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Modeling of Machining

Unidirectional Composites:

Prediction of Debonding and

Fiber Damage

Chinmaya R. Dandekar

Graduate Research Assistant A multiphase finite element model using the commercial finite element package ABAQUS/

EXPLICIT is developed for simulating the orthogonal machining of unidirectional fiber

Yung C. Shin reinforced composite materials. The composite materials considered for this study are a

Professor glass fiber reinforced epoxy and a tube formed carbon fiber reinforced epoxy. The effects

of varying the fiber orientation angle and tool rake angle on the cutting force and

Center for Laser-Based Manufacturing, damage during machining are considered for the glass fiber reinforced epoxy. In the case

School of Mechanical Engineering, of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy, only the effect of fiber orientation on the measured

Purdue University, cutting force and damage during machining is considered. Two major damage phenom-

West Lafayette, IN 47907 ena are predicted: debonding at the fiber-matrix interface and fiber pullout. In the mul-

tiphase approach, the fiber and matrix are modeled as continuum elements with isotropic

properties separated by an interfacial layer, while the tool is modeled as a rigid body.

The cohesive zone modeling approach is used for the interfacial layer to simulate the

extent of debonding below the work surface. Bulk deformation and shear failure are

considered in the matrix for both the models and the glass fiber. A brittle failure criterion

is used for the carbon fiber specimen and is coded in FORTRAN as a user defined material

(VUMAT). The brittle failure of the carbon fibers is modeled using the Marigo model for

brittle failure. For validation purposes, simulation results of the multiphase approach are

compared with experimental measurements of the cutting force and damage. The model is

successful in predicting cutting forces and damage at the front and rear faces with respect

to the fiber orientation. A successful prediction of fiber pullout is also demonstrated in

this paper. DOI: 10.1115/1.2976146

ing modeling of composite materials. Two primary approaches

Composite materials offer high strength to weight ratio, high

have been successfully implemented: a micromechanics based ap-

modulus to weight ratio, good damage tolerance, and good corro-

proach 5 and an equivalent homogenous material EHM ap-

sion resistance, which make them highly competitive with con-

proach. Both these modeling strategies have their respective ad-

ventional materials for many structural applications, provided that

vantages and disadvantages. The micromechanics approach

they can be machined to desired shapes at an acceptable cost and

describes the material behavior locally, and hence it is possible to

quality. In todays engineering world, many classes of composite

study local defects such as debonding. The required computation

materials have emerged in importance, including fiber reinforced

time however is very high, as the model can predict local damage;

polymers, natural fiber composites, metal matrix composites, and

the mesh used for this study is a lot finer than the one needed for

ceramic matrix composites. Amongst these materials, polymeric

the EHM model. On the other hand the EHM approach reduces

composites are one of the most popularly used ones, particularly

the computation time but is not able to predict the local effects,

in the aerospace industry wherein carbon fiber reinforced compos-

namely, the damage observed at the fiber-matrix interface 2,3,6.

ites are primarily used. Composite materials, in general, exhibit

Another approach proposed recently by Rao et al. 7,8 is to use a

inhomogeneity, anisotropy, and nonductile behavior, making it

combination of the EHM and micromechanical models, where the

challenging to machine damage free parts. This paper deals with a

micromechanical model was used in the vicinity of the tool, while

multiphase finite element modeling FEM approach for machin-

the EHM model was implemented away from the tool.

ing unidirectional fiber reinforced polymers.

Damage free machining is a very attractive area of research, as

Machining of fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites has

the challenges involved are high with numerous advantages to be

been extensively studied experimentally in the past. These mate-

gained. Prediction of damage based on either analytical or numeri-

rials are shown to cause excessive tool wear, which in turn in-

cal studies helps in a better design of tool geometry and selection

duces such damage phenomena as fiber pullout, delamination, and

of cutting parameters. The primary damage associated with ma-

debonding. This severe tool wear in the case of both carbon and

chining is delamination. Delamination is defined as the separation

glass fiber reinforced composites is due to the abrasive nature of

of two or more plies in a laminate. Delamination not only causes

the fibers. The parameters that are the major contributors to the

defects in the structural integrity of the composite but also affects

cutting forces, surface quality, and tool wear are the fiber orienta-

the tolerances achieved 9. Analytical methods of predicting

tion, tool geometry, and machining parameters 14.

delamination have been predominantly developed for studying

drilling processes, while delamination in turning processes has

Manuscript received November 23, 2007; final manuscript received June 30, been studied by either experiments or finite element analysis.

