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Judul Asli: A Modified Binary Encryption Algorithm based on Diffuse Representation

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on Diffuse Representation

Dr. S. Radhakrishnan1, R. Arthy2, M. Sivasankari3, B. Jegajothi4, Dr. M. Mohamed

Sathik5

1,2,3,4

Department of Information Technology, Kamaraj College of Engineering and Technology, Virudhunagar, India

5

Pricipal, Sathakathulla Appa College, Tirunelveli, India

Abstract In the era of Internet, the multimedia data can the key used during encryption differs from that used

be used by anyone. There is a chance that unintended during decryption.

users get access to the data so, encryption is needed to The key that is used during the cryptographic process can

hide the multimedia data from the unauthorized users. be categorized into various types. The symmetric

This paper proposes a modified binary encryption encryption uses secret key that is shared between sender

algorithm based on diffuse representation. Here a binary and receiver for encryption and decryption. The

image is XORed with a random matrix and is divided into asymmetric encryption uses (private key, public key) pair

more number of non-overlapping sub-images. The to perform the cryptographic operations. The key pair is

modified encryption algorithm will produce an encrypted generated by the user and the public key is made available

image with th of dimension and increased number of to anyone. The sender encrypts the message using private

bits. The proposed encryption algorithm is a symmetric key of their own and receiver decrypts the encrypted

encryption algorithm. The number of keys generated is message using senders public key which is available in

equal to the number of non-overlapping sub-images. The public.

key shall be transmitted by a private key encryption The various visual cryptographic schemes are mentioned

algorithm. The encryption of the key is not of interest in in [6], [10] for binary image, gray-colored images. [4]

this paper. The proposed algorithm has high performance address the Extended Hamming Code to generate key for

that it gives BER as 0% and infinite PSNR. Even encryption and decryption through which the code is self-

grayscale images can be encrypted using this algorithm correcting. A new symmetric key cryptographic algorithm

considering each bit-plane as a binary image. is proposed in [5] where the algorithm withstands the

Keywords BER, Encryption, Private Key Encryption, security. A lossless and reversible encryption algorithm

PSNR, Symmetric Encryption. was introduced in [1] to address the pixel oversaturation

by embedding the secret data into the several least

I. INTRODUCTION significant bit planes of cipher text pixels by wet paper

Internet is accessible by anyone in the world. When a coding.

multimedia data is shared through the internet there is a The algorithm [7] presents the probabilistics model which

danger of unintended users getting access to it. To avoid adopts the (t, n) visual cryptography scheme. This model

this encryption is used. The visual cryptography efficiently manages the dynamically changing user group.

technique is to support the encryption process where the The security level is improved using the bit level

secret information is converted into a unreadable form permutation technique in [8] for chaos based image

[2]. Encryption is a method in which the meaningful data ciphers. This technique proves better performance

is transformed into meaningless data and is sent through because the bits are shuffled between different bit planes.

the internet. To get access to the data one should do the The error diffusion method [9] is used to provide the

reverse process called the decryption to get the data in the solution for management problem. This method adds a

original form. cover image to each share to make the share visible. The

Encryption is originally done for the text data where the error diffusion method is also used for shadow images

transformed content is not understandable. Encryption [11]. This improves the quality of shadow image when

algorithms are divided into two major categories: compared to the existing algorithms.

Symmetric and asymmetric encryption. In symmetric The proposed algorithm in this paper is a symmetric

encryption, the key that is used for encryption and encryption algorithm for binary images. The key used in

decryption are same. But in the asymmetric encryption, symmetric encryption algorithm should not be disclosed

publicly. The work in the paper is inspired from [3] which

International Journal of Advanced Engineering, Management and Science (IJAEMS) [Vol-3, Issue-8, Aug- 2017]

https://dx.doi.org/10.24001/ijaems.3.8.1 ISSN: 2454-1311

uses a diffuse representation for encryption. A similar III. PROPOSED ALGORITHM

method is used to encrypt the binary image. However, the The possibility of the hacker decrypting the encrypted

encryption algorithm used to encrypt the random matrix image can be reduced by applying the proposed modified

and the key is not the intent of this paper. Any encryption algorithm.

asymmetric encryption algorithm may be used.

