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This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been

fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI
10.1109/TIE.2014.2367023, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

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Investigation of Permanent Magnet Motor Drives


Incorporating Damper Bars for Electrified Vehicles
Xiaomin Lu, Student Member, IEEE, K. Lakshmi Varaha Iyer, Student Member, IEEE, Kaushik Mukherjee,
Member, IEEE, Kannan Ramkumar, Member, IEEE, and Narayan C. Kar, Senior Member, IEEE

Abstract Understanding the need for steady-state and tran- r : electrical rotor angular position
sient performance improvement in an interior permanent magnet r : electrical rotor angular frequency
synchronous machine (IPMSM) drive, this paper exclusively J : moment of inertia
investigates the IPMSM incorporating damper bars in the rotor ac : ampere conductors per pole
of electric motor for electrified vehicles (EVs). Firstly, motivation Kw1 : winding factor
for the employment of damper bars in IPMSM is provided and Tph : turns per phase
justified with a case study. Thereafter, mathematical model of an Ad : total area of damper bars per pole
IPMSM drive with damper bars in the rotor has been developed d : current density value
based on dq axis theory and validated through experiments per- ad : cross-section of each damper bar
formed on a laboratory IPMSM containing damper bars. The dd : diameter of the damper bar
validated mathematical model has been then employed to arrive Nd : number of damper bars per pole
at satisfactory rotor bar parameters for an existing IPMSM on
board a commercially available EV. Moreover, a replica of the
existing onboard EV motor with and without incorporating I. INTRODUCTION
dampers have been designed and finite element analysis (FEA) Over the last decade, substantial investment, geo-political
has been performed to investigate various performance charac- interest, multiple motor topologies, cost reduction, varying
teristics. Comparative performance analyses of both the ma- performance, compact packaging and integration have been
chines with and without damper bars under steady-state and
some of the factors that have led to an increased interest in
transient conditions have been performed wherever necessary
and the results elicited have been discussed.
studying electric motors for electrified vehicles. By the end of
2018, it is predicted that the global demand for electric trac-
tion motors will rise to 8 million from the current 4.5 million.
Index Terms Dampers, dq axis, electrified vehicle, finite el- More than 61% of this volume will come from full-hybrid
ement analysis, interior, permanent magnet synchronous ma- non-plug-in-vehicles and 13% will come from battery electric
chine. vehicles. The electrified vehicle (EV) market including hy-
NOMENCLATURE brids and battery electrics will be the strongest in 2016 due to
the activation of the Corporate Average Fuel Economy
vds, vqs : d- and q-axis voltages
(CAF) standards. Hybrid variants of existing vehicles will be
ids, iqs : d- and q-axiscurrents
the primary driver of higher volumes of electrified vehicles
rs : stator resistance
Lmd, Lmq :d- and q-axis magnetizing inductances
until 2016, thereafter led by plug-in hybrid vehicles and bat-
Lds, Lqs : d- and q-axis synchronous inductances
tery electric vehicles. It has also been predicted that the per-
ikd', ikq' : d- and q-axis damper currents the referred to the stator side manent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) will continue to
rkd', rkq' : d- and q-axis damper resistance the referred to the stator side dominate the market and other motor technologies will remain
Lkd', Lkq' : d- and q-axis damper inductance referred to the stator side as niche technologies with less than 5% market volume over
' : flux linkage developed by the magnets referred to the stator side the next five years [1].
p : differential operator d/dt On the other hand, enhanced dynamic and steady-state per-
Te : electromagnetic torque formance of the traction motor is of paramount importance to
P : number of poles uplift customer experience on acceleration, speed, noise and
vibrations, extended driving range, climbing capability and
Manuscript received June 3, 2014; revised August 30, 2014; accepted Sep-
tember 28, 2014.
cost of the vehicle.
Copyright (c) 2014 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Understanding the above, this paper exclusively puts an ef-
However, permission to use this material for any other purposes must be fort to investigate the steady-state and transient performances
obtained from the IEEE by sending a request to pubs-permissions@ieee.org. of a permanent magnet traction motor drive with damper bars
This work was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Re-
search Council of Canada (NSERC).
in the rotor of the machine.
1
X. Lu, 2K. L. V. Iyer, and 5N. Kar are with the Department of Electrical
A. Background Literature Survey
and Computer Engineering at the University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada
N9B3P4. (1lu117@uwindsor.ca, 2iyerl@uwindsor.ca and 5nkar@uwindsor.ca) Most of the EVs use IPMSMs as their traction motors due
3
K. Mukherjee is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian to their large power densities, higher efficiencies and capabili-
Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, India. ties to run over a large speed ranges with an almost constant
(3kmukherjee@ee.becs.ac.in)
4
K. Ramkumar is with the Department of Electronics and Instrumentation power output with zero maintenance [2]. These synchronous
at SASTRA University, Thanjavur, India. (4ramkumar@eie.sastra.edu) motors for such vehicle applications invariably run under self-
synchronous mode with rotor position feedback through a

