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Course Title: KINEMATICS OF MACHINERY

Sub code:
Contact Hours per week : 5 (L) + 1(T) Hours

Course Coordinator : Mr. G SURESH BABU


Course Advisor (if any) : Mr. G SURESH BABU
Module Coordinator : Mr. Dr. SCVRMN

Course coordinator phone : 8332942393


Course coordinator e-mail : sureshbabu.graddala@gmail.com
Course coordinator location : Room No.:2S13,2S14
Course Coordinator availability : Monday 9:30am - 10:30am
Friday 2.30pm 3.15pm
Resource link:
Pre-requisites Courses: Engineering Physics, Engineering Mechanics, Mathematics and
Mechanics Of Solids Etc.

Course Description:
In this course students will learn about the fundamentals Student will acquire acknowledge in
1. Analysis of mechanisms,
2. Drawing displacement diagrams for followers with various types of motions,
3. Cam profile drawing for various followers,
4. Estimation of transmission of power by belts and application of various gears and gear trains.

Overview of learning activities:

1. Lecture and Class Discussions.


2. Assignment work.
3. Tutorial/Quiz sessions
4. Power Point Presentations

Overview of learning resources:

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Mechanism and Machine Theory by Ashok G. Ambekar, PHI Publishers.
2. Theory of Machines S. S Rattan- TMH .
3. Theory of machines and Mechanisms J.J Uicker, G.R.Pennock &
J.E. Shigley - Oxford publishers.
REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Theory of Machines Sadhu Singh Pearsons Edn
2. Theory of machines and Machinery /Vickers /Oxford .
3. Theory of Machines by Thomas Bevan/ CBS
4. Kinematics of Machinery through Hyper Works J.S. Rao Springer Publ.
5. Theory of Mechanisms and machines A.Ghosh & A.K.Malik East West Press Pvt. Ltd.

Freely Accessible Internet Sites

nptel.ac.in/courses/112104121/1

https://www.vidyarthiplus.com/vp/thread-25311.html

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MJeRFzs4oRU
Overview of assessment:

Internal Test.

Quiz

Assignments.

University Exams.
SYLLABUS

II Year B.Tech. Mech. Engg. II-Sem.


KINEMATICS OF MACHINERY

UNIT I
MECHANISMS :
MECHANISMS : Elements or Links Classification Rigid Link, flexible and fluid link
Types of kinematic pairs sliding, turning, rolling, screw and spherical pairs lower and higher
pairs closed and open pairs constrained motion completely, partially or successfully
constrained and incompletely constrained . Khubralrs criteria , Grashoffs law , Degrees of
freedom, Kutzbach criterian for planar mechanisms, Mechanism and machines classification of
machines kinematic chain inversion of mechanism inversion of mechanism inversions of
quadric cycle, chain single and double slider crank chains.

UNIT - II
LOWER PAIR MECHANISM: Exact and approximate copiers and generated types
Peaucellier, Hart and Scott Russul Grasshopper Watt T. Chebicheff and Robert Mechanisms
and straight line motion, Pantograph. Conditions for correct steering Davis Steering gear,
Ackermans steering gear velocity ratio; Hookes Joint: Single and double Universal
coupling applicationproblems.
UNIT III
KINEMATICS: Velocity and acceleration Motion of a link in machine Determination of
Velocity and acceleration diagrams Graphical method Application of relative velocity
method four bar chain. Velocity and acceleration analysis of for a given mechanism, Kleins
construction, Coriolis acceleration, determination of Coriolis component of acceleration. Plane
motion of body: Instantaneous center of rotation, centroids and axodes relative motion between
two bodies Three centres in line theorem Graphical determination of instantaneous centre,
diagrams for simple mechanisms and determination of angular velocity of points and links.
UNIT IV
CAMS Definitions of cam and followers their uses Types of followers and cams
Terminology Types of follower motion: Uniform velocity, Simple harmonic motion and
uniform acceleration and retardation. Maximum velocity and maximum acceleration during
outward and return strokes in the above 3 cases. Analysis of motion of followers: Roller follower
circular cam with straight, concave and convex flanks.

