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Predictive Maintenance (PDM)

Questions & Answers

What is Predictive Maintenance How is Vibration described?
Amplitude - (i.e., Normally Velocity)
Maintenance actions based on machine
Time (sec. or msec.)
Condition Data
Frequency (Hertz or CPM)
Vibration, Ultrasonic, and other relative
monitoring during normal operations
Phase (degrees)
Repairs when required with advanced notice
prior to unscheduled downtime
How are Vibrations measured?
How can PDM save money?
Transducer - Converts Vibration -
Motion into electrical signal for
Reduce repair costs Early warning processing
Reduce quantity of unnecessary inspections Vibration Meter - Detects only amplitude
(i.e., No frequency components)
Eliminate catastrophic failure costs
Vibration Analyzer - Performs
Reduce unscheduled downtime Increase conversion of Amplitude vs. Time to
machinery Reliability Amplitude vs. Freq. (Spectrum Analysis)

Why use Vibration for PDM? What units are used to describe
Adaptable to a variety of machines
Displacement = Mils [Peak-to-Peak]
Indicates Overall machine condition
(1 mil = 0.001")
Indicates problem severity
Velocity = In/Sec. [Peak]
Analysis indicates specific faults
Acceleration = g's [Peak]
(1 g = 32.2 ft/sec-sec)
What is Vibration?
Motion of machine components

Caused by dynamic forces

RMS = .707 Pk
What types of Vibration are there?
Peak-to-Peak Time
Peak - to- Peak
Periodic - (i.e., Machinery Shaft Speed)

Random - (i.e., Varying)

Transient - (i.e., Pump cavitation due to

improper system line-up)

2010 IMPACT Engineering, Inc. Page 1 of 4

Predictive Maintenance (PDM)
Questions & Answers
Where are machinery Vibrations How are Vibrations analyzed?
Spectrum Analysis (Amplitude vs. Freq.)
Bearing Housings
Parameter Trends (i.e. 1 x SS, 2 x SS,
HFD High Freq. Bearing Wear Detector)
Machine Casing
Waveform & Phase Analysis
Support Structure

Examples How can faults be detected early?

Typical Horizontal Machine Full Signature (Spectrum) Analysis
V02 V03 Frequency Analysis Parameter Sets
(i.e., 1 x SS, 2 x SS, HFD) Used for detailed
Overall Vibration Levels (i.e., Meters) used
H01 Driver
for initial trending. No specific machinery
faults can be identified with this method.

What types of faults can be detected?

Typical Vertical Machine

Port Stbd

Aft Bearing Defects / Wear


Internal Component Rubbing

Structural Resonant Conditions


Why is Ultrasonic (UT) analysis now

added to the PDM Process?
What are acceptable Vibration
Levels? Enhances roller element bearing and
coupling fault detection
ISO & Rathbone Charts
Determines if correct amount of Lubricant is
Machinery Comparison - History present in roller element bearings prior to
creating faults
Manufacturer's Guidelines
Used to detect outer race spinning condition
Trending - Relative Levels in roller element bearing housings

2010 IMPACT Engineering, Inc. Page 2 of 4

Predictive Maintenance (PDM)
Questions & Answers
How long has UT been used for Where do you measure Ultrasound?
bearing condition analysis?
With contact probe:
Evaluation period ten (10) years One measurement per bearing or on rigid
structure to bearing
Simultaneous with Vibration Analysis
Radial and/or Axial (load) direction
IMPACT Programs acquire Over 80,000 UT
Measurements / Year. Consistent locations

What are the frequency ranges of Radial and/or Axial (load) direction
normal sound vs. ultrasound?
With non-contact microphone:
Audible: 20 Hz 10 kHertz Listen to coupling with extension tube

Ultrasonic: 20 kHertz 200 kHertz How is bearing ultrasound severity

Acoustic Emission: 200 kHz 2 MHertz
Good bearings and Couplings produce
Why has Ultrasound now an integral smooth / mono-tone sounds without
part of Condition Monitoring? distinct characteristics

Simple and quick measurement Under lubricated bearings produce clicking

sounds that indicate excessive friction
Indicates high friction condition so associated with a dry condition
bearings can be greased and saved!
Bad / defective bearings produce distinctive
Provides early warning of developing faults popping / excessive clicking sounds that
so that planned repairs can eliminate typically do not reduce / disappear with
catastrophic failures greasing

What are the details of UT test Dry/worn/damaged Couplings produce

equipment? excessive popping / clicking

In general, increases in dynamic loading or

Ultrasound frequencies are shifted into speed increase digital amplitude values
audible range with detailed audible measured
39 kHerz (fault detection proven by NASA
and others) What is the typical condition of
bearings analyzed with UT?
4 kHertz Bandwidth (Narrow Band)
Bearing OK
Fixed frequency and filter (no tuning) High friction / Lack of lubricant Grease!

Developing fault Greasing reduces UT and

Short wavelength (source location)
popping sounds but return after time
No special sensor mounting (hand held)
Significant / severe fault present Greasing
does not reduce UT levels nor does severe
Precision Measurement (Digital Meter)
popping reduce

2010 IMPACT Engineering, Inc. Page 3 of 4

Predictive Maintenance (PDM)
Questions & Answers
What are the advantages of the What Special Tests can be
Ultrasound Technology? conducted?

Low cost with high benefits Variable Speed / Load

Less time to get results Impact Testing

Requires less skill and training than Relative Motion Analysis

vibration equipment
Driver un-coupled
Locates specific bearing with fault
Shaft alignment check
Non-contact measurement for coupling
analysis in now available Balance sensitivity

Early warning to save bearing or couplings Machinery problems are caused by?
with lubrication, coupling maintenance, or
shaft alignment Normal wear

How is Machinery Problem Severity Poor installation - design

Operational problems
By Machine type Improper maintenance procedures
Fault type
What problem feedback info. is
Fault severity useful?

Spare machine availability Operational actions taken

Critical machine for operation Details of faults found

Past experience with the type of fault Possible cause of the fault

Maintenance required and time to make Details of repair work done

Actual repair costs
How Is Problem Severity Rated?
Estimated costs if problem was undetected
and had failed catastrophically



None, continue to monitor

2010 IMPACT Engineering, Inc. Page 4 of 4