2008; published online September 11, 2008. Review conducted by Suhas Joshi. Nayak and Bhatnagar 6 carried out finite element simulations on

Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering OCTOBER 2008, Vol. 130 / 051016-1

Copyright 2008 by ASME

machining of a unidirectional glass fiber reinforced plastic, and rificial layer in the modeled workpiece. This method has its draw-

their findings supported the results of Arola et al. 3 with regard backs wherein the method is incapable of predicting any material

to the observed damage depth. All the authors indicated that the damage below the cutting plane. Using a failure criterion based on

extent of damage depth and the cutting force increase with in- the stress/strain state at the instant of loading would provide a

creasing fiber orientation 2,6,10, while the thrust force results more accurate representation of the machining process. To this

simulated by Arola et al. 3 and the equivalent homogenous ma- end, incorporation of the damage of carbon fibers in the simula-

terial approach by Nayak and Bhatnagar 6 were inconclusive. tion is made possible via a VUMAT EXPLICIT user defined mate-

Recently Nayak et al. 5 and Nayak and Bhatnagar 6 proposed rial for ABAQUS 12. Among the failure models currently avail-

a micromechanical model approach by considering different prop- able in the literature, the Marigo model 11 provides a good

erties for the matrix and fiber. This model resulted in a better framework for considering the brittle failure of carbon fibers. The

prediction of the observed cutting forces and debonding. The deb- model is simple in implementation and yet provides accurate re-

onding predicted by the authors was at the front face of the fiber. sults for the stress-strain behavior of carbon fibers.

There is no work found in existing literature, which predicts the The derivation of the material behavior is based on the follow-

debonding at the rear face of the fiber. Another equally important ing formulation. The model considers the total strain and elas-

damage phenomenon observed during composite machining is fi- tic modulus E associated with the stress and the damage

ber pullout/damage. Rao et al. 8 recently simulated the extent of variable D. Further the damage variable is associated with the

fiber damage by considering the fibers to be elastic and by mea- opposite of the strain energy release rate Y. The damage variable

suring the maximum principal stress. However, the debonding is thus included in the stress-strain relationship of the carbon fi-

predicted is only on the front face of the fiber. This is a limitation bers. The law of elasticity coupled with the damage is given by

in the model as it fails to account for the statistical imperfections

in the strength of carbon fibers. It is the goal of this study to = E1 D: 1

model the fiber pullout through the use of a fiber damage model where the symbol : denotes the double contracted product, or

and also through debonding at the fiber-matrix interface at both the double dot product, of two second order tensors. The next step

the front and rear faces of the fibers. is to determine the equivalent stress eq from the deviatoric

The inhomogeneity of composite materials is well known to

stress D and the hydrostatic part of stress H,

cause problems during machining. Unlike glass fibers that can be

modeled isotropically, carbon fibers exhibit an orthotropic behav- eq = 23 D:D1/2 2

ior and show brittle failure during machining. A number of failure

models dealing with brittle failure are available in the literature. H = 31 kk 3

Due to its inherent simplicity in implementation and reasonable

accuracy in prediction, this study uses the Marigo model of brittle The strain energy release rate is given by

failure, which depletes the elastic modulus of the carbon fiber on 2

damage evolution 11. Fracture of brittle materials, in general, 1

Y = :E: = 4

involves statistical considerations. Carbon fibers will have ran- 2 2E1 D2

domly distributed defects on their surfaces or in the interior. The

presence of these defects results in a rather large scatter in the = eqRv1/2 5

experimentally determined strength data. The damage evolution is where Rv, the triaxiality function, is given by the following equa-

thus dependent on the Weibull distribution of the strength of the tion and is the damage equivalent stress,

carbon fibers. Thus the damage model incorporated in this paper

accounts for these statistical variances in strength. 2 H 2

3 eq

pared with experimental measurements of cutting force and dam-

age. To employ the multiphase model for machining of carbon The triaxiality accounts for the stress state prevalent during

fiber reinforced polymers, a benchmarking study is first conducted loading at each time step by updating the hydrostatic and equiva-

for machining of glass fiber reinforced epoxy GFRP, for which lent components of stress at each time step. The damage evolution

the experimental data obtained by Nayak and Bhatnagar 10 are is given by Eq. 7 for the carbon fiber failure. The evolution of

employed for validation purposes. For a carbon fiber reinforced damage is a function of the Weibull parameters wl and mw. In the

epoxy composite CFRP, the data acquired from tube turning damage model, mw is the Weibull shape parameter and wl is the

tests are utilized for validation purposes. The model presented in measured strength at the reference length. The Weibull parameters

this study predicts damage debonding at the front and rear faces take into account the variability in the strength of the fiber bundles

of the fiber, along with the fiber pullout, while previous models and are easily obtained from literature for the carbon fiber

