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Cascaded H-Bridge & Neutral Point Clamped Hybrid

Asymmetric Multilevel Inverter Topology for Grid


Interactive Transformerless Photovoltaic Power Plant
Sumit K. Chattopadhyayl Student Member iEEE, Chandan Chakrabort/ Senior Member iEEE and
Bikash C Pae Senior Member iEEE,
1 &2Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, 721302, INDIA
3 Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, UK
lemail: sumitkc1981@gmail.com 2email: chakraborty@ieee.org 3email: b.pal@imperial.ac.uk

Abstract: Hybrid multilevel inverter topology is proposed for at higher frequency. This is one of the key factors to make
high power transformer less grid interactive photovoltaic power photovoltaic converters different from general purpose
plant. Cascaded H-Bridge & Neutral Point Clamp topologies are inverters. Photovoltaic converters are typically having
hybridized to form this topology. Trinary asymmetric ratio of dc isolation voltage of 1000Y. The DC bus voltage is usually
bus voltage is adapted for increasing the number of levels. Only
kept within 800Y in order to avoid insulation failure. So, for
three basic switching stages (two single phase H bridge cell and
higher power rating of the inverter (above 80kW), the
an NPC structure with common source for all phases) are used in
photovoltaic array current has to be high (above 100A). In
each phase to obtain 53 levels in line to line voltage using trinary
voltage rato. NPC structure with a common DC bus for all
order to satisfy IEEE 519 harmonic standard [10], high
phases is connected to main photovoltaic (PV) array. This is kept frequency switching cannot be avoided in this topologies: This
at highest voltage to optimize the DC bus capacitor rating, and to causes higher switching losses, higher electromagnetic
reduce dc bus voltage ripple to increase MPPT efficiency. Third interference (EMI), increased cost of switch with high device
harmonic voltage is injected in order to increase the number of stresses and expensive gate drivers. Also costly, heavy and
voltage levels further, and to increase the DC bus utilization. bulky thermal management system is required owing to heavy
Increasing the number of voltage levels gives more flexibility to
switching losses.
reduce Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) of the system and in
turn reduction in cost and size of the power filter. Switching loss So, increasing the efficiency of solar cell will not be enough to
is optimized by operating the inverter at fundamental frequency.
build highly efficient photovoltaic power generation system.
Nearest voltage level control modulation technique is adapted.
The power conditioning unit should also be efficient and
The converter is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink. The results
reliable (many times photovoltaic power plants operate at
are validated through prototype experimentation in the
laboratory.
lower efficiency because of inverter failure). The maximum
power point tracking (MPPT) efficiency should also be very
Index Terms: Asymmetric hybrid multilevel inverter, grid high.
connected photovoltaic system, third harmonic injection, nearest
voltage level control, MPPT This paper analyses the practical challenges to enhance the
performance of MPPT and the efficiency of the power
I. INTRODUCTION conditioning unit. A hybrid multilevel inverter topology is
proposed. Control and sizing aspects to maximize the
The global capacity of photovoltaic power generation is
efficiency and optimize the cost of the inverter is discussed.
rapidly increasing [1] [2]. In last two decades, the research
As it is well known that, the cost of the power conditioner unit
and development for increasing the efficiency of photovoltaic
is typically about 9% of the total establishment cost of a large
power generation and reducing the cost/kW of energy is also
photovoltaic power generation system, cost optimization of
becoming a demanding subject of research.
the converter is necessary.
Presently almost all photovoltaic converters in the market [3]
The paper is organized as follows: Section I has explained the
[9] are operating above 5kHz frequency. The PY modules are
importance, motivation and challenges of developing efficient
having high terminal-to-body stray capacitance (typically few
and cost optimized power converter for grid connected
hundreds of nano Farad per kW). This requires some
photovoltaic systems. Section II proposes a suitable topology
topological modification to avoid line to earth leakage current