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pulse-width modulated (PWM) inverter. Self-synchronous times continues for a long time. As this mode of operation also
operation or self-control of the synchronous motor cause the calls for speed control, it is performed by the speed controller
drive to be self-starting and rules out the probability of the of the drive by controlling the phase angle of the six-stepped
rotor falling out of step since the rotor-position synchronized phase voltage waveform with respect to the back EMF of the
switching of the inverter devices always keeps the rotor speed corresponding armature phase, as dictated by the MTPA con-
synchronous with the exciting currents in the armature [3]. trol strategy.
IPMSMs are known to be generally designed with an expec- It is imperative that when the VSC operates in the under-
tation of sinusoidal back EMF distribution [4], [5] and the modulation zone of the PWM strategy, the switching of the
inductances of the armature circuit of the conventional inverter devices of the same leg are more frequent than a
IPMSMs generally provide enough filtering to cause the ar- square wave operation. Hence, the value of the equivalent
mature currents to be sinusoidal in response to the PWM volt- inductance of the d-q equivalent circuits of the conventional
age pulses impressed by the inverter on the armature termi- IPMSM seems sufficient to make the armature current almost
nals. Hence, torque ripple should be zero if purely sinusoidal sinusoidal to cause negligible torque ripple, assuming the back
currents are injected into a PMSM with a purely sinusoidal EMF of the machine to be sinusoidally distributed. However,
back EMF distribution. Conventional wisdom, based on when the square wave, 180 conduction mode of operation of
above, tells us that dampers are not required in such motors the inverter prevails, the inverter devices switch at much
for such applications as operation will always be synchronous. slower rates. Consequently, lower order side-band harmonics
Dampers will therefore not be required - neither for starting start appearing along with the fundamental, and the authors
nor for pulling into synchronism for such synchronous motors. felt that in this operating mode, exploring the need of addi-
The above are generally the reasons why the IPMSMs em- tional dampers in the conventional IPMSMs to improve the
ployed in EVs never possess dampers. transient response of the motor and the converter by improv-
A line start PMSM (LSPMSM), on the other hand, operates ing the wave-shape of the armature current and air-gap voltage
without rotor position feedback and in order to be self-starting is justified. The idea to investigate such a case struck the
must possess dampers. The dampers for such applications minds of the authors when they thought of an analogous case,
should provide enough starting torque and should help to- where a 3-phase current source inverter (CSI), operating under
wards the pull-in phenomenon. Additionally, for such applica- 120 conduction, feeding a wound field 3-phase synchronous
tions, the design of the dampers should be such that while motor with dampers, has already been reported to yield im-
drastic load disturbances appear on the system and the transi- proved transient performance of the comprehensive drive [4].
ent operation of the machine becomes asynchronous, the The authors also intuitively believe that incorporation of
dampers should help in increasing the transient stability limit dampers can control the spatial distribution of the back EMF
of the machine. Hence, substantial amounts of research papers waveform of a conventional PMSM to provide transient and
to investigate the role of dampers for LSPMSMs have been steady state improvement in performance and can reduce the
written [6] [10]. effect of permanent magnet demagnetization under MTPA
Similarly, for any permanent magnet synchronous genera- regime of control of the PMSM drive of the vehicle.
tor (PMSG) which does not operate under rotor position feed- This paper therefore takes a combined approach to predict
back, dampers come into play during the transient asynchro- improved damper parameters for improved performances, and
nous durations and help in restoring stability. The damper de- also investigate the effects of incorporating dampers in
sign for such applications should solely concentrate towards IPMSM viewing the research problem from a dq axis model
restoring transient stability and researchers have worked on based approach and a finite element model based approach;
this also [11], [12]. thereby capitalizing on the mutual advantages of each. This
However, papers published until date, to the best of au- will be subsequently presented in the following sections.
thors knowledge, have not yet investigated the performance
C. Case Study for Illustrating Repeated Over-modulation
of IPMSM incorporating dampers bars for an EV application.
Operation Periods in IPMSM Drive
B. Motivation for the Proposed Investigation Samples of experimental data collected from performance-
Most of the PMSMs on-board commercially available EVs mapping test performed on a traction motor on-board a com-
have either a distributed or concentric winding arrangement in mercially available EV by Oak Ridge National Labs is pre-
their stators and permanent magnets in their rotor. They are sented in Table I [14]. The vehicle has an IPMSM with maxi-
mostly 3-phase interior permanent magnet synchronous ma- mum output power of 50 kW and a peak torque of 400 Nm. A
chines (IPMSMs) machines driven with maximum torque per DC-DC converter is connected between the battery pack and
ampere (MTPA) control strategy [13], [14]. The DC link volt- the inverter to maintain the input voltage to the inverter at a
age of the 3-phase voltage source converter (VSC) driving the level of 500 VDC as shown in the measurement data in Table
traction motor for such a vehicle remains constant and the I. The 3-phase VSC is switched based on space vector pulse-
inverter runs with under-modulation in the low-speed region width-modulation (SVPWM) technique.
and with over-modulation in the high-speed region of opera- The magnitude and frequency of the ac output depend on
tion of the motor drive [14]. As the speed becomes progres- the reference voltage space vector and the PWM. The funda-
sively higher, the back EMF of the motor keeps increasing and mental-frequency voltage magnitude increases proportionally
over a certain speed, the inverter starts operating as a pure with the reference voltage space vector magnitude in under-
square wave inverter, impressing a six-stepped phase voltage modulation (linear) region. However, on further increase in
at the motor terminals. For EVs, this mode of operation some- the required voltage level, the over-modulation mode is en-