bundles,

have been limited to the prediction of the damage at the front face

of the fiber only. 2EY mw/2

D = 1 exp 7

wl

2

The damage is then calculated from Eq. 7 and then updated in

tional Composites Eq. 1. In this fashion damage is initiated and accumulated

The multiphase approach utilizes a three phase finite element throughout the carbon fibers. One of the advantages in this model

mesh. The mesh is based on distinct properties of the fiber, the is that initial flaws in the carbon fibers can also be included. This

matrix, and the fiber-matrix interface. The fiber is modeled as an is achieved by having a nonzero value for the damage variable D

isotropic material for the glass fiber composite, while it is mod- at the beginning of the time step. In the simulation results pre-

eled as an orthotropic material in the case of the carbon fiber sented here, initial flaws in the fibers are neglected, but the model

composite. In both models the epoxy is considered to be isotropic is capable of including these effects.

in nature, while the fiber-matrix interface is modeled using cohe-

sive zone elements. The continuum elements account for the de- 2.2 Cohesive Zone Modeling. Modeling of the interface be-

formation present in the fiber and matrix, while the cohesive ele- tween the fiber and matrix is achieved using cohesive zone ele-

ments account for the occurrence of debonding. ments. The cohesive zone model CZM has been successfully

implemented in laser assisted machining of silicon nitride by Tian

2.1 Fiber Material Modeling. Traditionally the damage evo- and Shin 13. The cohesive model describes a relationship be-

lution chip separation has been modeled using a predefined sac- tween the interfacial force and the crack opening displacement. In

the CZM, the fracture process zone is simplified as being an ini- Table 1 Mechanical properties of glass fiber and epoxy

tially zero-thickness zone composed of two coinciding cohesive

surfaces. Under loading, the two surfaces separate, and the trac- Glass fiber

tion between them varies with the separation distance in accor- Diameter, m 10

dance with a specified traction separation law. The cohesive ele- Modulus of elasticity, GPa 72.5

ment progressively degrades in stiffness as the interfacial Tensile strength, MPa 3400

separation increases. When the opening displacement reaches the

Matrix, epoxy

maximum, the cohesive element fails, suggesting separation and

Modulus of elasticity, GPa 3.1

debonding of the interface. The crack propagation between the Tensile strength, MPa 70

continuum elements progresses along the boundary. This feature

of cohesive elements lets the user simulate debonding at the fiber- Fiber-matrix interface

matrix interface. Stresses that act both in the normal and tangen- Normal strength, MPa 160

tial directions leading to normal or shear fracture are also included Shear strength, MPa 34

in the cohesive model. The cohesive response addressed in the Strain energy release rate, J / m2 50

model here is based on Tvergaards assumed traction separation

law 14. The cohesive equations necessary for defining the model

are given below in Eqs. 813. These equations help in input-

ting the material properties in ABAQUS for the cohesive zone. The = O0.818 + 0.656 ln 14

nondimensional parameter in Eq. 8 relates the normal un

and tangential ut separations to the maximum allowable normal = O0.818 + 0.656 ln 15

n and tangential t separations of the cohesive element and

For the carbon fiber reinforced composite, the properties are

hence accounts for the damage of the cohesive element. The co- given in Table 2. The carbon fiber composite consists of 60% fiber

hesive element then fails when the value of reaches 1,

volume fraction. Unlike the strain rate dependency of the glass

un 2

ut 2 1/2 fiber, the carbon fiber is considered strain rate independent 18.

= + 8 The difference in the model for the carbon fiber and the glass fiber

n t

is the modulus of elasticity. Carbon fibers are orthotropic in na-

The traction separation law is then implemented through Eq. ture, while glass fibers are modeled as isotropic materials. Dam-

9, where max is the cohesive strength. In applying the traction age in the carbon fibers is then calculated using the Marigo model

separation law, the important parameters are max and the normal 5 for the carbon fiber. The two Weibull parameters needed for

separation energy Gc, or , while the shape of the traction sepa- the damage model can be obtained from literature. In the study the

ration law F is considered to be of second order relevance values of the Weibull parameters used are mw at 5.3 and wl at

15,16, 3.33 GPa 19.