978-1-4673-2421-2/12/$31.00 2012 IEEE 5074


of multilevel inverter, its switching technique and a method to ripple, and increases the requirement of DC bus capacitors.
increase the line to line voltage and number of levels in line to With a lower DC bus capacitance the voltage ripple will be
line voltage. In Section III, the power distribution ratio/sizing higher: results lower MPPT efficiency. One end of the CHB
of PV array is discussed. Section IV deals with simulation. can be connected with NPC structure, which can be connected
Whereas, the experimental results are presented in Section V. to a common dc source for all phases. If this NPC structure is
Section VI concludes the work. kept at highest voltage, most of the power will be delivered by
the DC bus connected to this structure, which will have
II. TOPOLOGY, MODULAnON AND CONTROL minimum DC bus voltage ripple. This will increase the MPPT
efficiency.
A. Selection o/Topology

The use of multilevel inverter (MLI) for photovoltaic system


was not practical when the capacity of photovoltaic power J
plant was not high enough [11]. Presently there are hundreds
CellI
V

J
of multi mega watt photovoltaic power plants are operating in
the globe, which requires large size photovoltaic inverter.
Multilevel inverter can be a good choice for photovoltaic
CHB
application, because of its high power quality, low EMI
problem and low switching frequency [12].

But there are lots of challenges to overcome for using J


Cell 2
multilevel inverter in grid connected photovoltaic system. In
order to improve power quality and reduce EMI problems, it is J
required to increase the number of levels. The number of
switches becomes too high with higher number of voltage CHB

levels if all the DC busses are at same voltage; this also


increases the number of gate drivers and higher conduction
loss of devices. All above factor will have negative impact on J Ql
cost, reliability (reliability is inversely proportional to number 9V

of components) and efficiency.


J Q4
The asymmetric structure of multilevel inverter can increase Cell 3

the number of levels without dramatic increase in number of


switches. Trinary asymmetry can give highest number of
voltage levels for a given number of stages. In trinary
asymmetry, the ratio of voltage level is: 1: 3: ... : 3". In [13],
it is shown that, in trinary asymmetry, most of the power
(nearly 80% when the modulation index is close to unity) is
delivered from the highest voltage cell. The highest voltage
cell operates at fundamental frequency of the inverter output Fig. 1. Circuit diagram of one phase
voltage. This enables the use of GTO or Thyristor as a
switching device: Results in reduction of conduction loss, and The complete circuit diagram of one phase is shown in Fig. 1.
reduction in device and driver cost. Handling most of the Where, the highest voltage cells for all three phases are
power in fundamental frequency switching also reduces connected to a common DC source, owing to the NPC
switching loss, even if the loss per switching of Thyristor is structure. It can be noted that, in trinary voltage ratio, if
much higher than that of IGBT. There are three basic number of cells are more than three, there will be negligible
topologies of multilevel inverter: Cascaded H-Bridge (CHB), power from the lowest voltage cell, and will unnecessarily
Neutral point clamped (NPC) and Flying capacitor (FC). Out increase the conduction and switching losses, without
of which asymmetric structure is convenient to achieve in significant increase in power quality. This structure will be
CHB structure only. But in CHB, it is required to keep isolated beneficial to use in case of three phase power generation only.
DC bus for every H-Bridge. This increases the DC bus voltage For single phase system, this topology will not give any extra

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advantage compare to CHB MLI, this will only add two more The requirement of computational resource is negligible,
diodes to the circuit compare to CHB MLI. compare to SVM technique.

