p l e g o l d b a n d . H e r c u r l y hair is a r r a n g e d q u i t e s i m p l y a n d is d r a w n i n t o
a b u n at t h e b a c k .
T h e face s h o w s t h e m o s t s u b t l e n u a n c e s that c o u l d be a c h i e v e d i n t h e t e m p e r a m e d i u m . I t is e v i d e n t that
t h e p a i n t e r was v e r y w e l l - t r a i n e d a n d that h e was an e x t r e m e l y c o m p e t e n t artist, w i t h a special talent f o r
d r a w i n g an a s t o u n d i n g t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l i t y o u t o f the u n g e n e r o u s tempera paint. T h e care lavished o n shading
a n d h i g h l i g h t i n g b y delicate, t r a n s l u c e n t lines o f h a t c h i n g e v e n recalls the fine early p o r t r a i t s i n encaustic.
T h e n e w m e d i u m , h o w e v e r , c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y e x p r e s s i v e s c h e m a t a o f eyes a n d m o u t h ,
p o i n t s t o a later date. T h i s p a i n t i n g i s l i k e o n l y a f e w o t h e r t e m p e r a p o r t r a i t s a m i n o r masterpiece.
It is i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h e a l m o s t i n c r e d i b l e d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n t h e p a i n t e r l y a t t e n t i o n d e v o t e d t o t h e
face a n d that t o t h e g a r m e n t . T h e latter is o n l y r o u g h l y d a u b e d w i t h s w e e p i n g strokes o f r e d o v e r t h e p i n k
g r o u n d . I t c u r i o u s l y c o m b i n e s an e v i d e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e n a t u r e o f d r a p e r y f o l d s w i t h a slapdash d e p i c
t i o n o f these f o l d s i n b r o a d u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d swaths. T h e n o n - f a c i a l p o r t i o n o f this p a i n t i n g m a y p o s s i b l y h a v e
b e e n c o m p l e t e d b y t h e master's assistant, b u t t h e style seen h e r e is m o s t p e c u l i a r a n d c a n n o t be p a r a l l e l e d
elsewhere a m o n g surviving m u m m y portraits.
A l t h o u g h t h e painter's style is h i g h l y d i s t i n c t i v e , it c a n n o t be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h c e r t a i n t y o n a n y o t h e r " F a y u m
p o r t r a i t " that s u r v i v e s . H e m u s t h a v e w o r k e d at Er-Rubayat o r at P h i l a d e l p h e i a i n t h e late t h i r d o r early f o u r t h
century A.D.

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10. P o r t r a i t o f a y o u n g m a n , tempera on linen. T h e first " F a y u m p o r t r a i t " o n c l o t h t o e n t e r t h e G e t t y
M u s e u m is p a i n t e d o n the f r a g m e n t o f a l i n e n b u r i a l s h r o u d that w o u l d h a v e c o v e r e d t h e h e a d a n d face o f
the deceased. F u l l - l e n g t h portraits sometimes w e r e p a i n t e d o n s h r o u d s used as the final w r a p p i n g o f the m u m m y
b e f o r e i t w a s i n t e r r e d . I n o t h e r instances, a b u s t - l e n g t h p o r t r a i t was p a i n t e d o n a c l o t h that was w r a p p e d
i n a regular c a r t o n n a g e m u c h l i k e the w o o d panels, w i t h face, o r h e a d a n d n e c k , left e x p o s e d t o v i e w . T h i s
s h r o u d f r a g m e n t is a n e x a m p l e o f the latter t y p e , a n d the p o r t r a i t area is a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same size as c o n
t e m p o r a r y , a n d m o r e c o m m o n , w o o d panels.
U n l i k e w o o d panels, o n w h i c h the b a c k g r o u n d n o r m a l l y is n e u t r a l gray, the subject o f this p o r t r a i t appears
against a g r a y i s h b l a c k . T h u s t h e b r i g h t c o l o r s o f the p o r t r a y a l s t a n d o u t s h a r p l y a n d s t r i k i n g l y . T h e subject's
flesh is a p e c u l i a r s a l m o n c o l o r , w i t h features d e l i n e a t e d i n g r a y a n d s h a d i n g r e n d e r e d i n r e d d i s h b r o w n .
T h e l i p s are b r i c k - r e d . T h e hair is b l a c k , w i t h o l i v e - b r o w n h i g h l i g h t s , the same o l i v e - b r o w n as the subject's
eyes. T h e y o u n g m a n w e a r s a w h i t e t u n i c w i t h n a r r o w g r a y - b l u e clavi a n d is c r o w n e d b y a w r e a t h o f g r e e n
leaves w i t h g o l d stems a n d berries. O n his s h o u l d e r sits a s a l m o n - a n d - b e i g e c o l o r e d f a l c o n , a feature that
appears o n b o t h panels a n d s h r o u d s o f late date, u s u a l l y t h o s e f r o m the f o u r t h c e n t u r y . T h e b i r d s y m b o l i z e s
the ancient Egyptian g o d Horus, or Harpocrates.
As is m o s t o f t e n the case, t h e r e are n o v i s u a l clues i n this p o r t r a i t t h a t p r o v i d e factual i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t
t h e subject. T h a t he m a y be r e p r e s e n t e d at a f a i r l y y o u n g age is suggested b o t h b y the s m o o t h a n d y o u t h f u l
s k i n a n d , especially, b y the s i d e b u r n s , m o u s t a c h e , a n d s h o r t b e a r d w h i c h l o o k s v e r y m u c h l i k e a first g r o w t h .
U n l i k e the p a n e l p o r t r a i t s , the s h r o u d p o r t r a i t s m u s t h a v e b e e n ad hoc c r e a t i o n s at t h e t i m e o f d e a t h . T h u s ,
i f this is a f a i t h f u l d e p i c t i o n o f h i m , the m a n i n this p o r t r a i t m a y h a v e d i e d q u i t e y o u n g .
T h e artist c a n n o t be i d e n t i f i e d as t h e p a i n t e r o f o t h e r p o r t r a i t s that s u r v i v e . H i s style is h i g h l y i d i o s y n
c r a t i c , a c u r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n o f s k i l l i n facial r e n d e r i n g w i t h n a i v e t e o f p o s e a n d o f g a r m e n t s c h e m e . T h e
s t y l e o f the p o r t r a i t a n d its a b s o l u t e f r o n t a l i t y suggest t h a t i t w a s p a i n t e d i n t h e early decades o f the f o u r t h
century A.D.