27

F = 4 max1 2 + 2 9

4 Simulation Procedure

The normal separation energy Gc is the area under the traction

separation curve and is shown in Eq. 10. Knowing the cohesive A combination of 2D plane stress continuum quadrilateral

strength Tn and Tt and the Mode I GIC and Mode II GIIC CPS4R and triangular CPS3 elements is used for meshing the

fracture energies and using Eq. 10, we can then calculate the fiber and matrix, while the interface layer is modeled using the

zero-thickness 2D cohesive elements. A plane stress analysis is

maximum allowable separation distance of the cohesive ele-

used for the study contrary to the plane strain analysis convention-

ment. In Eq. 13, is the ratio of the shear to normal strength of ally used in cutting homogenous materials. The plane strain analy-

the cohesive elements, which can be calculated from the given sis is not valid for fiber reinforced composites due to the out of

material properties, plane displacements present in the machining of FRPs 2,3,6. A

16 max

9

Gc = 10 representative mesh for a fiber orientation of 90 deg is shown in

Fig. 1. The cutting tool is modeled as a rigid body. For the simu-

un lation the boundary conditions applied are as follows: the work-

Tn = F 11 piece is constrained to move in both the x and y directions at

n

the bottom side, the left-hand side, and the lower right-hand side.

ut The tool is given a constant velocity in the x direction, and the

Tt = F 12 tool movement in the y direction is constrained.

t

GIIC

= 13 Table 2 Mechanical properties of carbon fiber and epoxy

GIC

Carbon fiber

3 Material Properties Diameter, m 14

Modulus of elasticity E11, GPa 240

The material properties specified for the glass fiber reinforced Modulus of elasticity E22, GPa 18

composite are provided in Table 1. The fibers are considered as a Tensile strength, MPa 3600

fiber bundle to represent the fiber volume fraction of 60% used in Shear strength, MPa 38

the study. One of the reasons for this is to simplify the numerical

problems associated with concurrent single fiber and matrix Matrix, epoxy

phases due to the considerable difference in the moduli and Modulus of elasticity, GPa 3.1

strength between the fiber and matrix. The matrix material has Tensile strength, MPa 70

been considered to be strain rate and temperature independent Fiber-matrix interface

since the temperatures obtained during machining of carbon fiber Normal strength, MPa 160

reinforced composites are low. The glass fiber is found to be strain Shear strength, MPa 34

rate dependent and follows the constitutive equation Eqs. 14 Strain energy release rate, J / m2 50

and 15 proposed by Wang and Xia 17,

Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering OCTOBER 2008, Vol. 130 / 051016-3

Fig. 1 Representative mesh for a 90 deg fiber orientation

In the machining simulation of GFRP, the cutting tool is a high

speed steel HSS tool with a nose radius of 50 m, rake angles

of 5 deg, 10 deg, and 15 deg, and a clearance angle equal to 6 deg. al. 20 proposed that the predominant failure mechanism in fiber

The depth of cut used is 0.1 mm, and the cutting speed is 0.5 m/s. reinforced composites is by matrix shearing. The crack develop-

The simulation parameters are identical to those used by Nayak ment within the fiber and matrix is defined along a predefined path

and Bhatnagar 10 for the machining of GFRP. The friction co- by placing a sacrificial layer of elements; this sacrificial layer of

efficient at the tool-chip interface was kept at a constant value of elements is based on experimental observations. Figure 3 obtained

0.3 for the GFRP specimens. The fiber orientations used in this from Wern and Ramulu 21, who cited the work of Sakuma and

study are 90 deg, 120 deg, and 135 deg, as shown in Fig. 2. The Seto 22 and Kaneeda 23, shows the various cutting mecha-

fiber orientations are measured to be positive counterclockwise nisms during the machining of GFRP based on the fiber orienta-

from the x axis shown in Fig. 2. Traditionally in the composites tion. In the study conducted here, the fiber orientation angles dic-

community the aforementioned fiber orientation of 135 deg would tate that the failure mechanism in the fibers and matrix is by

correspond to a 45 deg fiber orientation. Similarly the 45 deg shearing.

fiber orientation then would be classified as +45 deg. For modeling the failure in the carbon fibers, the constraint of

In the machining simulation of CFRP, the cutting tool is a solid placing a sacrificial layer of elements in the fiber was avoided by

carbide tool with a nose radius of 10 m, a rake angle of 5 deg, coding a failure criterion. The user material VUMAT subroutine

and a clearance angle of 6 deg. The depth of cut used is 0.1 mm, was coded using FORTRAN, and the simulation procedure is illus-

and the cutting speed is set at 1 m/s. The fiber orientations used in trated in Fig. 4. The advantage of using a user subroutine is that it

this study are 45 deg, 90 deg, and 120 deg, as shown in Fig. 2. In gives the control in specifying the necessary constitutive equa-

the case of the CFRP specimens, the coefficients of friction are tions and the incorporation of damage as explained earlier. This

calculated from the orthogonal machining tests and are deter- successful implementation of a user material allows for the chip

mined to be 1.8, 0.49, and 0.6 for the 45 deg, 90 deg, and 120 deg formation to proceed through the fiber in a physical manner. A

fiber orientations, respectively. The cutting conditions used in the drawback of the model is that in the case of the matrix there is still

simulations are summarized in Table 3. a definition of a predefined sacrificial layer. This is due to the