B. Selection ofModulation Technique The third harmonic injected phase voltages (Red and Yellow
colored) and corresponding line to line voltage (Green
Nearest voltage level control modulation technique is selected colored) is shown in Fig. 2. The peak magnitude of line to line
as a method of generating the switching pulses. In this voltage is just double of peak magnitude of phase voltage.
technique, the output voltage level should be nearest to the
reference voltage. In nearest voltage level control, the number 400

of voltage levels should be minimum seven [14] in order to

I
300
avoid large THD. In this design, the number of voltage levels
in line to neutral is 27. Nearest voltage level control gives
excellent dynamic performance [15], which is required for
Q,j
grid synchronization and highly efficient MPPT. Also the ell

simple algorithm helps to realize robust control with less -.
....
0
complexity. This modulation technique is easier to implement >-
when the input reference will be taken from the real world.
The real world signal may not be of fixed frequency and fixed ,, ,,
-300
voltage.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - _. ---------------- _ . -- ----- -------

-400 L-__----,--:'-c:
- :--__--:-"-.,,-__
--- --,---,'=-__----:-'
0,04 0 ,045 0.05 0.055 0.06
C. Third Harmonic injection
Time in Second
Third harmonic voltage is injected in phase voltage in order to Fig. 2. Simulated 53 level line to line voltage and
have further increase in number of levels in line to line corresponding 27 level phase voltages
voltage. The expression of third harmonic injected modulating
wave is given by III. POWER DISTRIBUTION RATIO AND MPPT

V(t) VMx{1.15sin(wt)+O.19sin(3wt)}
= (1) In order to achieve MPPT of every module connected to the
proposed inverter, the number of modules to be connected to
Third harmonic part of the modulating wave gets cancelled out various DC busses of the inverter will be determined by the
in line to line voltage. As a result, the expression for power distribution ratio of the inverter and power rating of the
modulating wave of line to line voltage becomes inverter.

(2) :Refel'ence :
pII\..- ::-.- i-----------
. . ........ .

Where, VM is the voltage obtained by summing up the voltages 150 - -- - -- -- --- -- ; ------- -------j.--------- -

'--;--- ......' , Tb.iJ.'(l11al1ollic


I. ,, '

:.....- : .. :
of all the cells of a phase. Output phase voltage of a trinary ... illjtcttd l'erel'ence
100 - -- - - -- :- -/'> --- ----------'--------t ----:-
t

asymmetric MLI with three cells per phase can have


2x (9+3+1) +1=27 levels per phase and nearest integer of : ,. .-...

9V(18 volt)
3V(36 volt)
2x-Y3x(9+3+1)+1;:::;45 levels in line to line voltage. From 50 --A--
,
-------,,----- : -------

!, .
equation 2, it can be seen that, If third harmonic is injected,

I [Jui
.: LJ
the same topology can give 2x2x (9+3+1) +1=53 levels in line
't+'--- -c
: :
O
to line voltage. The space vector modulation (SVM) could V(12voll)
also give same number of voltage levels in line to line voltage. -50
0.02 0.021 0.022 0.023 0.024 0.025
But, SVPWM involves significantly higher complex algorithm
Time in second -------:::o
for so many voltage levels; involves significantly high
computational resource for real time system. Since third Fig. 3. Reference phase voltage, corresponding third
harmonic is injected with nearest voltage level control, it harmonic injected reference voltage in digitized form
requires only comparators to generate the desired waveforms. and cell voltages for a quarter cycle

5076
Power distribution ratio is independent of power factor [16]. IV. MODELING AND SIMULA nON
Hence, if it is possible to find the power distribution ratio of
switching cells of various voltage levels at unity power factor, Two arm IGBT-Diode based cells are used as basic switching
it will be possible to find the power distribution ratio of cells to form H-bridge as shown in Fig. 4. And two single arm
switching cells of various voltage levels at other power factors IGBT-Diode based cells are connected in series with clamping
as well. Power distribution ratio will have quarter wave diodes to form NPC structure as shown in Fig. 5. Based on the
symmetry in unity power factor. In Fig. 3, the reference phase combination of these two basic switching cells, the topology is
voltage, corresponding third harmonic injected reference formed as shown in Fig. 1. A switching table is formed to
voltage in digitized form and corresponding cell voltages operate the inverter in various voltage levels as shown in
shown for a quarter cycle. The angles 91 to 915 can be found Table-I. Minimum voltage of 12V is taken as dc bus voltage
out by putting the magnitudes of voltages during those instants for lowest voltage CHB, consequently 36V is the dc bus
in to equation 1. If it is assumed that the phase current of the voltage for medium voltage CHB cell and 108V is the dc bus
inverter is ]ph(t)=]Mxsin(wt), then the power delivered by voltage for NPC structure with respect to neutral point. Grid is
highest voltage cell (9V in this case) in a quarter cycle at simulated with three phase ac source. Line impedance is
modulation index of 1 will be: simulated with R-L series branch. Neutral point of the grid is
kept isolated from the neutral point of the inverter for blocking
(3) the third harmonic current component. The fundamental
component of the modulating wave leads the grid voltage in
Similarly the power delivered by medium voltage cell (3V in order to supply active power to the grid. The phase angle of
this case) will be: the reference wave of the inverter is controlled for controlling
power flow.
OS . Os . 90 .
P3V= V IM{ Jr02 sme de - Jros sme de + JrOll sme de}
+
(4)