UNIT V
Gears: Higher pairs, friction wheels and toothed gearstypes law of gearing, condition for
constant velocity ratio for transmission of motion, Form of teeth: cycloidal and involute profiles.
Velocity of sliding phenomena of interferences Methods of interference. Condition for
minimum number of teeth to avoid interference, expressions for arc of contact and path of
contact Introduction to Helical, Bevel and worm gearing.
UNIT VI
Power Transmissions : Introduction, Belt and rope drives, selection of belt drive- Mechanical
Engineering 83 types of belt drives,V-belts, materials used for belt and rope drives, velocity ratio
of belt drives, slip of belt, creep of belt, tensions for flat belt drive, angle of contact, centrifugal
tension, maximum tension of belt, Chains- length, angular speed ratio, classification of chains.
Introduction to gear Trains, Train value, Types Simple and reverted wheel train Epicyclic
gear Train. Methods of finding train value or velocity ratio Epicyclic gear trains. Selection of
gear box-Differential gear for an automobile.

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Mechanism and Machine Theory by Ashok G. Ambekar, PHI Publishers.
2. Theory of Machines S. S Rattan- TMH .
3. Theory of machines and Mechanisms J.J Uicker, G.R.Pennock &
J.E. Shigley - Oxford publishers.
REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Theory of Machines Sadhu Singh Pearsons Edn
2. Theory of machines and Machinery /Vickers /Oxford .
3. Theory of Machines by Thomas Bevan/ CBS
4. Kinematics of Machinery through Hyper Works J.S. Rao Springer Publ.
5. Theory of Mechanisms and machines A.Ghosh & A.K.Malik East West Press Pvt. Ltd.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
1. The objective of this unit is to make student understand the purpose of kinematics, Kinematic
joint and mechanism and to study the relative motion of parts in a machine without taking into
consideration the forces involved.
2. The objective of this unit is to make student understand various mechanisms for straight line
motion and their applications including steering mechanism..
3. The objective of this unit is to make student understand the velocity and acceleration concepts
and the methodology using graphical Mechanical Engineering 82 methods and principles and
application of four bar chain. To understand the application of slider crank mechanism etc. and
study of plane motion of the body.
4. The objective of this unit is to make student understand the theories involved in cams. Further
the students are exposed to the applications of cams and their working principles.
5. The objective of this unit is to make student understand gears, power transmission through
different types of gears including gear profiles and its efficiency.
6. The objective of this unit is to make student understand various power transmission
mechanisms and methodologies and working principles. Students are exposed to merits and
demerits of each drive.
COURSE OUTCOMES (COs)
CO1: Student will demonstrate knowledge in
CO2: Designing a suitable mechanism depending on application
CO3: Drawing displacement diagrams and cam profile diagram for followers executing different
types of motions and various configurations of followers,
CO4: Drawing velocity and acceleration diagrams for different mechanisms,
CO5: Selecting gear and gear train depending on application.
Mapping of COs with POs
PO10

PO11

PO12
PO1

PO2

PO3

PO4

PO5

PO6

PO7

PO8

PO9
Course Outcomes

CO1: a) Explain the


ability to synthesis, both
graphically and analytically,
Multilink mechanisms.
b) Designing a suitable
mechanism depending on
application
CO2: practicing of Mechanical
Engineering in all areas of
Design, Thermal and
Manufacturing Engineering in
all types of industrial sectors.
CO3: synthesis of
mechanisms on four chain,
the unknown lengths of
links
CO4: static and dynamic
equilibriums of links in
mechanical elements.
Unknown lengths of links.
CO5: Drawing velocity and
acceleration diagrams
for different mechanisms,

