Anda di halaman 1dari 8

Equipment for Engineering Education

,QVWUXFWLRQ0DQXDO
HM150.09 Orifice and Jet Velocity
Apparatus

G.U.N.T. Gertebau GmbH


P.O. Box 1125
D-22881 Barsbttel Germany
Phone (040) 670854-0
Fax (040) 670854-42
HM 150.09 Orifice and Jet Apparatus
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gertebau GmbH, Barsbttel

Instruction Manual

Publication No.: 917.00009A15012 12/95


HM 150.09 Orifice and Jet Apparatus

Table of Contents
1 Technical Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

2 Comparison between predicted and measured


jet trajectories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

2.1 Theoretical jet trajectory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2


2.2 Performing the experiment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

3 Technical Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gertebau GmbH, Barsbttel
HM 150.09 Orifice and Jet Apparatus

1 Technical Description

The apparatus allows the calibration of orifices


with different diameters. A clear perspex column
serves as a constant head tank. The head is
maintained at a constant value by an adjustable
overflow and is indicated by a level scale.
The orifices are installed at the base of the column
with the help of a special wall fitting. The orifices
can be easily interchanged.
A jet trajectory device allows the path followed by
the jet to be ascertained. A graph board behind the
tracing device supports the student visually.
The unit is suited to be placed on top of the HM 150
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gertebau GmbH, Barsbttel

Hydraulics Bench in order to make use of the


water supply and drain facilities of the bench.
The apparatus enables the following instruction
capabilities:
- Determination of discharge coefficient for each
of the orifices shapes
- Comparison of different orifices
- Visual appreciation of the change of jet shape
with flow rate
- The influence of varying head

1 Technical Description 1
HM 150.09 Orifice and Jet Apparatus

2 Comparison between predicted and measured jet trajectories

2.1 Theoretical jet trajectory

When a water-filled tank is discharged through an


orifice, the potential energy of the water head is
transformed into kinetic energy of the water jet
performed by the orifice.
Without losses the kinetic energy is equal to the
h
potential energy
v 1 2
2m v = m g h

where g is the acceleration due to gravity and h the


height of the water. This equation can be rearran-
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gertebau GmbH, Barsbttel

ged to give an equation for the velocity v

v=

2 g h.
Orifice
x
. For description of the jet trajectory it is advantageous
x
to introduce cartesian coordinates. The horizontal
.
y v
. .
part of the velocity v is x and the vertical y. The
horizontal part of the velocity is constant and equal
to the velocity in the orifice. The vertical part de-
Trajectory pends of the acceleration due to gravity
. .
y x=
2gh , y=gt.

Integration over the time gives the position function


of the jet trajectory
. . . 1
x=xt, y = 2 g t2 .

Elimination of time gives the y-position dependence


on of the width x and the water head h

1 x. 2 1 x2
y(x) = 2 g 2 = 4 h .
x

2 Comparison between predicted and measured jet trajectories 2


HM 150.09 Orifice and Jet Apparatus

2.2 Performing the experiment

- Insert orifice no. 1 (dia. 4mm) into the orifice


Sealing
fitting device.
Dont forget the sealing ring between orifice
No. 1
and fitting.
4 mm

No.2
8 mm

Orifice fitting Orifices


device
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gertebau GmbH, Barsbttel

Adjust - Connect the apparatus to the water supply of


the hydraulic bench and start the pump.
400 mm

Water
supply
- Adjust the water head to 400 mm by means of
the adjustable overflow.

Adjust - Adjust the trajectory probes of the trajectory


tracing device until they get in contact with the
jet

- Read the measured y-position of the jet and


note them down in tabular form.

Contact to
the jet

2 Comparison between predicted and measured jet trajectories 3


HM 150.09 Orifice and Jet Apparatus

Measured and calculated jet trajectory


(water head 0.4 m)
x-position in m y-position in m y-position in m
(measured) (calculated)
0 0.000 0.000
0.07 0.003 0.003
0.14 0.016 0.012
0.21 0.036 0.028
0.28 0.064 0.049
0.35 0.097 0.076
0.42 0.140 0.11
0.49 0.192 0.15

For comparison, both results are plotted in the


following diagram
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gertebau GmbH, Barsbttel

0
0.025
0.05 Predicted
y-position in m

0.075
5
0.1
0.125
Measured
0.15
0.175
4
0.2
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
6 x-position in m
Measured and predicted jet trajectory

The measured trajectory is below the calculated


one. This is due to friction losses in the orifice and
air resistance to the free jet.

2 Comparison between predicted and measured jet trajectories 4


HM 150.09 Orifice and Jet Apparatus

3 Technical Data

Perspex column Diameter: 200 mm


Height: 435 mm

Orifice diameter: 1 each 4 mm


1 each 8 mm

Overall dimension: Height: 700 mm


Length: 865 mm
Width: 640 mm

Weight: 25 kg
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gertebau GmbH, Barsbttel

3 Technical Data 5