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11. P o r t r a i t o f a m a n , tempera on wood. Perhaps the m o s t v i s u a l l y a r r e s t i n g m u m m y p o r t r a i t i n t h e
G e t t y M u s e u m is this s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d p o r t r a y a l i n t e m p e r a , p a i n t e d b y a d i s t i n c t i v e a n d p e r h a p s v e r y p r o l i f i c
artist o f t h e m i d - f o u r t h c e n t u r y A . D .
T h e subject is s h o w n i n the f r o n t a l p o s e that c a m e t o be t h e general r u l e i n the f o u r t h c e n t u r y . H e l d
o b j e c t s , t o o , b e c o m e f r e q u e n t i n p o r t r a i t s o f s u c h late date. T h e G e t t y m a n grasps i n his r i g h t h a n d w h a t
appears t o be a c o n e - s h a p e d glass w i t h a b e a d e d r i m h a l f - f i l l e d w i t h a r e d l i q u i d ( w i n e ? ) a n d , i n his left, a
r o s e - c o l o r e d w r e a t h . These o b j e c t s e v i d e n t l y h a d f u n e r a r y c o n n o t a t i o n s , f o r t h e same o r s i m i l a r i t e m s ap
pear i n several o t h e r p o r t r a i t s . T h e subject w e a r s a w h i t e t u n i c w i t h b l u e clavi and lavender decoration o n
t h e edge o f t h e n e c k o p e n i n g .
R o u n d - f a c e d s m i l i n g subjects w e r e the s t o c k - i n - t r a d e o f an artist w h o s e style is r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e i n several
o t h e r p o r t r a i t s a n d w h o has c o m e t o be c a l l e d t h e B r o o k l y n Painter. A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e G e t t y p a n e l t o
t h e artist's n a m e p i e c e ( f i g . 38) leaves l i t t l e d o u b t that b o t h are b y t h e same p a i n t e r . T h e s i m i l a r shape a n d
r e l a t i o n o f h e a d a n d n e c k , t h e same g a r m e n t s c h e m e , s m o o t h s h a d i n g a r o u n d t h e eyes, nose, a n d m o u t h ,
p r e c i s e l y i d e n t i c a l ears, a n d c l o s e l y s i m i l a r h a n d s all f o r m o n l y t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a l o n g list o f features that
c o r r e s p o n d i n these t w o p o r t r a i t s .
A m o n g t h e m a n y o t h e r p o r t r a i t s that h a v e b e e n associated w i t h t h e B r o o k l y n Painter, t h e r e are a n u m b e r
o f m i n o r v a r i a t i o n s that suggest w e m a y be d e a l i n g n o t so m u c h w i t h a single artist as w i t h a s c h o o l . B u t
t h e r e can be n o e q u i v o c a t i o n a b o u t t h e G e t t y a n d B r o o k l y n p o r t r a i t s : t h e y are the w o r k o f o n e a n d t h e same
painter.
T h e B r o o k l y n Painter w o r k e d at Er-Rubayat, o r at P h i l a d e l p h e i a , i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r y A . D .