Two different chip separation criteria are used for machining complexities involved in the extreme mismatch between the ma-

modeling of the two unidirectional fiber reinforced composites. terial properties of the matrix and the fiber. The matrix then fol-

In the model for the glass fiber reinforced epoxy, damage initia- lowed the SHEAR FAILURE 12 option.

tion and evolution for the matrix and fiber follow the The cohesive section is defined by the

SHEAR FAILURE 12 option. The shear failure model is based TRACTION SEPARATION 12 law. The damage initiation for

on the value of the equivalent strain, and failure occurs when the the cohesive section is based on the QUADS 12 function,

damage parameter exceeds a nominal value of 1 12. Ramesh et which specifies the onset of damage based on the quadratic-

traction interaction law for cohesive elements. The progressive

damage evolution of the cohesive section is then based on the

ENERGY 12 approach, which accounts for the strain energy

release rate.

To ensure the stability of the model, the following measures

were undertaken. In the simulation, a numerical damping of 0.5

was used in combination with the arbitrary LagrangianEulerian

ALE method. The value for the numerical damping ensures that

the solution is accurate to the second order time integration. The

ALE is an adaptive meshing technique, which combines pure La-

grangian and Eulerian formulations to incorporate the advantages

of both. In the ALE method, the finite element mesh is neither

fixed spatially nor attached to the material, but in fact it is allowed

Fig. 2 Orthogonal machining of GFRP composites 6

Material Rake angle deg Nose radius m Depth of cut mm Cutting speed m/s Fiber orientation deg

CFRP 5 10 0.1 1 45, 90, and 120

Fig. 5 5 Cutting forces as a function of the length of cut for

machining 90 deg fiber orientation CFRP specimens at a feed

rate of 0.1 mm and a cutting speed of 1 m/s

polymer matrix composite used for machining tests in this study is

a tube formed carbon fiber reinforced epoxy. The carbon fiber

tubes were manufactured by a hand layup procedure. The final

dimensions of the workpiece are summarized in Table 4. The car-

bon fiber tape was supplied by Hexcel Inc. Dublin, CA in the

form of a 305 305 2.3 mm3 thickness roll with a nominal

fiber volume fraction of 60%. The specimens were made in the

form of 2.15 mm thick composite tubes. Based on the hand layup

Fig. 4 Simulation procedure for implementing the user

subroutine

procedure, the carbon fiber tape was first cut according to the

desired fiber orientation angle and then rolled onto the mandrel.

The necessary pressure was applied through rolling of the heat

to flow with the material 12. In this manner severe distortion of shrink tape around the assembly. This assembly was then cured at

the elements is avoided without the need for remeshing. The ALE 120 C for 1 h and was then let to cool inside the oven. In this

method has successfully been implemented in machining simula- manner carbon fiber specimens with fiber angles of 45 deg, 90

tions to simulate chip formation in metal cutting by numerous deg, and 120 deg were manufactured.

authors 24,25. All machining experiments were conducted on a Jones and

Another consideration in the stability of the models involves Lampson turning lathe. The cutting tool and conditions used for

the contact definition between the continuum elements surround- these experiments are the same as those used in simulations of

ing the cohesive zone. This is due to the inability of cohesive CFRP. No coolant was used in the machining of these composites.

elements to sustain forces in the normal or tangential direction The flexure of the hollow tubes was minimized by placing an

after element failure, resulting in the penetration of the surround- aluminum cylinder with an outer diameter of 26 mm halfway

ing continuum elements. The penetration of the continuum ele- inside the carbon fiber tube.

ments is avoided by defining a soft contact pressure-overclosure

relationship Fig. 4, Ref. 13. The values for the pressure con- 6 Experimental Results

stant P0 and the clearance constant C0 used in the simulation

Force measurements were conducted during machining using a

are 38 MPa and 0.01 m, respectively. The pressure constant

Kistler 9121 type dynamometer, and also the debonding depth and

corresponds to the transverse strength of the fibers. In the case of

the fiber pullout were measured for the damage characterization

the clearance constant, the previous research by Tian and Shin

using a scanning electron microscope SEM with an accelerating

13 showed that varying the clearance constant between

voltage of 15 keV. Several samples were first sectioned using a

0.004 m and 0.02 m resulted in a negligible effect on the diamond wheel, and then the sectioned edge was polished using

model. On the other hand, reducing the value below 0.004 m standard metallographic techniques 400 grit, 500 grit, and 600

causes the simulation to be numerically unstable. grit and an aqueous suspension of 0.3 m and 0.05 m alumina

at the final stages. The samples were then vacuum sputter coated

5 Experiments with approximately 20 nm of gold so as to obtain optimum reso-

Machining simulations were carried out on two different com- lution and to minimize excessive static charge buildup. The fluc-

posite materials: glass fiber and carbon fiber reinforced epoxies. tuation in the cutting force result is very common in the machin-