CO6: Selecting gear and


gear train depending on
application.
LESSON PLAN
Prerequisite: : Engineering Physics, Engineering Mechanics, Mathematics and Mechanics Of
Solids Etc.
Unit/Topic No of
No. Topic Name Classes
Required
I SEMI CONDUCTOR PHYSICS
1.1 Insulators, Semi conductors, and Metals classification using Energy Band 1
1.2 Diagramsand Conductivity
Mobility 1
1.3 Electrons and holes in Intrinsic Semi conductors 1
1.4 Electrons and holes in Extrinsic Semi Conductors 1
Tutorial -1(Problems on Mobility & conductivity)
1.5 Drift and Diffusion 1
1.6 Charge densities in semiconductors 1
1.7 Hall effect 1
1.8 Continuity Equation 1
Tutorial -2(Problems on Hall effect & Continuity equation)
1.9 Law of Junction 1
1.10 Fermi Dirac Function 1
1.11 Fermi level in Intrinsic andExtrinsic Semiconductors 1
II JUNCTION DIODE CHARACTERISTICS
2.1 Open circuited P-N Junction 1
2.2 Biased P-N Junction 1
2.3 P-N Junction Diode 1
2.4 Current components in PN Junction Diode 1
Tutorial -1(Problems on diodes)
2.5 Diode Equation 1
2.6 Volt-Ampere Characteristics 1
2.7 Temperature Dependence on V I characteristics 1
Tutorial -1(Problems on diode equation)
2.8 Diode Capacitance and Diode Resistance (Static and Dynamic) 1
2.9 Energy Band Diagram of PN Diode. 1
SPECIAL SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES
2.10 Zener Diode, Breakdown mechanism 1
2.11 Zener Diode Applications 1
Tutorial -1(Problems on zener diode)
2.12 LED: Construction, Operation and 1
2.13 LCD: Construction, Operation and 1
2.14 Photo Diode: Construction, Operation and 1
2.15 Varactor Diode: Construction, Operation and 1
Tutorial -1(Problems on Photo diode & varactor diode))
2.16 Tunnel Diode: Construction, Operation and 1
2.17 DIAC: Construction, Operation and 1
2.18 TRIAC: Construction, Operation and 1
2.19 SCR: Construction, Operation and 1
Tutorial -1(Problems on Tunnel diode equation)
2.20 UJT: Construction, Operation and 1
III RECTIFIERS AND FILTERS
3.1 Basic Rectifier setup 1
3.2 Half wave rectifier 1
3.3 full wave rectifier 1
Tutorial -1(Problems on Rectifiers)
3.4 Bridge Rectifier 1
3.5 Derivations of characteristics of rectifiers 1
3.6 Rectifier circuits - operation, input and output waveforms 1
Filters: Inductor filter 1
3.7
Tutorial -1(Problems onFilters)
3.8 Capacitor filter 1
3.9 L- section filter,- section filter 1
3.10 Multiple L- section and Multiple section filters 1
3.11 comparison of various filter circuits in terms of ripple factors 1
Tutorial -1(Problems on filters)
IV TRANSISTORS CHARACTERISTICS
4.1 BJT: Junction transistor 1
4.2 Transistor current components 1
4.3 Transistor equation 1
4.4 Transistor configurations 1
Tutorial -1(Problems on Transistor configuration)
4.5 Transistor as an amplifier 1
4.6 Characteristics of Transistor in Common Base, Common Emitter and 1
4.7 Common
Ebers-MollCollector
Model ofConfigurations
a Transistor 1
4.8 Punch Through/ Reach Through, 1
Tutorial -1( Problems on Amplifiers)
4.9 Photo Transistor 1
4.10 Typical transistor junction voltage values, FET- types 1
FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTORS 1
4.11 FET- Construction & operation 1
4.12 FET - Characteristics & parameters 1
Tutorial -1(Problems on FET)
4.13 MOSFET- types 1
4.14 MOSFET- Construction & operation 1
4.15 MOSFET - characteristics 1
4.16 Comparison between JFET and MOSFET 1
Tutorial -1(Problems on MOSFET)
V TRANSISTOR BIASING AND THERMAL STABILIZATION
5.1 Need for biasing 1
5.2 Operating point 1
5.3 Load line analysis 1
5.4 BJT biasing- methods 1
Tutorial -1(Problems on Load analysis)
5.5 Basic Stability 1
5.6 fixed bias 1
5.7 Collector to Base Bias 1
5.8 Self Bias 1
Tutorial -1(Problems on Collector to Base bais)
5.9 Stabilization against variations in VBE,IC, and , Stabilization factors, (S, 1
5.10 S', S'Compensation
Bias ) 1
5.11 Thermal runaway, Thermal stability 1
5.12 FET- Biasing- methods and stabilization 1
Tutorial -1(Problems on Stabilization)
VI SMALL SIGNAL LOW FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR MODELS
6.1 BJT: Two port network 1
Transistor Hybrid model 1
6.2
6.3 conversion of h-parameters 1
6.4 Tutorial -1(Problems on Amplifiers using H-Parametrs) 1
6.5 generalized analysis of transistor amplifier model using h- parameters
6.6 Analysis of CB, CE and CC Amplifiers using exact and approximate 1
analysis
FET: Generalized analysis of small signal model 1
6.7
6.8 Tutorial -1(Problems on FET Amplifiers) 1
6.9 Analysis of CG, CS and CD Amplifiers 1
6.10 comparison of FET Amplifiers
Contents beyond the Syllabus 1
Cathode Ray Oscilloscope 1
Charged particle in Electric & Magnetic field deflection plates
Electron in perpendicular Electric & Magnetic Fields 1
Applications of Amplifiers in Low frequencies 1
Curricular gaps
** 2 to 3 topics 1
1
Total No. of hours: 70 to 75
*** Note
minimum classes: 60
Maximum clsasses: 75