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countered. In this mode, the voltage magnitude no longer var- II. MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF IPMSM DRIVE WITH
ies in proportion with the reference voltage and saturation DAMPER BARS IN THE ROTOR
starts creeping in. In order to:1) arrive at the rotor bar parameters which yield
Finally, beyond this region, the controller loses its control satisfactory machine performance, 2) incorporate them into
over the voltage amplitude and PWM degenerates into a the IPMSM drive on-board EV and 3) analyze the behavior of
square-wave inverter waveform. With a given DC link voltage the machine under steady-state and transient conditions, a
(VDC), the output line-to-line voltage fundamental RMS value model of the IPMSM with damper bars along with its drive
gets fixed at 0.78 times VDC.As seen from Table I, when the have to be developed based on the dq axis theory.
speed and torque of the motor are low such as data sets 1-1, 2-
1, etc., the output voltage level depends on the reference volt-
vds rs Lds p r Lqs Lmd p r Lmq ids 0
ages. As the speed increases, in sets 5-1, 6-1, etc., the output L 1
v r L p L L p i
voltage exceeds the linear region and the inverter operates in qs r ds s qs r md mq qs (1)
0 L p i ' r 0 ' 0
1800 conduction mode. As indicated from table in [14], for a md
0 r 'kd L 'kd p 0 kd

large number of operating conditions, the motor is controlled 0 0 Lmq p 0 r 'kq L 'kq p i 'kq 0
by a square-wave inverter during which the harmonic compo-
nents of the voltage signal is significantly high and the torque pr P 2J Te TL (2)
response depends mainly on the load angle command sent to
Te 3P 'iqs idsiqs ( Lds Lqs ) 3P Lmd i 'kd iqs L'mqi 'kqids (3)
the inverter. 4 4
pr r (4)
D. Paper Objectives
The volt-ampere equations of the LSPMSM can be written
Based on the practical performance characteristics, issues
as in (1), and the mechanical equations of the motor may be
and hypotheses discussed above, the authors derive motivation
written as in (2), (3) and (4), where symbols have their usual
to exclusively investigate steady-state and transient perfor-
meanings [15]. A parameter determination method to deter-
mance characteristics of the IPMSM with the employment of
mine the electrical circuit parameters of such a machine was
damper bars in the rotor for EV application.
proposed by the authors and the parameters were incorporated
Section III of the paper presents a mathematical model of
into the above machine model and validated using experi-
an IPMSM drive with damper bars in the rotor which has been
ments performed on a laboratory LSPMSM containing rotor
developed based on dq axis theory and validated through ex-
bars under steady-state and transient conditions [16].However,
periments performed on a laboratory IPMSM containing
the machine model and the parameters determined were vali-
damper bars. The validated mathematical model has been then
dated only under direct on-line starting.
employed to arrive at satisfactory rotor bar parameters for an
existing IPMSM drive onboard a commercially available EV. A. Experimental Validation of the Developed Machine Model
Comparative performance analysis between the onboard EV Driven bySquare Wave Inverter under Self-control
motor drive with and without dampers has been performed The machine model developed in [16] along with the drive
through dq axis models developed and results elicited have has been exclusively validated in this section with a laboratory
been discussed. Section III also presents the aforementioned LSPMSM. The LSPMSM has been operated in the self-
dq axis based modeling and transient state analyses activities controlled mode (with rotor position feedback) through a 3-
conducted in this paper. Section IV presents FEA based results phase square wave inverter as illustrated in the schematic
from investigations performed on three machines designed, shown in Fig. 1(a). As shown in the experimental setup in Fig.
replicating the existing onboard EV motor with and without 1(b), the test machine is equipped with a low-cost position
incorporating dampers. It also provides the machine design sensor indicating the position at every 60 and coupled with a
details and damper design approach employed to develop the dc machine (operating in the generator mode) as load. A 3-
machines. phase IGBT inverter stack is used as the voltage source con-
TABLE I verter, and a TMS320 series digital signal controller is used to
SAMPLE TEST DATA FROM PERFORMANCE MAPPING TEST [11] provide rotor position synchronized gate signals based on 180
Mechanical Inverter DC Inverter AC side conduction scheme to actuate the inverter.
Conditions link side (rms) per phase (rms) The DC link voltage is set as 132 V and the load angle is
Speed Torque Voltage Current Voltage Current controlled to be 60. The machine settles at a speed of 1125
Test #
(rpm) (Nm) (V) (A) (V) (A) rpm at a load torque of 7.8 Nm. The calculated current wave-
1-1 302 179.2 504.0 21.32 108.0 87.3 form, shown in Fig. 1(c), is in close agreement with the meas-
2-1 703 30.2 504.0 6.74 112.3 20.2 ured waveform, shown in Fig. 1(d). The amplitude of calculat-
ed current has been found a little higher than the experimental
3-1 1303 69.6 503.7 22.47 166.1 38.2 one for all cases of loads and load angles for which the drive
4-1 2104 70.4 504.4 34.83 204.5 38.8 is operated, because the mechanical and core losses are ne-
5-1 3804 98.6 499.0 91.37 241.0 95.6
glected in the calculations, as is generally done in typical dq
axis based models. Instantaneous current flowing into the ma-
6-1 5004 59.8 499.4 73.17 239.7 113.7 chine armature is considered positive in the presented wave-
7-1 6005 49.4 499.6 73.60 240.7 68.2 forms. The fact that the actual operating load angle is equal to