Between these two materials, machining tests were carried out ing of composite materials due to the successive cutting of

only on carbon fiber specimens, while experimental results of cut- varying phases. Since there was a lot of fluctuation in the col-

ting force and damage obtained from Nayak and Bhatnagar 10 lected data, an eight point moving average was utilized for the

Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering OCTOBER 2008, Vol. 130 / 051016-5

Table 5 Cutting force per unit width data for a cutting speed of 1 m/s for machining CFRP

specimens

Data points

Force data N/mm Fiber orientation deg 1 2 3 4 5 6 Average

90 46.6 50.0 48.3 48.6 44.1 45.2 47.1

120 42.0 41.6 43.2 39.3 41.8 40.5 41.4

Thrust force Ft 45 48.5 50.5 45.5 48.3 42.9 51.0 47.8

90 17.9 20.5 18.6 19.7 19.2 21.9 19.7

120 22.6 22.8 20.9 21.5 22.0 21.9 22.0

measurement of the cutting force. Figure 5 shows a representative terior cross-section of the samples. For each fiber orientation, five

graph of the measured cutting force for a specimen with a 90 deg measurements each from three different samples were taken. The

fiber orientation. The solid line in the figure indicates the eight reported value is the average value of these 15 measurements for

point moving average, which, as mentioned previously, is used in each fiber orientation. A variation of 15% is observed in the ex-

reporting the cutting force values. The final reported value of the perimental measurements. The images indicate the extent of deb-

cutting force is the average of the steady state values for six ex- onding between the fiber and the matrix. Other damage phenom-

periments conducted under the same cutting condition, as given in ena are also observed, primarily microcracking of fibers,

Table 5. The width of cut was 2.15 mm, and the length of each cut debonding, and fiber pullout, as shown in Figs. 79. The average

was 6 mm. The average values of the main cutting and thrust force measured values for debonding are 78 m, 56 m, and 47 m,

for machining 45 deg fiber oriented samples were 24 N/mm and respectively, for the 45 deg, 90 deg, and 120 deg fiber orientation

47.8 N/mm, respectively. For the 90 deg fiber orientation samples, samples. The average measured values for the fiber pullout are

the average values for the main cutting force and the thrust force 58 m, 40 m, and 30 m for the 45 deg, 90 deg, and 120 deg

per width were 47 N/mm and 19.7 N/mm respectively, while they fiber orientation specimens, respectively. It is clear from Figs. 79

were 41.4 N/mm and 22 N/mm, respectively, in the case of the

120 deg fiber orientation.

Figure 6 shows the measured cutting forces per unit width as a

function of the fiber orientations. Contrary to the expectation, the

average cutting force was lower than the average thrust force for

the fiber orientation of 45 deg, while the cutting force was much

larger than the average thrust force for the 90 deg and 120 deg

fiber orientations. The average cutting force increased with in-

creasing fiber orientation, but above the 90 deg fiber orientation

the cutting force decreased. In the case of the thrust force, the

maximum value was observed during machining of the 45 deg

fiber orientation samples, but as the fiber orientation angle in-

creased the thrust force decreased drastically. A further increase in

the fiber orientation angle resulted in a slight increase in the thrust

force. The above phenomenon wherein the cutting force is smaller

than the thrust force for the 45 deg fiber orientation and the

gradual increase and subsequent decrease in the cutting forces

were previously observed for edge trimming of graphite epoxy

unidirectional laminates by Arola et al. 3 and by Wang et al.

26.

To check for the prediction of damage during the machining of Fig. 7 Damage observations in the machining of 45 deg fiber

CFRP polymers, SEM images were obtained by studying the in- orientation CFRP specimens at a cutting speed of 1 m/s

machining CFRP specimens at a cutting speed of 1 m/s at vary- Fig. 8 Damage observations in the machining of 90 deg fiber

ing fiber orientations orientation CFRP specimens at a cutting speed of 1 m/s

veloped here is capable of predicting damage at the front and back

sides of the fiber. The fiber failure mechanism shows considerable

compression induced failure on the front side of the fiber, whereas

the rear of the fiber shows a tensile rupture of the fiber, which

agrees with the work of Rao et al. 7. Fiber orientation was varied

for the tool with a 5 deg rake angle. The maximum debonding

depth decreases with increasing fiber orientation. The values of

the damage depth for 90 deg, 120 deg, and 135 deg fiber orienta-

tions are 54 m, 27 m, and 24 m, respectively, with an av-

erage variation of 17%. This is very close to the experimental

observations by Nayak and Bhatnagar 10, as shown in Fig. 12.

