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CHAPTER 2

Foreign Literature

Base on Dr. D Prasana Kumar and Venkates Raju advertising is a form of


communication intended to convince an audience (viewers, readers or listeners) to
purchase or take some action upon products, information or services etc. The purchase
process is a decision making process under risk. This paper investigates the relationship
between independent variables which are emotional response with attitudinal and
behavioral aspect of consumer buying behavior, by tapping the responses of 110
respondents. The basic objective of this research is to assess the influence of advertising
through attitudinal buying behavior of consumer (male & female) and analyze the influence
of Advertising between male and female.

According to Edwards ward this literature review of decision making (how people
make choices among desirable alternatives), culled from the disciplines of psychology,
economics, and mathematics, covers the theory of riskless choices, the application of the
theory of riskless choices to welfare economics, the theory of risky choices, transitivity of
choices, and the theory of games and statistical decision functions. The theories surveyed
assume rational behavior: individuals have transitive preferences (" if A is preferred to
B, and B is preferred to C, then A is preferred to C."), choosing from among alternatives
in order to " maximize utility or expected utility." 209-item bibliography.

Advertising is unique in its status as both a major textual genre and a revenue source
for media systems. As a textual genre, it is arguably the most dominant in our culture: for
every hour of primetime commercial television viewed, approximately twenty minutes of
that viewing involves exposure to advertising, television program announcements or
promotions, and public service announcements. Advertising is used to market traditional
branded products, but the selling and branding logic of advertising can also be applied to
other cultural and social endeavors, including politics, religion, and media entities (e.g.,
Disney)

Advertising is a form of promotional activity that is used to encourage an audience


(viewers, readers, or listeners) to continue or take some new action. The desired result is
to drive consumer behavior with respect to a commercial offering. To reach an audience,
these promotions must be published. The process of making information available to the
general public is called publishing. An advertiser is essentially the one who creates a
product or offers services and wants to publicize the product or services with the help of
popular platforms like websites, press, and radio owned by publishers. Publisher either own
or manage platforms, like television channels, radio stations, and websites, which are
available to the general public.

Advertising effectiveness can be defined as the extent to which advertising


generates a certain desired effect. Measuring the effects of advertising is very important,
given the amount

Advertising is used for communicating, exchanging/delivering business


information to the present and prospective customers. It usually provides information about
the advertising firm, its product qualities, place of availability of its products, etc.
Advertisement is indispensable for both the sellers and the buyers. However, it is more
important for the sellers. In the modern age of large scale production, producers cannot
think of pushing sale of their products without advertising them. Advertisement
supplements personal selling to a great extent. Advertising has acquired great importance
in the modern world where tough competition in the market and fast changes in technology.

Advertising is the best way to communicate to the customers. Advertising helps


informs the customers about the brands available in the market and the variety of products
useful to them. Advertising is for everybody including kids, young and old. It is done using
various media types, with different techniques and methods most suited.

History of Advertising

Advertising is dated back to the Christian Era. One of the first known methods of
advertising was outdoor signs, they would be painted on the wall of a building and were
usually very eye catching. Archaeologists have found signs in the ruins of ancient Rome
and Pompeii which advertised travelers to go to tavern situated in another town. In about
the 1440's there was an invention of movable-type of advertising which was a printing
press. In the 16th century some companies had a trade mark which was a two or three
dimensional picture or sign. In both volume and technique, advertising has made its
greatest advances in the U.S. In the early stages of U.S. advertising it was hard and
expensive to advertise nationally because the U.S. was still undeveloped and there was
little of no means of transport, distribution or communication. Eventually certain type of
manufactures thought of the idea of bypassing wholesalers, retailers and using catalogs.
Mail orders and pamphlets appeared around the 1870's. Late in the 19th century many
American firms began to market packaged goods under brand names. Previously
consumers had not been aware of or influenced by brand names. The first product that had
brand names were soap products. In the 1880's a few brands came out and they were Ivory,
Pears, Sapolio, Colgate, Kirks American Family and Packer's. Not long after brands such
as Royal baking powder, Quaker oats, Bakers chocolate, Hire's root beer, Regal shoes and
Waterman's pens were nationally advertised. In the early 1900's America began to become
aware of such brand names like Bon Ami, Wrigley and Coca-Cola. After World War 1
advertising developed into a business so big that it was almost a trademark of America
itself through the eyes of the rest of the world. This was expanded by technical
improvements which made transportation, communication and graphics work easier,
cheaper and better. Modern advertising has changed dramatically since the early twentieth
century, but when it comes to food, Katherine Parkin writes, the message has remained
consistent. Advertisers have historically promoted food in distinctly gendered terms,
returning repeatedly to themes that associated shopping and cooking with women.
Foremost among them was that, regardless of the actual work involved, women should
serve food to demonstrate love for their families. In identifying shopping and cooking as
an expression of love, ads helped to both establish and reinforce the belief that kitchen
work was women's work, even as women's participation in the labor force dramatically
increased. Alternately flattering her skills as a homemaker and preying on her insecurities,
advertisers suggested that using their products would give a woman irresistible sexual
allure, a happy marriage, and healthy children. Beyond their own individual success, ads
also promised that by buying and making the right foods, a woman could help her family
achieve social status, maintain its racial or ethnic identity, and assimilate into the American
mainstream.
Foreign Studies