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the one given in the simulation and the experiment is verified


by comparing the phase of the terminal line-to-line voltage
with the phase of the corresponding back EMF, by appropri-
ately calibrating the rotor position sensor. The proximity of
the calculated and experimental results thus establishes that
the developed model of the rotor-position-synchronized,
square wave inverter driven LSPMSM, characterized by its dq
equivalent circuit resistance and inductance parameters, satis-
factorily describes an interior PMSM with dampers under
steady state and dynamic conditions. Thus, this model, once
validated, is henceforth employed to study the effect of damp-
(a) ers in the performance of the drive, by changing its damper
parameters in an iterative way, as it is imperative that any
LSPMSM, controlled under self-synchronous mode, might not
be a good candidate as traction motor for an EV.
B. Investigation of the Effects of Damper Parameters in Dy-
namic and Steady-state Performance
When a sudden change in the applied voltage at the stator
terminals occurs, in the dq equivalent circuits of a PMSM with
dampers [16], the branches containing the damper parameters
become operative. It remains operational in the circuit till a
(b) steady state condition is reached. During this dynamic condi-
tion, the damper R-L branch comes in parallel with the branch
200 20
containing the magnetising reactance. The equivalent imped-
150 15 ance of the two parallel branches is lower than the magnetiz-
ing reactance, resulting in a low value of net impedance
100 10 viewed from the d- or q- axis stator terminals. This low im-
pedance across the stator terminal causes larger overshoots in
50 5
the current when compared to a machine without the damper.
Current (A)
Voltage (V)

0 0 When a damper branch is paralleled across the magnetizing


inductances Lmd or Lmq, an additional resistance is present in
-50 -5 the parallel branch which causes the equivalent resistance of
the circuit to also reduce. But the practical values of damper
-100 -10 parameters employed are such that, the net decrease in L is
-150 -15 much more than the net decrease in R. Hence, the net time
constant reduces resulting in a faster dynamic response.
-200 -20 In order to further study the effect of damper on IPMSM so
Time (10 ms/div) as to consider it for EV application, the developed and vali-
(c) dated model is used to simulate a 50 kW on-board EV motor
with emulated dampers, the equivalent circuit parameters of
which are given in Appendix A. The measured parameters of
the LSPMSM are utilized for the starting of this investigation.
The LSPMSM has a symmetrical squirrel cage, and therefore
the equivalent circuit parameters in d-axis equal to that in q-
axis. The ratio between the stator resistance and damper re-
sistance is 3:2, and the ratio between the stator leakage induct-
ance and rotor leakage inductance is 1:1 [16].
The steady-state and dynamic performance of the on-board
EV motor and the proposedon-board EV motor with emulated
damper parameters of the same stator to damper ratio as that
in the LSPMSM is firstly investigated to understand the role
of dampers in the high speed region of the EV motor. Both
(d)
machines are driven by a square-wave inverter with rotor
Fig. 1. Calculated and measured voltage and current waveforms of the feedback, which initially controlled the machine with a load
IPMSM with damper bars driven by a square wave inverter under self-control. angle of 30 and later changes to a load angle of 40 after the
(a) Overall block diagram of the motor drive system. (b) Experimental setup. speed reaches steady-state. Load torque is a constant of 50
(c) Calculated results. (d) Measured results.
Nm. The DC link of the inverter is also kept constant at a level
of 500 V. The values of the major electrical and mechanical
variables are presented in Table II.

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TABLE II
SAMPLE STEADY STATE AND DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE DATA OF THE EXISTING AND PROPOSED MACHINES
(STATOR RESISTANCE TO DAMPER RESISTANCE RATIO 3:2, STATOR LEAKAGE INDUCTANCE TO DAMPER LEAKAGE INDUCTANCE RATIO 1:1)
Load An- Original on-board EV Proposed on-board EV
gle motor motor with damper
Speed (r/min) 3951 3952
Torque Ripple (%) 14 64
30
Stator Current (A) 47.1 47.1
THD in Current (%) 11.1 66.8
Speed (r/min) 5579 5577
Torque Ripple (%) 12 36
40
Stator Current (A) 61.7 61.7
THD in Current (%) 5.8 36.6
Transition Time (s) 1.255 0.59
Transition Max. Electromagnetic Torque (Nm) 90 340
Max. Stator Current (Nm) 76 255
TABLE III
SAMPLE STEADY STATE AND DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE DATA OF THE PROPOSED MACHINE WITH DAMPER KEEPING STATOR TO DAMPER RESISTANCE
RATIO OF 1:1 AND VARYING THE STATOR TO DAMPER LEAKAGE INDUCTANCE RATIO
Load An- Stator to Damper Leakage Inductances Ratio
gle 3:1 2:1 1:1 1:3 1:5 1:10
Speed (r/min) 5584 5580 5576 5572 5571 5570
Torque Ripple (%) 64 50 32 22 16 14
40
Stator Current (A) 61.5 61.6 61.6 61.6 61.6 61.6
THD in Current (%) 56.6 48.6 35.9 79.6 13.4 9.8
Transition Time (s) 0.88 0.901 0.898 0.885 0.853 0.847
Maximum Electromag-
480 430 334 200 150 125
Transition netic Torque (Nm)
Maximum Stator Cur-
373 410 317 155 142 118
rent (A)