In their simulations Nayak and Bhatnagar 10 achieved good re-

sults for the damage measurements up to a fiber orientation of 45

deg, above which the variation between the measured and simu-

lated results was highly pronounced. The simulations are then

extended to study the effect of the rake angle on the debonding. A

fiber orientation of 90 deg is chosen since it demonstrated the

maximum debonding. Debonding occurs when the interface layer

Fig. 9 Damage observations in the machining of 120 deg fiber represented by the cohesive zone reaches the maximum separa-

orientation CFRP specimens at a cutting speed of 1 m/s tion. At this element state the cohesive section carries no stress.

The presence of stress in the cohesive layer shown in Fig. 13

clearly indicates that the element has not reached its maximum

that observable damage decreases with increasing fiber orienta- separation. The results thus reveal that increasing the rake angle

tion. Representative measured values for damage are shown in from 5 deg to 10 deg or 15 deg resulted in zero debonding. The

Figs. 79 for fiber orientations of 45 deg, 90 deg, and 120 deg, zero debonding at higher rake angles results from lower cutting

respectively. For the 120 deg fiber orientation, the surface was forces as observed during the simulations, as shown in Fig. 15.

relatively smoother and also less fiber pullout is observed. Apart The lowering of the cutting forces is a result of the reduction of

from the debonding and fiber pullout, a lot of matrix redistribution the contact area on the tool rake face with an increase in the tool

was observed for the 45 deg fiber oriented specimens as compared rake angle. The results presented here should be interpreted with

to the 90 deg and 120 deg fiber oriented specimens. In general, the caution since the model simplifies the machining process and deb-

damage decreased with decreasing cutting force. onding is not just dependent on the cutting forces.

The comparison of simulated cutting force and thrust force with

7 Simulation Results and Validation the experimental data obtained by Nayak and Bhatnagar 10 is

plotted in Fig. 14. The simulation machining conditions used in

7.1 Simulation Results for Machining Glass Fiber Rein- this study are identical to those mentioned by Nayak and Bhatna-

forced Epoxy. The finite element models for the 90 deg and 120 gar 10. The average simulated values for the main and thrust

deg fiber orientations are shown in Figs. 10 and 11. Apparent in forces per unit width are 48 N/mm and 24.4 N/mm for the 90 deg

the two figures is the extent of the debonding zone represented by fiber orientation, while the experimental results are 54 N/mm and

the deleted element along the fiber-matrix interface at the front 28 N/mm, respectively. For the 120 deg fiber orientation, the

and back sides of the fiber bundle. Prior research considered the simulated main and thrust forces per unit width are 45.1 N/mm

damage associated with the front of the fiber, but the model de- and 28.2 N/mm, while the experimental results are 42 N/mm and

Fig. 10 Simulated von Mises stress distribution during the machining of a 90 deg fiber orientation with a 5 deg

rake angle tool

Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering OCTOBER 2008, Vol. 130 / 051016-7

Fig. 11 Simulated von Mises stress distribution during the machining of a 120 deg fiber orientation with a 5 deg

rake angle tool

33 N/mm, respectively. Finally for the 135 deg fiber orientation, Rao et al. 7 showed encouraging results in their prediction of

the simulated values for the main and thrust forces are 40.5 N/mm both the cutting and thrust force results. The model presented here

and 30.2 N/mm, while the experimental results are 38 N/mm and predicts the main cutting force and the thrust force along with the

36 N/mm, respectively. The simulated force results compare well observable trend very well. The cutting and thrust forces margin-

with the experimental data, as shown in Fig. 14, where the cutting ally decreased with increasing rake angle, as shown in Fig. 15.

force decreases and the thrust force increases with decreasing fi-

ber orientation. Overall the maximum discrepancy between the 7.2 Simulation Results for Machining of Carbon Fiber Re-

simulated and experimental results for the cutting force is 611%, inforced Epoxy. The finite element models for the 90 deg and

while the thrust forces differ by 1216%. In comparison the FEM 120 deg fiber orientations are shown in Figs. 16 and 17. Once

model by Nayak and Bhatnagar 6,10 predicted the cutting force again apparent in the figures is the extent of the debonding zone

with a discrepancy of 10%. However their thrust force results represented by the deleted element along the fiber-matrix interface

differed by almost 38%, showing poor correlation. On the other at the front and back sides of the fiber bundle. The novel result for

hand, Arola et al. 3 failed to predict the trend observed for the this composite involves the deleted elements in the fiber below the

thrust force during the cutting of GFRP. A more recent study by cutting plane, representing the fiber damage. As is the case with

the glass fiber case, the fiber failure mechanism shows consider-

able compression induced failure on the front side of the fiber,

whereas the rear of the fiber shows a tensile rupture of the fiber.