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12. P o r t r a i t o f a w o m a n , tempera on wood. T h i s p a i n t i n g is a m a r v e l o u s e x a m p l e i l l u s t r a t i n g g e n e r a l
features o f t h e p o r t r a i t p a i n t e r ' s art near t h e e n d o f m u m m y p o r t r a i t p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e late f o u r t h c e n t u r y
A . D . I t is i n t e r e s t i n g , t o o , f o r its o r i g i n , since it is k n o w n t o h a v e b e e n a m o n g t h e h u n d r e d s o f p a i n t i n g s
r e c o v e r e d b y T h e o d o r G r a f at Er-Rubayat, t h e c e m e t e r y o f P h i l a d e l p h e i a , i n the 1880's.
T h e b i z a r r e v i s u a l aspect o f this p o r t r a i t , w h e n c o m p a r e d t o t h e panels c o n s i d e r e d p r e v i o u s l y , is d u e m o s t
l y t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e t e m p e r a m e d i u m i n w h i c h i t w a s p a i n t e d , as w e l l as t o an o v e r a l l c h a n g e
i n a r t i s t i c taste o b s e r v a b l e i n m u m m y p o r t r a i t s that appears t o h a v e b e g u n d u r i n g t h e t h i r d c e n t u r y . T h e
t e m p e r a m e d i u m , i n w h i c h p o w d e r e d p i g m e n t s are m i x e d i n a n egg base, dries q u i c k l y a n d t h u s d e m a n d s
r a p i d e x e c u t i o n . Faster a n d c h e a p e r t h a n encaustic p a i n t , b u t n e i t h e r e n c o u r a g i n g n o r i n d e e d a l l o w i n g m u c h
p a i n t e r l y s u b t l e t y , t e m p e r a c a m e t o be u s e d f o r n e a r l y a l l " F a y u m p o r t r a i t s " p a i n t e d late i n t h e t h i r d a n d
all t h r o u g h t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r i e s . W h a t p a i n t i n g s l i k e that o f t h e G e t t y l a d y lack i n aesthetic s o p h i s t i c a t i o n ,
h o w e v e r , t h e y m a k e u p f o r i n directness a n d s p o n t a n e i t y . T h e y are, t o p u t i t s i m p l y , q u a i n t a n d c h a r m i n g .
T h e s u b j e c t is s h o w n n e a r l y f u l l - f r o n t a regular feature o f t h e latest m u m m y p o r t r a i t s d r e s s e d i n a r i c h
p i n k t u n i c w i t h b l a c k clavi. She is n i c e l y c o i f f e d , the severe r o w s o f h a i r s o f t e n e d b y t e n d r i l s w a v i n g a r o u n d
t h e h a i r l i n e . T h e h a i r s t y l e is h i g h l i g h t e d b y a n o r n a m e n t w i t h t w o beads (?) a n d a single p e a r l s u s p e n d e d
f r o m t h e c e n t r a l p a r t i n g . She wears large g o l d h o o p earrings a n d t w o necklaces, o n e o f w h i c h consists o f
alternating pearls a n d lozenge-shaped stones, the o t h e r o f a w o v e n b l u e (silver?) b a n d w i t h central g o l d p e n d a n t .
I n spite o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s i m p o s e d b y t h e m e d i u m , t h e p a i n t e r h a d a g o o d a n a t o m i c a l sense a n d a d i s t i n c t
c o n f i d e n c e o f s t r o k e . T h o u g h it w o u l d be easy t o dismiss this e x a m p l e h a s t i l y as a s i m p l e c a r t o o n o r t h e
w o r k o f a h a c k p a i n t e r , closer i n s p e c t i o n reveals that s u c h is n o t at all t h e case. T h e p u r s e d p i n k l i p s , w i d e
o p e n b r o w n eyes, a n d s t r o n g l y a r c h e d b l a c k e y e b r o w s all c a p t u r e a f e e l i n g o f i m m e d i a c y a n d i n d i v i d u a l i t y .
T h e p a i n t e r was a p r o d u c t o f his age a n d , w i t h i n t h e artistic c o n t e x t o f Late A n t i q u i t y , a q u i t e t a l e n t e d artist
at that.
T h e p a i n t e r c a n n o t n o w be i d e n t i f i e d as t h e c r e a t o r o f o t h e r " F a y u m p o r t r a i t s " that s u r v i v e . H e w i l l h a v e
w o r k e d at Er-Rubayat, o r P h i l a d e l p h e i a , near t h e e n d o f t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r y A . D .

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13- P o r t r a i t o f a m a n , tempera on linen. T h e s e c o n d G e t t y m u m m y p o r t r a i t o n c l o t h is, l i k e n o . 10
a b o v e , n o t a f u l l - l e n g t h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e deceased b u t r a t h e r a p a r t i a l d e p i c t i o n r o u g h l y t h e same size
as c o n t e m p o r a r y p a n e l p o r t r a i t s . I n this e x a m p l e t h e subject is s h o w n a l m o s t t o t h e w a i s t , h o l d i n g an o b j e c t
i n e i t h e r h a n d . A b u n c h o f grapes is s h o w n i n t h e r i g h t h a n d , a w r e a t h i n t h e leftas b e c a m e f r e q u e n t i n
p o r t r a i t s p a i n t e d i n t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r y . H e is g a r b e d i n a w h i t e t u n i c w i t h p i n k clavi, a n d appears against
a gray b a c k g r o u n d .
T h e s h r o u d is i n fairly g o o d c o n d i t i o n , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e d e l i c a c y o f the m a t e r i a l , a l t h o u g h a n u m b e r o f
details are p a r t l y o b s c u r e d b y s o m e s t a i n i n g a n d loss o f p a i n t . T h i s is p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e o f t h e b a c k g r o u n d ,
w h i c h a p p a r e n t l y w a s r i c h l y d e c o r a t e d w i t h s y m b o l s f r o m a n c i e n t E g y p t i a n r e l i g i o n . T w o s u c h s y m b o l s still
p l a i n l y v i s i b l e t o t h e subject's r i g h t are t h e f a l c o n that m a y r e p r e s e n t H o r u s o r H a r p o c r a t e s a n d a m u m m i f i e d
f i g u r e w i t h o u t s t r e t c h e d w i n g s , o n e o f a p a i r o f s u c h figures (Isis a n d Osiris?) a c c o r d i n g t o traces o f a s i m i l a r
d e p i c t i o n t o t h e subject's left. W e are r e m i n d e d h e r e that t o m a n y i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e F a y u m r e g i o n , e v e n
t h o s e w h o m a y h a v e e m i g r a t e d f r o m I t a l y itself, the a n c i e n t n a t i v e beliefs w e r e e x t r e m e l y a t t r a c t i v e , far m o r e
so t h a n t h e c o l d a n d i m p e r s o n a l R o m a n state r e l i g i o n . Especially o n late s h r o u d s , s u c h as this e x a m p l e , w e
f i n d a w i d e r e p e r t o r y o f signs a n d s y m b o l s that d e r i v e f r o m E g y p t i a n , r a t h e r t h a n G r a e c o - R o m a n , r e l i g i o n .
T h e p a i n t e r o f this p o r t r a i t e v i d e n t l y was m u c h r e m o v e d f r o m t h e artistic m a i n s t r e a m i n R o m a n E g y p t .
I n s t e a d , he w o r k e d i n a p u r e l y l o c a l s t y l e that o w e s l i t t l e , b e y o n d t h e basic idea o f a p a i n t e d f u n e r a r y i m a g e ,
t o t h e t r a d i t i o n s so e l o q u e n t l y r e f l e c t e d i n t h e best early " F a y u m p o r t r a i t s . " T h e p a i n t i n g appears a l m o s t
w h o l l y t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l a n d reflects at m o s t a m i n i m u m o f f o r m a l t r a i n i n g i n a n a t o m i c a l representation.
N e i t h e r t h e artist n o r t h e p r o v e n i e n c e o f t h e p o r t r a i t c a n be i d e n t i f i e d . T h e p a i n t i n g is o n e o f m a n y u n
p r e t e n t i o u s l o c a l p r o d u c t s that s u r v i v e f r o m t h e late f o u r t h c e n t u r y A . D .