The rest of the paper is organized in the following Algorithm 1:

manner. Section II discusses the existing algorithm from [Ien, Irm, Ikey] = Encryption [Im]

which this paper has been developed. Section III

discusses the proposed algorithm of encryption and /* Notation: Im Binary Image, Irm Random Matrix,

decryption. Section IV discusses some theoretical aspects Ixor Resultant Image after XOR, Idec Share with

by which the security in the algorithm can be increased. Decimal values, Ikey Key, Iencrypt Encrypted Image

Section V discusses about the experimental results and Shares, Ien Encrypted Image

Section VI gives the conclusion of the paper. */

1. Read the Binary image (Im)

II. EXISTING ALGORITHM 2. Generate a random matrix (Irm) of size equal to the Im

A novel binary encryption algorithm based on diffuse 3. Ixor = Irm XOR Im

representation is been proposed by Houas et al. In this 4. Divide the Ixor into 8 shares

paper a binary image has been taken and encryption // Perform for 8 shares

algorithm is applied. The encryption algorithm can be 5. For i = 1 to row(Ixor) incr 2

described as follows: For j = 1 to column(share) incr 2

2.1 Encryption Idec[i, j] = decimal_conversion(Ixor)

(a) A binary image (I) is taken Endfor

(b) Divide the image into n non-overlapping sub- Endfor

images (I1, I2) each sub-image is taken to the size 6. Calculate Ikey

of the full image with the remaining partitions of a 7. Iencrypt = Ikey Idec

sub-image as zeros. Let it be called a share. 8. Concatenate all the encrypted shares to obtain Ien

(c) The key for encryption is calculated from all the

shares by using the equation (1) Fig. 1 Proposed Encryption Algorithm

1 ||I1 ||1 ||I2 ||1 The Fig. 1 shows the encryption algorithm in detail. The

(i, j) = [(a1 (i, j) + ) + (a 2(i, j) + )]

2 64 64

input image is read as the binary image and a random

(1)

matrix is generated to perform XOR operation. This

(d) The encrypted shares are formed from the key and

converts the image matrix into a random matrix. The

the share by the equation (2) and (3)

matrix is scanned from left to right and top to bottom by

= (i, j) 1 (, ) (2)

taking a 2 x 2 sized matrix each time and converted into a

= (i, j) 1 (, ) (3)

decimal numbers. The resultant matrix is of m/2 x n/2

The encrypted shares are formed by subtracting the share

sized matrix of decimal numbers.

from the key. Knowing the key , the random matrix and

The key for each non overlapping matrix (share) is

the encrypted shares the decryption can be done with the

calculated using the equation (4)

following decryption algorithm. 4|| ||1

2.2 Decryption Algorithm = (4)

(a) The encrypted shares are taken The Ikey is used to encrypt the shares and finally all the

(b) The key is taken shares are concatenated to obtain the encrypted image.

(c) All the encrypted shares are subtracted from the The decryption process is the reverse of the encryption

key and added together to from the decrypted algorithm. The random matrix and keys are shared with

binary image the end user. The share of keys are not a part of this paper.

Here a single key is used and the number of encrypted The decryption algorithm is stated in the Fig 2.

shares denotes the numbers of subimages. So once the

key is hacked, then the image can be easily decrypted. To

overcome this disadvantage the modified encryption

algorithm based on diffuse representation is proposed.

The proposed algorithm is discussed in section III.

International Journal of Advanced Engineering, Management and Science (IJAEMS) [Vol-3, Issue-8, Aug- 2017]

https://dx.doi.org/10.24001/ijaems.3.8.1 ISSN: 2454-1311

0001 - 14 0101 - 10 1001 - 6 1101 - 2

Algorithm 2: 0010 - 13 0110 - 9 1010 - 5 1110 - 1

[Idecrypt] = Decryption [Ien, Irm, Ikey] 0011 - 12 0111 - 8 1011 - 4 1111 - 0

A random mapping can be used so that the mapping may

/* Notation: Irm Random Matrix, Idec' Share with not be deciphered by the hacker. These are some of the

Decimal values, Ikey Key, Ien Encrypted Image, Ien methods by which security has been added to encryption

Encrypted Image, Ibin - Share with Binary values, Idbin - algorithm.

Binary Decrypted Image, Idecrypt - Decrypted Image

*/ V. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

1.Read the Encrypted image (Ien) The proposed algorithm is tested with the standard images

2. Divide the Ien into 8 shares like lena, cameraman, Barbara, baboon and Peppers.

// Perform for 8 shares These image are converted into binary images and taken

3. Idec' = Ikey - share as test images. The binary images (I1) are encrypted and

4. For i = 1 to row(Idec') then decrypted (I2) using the proposed algorithm. The

For j = 1 to column(share) performance of the algorithm is calculated by using the

Ibin = binary_conversion(Idec') metrics like Bit Error Rate (BER) and Peek Signal to

Endfor Noise Ration (PSNR).