Fiber orientation was varied for the tool with a 5 deg rake angle.

The maximum debonding depth decreased with increasing fiber

orientation: the simulated values of the damage depth for 45 deg,

90 deg, and 120 deg fiber orientations are 96 m, 75.9 m, and

56 m, respectively. This is very close to the experimental obser-

vations Fig. 18.

There was a very close agreement between the predicted and

measured values of fiber damage by experimental measurements

and simulated measurements for 90 deg and 120 deg fiber orien-

tation samples. In the case of the 90 deg fiber orientation sample,

the experimental damage depth was measured at 40 m, while

the simulated value of damage depth in the fiber is 50.6 m. In

the case of 120 deg fiber orientation samples, the experimental

damage depth was 30 m, while the simulated damage depth is

29 m. The simulation also corroborated the experimental data in

Fig. 12 Internal damage during orthogonal machining of that the damage observed during the machining of these compos-

GFRP during machining with a 5 deg rake angle tool, in com- ites decreased with an increase in the fiber orientation.

parison with experimental measurements 10 The comparison of simulated cutting and thrust forces with the

Fig. 13 Simulated von Mises stress distribution during the machining of a 90 deg fiber orientation with a 10 deg

rake angle tool

experimental data is plotted in Fig. 19. The simulated force results 8 Conclusions

compare well with the experimental data where the cutting force

Multiphase orthogonal machining simulations were conducted

increases gradually and then decreases once again with decreasing

for two unidirectional polymeric composites: a glass fiber rein-

fiber orientation, while the thrust force increases with decreasing

forced epoxy and a carbon fiber reinforced epoxy. The simulta-

fiber orientation. This reduction in the cutting forces resulted in

neous use of the Marigo brittle failure model and the cohesive

less damage as observed during the machining of higher fiber

zone model to describe material behavior was successful in pre-

orientation samples. Overall the maximum difference between the

dicting damage during machining of composites. Both machining

simulated and experimental results for the cutting force is 810%,

models compared well with the experimental data in terms of

while the thrust force differs by 1415%. The trends observed

cutting force and damage prediction. Debonding depth and fiber

both experimentally and through simulated results match ex-

damage decreased with increasing fiber orientation. The model

tremely well.

presented in this study is able to predict debonding at the front and

rear faces of the fiber, fiber damage, and cutting forces during

Fig. 14 Force per unit width as a function of fiber orientation Fig. 15 Force per unit width as a function of rake angle during

during the machining of GFRP with a 5 deg rake angle tool, in the machining of a 90 deg fiber oriented GFRP with a 5 deg rake

comparison with experimental measurements 10 angle tool

Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering OCTOBER 2008, Vol. 130 / 051016-9

Fig. 16 Simulated von Mises stress distribution during the machining of a 90 deg fiber orientation carbon fiber

reinforced epoxy with a 5 deg rake angle tool

Fig. 17 Simulated von Mises stress distribution during the machining of 120 deg fiber orientation carbon fiber

specimens with a 5 deg rake angle tool

Nomenclature

stress

strain

E modulus of elasticity

D nondimensional damage parameter

eq equivalent stress

D deviatoric stress component

H hydrostatic stress component

Y strain energy release rate

Rv triaxiality function

Poissons ratio

nondimensional parameter

un normal separation

ut tangential separation

n maximum normal separation

t maximum tangential separation

Fig. 18 Debonding depth during the orthogonal machining of

CFRP with a 5 deg rake angle tool at a cutting speed of 1 m/s Tn normal traction

Tt tangential traction

max maximum normal stress

GIC Mode I fracture energy

GIIC Mode II fracture energy

C0 clearance constant

P0 pressure constant

0 reference stress

0 reference strain

0 reference strain rate

TR room temperature

TM melting temperature

References

1 Konig, W., Wulf, Ch., Gra, P., and Willerscheid, H., 1985, Machining of

Fiber Reinforced Plastics, CIRP Ann., 342, pp. 537547.

2 Arola, D., and Ramulu, M., 1997, Orthogonal Cutting of Fiber-Reinforced

Composites: A Finite Element Analysis, Int. J. Mech. Sci., 39, pp. 597613.

3 Arola, D., Sultan, M. B., and Ramulu, M., 2002, Finite Element Modeling of

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of an E-Glass Fabric Reinforced Polypropylene Composite and an Aluminum

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9 Hocheng, H., and Dharan, C. K. H., 1990, Delamination During Drilling in

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by the National Science Foundation Grant No. IIP0538786. Tensile Behavior of Carbon Fiber and Carbon Fiber Reinforced Aluminum at

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