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61
14. Stucco m u m m y mask o f a w o m a n . A l l t h r o u g h the R o m a n p e r i o d i n Egypt, the c u s t o m o f placing
s c u l p t u r e d plaster masks o v e r t h e m u m m y w r a p p i n g s e x i s t e d p a r a l l e l t o t h e t r a d i t i o n o f p a i n t e d p a n e l p o r
traits. P t o l e m a i c G r e e k s seem t o h a v e a d o p t e d t h e c u s t o m f r o m the E g y p t i a n s , c o n t i n u i n g t h e l o c a l s y s t e m
o f m a s s - p r o d u c i n g t y p e s ( y o u n g m a n , o l d m a n , b e a r d e d m a n , etc.) w i t h l i t t l e o r n o a t t e m p t at characteriza
t i o n . W i t h t h e a d v e n t o f a sizable R o m a n c o m m u n i t y after t h e B a t t l e o f A c t i u m , t h e craft o f p o r t r a i t u r e seems
t o h a v e i n f l u e n c e d s c u l p t u r e d as w e l l as p a i n t e d m u m m y p o r t r a i t s . Elaborate h a i r s t y l e s w e r e c o p i e d , p e r h a p s
as p a r t o f an a t t e m p t at a c t u a l likeness. H e r e t h e h a i r is d r a w n b a c k f r o m a c e n t e r p a r t i n t o a t i g h t c h i g n o n ,
s e c u r e d b y a c l i p against t h e b a c k o f t h e h e a d . A n a r r o w flat b r a i d e x t e n d s a b o u t o n e i n c h i n s i d e t h e h a i r l i n e
a r o u n d t h e h a i r . A c o r k s c r e w c u r l dangles i n f r o n t o f each ear. T h e eyes, m a d e o f sheets o f m i c a set o v e r
b i t u m e n p u p i l s , c o n t r i b u t e l a r g e l y t o the l i f e l i k e effect; the o r i g i n a l r i c h c o l o r i n g p i n k cheeks, r e d lips, b l a c k
h a i r m u s t have b e e n startling. T h e sharp c u r v e o f the e y e b r o w s , contrasting w i t h the f l u i d m o d e l i n g o f
t h e l i p s , t h e c o i f f u r e , a n d t h e o v e r a l l style p l a c e t h e p o r t r a i t i n the s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e s e c o n d c e n t u r y A . D .

T h e G e t t y M u s e u m also o w n s a r u i n o f a p o l y c h r o m e d l i m e s t o n e h e a d o f a y o u n g m a n (acc. n o . 7 1 . A A . 2 7 5 )
a n d a p a i n t e d s t u c c o c a r t o n n a g e m a s k o f a y o u t h i n t h e E g y p t i a n t r a d i t i o n (acc. n o . 7 1 . A A . 3 6 5 ) .

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63
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION

1. Portrait of a lady A . R o t h e , " P o r t r a i t o f a Lady. C o n s e r v a t i o n R e p o r t , " G e t t y MJ 10 (1982) f o r t h c o m i n g .


81.AP.42 T h e p a n e l is i n e x c e l l e n t c o n d i t i o n , e v e n t h o u g h the w o o d is e x t r e m e l y t h i n , d u e t o t h e fact that t h e o l d
Encaustic on wood c a r t o n n a g e is s t i l l p r e s e r v e d . T h e c a r t o n n a g e is c o m p o s e d o f s e v e n layers o f c l o t h , t w o o f w h i c h h a v e b e e n
H: 33.6 cm.; W: 17.2 cm. s o a k e d i n s o m e resinous substance a n d are i n d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h the back o f the p a n e l . T h e b i t u m i n o u s substance
H (of car tonnage): 46.4 cm.; W (of that d e f a c e d a n d d i s c o l o r e d t h e p o r t r a i t w a s r e m o v e d , a n d a p e r f e c t l y p r e s e r v e d p a i n t layer w a s u n c o v e r e d .
cartonnage): On top: 21.6 cm.,
On bottom: 36.8 cm.

