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Exam Study Guide

Exam Format: 30 Multiple Choice, 35 Matching Descriptions with Words, 2 Bonus


Question
1. Review and be familiar with the vocabulary from these chapters
2. Know whether photosynthesis and cellular respiration is catabolic,
anabolic, exergonic, or endergonic
: Photosynthesis = endergonic, anabolic ; Cellular respiration = exergonic,
catabolic
3. Know the characteristics of exergonic and endergonic reactions (which
one release energy,
which one requires, which one does the reactant or product have more
energy).
: Exergonic release energy, E product < E reactant
: Endergonic require energy, E reactant < E product
4. What is activation energy and how is it related to exergonic and
endergonic reactions ?
: Energy used to start the reaction in both exergonic and endergonic
5. How does enzymes work?
: Substrate enter the active site => substrate & active site change shape
(reaction happen) =>
product is released & enzyme go back to original shape
6. Characteristics of enzymes.
7. What is the role of ATP in coupled reaction?
: It is the product released from exergonic reaction, then become reactant of the
endergonic reaction
8. What is the difference between active site and allosteric site?
: Active site = region of enzyme where the substrate bind to
: Allosteric site = place on an enzyme where a molecule that is not a substrate
bind, and
change the shape of the enzyme and make it inactive.
9. Know how to identify the enzyme, substrate, product of a reaction
10. What factors affect enzymes activity and how?
1) Substrate concentration = more substrate => more product
2) Temperature = molecule move faster => more chance to bind with enzyme
3) pH = each enzyme has specific pH that it can work most efficiently
11. How does a metabolic pathway work?
: Reaction happen in order, product of earlier reaction become reactant of the
later reaction
12. Know the two types of enzyme inhibition and how its different.
1) Enzyme activator = turn on enzyme
2) Enzyme deactivator = stop enzyme
13. How are enzymes activated?
: The enzyme activator bind to the active site making it fit the substrate
14. What is feedback inhibition? How does it work?
: The final product bind to the allosteric site of the first enzyme to stop it from
producing
too much product
15. What organelles does photosynthesis and cellular respiration happen
in?
: Photosynthesis = chloroplast ; Cellular respiration = mitochondria
16. What is the purpose of photosynthesis and cellular respiration?
: Photosynthesis = to create food ; Cellular respiration = to produce
energy (ATP)
17. What is the formula (reactant and products) of photosynthesis and
cellular respiration?
: Photosynthesis = sunlight + H2O + CO2 = glucose + O2
: Cellular respiration = glucose + O2 = CO2 + H2O + ATP
18. Why is cellular respiration and photosynthesis called oxidation-
reduction reaction?
19. The coenzymes involved in both photosynthesis and cellular
respiration
: Photosynthesis = NADP+/NADPH
: Cellular respiration = NAD+/NADH, FAD/FADH2
20. The role of coenzymes and how their role changes in each of the
different reactions of
cellular respiration and photosynthesis (oxidized or reduced in what
process)
: NADP+ => reduced => NADPH
: NAD+ => reduced => NADH
: FAD => reduced => FADH2
21. Know the steps of cellular respiration and where it occurs.
22. Know the input and output and its amount of each of the cycles of
cellular respiration
: Glycolysis
- Input: glucose, 2NAD+, 2ATP, 4ADP+4P
- Output: 2 pyruvate, 2NAD, 2 ADP, 4 ATP
: Preparatory reaction
- Input: 2 pyruvate, 2NAD+, 2 CoA
- Output: 2 acetyl CoA, 2 NADH, 2CO2
: Kreb cycle
- Input: 2 acetyl CoA, 2ADP, 2 FAD, 6 NAD +
- Output: 2ATP, 2 FADH2, 4CO2, 6 NADH
: Electron transport chain
- Input: 2FADH2, 10 NADH, 34 ADP+P
- Output: 2FAD, 10 NAD+, 34 ATP, H2O
23. Know how many total ATP a glucose can produce and where it all
comes from?
: 36-38 ATP = 2 from glycolysis + 2 from Kreb cycle + 34 from ETC
24. Understand how the Electron Transport Chain works and how each
component plays a role?
25. How is ATP produced in the ETC?
: Because the different of electron chemical gradient between the matrix and
intermembrane space,
Which create the potential energy, and the electron move inside the matrix
along the
concentration gradient through the ATP synthase and drive/make it combine
ADP + P = ATP
26. Know briefly what is reduced and oxidized in cellular respiration steps.
27. Know the two steps of photosynthesis and the input and output of
each step
1) Light reaction
- Input: H2O, sunlight, ADP, NADP+
- Output: O2, ATP, NADPH
2) Dark reaction
- Input: CO2, ATP, NADPH
- Output: ADP, NADP+, glucose
28. What is a chlorophyll and how is it important in photosynthesis?
: A green pigment in chloroplast, absorb sunlight
29. Differences and similarities between light and dark reaction
Light action/light dependent Dark reaction/light independent
reaction reaction/Calvin cycle
- happen in thylakoid membrane - happen in stroma
- Input: H2O, sunlight, ADP,
- Input: CO2, ATP, NADPH
NADP+
- Output: ADP, NADP+,
- Output: O2, ATP, NADPH
glucose

30. How are light and dark reactions related to each other?
: Light reaction happen before dark reaction, product of light reaction become
reactant of dark reaction
31. How are cellular respiration and photosynthesis related to each other?
:
32. Plant and animal cell and photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
: Plant cell = photosynthesis + cellular respiration
: Animal cell = only cellular respiration