TABLE IV
SAMPLE STEADY STATE AND DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE DATA OF THE PROPOSED MACHINE WITH DAMPER KEEPING STATOR TO DAMPER LEAKAGE
INDUCTANCE RATIO OF 1:5 AND VARYING THE STATOR TO DAMPER RESISTANCE RATIO
Load Stator to Damper Resistance Ratio
Angle 3:1 2:1 1:1 1:3 1:5 1:10
Speed (r/min) 5575 5572 5571 5570 5570 5570
Torque Ripple (%) 18 16 16 16 16 16
40
Stator Current (A) 61.6 61.6 61.6 61.6 61.6 61.6
THD in Current (%) 13.4 13.4 13.4 13.4 13.4 13.4
Transition Time (s) 0.424 0.499 0.853 1.022 1.151 1.188
Maximum Electromag-
155 150 150 160 159 145
Transition netic Torque (Nm)
Maximum Stator Cur-
143 142 142 121 121 114
rent (A)

As seen from Table II, for both machines, the final speeds speed of the machine does not change much with the added
of the machines are determined by the load angle. The speed damper. The fundamental current amplitude is not affected by
increases when the load angle increases. Because of the distor- the damper either. However, the damper increases the distor-
tion in the terminal voltage, now containing lower side band tion in current and consequently increases the torque ripple
harmonics, the phase current has high distortion, and causes significantly. As a result, it is necessary to design a damper for
higher torque ripple in the machine. The distortion is greater at traction motor in order to improve dynamic performance as
lower speed than that at higher speed. The current waveforms well as keeping satisfactory steady-state performance.
of both machine at a load angle of 40 is shown in Fig.2. The Further studies to investigate the effect of damper on ma-
maximum current and torque of the machines during transition chine performance are conducted to understand the role of
from one steady-state speed to another are greatly influenced damper in IPMSM for EV application. The operation condi-
by the damper. It can be seen from the transition time, (defined tions are kept same as mentioned previously.
as the time for the speed to reach 90% of the steady-state val- Firstly, the ratio between stator resistance and damper re-
ue) that by adding a damper, the machine responds faster to sistance is kept constant as 1:1, and the ratio between stator
changes and restores to a new steady-state faster. This fast leakage inductance and damper leakage inductance is varied as
dynamic response is desired in an EV application. The final shown in the cases presented in Table III. The steady-state

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evaluations are only shown at a load angle of 40 as the trend 100

at lower speed can be inferred from Table II. It can be elicited 80

from Table III that, given a resistance, the current distortion 60

reduces as the damper leakage inductance increases. The cur- 40


rent overshoot of the motor is more significant with smaller 20
rotor leakage inductances. However, the response time re-

ia [A]
0
mains almost same. -20
Based on the performance analysis in Table IV, stator to
-40
damper leakage inductance ratio of 1:5 is selected for the
-60
analysis of the effect of damper resistance as it yields satisfac-
tory performances out of the considered cases. From results -80

shown in Table IV, the system response time is marginally -100


17.5 17.502 17.504 17.506 17.508 17.51
different with different values of damper resistance. Moreover, time [sec]
Fig.3. Current waveform of the finalized EV motor with damper having a
the distortion in the current, torque ripple, as well as the over- stator todamper resistance ratio of 1:1 and stator to damper leakage inductance
shoot of current and torque during transition do not change ratio of 1:5.
significantly with the rotor resistance.
It can be inferred from Table III and Table IV that the im- Further investigation to select the optimized damper pa-
provement of transition time with damper is mainly deter- rameters for traction application is considered as future scope
mined by the damper resistance. The harmonic components of this research. When the range of values is selected, the de-
and the overshoot during transient conditions are influenced sign methodology will be influenced in a way similar to how
largely by the damper leakage inductance. Fig.3 illustrates the the damper bars are designed for wound-field synchronous
current waveform of an emulated machine with a stator to machines [17]. Fine tuning will be performed through finite
damper resistance ratio of 1:1 and stator to damper leakage element based design, simulation and analysis.
inductance ratio of 1:5. It can be seen that the waveform quali- It is very interesting to note that when research papers on
ty is significantly improved compared the current waveform of electrical drives talk about reduction of torque ripples by try-
the machine with line-start damper. ing to make the armature current fed from an inverter to an
IPMSM as close as possible to pure sinusoid, the prime as-
100
sumption is the generalized theory/two axes theory of electri-
80
cal machines, which assumes the fields are sinusoidally dis-
60
tributed in space. Fig. 3 is also a consequence of this assump-
40 tion. Hence, everyone might think that such a current as in Fig.
20 3 will give rise to torque ripple, as it does not look like a pure
sinusoid. But the authors have found that even with a current
ia [A]

-20 quality as presented in Fig. 3, torque ripple is below 5% be-


-40
cause the dampers give the flexibility of designing the field
distribution in space, as discussed in Section IV of the paper
-60
and here lies the relevance of this section. In fact, the authors
-80
have found that even with pure sinusoidal current injected into
-100
17.5 17.502 17.504 17.506 17.508 17.51 the PMSM armature of a traction motor on-board a commer-
time [sec]
cially available EV, the torque ripple is even more than 20%
(a)
[18]. The reason for this is the fact that the air-gap field distri-
100
bution for such motors in practice is far from sinusoidal in
80
space. Hence, the distortion level of the current waveform in
60 Fig. 3 will not degrade system performances.
40 Due to the paralleled effect of the damper, the phase current
20 in the machine with damper shown in Fig. 4(b) rises to a high-
er value in a shorter amount of time compared to the phase
ia [A]

-20
current of the IPMSM without damper shown in Fig. 4(a). As
a result of the transient response of the current, the peak elec-
-40
tromagnetic torque developed in the machine with damper
-60
shown in Fig. 5 (b) is higher than that of the original machine
-80 presented in Fig. 5(a). The corresponding speed responses of
-100
17.5 17.502 17.504 17.506 17.508 17.51 the two machines are given Fig. 6. As the torque response of
time [sec] the finalized EV motor with damper is faster, speed of that
(b) motor also settles faster for the same load torque as evident
Fig.2. Current waveforms of the machines investigated driven by square-wave
inverter with rotor position feedback at a load angle of 40. (a) Original on- from Fig. 6. The torque and speed of the machine with damp-
board EV motor. (b) On-board EV motor with damper parameters correspond- er definitely shows a better dynamic response compared to the
ing to Table II. original machine.