2. Portrait of a Man Apollo 91 (n.s. n o . 9 6 : F e b r u a r y 1970) x x x v , p i . (col.); Burlington Magazine 112 ( n o . 813: D e c e m b e r 1970) s u p p l .
71. AP. 72 p i . 4; R. Symes, Ancient Art (sale catalogue; L o n d o n 1971) n o . 2 5 , p i . ( c o l . ) ; Objets 3 ( n . d . = 1971) f i g . ; C.C. Ver-
From Hawara. m e u l e a n d N . N e u e r b u r g , Catalogue of the Ancient Art in the J . Paul Getty Museum ( M a l i b u 1973) 41 n o . 9 1 ,
Encaustic on wood fig. 9 1 ; H . L a t t i m o r e i n B . B . F r e d e r i c k s e n , The]. Paul Getty Museum ( M a l i b u 1975) 53, f i g . a ( c o l . ) ; T h o m p s o n ,
H-. 47.5 cm.; W: 24.1 cm. " F o u r ' F a y u m P o r t r a i t s ' i n the G e t t y M u s e u m , " G e t t y A / / 2 (1975) 85-86, 88 n o . 1, f i g . 1 (hereafter, " F o u r ' F a y u m
P o r t r a i t s ' " ) ; i d . , The Artists of the Mummy Portraits ( M a l i b u 1976; hereafter, Artists) 8, fig. 11; K . Parlasca, Reper-
torio d'arte dell 'egittogreco-romano, ser. B: Ritratti di mummie (3 v o l s , t o date; P a l e r m o 1969 a n d R o m e 1977,
1980; hereafter, Ritratti) I I , 34 n o . 267, p i . 6 4 . 4 (Trajanic).
T h e p r e s e r v a t i o n is g o o d . T h e t h i n p a n e l s h o w s t h e w a r p i n g t h a t n o r m a l l y results f r o m f o r c e d c o n f o r m i t y
t o the p h y s i c a l shape o f the m u m m y . F o u r cracks a l o n g g r a i n lines o f the w o o d , o n e o f w h i c h e x t e n d s the panel's
e n t i r e l e n g t h , d o n o t s e r i o u s l y d e t r a c t f r o m t h e p o r t r a i t ' s i n t e g r i t y . T h e p a n e l was r o u g h l y c u t a w a y at the t o p
b e f o r e b e i n g i n s e r t e d i n t o t h e m u m m y . T h e surface is i n t a c t a n d s h o w s n o signs o f e i t h e r r e p a i n t i n g o r restora
t i o n . T h e r e is s o m e m i n o r e n c r u s t a t i o n (sand o r d i r t ) e v i d e n t i n t h e hair, w h i l e f r a g m e n t s o f t h e m u m m y c a r t o n
nage r e m a i n i n t h e area o f the s u b j e c t ' s left ear. T h e r e is s o m e d i s c o l o r a t i o n a n d d a r k e n i n g d u e t o t h e b i t u m e n
used to prepare the m u m m y .

T h o m p s o n , " F o u r ' F a y u m P o r t r a i t s ' " 87-88 n o . 2, f i g . 2; id., Artists 15, f i g . 4 1 ; Parlasca, Ritratti I I , 30, n o . 2 5 1 ,
3. Portrait of a Flavian Matron
p i . 61.4 (Flavian).
73AP.91
T h e p a n e l is i n fine c o n d i t i o n . T h e w o o d is e x t r e m e l y t h i n , so e x t e n s i v e w a r p i n g has o c c u r r e d , r e s u l t i n g
From Hawara.
i n a m a j o r l o n g i t u d i n a l c r a c k . T h r e e o t h e r less s i g n i f i c a n t cracks are p r e s e n t . S o m e o l d f l a k i n g o f p a i n t is e v i d e n t
Encaustic on wood
i n t h e u p p e r r i g h t p o r t i o n o f the p a n e l , a n d s o m e r e p a i n t i n g seems t o h a v e b e e n e f f e c t e d p r i o r t o its a c q u i s i t i o n ,
H; 40 cm - W: 20 cm.
e s p e c i a l l y a r o u n d t h e b r o w s a n d i n the hair.

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4. Portrait of a bearded man Apollo93 (n.s. n o . 112: J u n e 1971) 149, i l l . ; T h o m p s o n , " F o u r ' F a y u m P o r t r a i t s ' " 88-90 n o . 3, f i g . 4; i d . , Artists
73.AP.94 10, f i g . 2 1 ; Parlasca, Ritratti I I , 6 4 n o . 3 8 7 , p i . 94.2 ( A . D . 1 7 5 - 1 8 0 ) .
Probably from Er-Rubayat. T h e w o o d , w h i c h appears t o be cedar, is p a r t i a l l y w a r p e d b u t u n u s u a l l y s o u n d ; n o n e o f six l o n g i t u d i n a l cracks
Encaustic on wood e x t e n d s t h e p a n e l ' s e n t i r e l e n g t h . Large f r a g m e n t s o f t h e m u m m y c a r t o n n a g e , b o t h b l u e a n d w h i t e l i n e n ,
H: 43 cm.; W: 22.5 cm. r e m a i n o n t h e l o w e r p o r t i o n o f the p a n e l as w e l l as o n its reverse. F a i r l y e x t e n s i v e f l a k i n g o f c o l o r i n t h e n e c k
area appears t o h a v e r e s u l t e d w h e n t h e p o r t r a i t w a s r e m o v e d f r o m the m u m m y . T h e h a i r has b e e n r e t o u c h e d
s l i g h t l y , b u t n o o t h e r r e s t o r a t i o n is a p p a r e n t .

5. Portrait of a boy Weltkunst 4 7 n o . 21 ( N o v e m b e r 1977) 2 0 0 4 ; Parlasca, Ritratti I I I , 67 no. 674, p i . F (col.) ( A . D . 150-200).
78.AP.262 T h e p a i n t i n g is u n u s u a l l y s m a l l . T h e p a n e l p o s s i b l y was c u t d o w n f r o m a m o r e s t a n d a r d size, as Parlasca
Said to be from Oxyrhyncbus. suggests; b u t i n v i e w o f t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y s m a l l scale o f the s u b j e c t p o r t r a y a l , i t seems m o r e l i k e l y t h a t t h e
Encaustic on wood c u r r e n t d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e p a n e l are o r i g i n a l . E v i d e n t l y because o f this s m a l l size, i t w a s n o t d e e m e d necessary
H: 20.3 cm.; W: 13 cm. t o c u t a w a y the p a n e l ' s u p p e r c o r n e r s b e f o r e i t was i n s e r t e d i n the m u m m y c a r t o n n a g e .
T h e c o n d i t i o n is v e r y g o o d . O n e large c r a c k t h r o u g h t h e c e n t e r o f t h e p a n e l has b e e n i n p a i n t e d a n d s o m e
f i l l i n g a n d p a i n t i n g are o n the r i g h t side o f t h e h e a d .