And power delivered by lowest voltage cell (V in this case) J


..------F=--A
will be: t---B
Py
02 .
VIM { Jr01 sme de - r03 os
J 2 sine de + J sine de-
J Q4
0 04
r0 6 . r Os . 09 . Oll
Jo sme de + J
s 07
sme de - Jros sme de + JrOlO sine de-
2 . 90
r01 013
J
Oll
sme de + Jr014 sine de - J01S sine de} (5)
Fig. 4. Basic Switching Cell of CHB

The power distribution ratio at unity power factor and unity +

modulation index with third harmonic injection is found is


approximately: Ql

P9y: P3V: Py = 75 : 22.5: 2.5 (6)


Q4

In this topology, there are three H-bridge cells (for three A


phases) for both medium and lowest voltage stages. So, the
Q2
power distribution ratio for each medium voltage H-bridge as
a percent of output power will be 7.5% and power distribution
ratio for lowest voltage H-bridges as a percent of output power Q3
will be 0.833% approximately.

The number of PV modules to be connected to the various dc


busses must follow this power distribution ratio to achieve Fig. 5. Basic switching cell of NPC structure
MPPT of each PV module.

5077
firing time of two inverter cells during voltage level transition.
The duration is typically within the range of 10 !l sec. The LiR
CellI (V) Cell2 (3V) Cell3 (9V) time constant of the load was kept about 400 !l sec; which can
CHB CHB NPC be about 1000 !l sec for grid tied inverter, as the inverter will


QQQ Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Level 1 2 3 4 1 2 4 1 2 3 4
I(-I3V) 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 Tek J'L II Trig'd M Pos: 8.440ms CH2

2(-I2V) 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 +
Couplig
3(-l1V) 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 lmJ
4(-IOV) 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 BW Limit
mi
5(-9V) 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 200MHz

6(-8V) 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 Volts/Div

7(-7V) 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 EmlI
8(-6V) 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 Probe
10X
9(-5V) 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 Voltage

IO(-4V) 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 Ivert

11(-3V) 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 WiI
CH2+50.0V M 2.50ms CH3 .I -72.0V
I2(-2V) 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 CH3+50.0V 3-Apr-1213:16 150.107Hz

I3(-V) 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0
14(0) 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 Fig. 5. 53 Level line to line voltage and corresponding 27 level
I5(V) 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 phase voltage

I6(2V) 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0
Tek J'L ii Trig'd M Pos: 8.680ms CH1
17(3) 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 +
Couplig

18(4) 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 I!I!l
BW Limit
19(5) 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1
mi
20(6) 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 200MHz

21(7) 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 Volts/Oiv
m
22(8) 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 Probe

23(9) 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 100X
Voltage

24(10) 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 Invert

25(11) 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 mi
CH1 67.0V M 2.50ms CH1 .I 75.4V
26(12) 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 CH4+5.00A 6-Apr-12 03:17 57.1837Hz