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C. Investigation of Dynamic Response under Symmetrical 6000


without damper with damper
Short-circuit Conditions 5500

Generally, any machine is protected against short-circuit 5000

nm (rpm)
conditions using high rupturing capacity (HRC) fuses. The 4500

melting ability of fuses are measured by various characteristics 4000


which include the ratio of threshold current to rated continuous 3500
4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 8
current (threshold ratio), peak let-through current versus pro- Time [sec]
spective short-circuit current characteristic curves, and I 2t Fig.6.Calculated speed waveforms of the original EV motor without damper
characteristics[19]. and the finalized EV motor with damper, under a sudden increase in load
angle from 300 to 400.
Considering the machine to be operating with a constant
load torque of 100 Nm at a speed of 4,000 rpm, a 3-phase
symmetric fault is initiated at the machine terminals. The cal-
culated currents for the original EV motor without damper and
the finalized EV motor with damper are shown in Fig. 7. It can
be seen that the overshoot is more and rise time is less in the
machine with the damper. This feature will cause the fuse to
blow off faster in the case of the machine with damper, thus,
saving the machine.
(a)

100
ia (A)

-100

4.5 5 5.5 6
(a)

(b)
Fig.7.Calculated responses under 3-phase symmetrical short-circuit fault for
100 original EV motor without damper and the finalized EV motor with damper.
(a) Machine terminal voltage. (b) Machine phase current.
ia (A)

0
III. DESIGN AND FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF PMSMS WITH
-100 AND WITHOUT DAMPER BARS IN THE ROTORS

4.5 5 5.5 6 In order to investigate the effect of dampers in a traction


(b) machine drive, three IPMSMs - two machines without damper
Time [sec]
Fig.4. Stator current waveforms of (a) original EV motor without damper (b)
bars and one with damper bars have been developed. These
the finalized EV motor with damper, under a sudden increase in load angle three machines will henceforth be referred to as Machines A,
from 300 to 400. B and C whose distinguishing features are given in Fig. 8.
The machine A has been designed to replicate the existing
traction motor that is on-board a commercially available EV.
Stator dimensions/frame size, stator design, number of phases,
100 rotor outer diameter and length, air-gap length, magnet vol-
Te (Nm)

ume, and materials in the stator, magnet & rotor have been
50 kept the same as that of the commercially available EV motor.
The only difference between the commercially available EV
0
4.5 5 5.5 6 motor and this motor lies in the configuration of the permanent
(a) magnets [20] and this causes the power and torque rating to be
almost the same as that of the commercially available one.
Machine B is the one with everything the same as machine A
but with the magnets buried deeper. Hence, torque rating of
100
this motor is expected to go down a little. Subsequent studies,
Te (Nm)

presented later, quantify the reduction. Machine C is similar in


50
all respects with Machine B, with additional damper bars in-
corporated. As stator design for all these three machines are
0
4.5 5 5.5 6 the same and in line with the existing commercially available
(b) EV motor whose design parameters are established [21], a
Time [sec]
Fig.5. Developed electromagnetic torque waveforms of (a) original EV motor detailed explanation of various design parameters chosen is
without damper (b) the finalized EV motor with damper, under a sudden in- not provided. Only design details related to the novelty of the
crease in load angle from 300 to 400. paper are presented. Cross-sections of each of these motors
designed have been provided in Fig. 8.

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and slot per pole per phase value to be 2. Tph is turns per phase
equaling 72.
6 I phT ph
ac (5)
p