6. Portrait of a bearded man Apollo 9 8 (n.s. n o . 142: D e c e m b e r 1973) 9 5 , p i . ( c o l . ) ; J. F r e l , Recent Acquisitions. Ancient Art. The J . Paul
74.AP.11 Getty Museum, ( e x h i b i t i o n catalogue; M a l i b u 1974; hereafter, Recent Acquisitions) no. 26, fig.; T h o m p s o n , " F o u r
From Er-Rubayat. ' F a y u m P o r t r a i t s ' " 8 9 - 9 0 n o . 4, f i g . 5; i d . , Artists 4, c o v e r i l l . ( c o l . ) ; Parlasca, Ritratti I I , 57 n o . 3 5 7 , p i . 8 6 . 2
Encaustic on wood ( m i d - A n t o n i n e ) ; J.-E. Berger, Voeil et Veternite: Portraits romains d'Egypte ( P a u d e x 1977; hereafter, L'oeil et
H: 37 cm.; W: 21 cm. Veternite) 170 ( i l l . ) , 215.
T h e p a i n t e d surface a n d t h e p a n e l as a w h o l e are i n e x c e l l e n t c o n d i t i o n . T w o h a i r l i n e cracks, s o m e d i s c o l o r
a t i o n f r o m t h e m u m m i f i c a t i o n materials, a n d a s m a l l f r a g m e n t o f c a r t o n n a g e c l i n g i n g at t h e t o p d o n o t d e t r a c t
f r o m t h e p o r t r a i t ' s s u p e r b state. T h e p a n e l w a s b r o k e n r o u g h l y b u t o n l y s l i g h t l y at t h e t o p c o r n e r s b e f o r e b e i n g
i n s e r t e d i n the c a r t o n n a g e .

7. Portrait of a man Unpublished


79.AP.141 T h e p a i n t i n g e v i d e n t l y is p r e s e r v e d t o its f u l l o r i g i n a l h e i g h t . T h i s is m o s t u n u s u a l , since p o r t r a i t s o n w o o d
Provenience unknown. that w e r e w r a p p e d i n m u m m i e s n o r m a l l y w e r e cut d o w n considerably before insertion. A l t h o u g h the panel
Encaustic on wood has b e e n b r o k e n a w a y r o u g h l y at t h e sides, o n e s t i l l c a n g a i n f r o m the h e i g h t a sense o f t h e o r i g i n a l size o f a
H: 47.5 cm.; W: 19 cm. " F a y u m p o r t r a i t " before reduction.
T h e p a i n t has c r a z e d a l o n g g r a i n lines o f t h e w o o d , p r e s u m a b l y because o f alternate s h r i n k i n g a n d s w e l l i n g
o f the p a n e l o v e r the c e n t u r i e s . C o n s i d e r a b l e p a i n t loss has o c c u r r e d , e s p e c i a l l y i n the b a c k g r o u n d a n d i n t h e
subject's garment, e x p o s i n g a d a r k p r i m e r beneath, b u t the facial area is i n relatively g o o d c o n d i t i o n . N o r e s t o r a t i o n
appears t o h a v e b e e n effected, e x c e p t a s m a l l a m o u n t i n t h e r i g h t ear.

65
8. Triptych Frel, Recent Acquisitionsnos. 23-25, figs.; T h o m p s o n , Artists 16, figs. 50-52; i d . , " A P a i n t e d T r i p t y c h f r o m R o m a n
74. AP. 20 (portrait) E g y p t , " G e t t y M J 6 - 7 ( 1 9 7 8 - 1 9 7 9 ) 185-92, figs. 1-3; Parlasca, Ritrattilll, 6 9 n o . 4 0 5 , p i . 100.1-3 (late A n t o n i n e ) ;
74.AP.21 (Serapis) Berger, L 'oeil etVeternite 117 ( i l l . ) , 215.
74. AP. 22 (Isis) T h e c o n d i t i o n is g o o d . T h e r e are f o u r p r o m i n e n t cracks i n t h e c e n t e r p a n e l a n d o n e e a c h i n t h e side panels.
Provenience unknown. Center: s o m e i n p a i n t i n g i n t h e h a i r a l o n g t h e c r a c k o f t h e face; s o m e d i s c o l o r a t i o n f r o m g l u e i n t h e c r a c k . Isis:
Tempera on wood h e a v i l y i n p a i n t e d , e s p e c i a l l y t h e hair, c h e e k , c h i n , a n d t h r o a t . Serapis: h e a v i l y i n p a i n t e d . T h e t e m p e r a has b e e n
H(portrait): 36 cm.; W: 37.5 cm. w a x e d to regain the transparency.
H (Serapis): 39 cm.; W: 19 cm.
H (Isis): 40 cm.; W: 19 cm.

9. Portrait of a woman D . C a r r i t , L t d . , The Classical Ideal (sale catalogue; L o n d o n 1979) 10 n o . 4, f i g . a n d c o v e r i l l . ( c o l . ) ; Parlasca,


81.AP.29 Ritratti I I I , 59-60 n o . 6 4 3 , p i . 152.2 ( A . D . 3 7 5 - 4 0 0 ) .
From Er-Rubayat; formerly in the B o t h t h e p a n e l a n d t h e p a i n t e d surface are i n an e x c e l l e n t state o f p r e s e r v a t i o n , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f s o m e
collections of Theodor Graf and s t a i n i n g . T h e r e is s o m e d i s c o l o r a t i o n a n d b l a n c h i n g d u e t o w a t e r stains. A d a r k g r a y p r i m e r is v i s i b l e at t h e
Otto Benesch, Vienna. u n p a i n t e d b o t t o m o f t h e p a n e l . T h e p a i n t i n g bears, o n t h e reverse, t h e s t a m p o f t h e V i e n n e s e c o l l e c t o r a n d
Tempera on wood. a n t i q u a r i a n T h e o d o r Graf.
H: 34.9 cm.; W: 21.3 cm.