QUESTION BANK (**preferably from old university question papers)

UNIT-1

01.Derivation for Diode Equation


02.Temperature Dependence of V-I Characteristics
03.Transition and Diffusion Capacitances
04.Explain about Insulator, Semiconductor and Conductor With Neat Sketches.
05.Formation of Depletion Region in Open Circuited PN Junction.
06.Define Static, Dynamic and Reverse Resistances
07.Explain Tunnel Diode Characteristics with neat diagram
08.Two Transistor Version of SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier)

Problems related to Reverse Saturation Current,Static and dynamic resistances,Transition and Diffusion
Capacitances
UNIT-2

01.Define the terms referred to Full Wave Rectifier Circuit and HWR
i)PIV
ii)Average or D.C Voltage
iii)RMS Current
iv)Ripple Factor
02)Derive the Ripple factor of pi-filter with neat sketch
03)PN junction as Rectifier
04)Half wave Rectifier and Full Wav Rectifier

UNIT-3

01)Explain Transistor as Current Controlled Device


02)Transistor Current Components
03)Explain CB,CC and CE Configurations with input and Output Characteristics
04)Determination of H-Parameters from Transistor Characteristics
05)Comparison of CB,CC and CE Amplifier Configurations
06)Define and and derive the relation between them
07)What is Early Effect?How does it modify V-I characteristics of a BJT?

UNIT-4

01)Explain the criteria for fixed operating point


02)Explain the need of Biasing
03)Explain the different types of Biasing methods.
04)What are the compensation techniques used for Vbe and Ico?Explain with the help of Circuits
05)Draw the circuit diagram of a collector to base bias circuit of CE amplifier and derive expression for S

E-learning materials

NPTEL
1. http://nptel.iitm.ac.in/video.php?courseId=1077
2. http://nptel.iitm.ac.in/video.php?courseId=1077&p=2
3. http://nptel.iitm.ac.in/video.php?courseId=1077&p=3
4. http://nptel.iitm.ac.in/video.php?courseId=1077&p=4
5. http://nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/Webcourse-contents/IIT-ROORKEE/BASIC-ELECTRONICS/home_page.htm

Question-Papers html
1. http://www.scribd.com/doc/18002828/r05010204electronicdevicesandcircuitsJNTU-btech-I-year-ECE-
group-question-paper-august-2008
2. http://www.scribd.com/doc/2025248/JNTU-old-question-papers-2007
3. http://www.scribd.com/doc/18974219/Jntukakinada-External-Question-Papers-AprilMayJune-2009-
Regular-Papers
4. http://www.scribd.com/doc/2606104/rr10205electronicdevicesandcircuits

Recommended books
1. Electronic Devices and Circuits J.Millman, C.C.Halkias, and Satyabratha JitTata McGraw Hill, 2nd Ed.,2007
2. Electronic Devices and Circuits Salivahanan, Kumar, Vallavaraj, TATA McGraw Hill,Second Edition
3. Electronic Devices and Circuits R.L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky, Pearson/Prentice all,9thEdition,2006.