MMF of damper winding


4 2 ac (6)
Magnets placed K w1
closer to the 6
air-gap Considering a typical design practice, [17], [22], Ad, the total
(a) area of damper bars per pole is designed to be 40% more than
the actual computed value and a current density value, d, is
considered to be 5 A/mm2.
0.2ac (7)
Ad
d
Since circular bars are chosen for design simplicity, cross-
section of damper bar, ad is designed according to (8) and (9).
(Total area of bars per pole) A
ad d (8)
(b) (c) Damper bars (number of damper bars per pole) N d
Magnets buried
deeper 2 (9)
a d d d
Fig. 8. Overall schematic of the developed machines. (a) Machine A PMSM 4
without damper bars, with the magnet placed closer to the air-gap periphery. where, dd is the diameter of the damper bar and is considered
(b) Machine B - PMSM without damper bars with magnets buried deeper. (c) to be 7 mm in the machine designed. Nd is chosen to be 4 in
Machine C- PMSM with damper bars with the magnets placed at same depth
as in Machine B.
order to avoid magnetic locking, excessive noise and vibration
TABLE V [14]
in the machine. Aluminum was chosen to be the damper mate-
MACHINE DATA COMMON TO THE DESIGNED MACHINES rial as used in conventional cage windings.
Stator outer diameter 269.24 mm B. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the Back EMF
Stator inner diameter 161.9 mm
Waveforms
Stator slots 48
Number of poles 8 Figure 9 presents the back EMF (phase) waveforms of the
Stack length 83.82 mm three machines. These waveforms illustrate that for Machine
Magnet thickness 6.48 mm A, the peak of the induced EMF is highest, as the magnets are
Magnet width 36 mm near the air-gap periphery. The shape of this back EMF wave-
Rotor outer diameter 160.4 mm form, however, clearly depicts that in the available PMSM of
Rotor inner diameter 110.64 mm the vehicle, it is far away from sinusoidal, as is assumed for
Turns per coil 9 IPMSMs superficially. The peak comes down for Machine B
Coils per phase 8 as magnets are buried deep, which reduces the magnet induced
Peak power 50 kW average torque also for the same armature current, as evident
Rated speed 3000 rpm in Fig. 10. Studies presented in Fig. 10 are for an operating
Maximum DC bus voltage 500 VDC condition where , the angle between the stator current and
Winding configuration Single Layer, Distributed back EMF phasors is maintained zero, i.e. the torque under
This section will mainly focus on time-stepping finite ele- this condition will be only the magnet assisted torque. The
ment analysis based comparative performance analysis of all interesting fact that comes out from Machine Cs back EMF
the machines designed, as the objective of the paper is to waveform is that the placement of dampers in strategic posi-
compare a PMSM with damper and without damper for EV tions has increased the peak value, created an intermediate
application. Optimizing the magnet configuration is not under step in the waveform, thereby increasing the fundamental
the scope of this paper. Such optimal rotor design with differ- 250 Without Damper (Machine A)
ent magnet configurations and placement activities have been
Without Damper (Machine B)
widely published in the literature. The authors would also like
150 With Damper (Machine C)
to emphasize that this paper does not focus on designing a
superior machine to the commercially available EV motor at
50
this stage, but investigate the effect of damper bars in PMSM
Back EMF [V]

in order to design a superior machine in future.


-50 0 1 2 3 4 5
A. Basis of Design of the Damper Bars
The damper windings employed in Machine C were de-
-150
signed following the approach presented below. The ampere
conductors per pole, ac, taken into consideration in this ma-
-250 Time[ms]
chine can be calculated using (5) and MMF of the damper
winding through (6) [22]. The winding factor, Kw1, is 0.9341 Fig. 9.Back EMF (phase) waveforms of Machines A, B and C under a con-
considering a coil pitch of 5, angular slot pitch of 30 degrees stant speed of 3000 rpm and at zero armature current.

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200 Without Damper (Machine A) 6 Motor with Damper (Machine C) Motor without Damper (Machine B)
Without Damper (Machine B) 4

Torque [Nm]
150 With Damper (Machine C)
2
0
Torque [Nm]

100 -2 0 3 6 9 12 15
-4
50 -6 Time [ms]
Fig. 12.Cogging torques of Machines B and C.
0
0 50 100 150 200 250
Stator Current [A pk] torque than the other two machines due to the reason that the
Fig. 10. Developed magnet-induced average torque as a function of increasing concentration of magnet flux in the air-gap is more than that of
stator current for all three machines under a constant speed of 3000 rpm and the other two machines. The point to note is that the Machine
= 0. C tends to produce more magnet-induced average torque than
200 Machine C ( = 70 deg)
(Gamma = 70 deg) 350 Machine B, even though the magnet placements in both ma-
Torque [Nm] for Machines B&C

Machine C (= 45deg)
(Gamma = 45 deg) chines B and C are maintained the same. The increase in the