Endfor The PSNR is Peak Signal to Noise Ratio is an error

5. Concatenate all the decrypted Ibin's to obtain Idbin comparison metrics to ensure that the decrypted image

6. Idecrypt = Idbin XOR Irm looks similar to the encrypted image. The PSNR value is

calculated using the formula mentioned in equation (5)

Fig.2 - Proposed Decryption Algorithm and (6).

(5)

IV. THEORETICAL ASPECTS

4.1 Random matrix

The hacker when hacks the encrypted image can easily

view the original image. To avoid this situation a random

(6)

matrix is generated to increase the security level in

Where,

encryption. The matrix is a formed with 0s and 1s and

L - Maximum fluctuation of input image

then XORed with the original image.

H - Height of the object

4.2 Number of Keys

W - Width of the object

The proposed algorithm uses the symmetric encryption

The Bit Error Ratio (BER) is the number of bit errors

algorithm which takes the secret key for encryption and

divided by the total number of transferred bits during a

decryption. As per the theory of cryptography, the

studied time interval. The equation (7) shows the

security increases when the size and number of keys

calculation of BER value.

increases. The proposed algorithm has 8 keys for 8

different shares that makes the hacker feel difficult to

hack the key and identify the respective key for each

(7)

share. Since, the secret key has to be shared among the

users it has to be secured using private key cryptosystem.

Table.1: BER and PSNR of Decrypted Image

4.3 Joining all the shares and shares of variable sizes

Image BER PSNR

The encrypted image is a combination of all shares. The

Lena 0 Inf

shares can be decrypted with the respective keys. If the

Cameraman 0 Inf

keys are not in the order then it is not feasible to decrypt

Barbara 0 Inf

the image. The keys can be send to the receiver by

Baboon 0 Inf

shuffling and encrypting which may be baffle the hacker

Pepper 0 Inf

to rearrange the key. There are (8! - 1) ways to shuffle the

key.

4.4 Mapping of the 2 x 2 pixel matrix to a decimal The Table 1 tabulates the BER and PSNR values for various

number input binary images. The ideal value of BER is 0% and this

The 16! ways of mapping 0000 1111 binary to decimal has been achieved by the proposed algorithm when

1 16. One such mapping is as follows comparing the original binary image I1 and the decrypted

0000 - 15 0100 - 11 1000 - 7 1100 - 3 image I2. Since, the ideal value is achieved it need not be

International Journal of Advanced Engineering, Management and Science (IJAEMS) [Vol-3, Issue-8, Aug- 2017]

https://dx.doi.org/10.24001/ijaems.3.8.1 ISSN: 2454-1311

compared with any algorithm. Similarly, PSNR is infinity for [8] Chong Fu, Jun-Bin Huang, Ning-Ning Wang, Qi-Bin

all images which is also the ideal value. Since, the Hou, Wei-min Lei, A Symmetric Choas-Based Image

dimensions of the original image is altered the performance Cipher with an Improved Bit-Level Permutation

measures like Number of Pixels Change Rate (NPCR) and Strategy, Entropy, February 2014

Unified Average Changing Intensity (UACI) may not be [9] ShekhaChenthara, Deepika M.P., Dr. Varghese Paul, A

used. Novel Approach on Color Extended VisualCryptography

for General Access Structures using Error Diffusion,

VI. CONCLUSION International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer

The security is a major factor in the data transmission. and Communication Engineering, Volume 3, Issue 2,

The hacker should not be able to decipher the data even if February 2014

it is hacked. A novel algorithm is proposed to increase the [10] Suhas B. Bhagate, P.J. Kulkarni, An Overview of

complexity of the encryption. The complexity of the Various Visual Cryptogrpahy Schemes, International

algorithm has been increased by having 1) Random Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and

matrix XORing 2) Number of Keys Used 3) Joining all Communication Engineering, Volume 2, Issue 9,

the Shares and Shares of Various Sizes 4) Wide Range of September 2013

Mapping Function of the 2 x 2 pixel matrix to a decimal [11] Xuehu Yan, Shen Wang, LiLi, Ahmed A. Abd EL-Latif,

number. The results show that the algorithm is more Zhiqiang Wei, XiamuNiu, A New Assessment Measure

secure. Also, BER and PSNR value proves that the of Shadow Image Quality Based on Error Diffuse

algorithm decrypts perfectly. Techniques, International Journal of Information Hiding

and Multimedia Signal Processing, Volume 4, Number 2,

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