10. Portrait of a Young Man T h o m p s o n , Artists 4, f r o n t i s p i e c e ( c o l . ) ; Parlasca, Ritratti I I I , 4 6 n o . 5 9 2 , p i . 141.5 ( A . D . 3 2 5 - 3 5 0 ) .


75. AP.87 S o m e loss o f p a i n t has o c c u r r e d , b u t o n t h e w h o l e t h e p o r t r a i t is i n f i n e c o n d i t i o n , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e f r a g i l i t y
Presented by Lenore Barozzi o f t h e a n c i e n t c l o t h . T h e b r i g h t r e d o n t h e t h r o a t a n d l o w e r p a r t o f t h e b a c k g r o u n d is m o d e r n i n p a i n t i n g . M i n o r
Provenience unknown. r e s t o r a t i o n s are e v i d e n t .
Tempera on linen
H: 37 cm.; W: 26.5 cm. (portrait
area only)
H: 58 cm.; W: 52.3 cm. (total)

11. Portrait of a man Unpublished


79.AP.142 T h e w o o d p a n e l is i n e x c e l l e n t shape; t h e p a i n t is s l i g h t l y less so, h a v i n g fallen a w a y a r o u n d t h e edges, especial
Provenience unknown. l y at t o p r i g h t . W h e r e t h i s p a i n t loss has o c c u r r e d , t h e w h i t e p r i m e r b e n e a t h is p l a i n l y v i s i b l e . P o r t i o n s o f t h e
Tempera on wood h a i r a n d a large p a t c h o f t h e c e n t e r o f t h e f o r e h e a d h a v e b e e n r e s t o r e d o r r e p a i n t e d as w e l l as t h e m o u s t a c h e ,
H: 34cm. ; W: 25 cm. r i g h t ear l o b e , a r o u n d b o t h l i p s , a n d t h e l o w e r b e a r d . T h e c e n t e r o f t h e face, h o w e v e r , is w e l l - p r e s e r v e d a n d
t h e p o r t r a i t ' s o v e r a l l c o n d i t i o n is v e r y f i n e . T h e c o l o r s are v e r y fresh.

66
12. Portrait of a woman 417. Kunstauktion, D o r o t h e u m , V i e n n a ( N o v e m b e r 2 4 , 1932) n o . 33; H . D r e r u p , Die Datierung der Mumien
79.AP.129 portrdts. (Studien zur Geschichte und Kultur des Altertums 1 9 : 1 ; P a d e r b o r n 1933) 4 7 - 4 8 , 66 n o . 3 4 , p i . 2 0 b ;
From Er-Rubayat; formerly in the M a j o r M . K . L e e e t a l . sale, K e n d e Galleries, N e w Y o r k ( S e p t e m b e r 26,1942) n o . 167; L . H a h l , Bonnfbb 160(1960)
collections of Theodor Graf and ? 2 0 n o . 55; Parlasca, Mumienportrdts 75 n . 96; i d . , Ritratti III, 60 n o . 6 4 4 , p i . 152.3 ( A . D . 3 5 0 - 4 0 0 ) ; The Ernest
Flinker, Vienna, and foseph and Brummer Collection, I : Medieval, Renaissance and Baroque Art, Z u r i c h , G a l e r i e K o l l e r ( O c t o b e r 19, 1979)
Ernest Brummer, New York. 21 n o . 4, f i g .
Tempera on wood T h e t h i c k p a n e l has o n e p r o m i n e n t transverse c r a c k b u t is o t h e r w i s e i n g o o d c o n d i t i o n . T h e p r i m e r a n d p a i n t
H: 28.2 cm.; W: 14.5 cm. w e r e b o t h a p p l i e d i n t h i n coats, a n d the h o r i z o n t a l g r a i n lines o f t h e w o o d t h u s s h o w t h r o u g h o v e r m u c h o f
t h e p a n e l . T w o d o w e l h o l e s near t h e p a n e l ' s l o w e r edge are o f u n c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n , b u t i t m a y be that t h e p a i n t i n g
o n c e was i n s t a l l e d i n s o m e k i n d o f f r a m e w o r k . I n d e e d , w i d e u n p a i n t e d strips at b o t h t o p a n d b o t t o m m a k e
this seem v e r y l i k e l y . T h e p a i n t i n g is n o t a large o n e , a n d so, l i k e n o . 5 a b o v e , i t was n o t t h o u g h t necessary
t o c u t a w a y its u p p e r c o r n e r s w h e n it was w r a p p e d i n the m u m m y .

13- Portrait of a man Unpublished


79.AP.219 T h e s h r o u d is i n f a i r l y g o o d c o n d i t i o n , c o n s i d e r i n g the d e l i c a c y o f the m a t e r i a l , t h o u g h a n u m b e r o f b a c k g r o u n d
Presented by G.L. Richards details are p a r t l y o b s c u r e d b y s o m e s t a i n i n g a n d loss o f p a i n t .
Provenience unknown.
Tempera on linen
H: 49.5 cm.; W; 35.5 cm.

14. Portrait mask of a woman Unpublished


81.AI.51 W o r n b u t u n b r o k e n . P r a c t i c a l l y all the r i c h p o l y c h r o m y has d i s a p p e a r e d . T h e left side is s l i g h t l y m o r e w o r n
Anonymous donation than the right.
Provenience unknown.
Stucco
H: 23.7 cm. (max.)