Advertisements is a form of communication that typically attempts to persuade


potential customers to purchase or to consume more of a particular brand of product or
service one element in corporate strategies to create, organize and where possible control
markets, especially for mass produced consumer goods. One element in corporate
strategies to create organize and where possible control markets, especially for mass
produced consumer goods. Many advertisements are designed to generate increased
consumption of those products and services through the creation and reinvention of the
"brand image. Every major medium is used to deliver these messages, including
television, radio, cinema, magazines, newspapers, video games, the Internet carrier bag
sand billboard. Advertisements played a vital role in buying decision. Through
advertisement, Consumers are come to know about the product, its uses, benefits,
availability, and brand name of products. At the time of buying a product, they recall the
advertisement and then they take their buying decision in many cases.

According to Feliciana Greene advertising is a psychological game. The advertisers


make appeals to the target audience to make them respond positively to their marketing
offers. The trends all over the world are indicating that the use of advertisements as a
communicating tool is increased year by year through different media channels. The
consumers are exposed to a wide variety of advertisements of various companies and
through different media. It is necessary to know whether the advertisements are really
impacting the consumers in their behavior and purchase decision process and what kind of
opinions the consumers are having against the quality and impact of advertisement?. This
paper is based on an empirical study and makes an attempt to answer the issues identified.

Badar Khalaf Alharthey says that understanding Decision Making of Consumers


through Advertising Strategy and Integrated Marketing, Considerable research has been
carried out to broaden the understanding on consumer purchase decision making process
through advertising strategy and integrated communication. The research has used
quantitative research method, and recruited a sample of 200 adults for the collection of
data. It has been found in this research that there is a strong positive correlation exists
between consumer purchase decision making and advertising and integrated marketing.
The research concludes that advertising and integrated marketing are important in
development of understanding regarding consumer purchase decision process.

Advertisement helps the company to create the awareness in their customers and
ingredients the advertisements shape the perception of the customers either in the positive
or in a negative way. People can perceive the quality of the products by gathering the
information which they usually get through advertisements. The perception of the quality,
awareness of the product and consumer opinion drives the consumer buying decision.
Study critically evaluates these factors which shape the buying behavior and provides the
deep insights towards the role of advertisements shaping the consumer behavior.

Advertising is a form of communication intended to persuade an audience (viewers,


readers or listeners) to purchase or take some action upon products, ideals, or services. It
includes the name of a product or service and how that product or service could benefit the
consumer, to persuade a target market to purchase or to consume that particular brand.
These brands are usually paid for or identified through sponsors and viewed via various
media. Advertising can also serve to communicate an idea to a mass amount of people in
an attempt to convince them to take a certain action, such as encouraging 'environmentally
friendly' behaviors, and even unhealthy behaviors through food consumption, video game
and television viewing promotion, and a "lazy man" routine through a loss of exercise .
Modern advertising developed with the rise of mass production in the late 19th and early
20th centuries. Mass media can be defined as any media meant to reach a mass amount of
people. Several types of mass media are television, internet, radio, news programs, and
published pictures and articles.

The hour today is the hour of mass communication. Advertising in particular has
become an indispensible mode of communication with the market. Advertising is a means
of communication with the users of a product or service. Advertisements are messages paid
for by those who send them and are intended to inform or influence people who receive
them, as defined by the Advertising Association of the UK. The importance of advertising
grows steadily as brands rely heavily on media for various marketing objectives such as
increasing sales, creating knowledge and awareness in the market etc.

the field of advertising continues to grow and evolve. Advertising also plays a very
important role in shaping the ever changing norms of society both nationally and globally.
With the growing role of advertising in the lives of people attention now is being paid to
the various negative as well as positive effects of advertising.

Synthesis

The related studies and literature that the researchers collected helped them to build
strong foundation in their research study. The study on the "Impact of Advertisement in
taking buying decision by consumer" and "Understanding decision making of consumer
through advertising strategy and integrated marketing" is related to this study since it
tackles about how the consumer's decision making is being affected by the advertisements.
The work of "semanticscholar" and "publishing media" helped the researchers to know the
effect of advertisements in the consumer's behavior. The literature review of decision
making by psynet, is also related because it gives information on how people chooses
among desirable alternatives and how decision making deals with it. The study of Samar
Fatima and Samreen Lodhi that tackles about the Impact of advertisement on buying
behaviours of the consumersis related to study of Dr. Sindhya V that tackles about the
Influence and Impact of Advertising to Consumer and the study of Barve G, Sood A,
Nithya S and Virmani T intitled Effects of Advertising on Youth. The literature review
of advertising and promotion of oxford bibliographies is connected to the literature
review of Advertisement Management System.