Torque [Nm] for Machine A


Machine B ( = 70deg)
(Gamma = 70 deg) 300
150 Machine B ( = 45 deg)
(Gamma = 45 deg) torque in Machine C can be attributed to the flux guiding ca-
Machine A( = 45 deg)
(Gamma = 45 deg)
250 pability of the damper bars.
Machine A( = 70deg)
(Gamma = 70 deg) 200 In order to study the variation of the total electromagnetic
100
150 torque (comprising of the reluctance and magnet assisted
100
torque components in an IPMSM) with increasing stator cur-
50 rents for Machines B and C, developed torques at two different
50 non-zero values are presented in Fig. 11. The trends seem to
0 0 be almost similar.
0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 Cogging torque corresponds to the interaction torque due to
Stator Current [A pk] the shape, dimensions and number of the stator teeth, damper
Fig. 11. Developed average torque as a function of increasing stator current bars and the permanent magnets. This torque component is
for machines A, B and C under a constant speed of 3000 rpm under different generally small compared to the full load torque. Cogging
values. torque is an undesirable component for the operation of such
PMSMs as it is very prominent in low speeds of the motor
content, compared to Machine B. This has resulted in an in-
causing jerkiness as in the case of a direct drive EV driven
crease in the magnet-induced torque for the same armature
under urban conditions.
current in Machine C compared to Machine B, as evident in
Various techniques are presented in the literature to reduce
Fig. 10.
the cogging torque in PMSMs based on optimal design of sta-
It is true that the damper bars are carrying harmonic current
tor tooth, slot opening, magnet configuration and skewing of
components due to the high frequency switching. However,
either stator teeth or magnet poles [24] [25]. However, usage
according to [23] and as seen in Fig. 9, the damper bars are
of damper bars has not been investigated to the best
also effective in changing the air-gap magnetic flux density
knowledge of the authors. Fig. 12 presents the cogging torque
distribution. As a result, the damper bars increase the harmon-
determined for both the machines B and C by moving the rotor
ic components of the current at no load but suppressing the
at the speed of 1 deg/s when all the coils excitations are main-
harmonic components at high load and therefore improving
tained at zero. It is apparent that the cogging torque in Ma-
the efficiency. Although adding of damper bars will increase
chine C with damper is lesser than that of machine B. The
damper copper losses, a decrease in magnet losses due to im-
cogging torque arising out of the interaction of stator teeth/slot
proved waveform of air-gap magnetic flux density and mar-
and magnets in Machine B is present in Machine C also but its
ginal increment in torque/output power will make a contribu-
effect is found to get partially nullified by another cogging
tion for improving the efficiency. However, due to the limited
torque component arising out of the interaction of the stator
scope of the paper, initial designs and a few noteworthy results
teeth/slots with the damper slots and this effect is therefore
from comparative performance analyses between motors with
extremely beneficial.
and without dampers are provided in the paper. The authors
feel that further investigations need to be performed on an D. Harmonics
optimally designed motor incorporating the designed damper Figure13 shows the harmonic spectrum of back EMFs (re-
parameters considering various factors to obtain conclusive ferred to as no load EMF in the figure) in Machines B and C.
decisions on the efficiency of the machine. It is seen that the third harmonics in Machine C are relatively
C. Developed Electromagnetic Torque and Cogging Torque higher than that of Machine B. In case of 3-phase PMSMs, the
triplen harmonic EMFs from the line EMFs get eliminated by
Magnet induced torque-developing capability of all three ma-
star connection. Hence, in the time of winding, attention was
chines was tested at a constant speed of 3000 rpm under dif-
mainly directed for the attenuation of 5 th and 7th harmonics by
ferent stator current excitations as shown in Fig. 10. All phase
adopting a chording angle of 30 in the EV motor designed
current excitations to the motor were purely sinusoidal. Ma-
with and without dampers [26]. 5th and 7thharmonic amplitudes
chine A which has its magnets near the air-gap delivers higher

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS

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of proper damper parameters have been found to improve tran- [19] IEEE Standard Service Conditions and Definitions for High-Voltage
Fuses, Distribution Enclosed Single-Pole Air Switches, Fuse Discon-
sient response of the drive in high speed region of the IPMSM necting Switches, and Accessories, IEEE Std C37.40-2003 (Revision of
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[1] T. G. Thoppil, Unwinding Electric Motors, SAE International, pp. 1-3,
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[2] M. Ehsani, Y. Gao, and A. Emadi, Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric Sun-Yet Sen University, China in July, 2010 and Doctoral
and Fuel Cell Vehicles CRC Press, 2010. degree in electrical and Computer Engineering from the
[3] B. K. Bose, Power Electronics and AC drives: Prentice-Hall, 1986. University of Windsor, Canada in 2014. She is currently a
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winding inductances of permanent magnet brushless DC motors with K. Lakshmi Varaha Iyer received the B.Tech. degree in
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vers., vol. 3, pp. 705-713, 1988. SASTRA University, India, in the year 2009 and the
[7] T. M. Hijazi and N. A. Demerdash, "Computer-aided modeling and M.A.Sc. degree in Electrical and Computer Engineering
experimental verification of the performance of power conditioner oper- from University of Windsor, Canada in the year 2011. He
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http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.
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Kaushik Mukherjee (M03) was born in 1970. He re-
ceived the B.E. degree from the Department of Electrical
Engineering, Jadavpur University, Calcutta, India, in
1993, the M.E. degree from the Department of Electrical
Engineering, Bengal Engineering College, Howrah, India,
in 1998, and the Ph.D. degree from the Department of
Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology,
Kharagpur, India, in 2003. Since 1993, he has spent al-
most two and a half years in the industry. In 2002, he joined the Department
of Electrical Engineering, Jadavpur University, India as a Lecturer. From 2006
onwards, he is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Electrical Engi-
neering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Howrah, India. Dr.
Mukherjee is presently a Visiting Professor at the Centre for Hybrid Automo-
tive Research & Green Energy, University of Windsor, Canada. His research
interests include electrical machine drives and power electronics applications
in general.

Kannan Ramkumar received the B.Tech degree in In-


strumentation and control engineering from Madurai
Kamaraj University in 1997; subsequently he did his
M.Tech from Regional Engineering College, Trichy in
2000 and obtained his Ph.D. degree in Control Engineer-
ing from SASTRA University, India in 2010. Since June
1998, he has been with the Department of Electronics and
Instrumentation, where he was a Lecturer, became an
Assistant Professor in 2008 and an Associate Professor in 2011. He is current-
ly a Visiting Professor at the Centre for Hybrid Automotive Research & Green
Energy, University of Windsor, Canada. His current research interests include
Mobile Robotics, Estimation and Control theory and electrical drive systems.

Narayan C. Kar received the B.Sc. degree in Electrical


Engineering from Bangladesh University of Engineering
and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh, in 1992 and the
M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from
Kitami Institute of Technology, Hokkaido, Japan, in 1997
and 2000, respectively. He is an associate professor in the
Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at the
University of Windsor, Canada where he holds the Canada
Research Chair position in hybrid drivetrain systems. His research presently
focuses on the analysis, design and control of permanent magnet synchronous,
induction and switched reluctance machines for hybrid electric vehicle and
wind power applications, testing and performance analysis of batteries and
development of optimization techniques for hybrid energy management sys-
tem. He is a Senior Member of the IEEE.

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