67
ABBREVIATED TITLES A N D SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Berger, L'oeil et Veternite. Berger, J a c q u e s - E d o u a r d . L 'oeil et Veternite: Portraits romains d'Egypte. P a u d e x 1977.
Bonnjbb Bonner Jahrbucher.
B u b e r l , Paul. Die griechisch-agyptischen Mumienbildnisse der Sammlung Theodor Graf. V i e n n a 1922.
C o c h e de la Ferte, E t i e n n e . Lesportraits romano-egyptiens du Louvre: Contribution aVetude de lapeinture
dans Vantiquite. Paris 1952.
D r e r u p , H e i n r i c h . Die Datierung der Mumienportrdts. Studien zur Geschichte und Kultur des Altertums
1 9 : 1 . P a d e r b o r n 1933
Ebers, G e o r g . Antike Portrats: Die hellenistischen Bildnisse aus dem Fajjum. L e i p z i g 1893. A l s o E n g l i s h
e d . , N e w Y o r k 1893.
Edgar, C a m p b e l l C o w a n . Graeco-Egyptian Coffins, Masks, and Portraits. Catalogue general des antiquites
egyptiennes du Musee du Caire 2 6 . C a i r o 1905.
. " O n t h e D a t i n g o f t h e F a y u m P o r t r a i t s . " Journal of Hellenic Studies 25 (1905) 2 2 5 - 3 3 .
Frel, Recent Acquisitions. F r e l , Jiff. Recent Acquisitions. Ancient Art. The J . Paul Getty Museum. E x h i b i t i o n c a t a l o g u e . M a l i b u 1974.
GBA Gazette des beaux-arts.
Getty MJ The J . Paul Getty Museum Journal.
Graf, T h e o d o r . Katalog zu Theodor Graf's Galerie antiker Portrats aus hellenistischer Zeit. B e r l i n 1889.
V a r i o u s later e d i t i o n s .
G r i m m , G l i n t e r . Die romischen Mumienmasken aus Agypten. W i e s b a d e n 1974.
G u i m e t , E m i l e . Les portraits d'Antinoe au Musee Guimet. Musee Guimet: Bibliotheque d'Art, Annates 5.
Paris 1912.

68
JEA Journal of Egyptian Archaeology.
MAAR Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome.
M o l l e r , G e o r g . Das Mumienportrat. Wasmuths Kunsthefte 1. B e r l i n 1919.
Parlasca, Mumienportrats. Parlasca, Klaus. Mumienportrats und verwandte Denkmaler. W i e s b a d e n 1966.
Parlasca, Ritratti. Repertorio d'arte delVegitto greco-romano, series B : Ritratti di mummie. 3 vols to
date. P a l e r m o 1969 a n d R o m e 1977, 1980.
P a v l o v , V s e v o l o d V. Fajumskij portret. M o s c o w 1965.
Peck, W i l l i a m H . Mummy Portraits from Roman Egypt. E x h i b i t i o n catalogue. D e t r o i t 1967.
Petrie, W . M . F l i n d e r s . The Hawara Portfolio: Paintings of the Roman Age. British School of Archaeology
in Egypt and Egyptian Research Account 22. L o n d o n 1913.
Roman Portraits and Memphis (IV). British School of Archaeology in Egypt and Egyptian
Research Account 2 0 . L o n d o n 1911.
2
Shore, Portrait Painting . S h o r e , A r t h u r F. Portrait Painting from Roman Egypt. Revised e d i t i o n . L o n d o n 1972.
S t r e l k o v , A . Fajumskij portret: Issledovanije i opisanija pamjatnikov. L e n i n g r a d 1936.
Thompson, Artists. T h o m p s o n , D a v i d L. The Artists of the Mummy Portraits. M a l i b u 1976.
Thompson, "Four 'Fayum Portraits.' " F o u r ' F a y u m P o r t r a i t s ' i n the G e t t y M u s e u m . " / . Paul Getty Museum Journal 2 (1975)
85-92.
Zaloscer, H i l d e . Portrdts aus dem Wustensand: Die Mumienbildnisse aus der Oase Fayum. V i e n n a 1961.
Vom Mumienbildnis zur Ikone. W i e s b a d e n 1969.

( F o r a d d i t i o n a l b i b l i o g r a p h y t h r o u g h 1966, see Parlasca, Mumienportrats 213-43.)

69
INDEX BY ACCESSION NUMBERS

71.AP.72 Portrait o f a man, A . D . 100-125 no. 2


73.AP.91 P o r t r a i t o f a w o m a n , ca. A . D . 100 no. 3
73.AP.94 Portrait o f a bearded man, A . D . 150-175 no. 4
74.AP.11 Portrait o f a bearded man, A . D . 175-225 no. 6
74.AP.20-22 Triptych, A.D. 225-250 no. 8
75.AP.87 Shroud portrait o f a young man, A . D . 300-350 n o . 10
78.AP.262 Portrait o f a boy, A . D . 150-200 no. 5
79AP.129 Portrait o f a w o m a n , A . D . 350-400 n o . 12
79.AP.l4l Portrait o f a man, A . D . 2 0 0 - 2 2 5 no. 7
79.AP.142 Portrait o f a man, A . D . 325-375 n o . 11
79.AP.219 Shroud portrait o f a man, A . D . 350-400 n o . 13
81.AI.51 Stucco mask o f a w o m a n , A . D . 150-200 n o . 14
81.AP.29 P o r t r a i t o f a w o m a n , ca. A . D . 3 0 0 no. 9
81.AP.42 Portrait o f a w o m a n , A . D . 100-125 no. 1

70