27(13) 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1
Table-I: The sWltchmg table of proposed hybnd MLI Fig. 6. Line to line voltage and corresponding line current

v. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Tek D Armed


+
Pos: 635,OHz MATH

Operation
=- IW
The simulated results are verified through laboratory prototype o
....
rFl
1104
.
and found as per expectation. dSPACE is used to Source
.
m
develop the controller of the prototype. Semikron make trench :s
gate IGBT is used to develop the inverter stacks. Semikron
0..'
make SKHI 22AR gate drivers are used to drive the IGBTs.
: M>
Presently DC busses are fed from DC source. A photovoltaic o
,...; .
Window
'-' IDi1IiI!J
emulator is under development. MPPT efficiency will be

. J
FFT

W
verified through PV emulator. om

_
CH410,OdB
__ LL J L L _ L ____________L_________J__
125Hz (2.50kS/s) Hanning
The line voltage and corresponding voltage of one of the
6- Apr-12 02: 53 50,0358Hz
.=:

phase is shown in Fig. 5. This matches with the simulated
line voltage and phase voltage waveform as observed in
Frequency in Hz (125 Hz per division)
Fig. 2. Occasional glitches are observed in line and phase
Fig. 7. FFT of line current
voltage in Fig. 5. and in Fig. 6. These are due to mismatch of

5078
modulation technique improves the dynamic performance and
reduces the computational burden significantly as compare to
space vector modulation.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors acknowledge the partial financial support from


Dept. of Science and Technology (DST), Govt. of India,
through the project "Stability and Performance of
Photovoltaics" with joint collaboration of DST, India and
Research Council (RC), UK.

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US 2005/0286281 A I, 29 December 2005.

[4] Schmid, H. et al. US Patent 7046534, issued 16 May 2006.

[5] Hantschel, J., German Patent Application, Publication Number


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be coupled to the grid with an inductor with very small
[9] Knaup, P., International Patent Application, Publication Number
resistance. The line current is shown in Fig. 6. The glitches WO 2007

observed in the line and phase voltages are having negligible [10] IEEE Recommended Practices and Requirements for Harmonic

effect on line current. The FFT of the line current is shown in


Control in Electrical Power Systems," IEEE Std 519-1992, vol.,
no., pp.O_I, 1993
Fig. 7. The third harmonic component is 37db below the
[II] S.Kouro, M.Malinowski, K.Gopakumar, J. Pou, L. G.Franquelo,
fundamental: l.41% of fundamental, the seventh harmonic is B.W u, J. Rodriguez, M. A. Perez, J. l. Leon, , "Recent Advances
and Industrial Applications of Multilevel Converters," IEEE
nearly 40db below fundamental: 1% of fundamental. The
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and THD are much below the harmonic limit specified in [12] S.Kouro, J.Rebolledo, J.Rodriguez, "Reduced Switching-
Frequency-Modulation Algorithm for High-Power Multilevel
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[13] J. Dixon, J.Pereda, C. Castillo, and S. Bosch, "Asymmetrical


Multilevel Inverter for Traction Drives Using Only One DC
Supply," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology" vol.59,

VI. CONCLUSIONS no.8, pp.3 736-3 743, Oct. 20 I0

[14] J.Rodriguez, S. Bernet, Bin Wu, J.O. Pontt, and S.Kouro,


"Multilevel Voltage-Source-Converter Topologies for Industrial
Trinary asymmetric NPC-CHB hybrid topology can be a
Medium-Voltage Drives," IEEE Transactions on Industrial
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size grid connected transformerless photovoltaic inverter. This [15] J. Dixon, J.Pereda, C. Castillo, and S. Bosch, "Asymmetrical
Multilevel Inverter for Traction Drives Using Only One DC
inverter will have higher efficiency owing to low frequency Supply," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology" vol.59,
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[16] Perez, M.; Rodriguez, J.; Pontt, J.; Kouro, S.;, "Power Distribution
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with third harmonic injection as a modulation technique for International Symposium on, vol., no., pp.736-741, 4-7 June 2007

this topology. The simplicity and robustness of this

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